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Sample records for acid pta wastewater

  1. Comparative 16S rRNA gene surveys of granular sludge from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Scalfone, N B; Angenent, L T

    2011-01-01

    The microbial communities from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater were characterized with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing surveys. Universal bacterial and archaeal primers were used to compare the bioreactor communities to each other. A total of 1,733 bacterial sequences and 383 archaeal sequences were characterized. The high number of Syntrophus spp. and Pelotomaculum spp. found within these reactors indicates efficient removal of benzoate and terephthalate. Under anaerobic conditions benzoate can be degraded through syntrophic associations between these bacteria and hydrogen-scavenging microbes, such as Desulfovibrio spp. and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which remove H(2) to force the thermodynamically unfavourable reactions to take place. The authors did not observe a relatively high percentage of hydrogenotrophic methanogens with the archaeal gene survey because of a high acetate flux (acetate is a main component in PTA wastewater and is the main degradation product of terephthalate/benzoate fermentation), and because of the presence of Desulfovibrio spp. (a sulfate reducer that scavenges hydrogen). The high acetate flux also explains the high percentage of acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta among the archaeal sequences. A group of uncultured bacteria (OD1) may be involved in the degradation of p-toluate (4-methyl benzoate), which is a component of PTA wastewater.

  2. A novel fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor for PTA wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwen; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Kai; Xie, Shitao

    In this paper, a fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor (ILFBBR) was developed to improve purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater treatment. The emphasis of this study was on the start-up mode of the anaerobic ILFBBR, the hydraulic loadings and the operation stability. The biological morphology of the anaerobic biofilm in the reactors was also analyzed. The anaerobic column could operate successfully for 46 days due to the pre-aerating process. The anaerobic column had the capacity to resist shock loadings and maintained a high stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid removal rates at a hydraulic retention time of 5-10 h, even under conditions of organic volumetric loadings as high as 28.8 kg COD·m(-3).d(-1). The scanning electron microscope analysis of the anaerobic carrier demonstrated that clusters of prokaryotes grew inside of pores and that the filaments generated by pre-aeration contributed to the anaerobic biofilm formation and stability.

  3. Sequential treatment of PTA wastewater in a two-stage UASB process: focusing on p-toluate degradation and microbial distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Woo, Seung Han; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2012-05-15

    Two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process was investigated as an efficient process configuration option for the treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. To study its feasibility in a defined condition, synthetic wastewater containing only the major pollutants (i.e., acetate, benzoate, terephthalate and p-toluate) was used. By focusing the role of the second stage on the p-toluate degradation, improved overall COD and p-toluate removal capacities of 4.18 and 1.35 g-thCOD/L·day could be achieved together with a complete COD removal efficiency. In this situation, all the pollutants except p-toluate were completely degraded in the first stage while 38 and 62% of p-toluate originally present in the wastewater were consecutively degraded in the individual stages. The concomitant methane production rate in each stage was 0.91 and 0.35 L/L·day respectively, and the methane yield on p-toluate was determined to be 0.12 L/g-thCOD. Batch tests using the granules obtained from each stage revealed that the acidogenic microorganisms enriched in both stages had a universal ability to degrade all aromatic pollutants present in the PTA wastewater. Moreover, image analysis using scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization technique elucidated that the distribution of acidogens and methanogens within the granule was varied in each stage, which influenced the mass transfer regime resulting in the different pollutant degradation rates during the batch tests.

  4. Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas

    2008-06-15

    In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme.

  5. Toxicity of purified terephthalic acid manufacturing wastewater on reproductive system of male mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Sun, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Yao; Liu, Bo; Yang, Liu-Yan; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2010-04-15

    Reproductive toxicity of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) manufacturing wastewater on the male mice (Mus musculus) was investigated after 35-day intragastric perfusion treatment with the wastewater. Fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining, and flow cytometry were used to assess the toxicity of PTA wastewater on spermatogenic cells. PTA wastewater induced significant variations in the relative percentages of immature haploid, diploid, tetraploid and S-phase spermatogonia. Percentage of viable spermatogenic cells was reduced from 93.1+/-2.3 in control group to 90.4+/-1.9 in the wastewater-treated group. Testicular histopathology revealed expansion of interstitial space and reduction in the number and size of Leydig cells induced by the wastewater, which was further certified by the decrease (10.6%) in relative testes weight and the increase (101.3%) in sperm shape abnormality in the wastewater-treated group. In this study, PTA wastewater was found to have reproductive toxicity on male mice, and public health problems may potentially arise from the discharge of the wastewater into the environment.

  6. Anaerobic-aerobic treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) effluent; a techno-economic alternative to two-stage aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Pophali, G R; Khan, R; Dhodapkar, R S; Nandy, T; Devotta, S

    2007-12-01

    This paper addresses the treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) effluent using anaerobic and aerobic processes. Laboratory studies were carried out on flow proportionate composite wastewater generated from the manufacturing of PTA. An activated sludge process (ASP-two stage and single stage) and an upflow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFFBR) were used, individually and in combination. The performance of a full-scale ETP under existing operating conditions was also studied. Full scale ETP studies revealed that the treatment of PTA effluent using a two-stage ASP alone does not meet treated effluent quality within the prescribed Indian Standards. The biomass produced in the two stage ASP was very viscous and fluffy and the sludge volume index (SVI) was very high (200-450 ml/g). However, pretreatment of PTA effluent using an upflow AFFFBR ensured substantial reduction in BOD (63%) and COD (62%) with recovery of biogas at 1.8-1.96 l/l effluent treated at a volumetric loading rate (VLR) 4-5 kg COD/m(3) d. The methane content in the biogas varied between 55% and 60%. The pretreated effluent from the upflow AFFFBR was then treated through a single stage ASP. The biomass produced in the ASP after anaerobic treatment had very good settlability (SVI: 75-90 ml/g) as compared to the two stage ASP and the treated effluent quality with respect to BOD, COD and SS was within the prescribed Indian Standards. The alternative treatment process comprising an upflow AFFFBR and a single stage ASP ensured net power saving of 257 kW and in addition generated 442 kW of power through the AFFFBR.

  7. Welcome to Team PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Krista

    2012-01-01

    Local PTAs may see their state PTA and National PTA as just a group to which they have to pay membership dues without getting anything in return. They may not see the state PTA as a resource. Perhaps they are not attending their state convention or the National PTA convention because they do not perceive any value. The author has learned from…

  8. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  9. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  10. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "A Novel,Highly Efficient and Economic Purification Process Revolutionizing PTA Production"

    SciTech Connect

    Wytcherley, Randi; Balderston, Kristen; Ball,George; Chou, Tai-Li

    2008-06-06

    GTC Technology, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program and in collaboration with Montana State University, has completed pilot scale testing of a revolutionary new process to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA), a crucial chemical commodity manufactured worldwide. Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is a starting material for the formation of polyester resin. Polyester resin is used to make many valuable commercial products, including clothing, plastic containers and films. In traditional PTA production, critical reactions are carried out at high temperatures and pressures, creating physically harsh and economically costly operating conditions. The chemical halide bromine is an essential ingredient for part of the conventional process. As a result of using bromine, the highly toxic and environmentally insidious compound methyl bromide is formed. The corrosive nature of bromine also mandates the use of specialized and expensive corrosion-resistant materials for plant construction. Plants processing PTA conventionally must also use copious amounts of precious water resources and manage costly water treatment operations. GTC’s new TA purification method employs a unique two-step crystallization process capable of operating at lower temperatures and pressures than traditional methods. Utilization of a highly selective, proprietary organic solvent blend also allows for the flexibility of accepting higher levels of impurities in the initial purification feedstock. The relaxed physical operating conditions combined with the effectiveness of the blended organic solvent allow for the efficient purification of feedstock created in a bromine free manner. Along with the elimination of bromine, the new purification technology drastically reduces energy costs and expensive wastewater treatment. Industry wide implementation in the United States alone could yield energy savings of 22 trillion BTU per year. In 2007, using the

  11. Disinfection of septic tank and cesspool wastewater with peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Savolainen, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    Wastewaters of private household septic tanks and cesspools have been treated with peracetic acid (1-2 g L(-1)). Adding 1 g L(-1) peracetic acid to wastewaters was easy and has been found to be effective in destroying enteric indicator microorganisms. The careful mixing of peracetic acid and wastewater was found to be important. Winter periods with frozen soil, ice and snow did not constitute extra problems. The bad smell of these wastewaters almost totally disappeared during the treatment. When wastewaters treated with peracetic acid were emptied into animal slurry tanks, hygienization still continued in the mixture of animal slurry and the wastewaters. These wastewaters could thus be released into agricultural soil without risk of microbiological pollution to groundwaters.

  12. What Makes an Outstanding PTA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    One outstanding PTA created effective communication between school and home in order to facilitate the transition from a traditional school calendar to year-round school. The Home-School Communication Project provides information via a communication folder for families of in-school children; a newsletter for all families; and a PTA telephone…

  13. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Poland, D. T.; Bartel, H. W.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program were to validate in flight the structural integrity of large-scale propfan blades and to measure noise characteristics of the propfan in both near and far fields. All program objectives were met or exceeded, on schedule and under budget. A Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation GII aircraft was modified to provide a testbed for the 2.74m (9 ft) diameter Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan which was driven by a 4475 kw (600 shp) turboshaft engine mounted on the left-hand wing of the aircraft. Flight research tests were performed for 20 combinations of speed and altitude within a flight envelope that extended to Mach numbers of 0.85 and altitudes of 12,192m (40,000 ft). Propfan blade stress, near-field noise on aircraft surfaces, and cabin noise were recorded. Primary variables were propfan power and tip speed, and the nacelle tilt angle. Extensive low altitude far-field noise tests were made to measure flyover and sideline noise and the lateral attenuation of noise. In coopertion with the FAA, tests were also made of flyover noise for the aircraft at 6100m (20,000 ft) and 10,668m (35,000 ft). A final series of tests were flown to evaluate an advanced cabin wall noise treatment that was produced under a separate program by NASA-Langley Research Center.

  14. Enriching Education in the Community through PTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Robert I.

    The Salt Lake City School District, Utah, has successfully involved the public in school improvement through cooperation with the local parent teacher associations (PTA). Four main beliefs foster district collaboration with the PTA: (1) the PTA can provide valuable human resources to public schools, (2) the PTA can participate in the…

  15. The Four Generations of PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinckerhoff, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Generation change, intergenerational conflict, whatever one calls it, the society is confronted with different generations that often have a failure to communicate. For PTAs (Parent Teacher Association), an older generation may be leading a PTA while a younger generation constitutes the majority of the parents, or newly minted teachers may be…

  16. The PTA TV Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This updated version of a 1977 manual provides information about the television industry, communications regulations, and citizen recourse to improper broadcasting procedures for use in training Parent Teacher Association (PTA) volunteers to work for effective change within the television industry. The first section discusses the operations of the…

  17. Recovery of gallic acid from gallic acid processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yundong; Zhou, Kanggen; Dong, Shuyu; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Huiqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an extraction technology has been investigated to recover gallic acid (GA) from GA processing wastewater. The effects of phase ratio and pH on the extraction behaviour of tributyl phosphate (TBP)/kerosene were investigated using TBP as the extractant and kerosene as the diluent. Our results showed that using 30% TBP, equilibrium was reached in 1 min. Extraction yields could be improved by increasing the phase ratio (organic phase:aqueous phase). The optimum pH values for the extraction and stripping processes were 3 and 6-9, respectively. The different GA concentrations had no noticeable effects on the distribution ratio between the organic phase and the aqueous phase during the extraction and stripping processes. The extraction yield that resulted from using the six-stage concentrating extraction was greater than 93%, with a phase ratio of 1:1 and an initial pH of 0.6. The GA concentration in the four-stage stripping liquor was greater than 100 g L(-1). Overall, the results indicated that the recovery of GA from GA processing wastewater is feasible using the methods described in this paper.

  18. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents.

  19. Simultaneous ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Among the several chemical processes conducted for the removal of organic matter present in wastewaters coming from some agro-industrial plants (wine distilleries, olive oil mills, etc), the oxidation by ozone has shown a great effectiveness in the destruction of specially refractory pollutants: it is demonstrated that the biodegradability of those wastewaters increases aflcer an ozonation pretreatment. Their great pollutant character is imputed to the presence of some organic compounds, like phenols and polyphenols, which are toxic and inhibit the latter biological treatments. In this research, a competitive kinetic procedure reported by Clurol and Nekouinaini is applied to determine the degradation rate constants by ozone of several phenolic acids which are present in the wastewaters from the olive oil obtaining process. The resulting kinetic expressions for the ozonation reactions are useful for the successful design and operation of ozone reactors in water and wastewaters treatment plants.

  20. Disinfection of wastewater with peracetic acid: a review.

    PubMed

    Kitis, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Peracetic acid is a strong disinfectant with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Due to its bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal effectiveness as demonstrated in various industries, the use of peracetic acid as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents has been drawing more attention in recent years. The desirable attributes of peracetic acid for wastewater disinfection are the ease of implementing treatment (without the need for expensive capital investment), broad spectrum of activity even in the presence of heterogeneous organic matter, absence of persistent toxic or mutagenic residuals or by-products, no quenching requirement (i.e., no dechlorination), small dependence on pH, short contact time, and effectiveness for primary and secondary effluents. Major disadvantages associated with peracetic acid disinfection are the increases of organic content in the effluent due to acetic acid (AA) and thus in the potential microbial regrowth (acetic acid is already present in the mixture and is also formed after peracetic acid decomposition). Another drawback to the use of peracetic acid is its high cost, which is partly due to limited production capacity worldwide. However, if the demand for peracetic acid increases, especially from the wastewater industry, the future mass production capacity might also be increased, thus lowering the cost. In such a case, in addition to having environmental advantages, peracetic acid may also become cost-competitive with chlorine.

  1. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  2. Alum recovery and wastewater sludge stabilization with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Martínez, M; Vaca, M

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation is used to remove helminth ova from wastewater intended for agricultural reuse. Nevertheless, it has the drawback of producing a large amount of sludge which together with the chemicals used to treat the wastewater increases the operating cost. This can be overcome by recovering and recycling the aluminium contained in the sludge. This paper presents how an acid recovery process was applied to an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) sludge to partially treat it and to reduce its quantity. This is a method applied several decades ago in water sludge that has not been used in secondary wastewater sludge to recover aluminium and to inactivate microorganisms. By adding sulphuric acid to a 6%TS sludge, more than 70% of the aluminium added during the coagulation flocculation process was recovered when a pH of 2 was maintained during 30 minutes and at 300 rpm of mixing conditions. This way the sludge was reduced by 45% in volume and by 63% by mass, inactivating 5 logs of faecal coliforms and 68% of helminth ova. Due to the lower alum consumption, the operating cost of the APT is reduced by 3.78 US$/1,000 m(3).

  3. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production. PMID:27020579

  4. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

    2001-04-30

    This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable

  5. Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil over non-sulfided PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaosong; Liu, Jing; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2017-01-01

    The PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was designed for the transformation of Jatropha oil into benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) aromatics. The produced catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The catalytic performance was evaluated by gas chromatography (GC). The liquid products were 70 wt% of the feed oil, and the majority of the liquid products were BTX. The aromatization activity of the catalyst was improved by the addition of PTA and the hierarchical process. The favorable PTA amount was 20 wt% and the yield of BTX was 59 wt% at 380 °C, 3 MPa, H2/oil (v/v) = 1000 and LHSV = 1 h‑1 over the PTA20-NiMo/HZ0.5 catalyst (PTA 20 wt%) without sulfurization.

  6. Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil over non-sulfided PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaosong; Liu, Jing; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2017-01-01

    The PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was designed for the transformation of Jatropha oil into benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) aromatics. The produced catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The catalytic performance was evaluated by gas chromatography (GC). The liquid products were 70 wt% of the feed oil, and the majority of the liquid products were BTX. The aromatization activity of the catalyst was improved by the addition of PTA and the hierarchical process. The favorable PTA amount was 20 wt% and the yield of BTX was 59 wt% at 380 °C, 3 MPa, H2/oil (v/v) = 1000 and LHSV = 1 h−1 over the PTA20-NiMo/HZ0.5 catalyst (PTA 20 wt%) without sulfurization. PMID:28134313

  7. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  8. Phosphorus removal performance of acid mine drainage from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruihua, Li; Lin, Zhu; Tao, Tao; Bo, Liu

    2011-06-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in Yunfu iron sulfide mine contain Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) up to 8000, 1700 and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater with 10mg/L of total phosphorus (TP) concentration and second municipal effluent with 3.5-4.0mg/L of TP concentration were conducted with the AMD by jar tests. Dosage of the AMD and initial pH of water are the two most important parameters affecting the performance of phosphorus removal of the AMD. The optimal phosphorus removal efficiency and residual iron ions (TFe) concentration are 97.0% and 3.0mg/L, respectively, at 1.61 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 8.03 for synthetic wastewater, and 92.1% and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, for second municipal effluent at 1.41 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 7.3. Resultant heavy metal concentration in effluents and precipitate was very low, and the risk of resultant heavy metal contamination was very small. The phosphorus removal performance of the AMD was much similar to that of ferric sulfate (FS) and polyferric sulfate (PFS), and better than that of FeSO(4). And residual TFe concentration in treated water arising from utilization of the AMD was similar to that of FeSO(4), and higher than that of FS and PFS. The AMD could be used as coagulant for phosphorus removal from wastewater directly due to the presence of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) largely.

  9. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  10. National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    2011-01-01

    People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

  11. Corbell PTA's Wild Walk: Fundraiser Cultivates Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    When Corbell Elementary opened its doors in 2006 in Frisco, Texas, its newly formed PTA faced the challenge of implementing a productive fundraiser to get the school off to a great start. The new board chose to focus its efforts on a single fundraiser, rather than a series of smaller ones. They wanted to avoid having the children selling any kind…

  12. Peracetic acid disinfection: a feasible alternative to wastewater chlorination.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Antonelli, M; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2007-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results of a bench-scale study to evaluate the feasibility of using peracetic acid (PAA) as a substitute for sodium hypochlorite both for discharge into surface water and for agricultural reuse. Trials were carried out with increasing doses (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg/L) and contact times (6, 12, 18, 36, 42, and 54 minutes) to study disinfectant decay and bacterial removal and regrowth, using fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) as process efficiency indicators. Peracetic acid decay kinetics was evaluated in tap water and wastewater; in both cases, PAA decays according to first-order kinetics with respect to time, and a correlation was found between PAA oxidative initial consumption and wastewater characteristics. The PAA disinfection efficiency was correlated with operating parameters (active concentration and contact time), testing different kinetic models. Two data groups displaying a different behavior on the basis of initial active concentration ranges (1 to 2 mg/L and 5 to 15 mg/L, respectively) can be outlined. Both groups had a "tailing-off" inactivation curve with respect to time, but the second one showed a greater inactivation rate. Moreover, the effect of contact time was greater at the lower doses. Hom's model, used separately for the two data groups, was found to best fit experimental data, and the disinfectant active concentration appears to be the main factor affecting log-survival ratios. Moreover, the S-model better explains the initial resistance of E. coli, especially at low active concentrations (< 2 mg/L) and short contact times (< 12 minutes). Microbial counts, performed by both traditional methods and flow cytometry, immediately and 5 hours after sample collection (both with or without residual PAA inactivation), showed that no appreciable regrowth took place after 5 hours, neither for coliform group bacteria, nor for total heterotrophic bacteria.

  13. Characterization of fatty acid-producing wastewater microbial communities using next generation sequencing technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    While wastewater represents a viable source of bacterial biodiesel production, very little is known on the composition of these microbial communities. We studied the taxonomic diversity and succession of microbial communities in bioreactors accumulating fatty acids using 454-pyro...

  14. Electromembrane extraction and HPLC analysis of haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Basheer, Chanbasha; Kaur, Jagjit; Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut E; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-10-30

    For the first time, haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids were extracted from wastewater samples using electromembrane extraction (EME). A thin layer of toluene immobilized on the walls of a polypropylene membrane envelope served as an artificial supported liquid membrane (SLM). The haloacetic acids (HAAs) (chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trifluoroacetic acid) and aromatic acetic acids (phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) were extracted through the SLM and into an alkalized aqueous buffer solution. The buffer solution was located inside the membrane envelope. The electrical potential difference sustained over the membrane acted as the driving force for the transport of haloacetic acids into the membrane by electrokinetic migration. After extraction, the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The detection limits were between 0.072 and 40.3 ng L(-1). The calibration plot linearity was in the range of 5 and 200 μg L(-1) while the correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9932 to 0.9967. Relative recoveries were in the range of 87-106%. The extraction efficiency was found to be comparable to that of solid-phase extraction.

  15. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acids in wastewater and their detection by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S A; Farrah, S R; Chaudhry, G R

    1992-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) released by infected individuals or present in human and hospital wastes can potentially cause contamination problems. The presence of HIV-1 was investigated in 16 environmental samples, including raw wastewater, sludge, final effluent, soil, and pond water, collected from different locations. A method was developed to extract total nucleic acids in intact form directly from the raw samples or from the viral concentrates of the raw samples. The isolated nucleic acids were analyzed for the presence of HIV-1 by using in vitro amplification of the target sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. HIV-1-specific proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected in the extracted nucleic acids obtained from three wastewater samples by this method. The specificity of the PCR-amplified products was determined by Southern blot hybridization with an HIV-1-specific oligonucleotide probe, SK19. The isolated nucleic acids from wastewater samples were also screened for the presence of poliovirus type 1, representing a commonly found enteric virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, representing, presumably, rare viruses. While poliovirus type 1 viral RNA was found in all of the wastewater samples, none of the samples yielded a simian immunodeficiency virus-specific product. No PCR-amplified product was yielded when wastewater samples were directly used for the detection of HIV-1 and poliovirus type 1. The wastewater constituents appeared to be inhibitory to the enzymes reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1476440

  16. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  17. Supercritical water oxidation of acrylic acid production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y M; Wang, S Z; Tang, X Y; Xu, D H; Ma, H H

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of wastewater from an acrylic acid manufacturing plant has been studied on a continuous flow experimental system, whose reactor was made of Hastelloy C-276. Experimental conditions included a reaction temperature (T) ranging from 673 to 773K, a residence time (t) ranging from 72.7 to 339s, a constant pressure (P) of 25 MPa and a fixed oxidation coefficient (alpha) of 2.0. Experimental results indicated that reaction temperature and residence time had significant influences on the oxidation reaction, and increasing the two operation parameters could improve both degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). The COD removal efficiency could reach up to 98.73% at 25 MPa, 773 K and 180.1 s, whereas the destruction efficiency of NH3-N was only 43.71%. We further carried out a kinetic analysis considering the induction period through free radical chain mechanism. It confirms that the power-law rate equation for COD removal was 345 exp(-52200/RT)[COD]1.98[O2]0.17 and for NH3-N removal was 500 exp(-64492.19/RT)[NH3-N]1.87 [O2]0.03. Moreover, the induction time formulations for COD and NH3-N were suspected to be exp(38250/RT)/173 and exp(55690/RT)/15231, respectively. Correspondingly, induction time changed from 2.22 to 5.38 s for COD and 0.38 to 1.38 s for NH3-N. Owing to the catalysis of reactor inner wall surface, more than 97% COD removal was achieved in all samples.

  18. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  19. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sibrell, Philip L; Montgomery, Gary A; Ritenour, Kelsey L; Tucker, Travis W

    2009-05-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges -- hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes -- can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  20. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  1. The PTA Story: A Century of Commitment to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This book recounts the historical achievements of the National PTA and its sister organization, the National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers. The PTA is the result of the hard work of such women as Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Alice McLellan Birney, founders of the original National Congress of Mothers, and Selma Sloan Butler, who, with the…

  2. Removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater by chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hey, G; Ledin, A; Jansen, J la Cour; Andersen, H R

    2012-01-01

    Removal of six active pharmaceutical ingredients in wastewater was investigated using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) as chemical oxidants. Four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid) and two lipid-regulating agents (gemfibrozil and clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate) were used as target substances at 40 microg/L initial concentration. Three different wastewaters types originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were used. One wastewater was collected after extended nitrogen removal in activated sludge, one after treatment with high-loaded activated sludge without nitrification, and one from the final effluent from the same plant where nitrogen removal was made in trickling filters for nitrification and moving-bed biofilm reactors for denitrification following the high-loaded plant. Of the six investigated compounds, only clofibric acid and ibuprofen were not removed when treated with ClO2 up to 20 mg/L. With increasing PAA dose up to 50 mg/L, significant removal of most of the pharmaceuticals was observed except for the wastewater with the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD). This indicates that chemical oxidation with ClO2 could be used for tertiary treatment at WWTPs for active pharmaceutical ingredients, whereas PAA was not sufficiently efficient.

  3. Removal of copper from acid wastewater of bioleaching by adsorption onto ramie residue and uptake by Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Wang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    A continuous batch bioleaching was built to realize the bioleaching of sewage sludge in large scale. In the treatment, heavy metal in acid wastewater of bioleaching was removed by adsorption onto ramie residue. Then, acid wastewater was reused in next bioleaching batch. In this way, most time and water of bioleaching was saved and leaching efficiency of copper, lead and chromium kept at a high level in continuous batch bioleaching. It was found that residual heavy metal in sewage sludge is highly related to that in acid wastewater after bioleaching. To get a high leaching efficiency, concentration of heavy metal in acid wastewater should be low. Adsorption of copper from acid wastewater onto ramie residue can be described by pseudo first-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. Trichoderma viride has the potential to be used for the concentration and recovery of heavy metal adsorbed onto ramie residue.

  4. [Amelioration effects of wastewater sludge biochars on red soil acidity and their environmental risk].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zai-Liang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2012-10-01

    Biochars were prepared from wastewater sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Nanjing using a pyrolysis method at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C. The properties of the biochars were measured, and their amelioration effects on the acidity of a red soil and environmental risk of application of sludge biochars were examined to evaluate the possibility of agricultural application of wastewater sludge biochars in red soils. Results indicated that incorporation of both sludge and sludge biochar increased soil pH due to the alkalinity of sludge and sludge biochar, and the mineralization of organic N and nitrification of ammonium N from wastewater sludge induced soil pH fluctuated during incubation. The amelioration effects of biochars generated at 500 and 700 degrees C on the soil were significantly greater than that of sludge significantly. Sludge and sludge biochar contain ample base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and thus incorporation of sludge and sludge biochar increased the contents of soil exchangeable base cations and decreased soil exchangeable aluminum and H+. Contents of heavy metals in sludge biochars were greater than these in their feedstock sludge, while the contents of Cu, Pb, Ni and As in sludge biochars were lower than the standard values of heavy metals were wastewater sludge for agricultural use in acid soils in China except for Zn and Cd. The contents of available forms of heavy metals in the biochars generated from sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant was lower than these in the corresponding sludge, suggesting that pyrolysis proceed decreased the activity of heavy metals in wastewater sludge. After 90-day incubation of the soil with sludge and sludge biochar, the differences in the contents of soil available heavy metals were not significant between the biochars and their feedstock sludge from Jiangxizhou wastewater treatment plant, and the contents in the treatments with biochars added was lower than these in the treatments with

  5. Prevention of volatile fatty acids production and limitation of odours from winery wastewaters by denitrification.

    PubMed

    Bories, André; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Sire, Yannick; Couderc, Marie; Lemaire, Sophie-Andréa; Kreim, Virginie; Roux, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the addition of nitrate to winery wastewaters to control the formation of VFA in order to prevent odours during storage and treatment was studied in batch bioreactors at different NO(3)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios and at full scale in natural evaporation ponds (2 x 7000 m(2)) by measuring olfactory intensity. In the absence of nitrate, butyric acid (2304 mgL(-1)), acetic acid (1633 mgL(-1)), propionic acid (1558 mgL(-1)), caproic acid (499 mgL(-1)) and valeric acid (298 mgL(-1)) were produced from reconstituted winery wastewater. For a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.4 gg(-1), caproic and valeric acids were not formed. The production of butyric and propionic acids was reduced by 93.3% and 72.5%, respectively, at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8, and by 97.4% and 100% at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=1.2 gg(-1). Nitrate delayed and decreased butyric acid formation in relation to the oxidoreduction potential. Studies in ponds showed that the addition of concentrated calcium nitrate (NITCAL) to winery wastewaters (3526 m(3)) in a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8 inhibited VFA production, with COD elimination (94%) and total nitrate degradation, and no final nitrite accumulation. On the contrary, in ponds not treated with nitrate, malodorous VFA (from propionic to heptanoïc acids) represented up to 60% of the COD. Olfactory intensity measurements in relation to the butanol scale of VFA solutions and the ponds revealed the pervasive role of VFA in the odour of the untreated pond as well as the clear decrease in the intensity and not unpleasant odour of the winery wastewater pond enriched in nitrates. The results obtained at full scale underscored the feasibility and safety of the calcium nitrate treatment as opposed to concentrated nitric acid.

  6. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry.

  7. An EPR study on wastewater disinfection by peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Roberto; Calucci, Lucia; Caretti, Cecilia; Lubello, Claudio; Pinzino, Calogero; Piscicelli, Michela

    2002-09-01

    EPR spectroscopy was applied to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on the radicals produced in disinfection processes of wastewater for agricultural reuse. The DEPMPO spin trap was employed to detect hydroxyl and carbon-centered short living radicals in two different peracetic acid solutions and a hydrogen peroxide solution used for water disinfection either in the absence or in the presence of UV-C irradiation. Moreover, three different kinds of water (wastewater, demineralized water, distilled water) were analysed in order to assess the contribution of Fenton reactions to the radical production. The spectroscopic results were discussed in relation to the efficiency of the different oxidizing agents and UV irradiation in wastewater disinfection evaluated as Escherichia Coli, Faecal and Total Coliforms inactivation.

  8. P(TA) macro-, micro-, nanoparticle-embedded super porous p(HEMA) cryogels as wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Super porous poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) cryogel was successfully synthesized by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (p(EGDA)) crosslinker under cryogenic conditions. Poly(Tannic acid) (p(TA)) macro-, micro-, and nanoparticles prepared from a natural polyphenol, tannic acid (TA), were embedded into p(HEMA) cryogel networks to obtain composite p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel. Different size ranges of spherical p(TA) particles, 2000-500μm, 500-200μm, 200-20μm, and 20-0.5μm size, were included in the cryogel network and illustrated by digital camera, optic microscope, and SEM images of the microgel-cryogel network. The swelling properties and moisture content of p(TA) microgel-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were investigated at wound healing pH conditions such as pH5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the highest swelling capacity was found at pH9 with 972±2% swelling in 30s. Higher amounts of DI water were quickly absorbed by p(HEMA)-based cryogel, and moisture retention within the cryogel structure for a longer time period at room temperature is due to existence of p(TA) particles. Degradation profiles of p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were shown to be controlled by different pH conditions, and a linear release profile was found with total cumulative release of 5.8±0.8mg/g TA up to 12days at pH7.4 and 37.5°C. The antioxidant behavior of degraded p(TA) particles from p(HEMA) cryogel were found as 46±1μgmL(-1) gallic acid equivalent and 165±18mMtroloxequivalentg(-1). The p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel has high hemocompatibility with 0.0158±0.0126% hemolysis ratio, and effective hemostatic properties with 8.1±0.9 blood clotting index.

  9. PTA proves its worth in high-volume hardfacing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Webber, R.

    1996-02-01

    Imparting wear and corrosion resistance to metal surfaces by providing a hard surface is the basis for hardfacing. The realization of the economic advantage of increased wear by providing a metal deposit on a relatively low-cost substrate has spurred the growth of hardfacing over the last half century. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing and laser beam hardfacing are relative newcomers to this arena. Hardfacing with PTA is ideal for high-volume hardfacing where a high degree of quality, reliability and consistency is required. Significant advances in materials and equipment have helped to spur the advancement of the technology and the wider acceptance by industry. It is believed that in the future, PTA hardfacing systems will be developed that rely a great deal on microprocessors and robotics, more so than at present. These would further enhance the product quality and consistency and would enable tailor-made PTA system designs for multiple applications. The quest for new materials for PTA hardfacing that combine wear and corrosion resistance and weldability is expected to continue. Newer applications are constantly being developed as more and more medium- and small-scale operators realize the advantages that can be derived from the use of PTA hardfacing. The basic driving force for these improvements and growth is quality, reliability, productivity and significant long-term cost reduction.

  10. Use of wastewater sludge as a raw material for production of L-lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Akakura, Naoki; Adachi, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    This study utilizes wastewater sludges to produce L-lactic acid, a precursor of biodegradable plastic. The high concentrations of cellulose contained in the sludge, derived from a paper manufacturing facility, have been found to be convertible to L-lactic acid at a rate as high as 6.91 g/L. To achieve such a high conversion rate, the sludge must be pretreated with cellulase. This pretreatment includes inoculation of the sludge with lactic acid bacteria, strain LA1, after the sludge has been subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis.

  11. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  13. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of monochloroacetic acid in wastewater using Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by ball milling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xu, Fuyuan; Zhao, Jianzhuang; Jia, Linfang; Wu, Kunming

    2015-09-01

    Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is a chemically stable and biologically toxic pollutant. It is often generated during the production of the pesticide dimethoate. Conventional wastewater treatment processes have difficulty degrading it. In this work, the dechlorination effects of Ni-Fe bimetal prepared using ball milling (BM) technology for the high concentrations of MCA in wastewater were examined. The MCA in aqueous solution was found to be degraded efficiently by the Ni-Fe bimetal. However, S-(methoxycarbonyl) methyl O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (SMOPD) in wastewater, a by-product of the dimethoate production process, significantly inhibited the reductive dechlorination activity of Ni-Fe bimetal. Increasing the reaction temperature in the MCA wastewater enhanced the reduction activity of the Ni-Fe bimetal effectively. Oxygen was found to be unfavorable to dechlorination. Sealing the reaction to prevent oxidation was found to render the degradation process more efficient. The process retained over 88% efficiency after 10 treatment cycles with 50 g/L of Ni-Fe bimetal under field conditions.

  14. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  15. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  16. Optimization of wastewater microalgae saccharification using dilute acid hydrolysis for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Yessica; Ellis, Joshua T.; Miller, Charles D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2015-02-01

    Exploring and developing sustainable and efficient technologies for biofuel production are crucial for averting global consequences associated with fuel shortages and climate change. Optimization of sugar liberation from wastewater algae through acid hydrolysis was determined for subsequent fermentation to acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acid concentration, retention time, and temperature were evaluated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions by assessing the sugar and ABE yield as well as the associated costs. Sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0-1.5 M, retention times of 40-120 min, and temperatures from 23°C- 90°C were combined to form a full factorial experiment. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment of 10% dried wastewater microalgae using 1.0 M sulfuric acid for 120 min at 80-90°C was found to be the optimal parameters, with a sugar yield of 166.1 g for kg of dry algae, concentrations of 5.23 g/L of total ABE, and 3.74 g/L of butanol at a rate of USD $12.83 per kg of butanol.

  17. Treatment of phosphoric acid plant wastewater using Fenton's reagent and coagulants.

    PubMed

    Nawghare, P; Rao, N N; Bejankiwar, R; Szyprkowicz, L; Kaul, S N

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatability studies viz., Fenton reaction and physico-chemical (coagulation) treatment using lime, alum, Fe salts and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) performed on wastewater generated from a unit manufacturing technical grade phosphoric acid are reported. Due to low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio and very low pH, this wastewater is not amenable for biological treatment. The treatability studies indicated that it is possible to remove 75-80% COD using Fenton's reagent at optimum doses of 1.0 g/L FeSO4 and 2 ml of 30% H2O2. Simultaneously, significant quantities of suspended solids, phosphate and fluoride are also removed. Polyaluminium chloride is found to be more effective towards suspended solids (SS), COD, phosphate and fluoride removal, when compared to other coagulants used in the present study. Addition of an anionic polyelectrolyte (Magnafloc 156) to PAC improved the performance further. A treatment scheme that consists of neutralization (pH 4) + Fenton's reagent + neutralization (pH 7.5) + PAC/Magnafloc 156 is found to be effective in treating phosphoric acid plant wastewater to meet marine discharge standards.

  18. Overview of NASA PTA propfan flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Edwin J.

    1990-01-01

    The progress is covered of the NASA sponsored Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. In PTA, a 9 ft. diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propfan aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approx. 600 flight test conditions.

  19. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  20. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis for eicosapentaenoic acid production in wastewaters of pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Anna; Valev, Dimitar; Tarvainen, Marko; Mishra, Sujata; Kinnunen, Viljami; Antal, Taras; Yang, Baoru; Rintala, Jukka; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2015-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) containing marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata was grown in an effluent from anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant serving a combination of a pulp and a paper mill and a municipality (digester effluent, DE), mixed with the effluent of the same wastewater treatment plant. The maximum specific growth rate and photosynthesis of N. oculata were similar in the DE medium and in artificial sea water medium (ASW) but after 7 days, algae grown in the DE medium contained seven times more triacylglycerols (TAGs) per cell than cells grown in ASW, indicating mild stress in the DE medium. However, the volumetric rate of EPA production was similar in the ASW and DE media. The results suggest that N. oculata could be used to produce EPA, utilizing the nutrients available after anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge of a pulp and paper mill.

  1. Treatment of wastewater containing acid rose red dye by biologically aerated filter after chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Gu, X; Zhou, X; Wang, W; Lin, D

    2007-08-01

    Combined processes of pre-chemical oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) were used to treat wastewater containing non-biodegradable acid rose red dye. Advance oxidation processes (AOPs) of ozone and Fenton reagent were applied for pre-chemical oxidation, which reduced the degree of color and organic matter simultaneously increasing the biodegradability of the wastewater. The majority of the organic matter was removed by BAF. When using ozone as pre-chemical oxidation, the operation is simpler. The combined processes of AOPs, including ozone and Fenton reagent, followed by BAF reduced the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to less than 20 degrees and 40 mg l(-1), respectively from the influent concentration of about 4000 degree color and 300 mg l(-1) COD. The effluent water quality could meet the required standard for grey water reuses.

  2. Wastewater disinfection by peracetic acid: assessment of models for tracking residual measurements and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Gehr, Ronald; Bartrand, Timothy A; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Dell'Erba, Adele; Falsanisi, Dario; Haas, Charles N

    2007-07-01

    With its potential for low (if any) disinfection byproduct formation and easy retrofit for chlorine contactors, peracetic acid (PAA) or use of PAA in combination with other disinfectant technologies may be an attractive alternative to chlorine-based disinfection. Examples of systems that might benefit from use of PAA are water reuse schemes or plants discharging to sensitive receiving water bodies. Though PAA is in use in numerous wastewater treatment plants in Europe, its chemical kinetics, microbial inactivation rates, and mode of action against microorganisms are not thoroughly understood. This paper presents results from experimental studies of PAA demand, PAA decay, and microbial inactivation, with a complementary modeling analysis. Model results are used to evaluate techniques for measurement of PAA concentration and to develop hypotheses regarding the mode of action of PAA in bacterial inactivation. Kinetic and microbial inactivation rate data were collected for typical wastewaters and may be useful for engineers in evaluating whether to convert from chlorine to PAA disinfection.

  3. Microbial utilization of the industrial wastewater pollutants 2-ethylhexylthioglycolic acid and iso-octylthioglycolic acid by aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Toups, Mario; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Industrial wastewater from the production of sulfur containing esters and the resulting products of this synthesis, 2-ethylhexylthioglycolic acid (EHTG) and iso-octylthioglycolic acid (IOTG), were deployed in this study to enrich novel bacterial strains, since no wastewater and EHTG or IOTG degrading microorganisms were hitherto described or available. In addition, nothing is known about the biodegradation of these thiochemicals. The effect of this specific wastewater on the growth behaviour of microorganisms was investigated using three well-known Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Ralstonia eutropha). Concentrations of 5% (v/v) wastewater in complex media completely inhibited growth of these three bacterial strains. Six bacterial strains were successfully isolated, characterized and identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. Two isolates referred to as Achromobacter sp. strain MT-E3 and Pseudomonas sp. strain MT-I1 used EHTG or IOTG, respectively, as well as the wastewater as sole source of carbon and energy for weak growth. More notably, both isolates removed these sulfur containing esters in remarkable amounts from the cultures supernatant. One further isolate was referred to as Klebsiella sp. strain 58 and exhibited an unusual high tolerance against the wastewater's toxicity without utilizing the contaminative compounds. If cultivated with gluconic acid as additional carbon source, the strain grew even in presence of more than 40% (v/v) wastewater. Three other isolates belonging to the genera Bordetella and Pseudomonas tolerated these organic sulfur compounds but showed no degradation abilities.

  4. Ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in acidic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mackie, A; Boilard, S; Walsh, M E; Lake, C B

    2010-01-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained material produced during the manufacture of cement. Current reuse options are limited and the bulk of CKD not reused in the cement manufacturing process is sent to landfills or stored on-site. Due to the calcium oxide (CaO) content of CKD, it has the potential to be used as a replacement for lime in treating acidic wastewaters such as acid rock drainage (ARD). This paper outlines the results of an examination of the physical and chemical properties of CKD samples collected from six cement plants. The CKD samples were analyzed for major oxides using X-ray diffraction (XRD), available lime, specific surface area, particle size, and morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared with a commercial quicklime product. Conductivity, pH, and calcium concentrations of slaked CKD and quicklime solutions were used as indicators of reactivity of the CKD. Slaking of two of the CKD samples with the highest free lime contents (e.g., 34 and 37% free CaO) gave elevated pH values statistically comparable to those of the commercial quicklime sample that was characterized as having 87% available CaO. Acid neutralization trials indicate that even CKD samples with low free lime contents could be effective at neutralizing acidic wastewaters.

  6. Heavy metal extraction from PCB wastewater treatment sludge by sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Chung; Lee, I-Hsien; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2010-05-15

    Heavy metals contaminated wastewater sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and needs to be properly treated to prevent releasing heavy metals to the environment. In this study, the wastewater treatment sludge from a printed circuit board manufacturing plant was treated in a batch reactor by sulfuric acid to remove the contained heavy metals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration and solid to liquid ratio on the heavy metal removal efficiencies were investigated. The experimental results showed that the total and individual heavy metal removal efficiencies increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration, but decreased with increasing solid to liquid ratio. A mathematical model was developed to predict the residual sludge weights at varying sulfuric concentrations and solid to liquid ratios. The trivalent heavy metal ions, iron and chromium were more difficult to be removed than the divalent ions, copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium. For 5 g/L solid to liquid ratio, more than 99.9% of heavy metals can be removed from the sludge by treating with 0.5M sulfuric acid in 2h.

  7. Wastewater disinfection alternatives: chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid, and UV light.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M; Citterio, S; Nurizzo, C

    2007-11-01

    Disinfection tests were carried out at pilot scale to compare the disinfection efficiency of ozone, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peracetic acid (PAA), and UV irradiation. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were monitored as reference microorganisms. Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were also enumerated by cytometry. At similar doses, NaOCl was more effective than PAA, and its action was less affected by contact time. The results obtained by ozonation were comparable for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and E. coli. On the contrary, some differences among the three indicators were observed for NaOCl, PAA, and UV. Differences increased with increasing values of the disinfectant concentration times contact time (C x t) and were probably the result of different initial counts, as total coliforms include fecal coliforms, which include E. coli. The UV irradiation lead to complete E. coli removals, even at low doses (10 to 20 mJ/cm2). Total heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be too wide a group to be a good disinfection indicator; no correlation was found among THB inactivation, dose, and contact time.

  8. National PTA Selects Outstanding Educator of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Pamela

    1985-01-01

    Principal Gene Bedley of El Camino Real School in Irvine, California, is the 1985 winner of the National PTA Hearst Outstanding Educator of the Year Award. Mr. Bedley believes that education is a shared experience and builds strong relationships with teachers, parents, and children. Some of his techniques are described. (MT)

  9. Elementary Foreign Language Teacher-PTA Liaison Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Div. of Adult Services.

    A handbook for the organization and implementation of an elementary school foreign language program presents guidelines for teachers and PTA liaisons. The program provides supplemental elementary-level instruction for children in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Arabic. Much of the program planning and organization is conducted by…

  10. Peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection of primary, secondary and tertiary treated municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, J; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection against enteric bacteria and viruses in municipal wastewaters was studied in pilot-scale. Disinfection pilot-plant was fed with the primary or secondary effluent of Kuopio municipal wastewater treatment plant or tertiary effluent from the pilot-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Disinfectant doses ranged from 2 to 7 mg/l PAA in the secondary and tertiary effluents, and from 5 to 15 mg/l PAA in the primary effluents. Disinfection contact times were 4-27 min. Disinfection of secondary and tertiary effluents with 2-7 mg/l PAA and 27 min contact time achieved around 3 log reductions of total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). PAA disinfection also significantly improved the hygienic quality of the primary effluents: 10-15 mg/l PAA achieved 3-4 log reductions of TC and EC, 5 mg/l PAA resulting in below 2 log reductions. F-RNA coliphages were more resistant against the PAA disinfection and around 1 log reductions of these enteric viruses were typically achieved in the disinfection treatments of the primary, secondary and tertiary effluents. Most of the microbial reductions occurred during the first 4-18 min of contact time, depending on the PAA dose and microorganism. The PAA disinfection efficiency remained relatively constant in the secondary and tertiary effluents, despite of small changes of wastewater quality (COD, SS, turbidity, 253.7 nm transmittance) or temperature. The disinfection efficiency clearly decreased in the primary effluents with substantially higher microbial, organic matter and suspended solids concentrations. The results demonstrated that PAA could be a good alternative disinfection method for elimination of enteric microbes from different wastewaters.

  11. [Characteristics of acid red 3R wastewater treatment by ozone microbubbles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Du, Ya-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Wen; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The application of microbubble technology for ozonation wastewater treatment could enhance ozone mass transfer, improve ozonation performance and increase ozone utilization efficiency. The ozone microbubbles were used to treat synthetic acid red 3R wastewater in the present study, and compared to ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone mass transfer and ozonation characteristics of acid red 3R were investigated when ozone microbubbles and ozone conventional bubbles were applied. The results confirmed the enhanced ozone mass transfer using microbubbles. The ozone mass transfer coefficient using microbubbles was 3.6 times higher than that using conventional bubbles under the same conditions. Simultaneously, the ozone decomposition coefficient using microbubbles was 6.2 times higher than that using conventional bubbles, which would be favorable for *OH generation. The ozonation rate and mineralization efficiency of acid red 3R could be improved significantly using ozone microbubbles. A TOC removal efficiency of 78.0% was achieved using ozone microbubbles, which was about 2 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone utilization efficiency using microbubbles was much higher that using conventional bubbles during ozonation treatment of acid red 3R. The average ozone utilization efficiencies were 97.8% and 69.3% when microbubbles and conventional bubbles were used, respectively. The oxidative ability of ozone microbubbles could be increased by enhancing *OH generation, and as a result, the oxidative reaction of degradation intermediates was accelerated by ozone microbubbles. Especially, the mineralization ability of small organic acid intermediates using ozone microbubbles was about 1.6 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles.

  12. Phosphorus removal by acid mine drainage sludge from secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Viadero, Roger C; Bhojappa, Shilpa

    2008-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, a waste product from coal mine water treatment, was used in this study as an adsorbent to develop a cost-effective treatment approach to phosphorus removal from municipal secondary effluents. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, temperature, concentration, and contact time for phosphorus removal from wastewater. Batch tests were followed by continuous flow tests using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Adsorption of orthophosphate onto AMD sludge particles followed the Freundlich isotherm model with an adsorption capacity ranging from 9.89 to 31.97 mg/g when the final effluent concentration increased from 0.21 to 13.61 mg P/L. P adsorption was found to be a rather rapid process and neutral or acidic pH enhanced phosphorus removal. Based on a thermodynamic assessment, P adsorption by AMD sludge was found to be endothermic; consequently, an increase in temperature could also favor phosphorus adsorption. Results from batch tests showed that leaching of metals common to AMD sludges was not likely to be a major issue of concern over the typical pH range (6-8) of secondary wastewater effluents. CSTR tests with three types of water (synthetic wastewater, river water, and municipal secondary effluent) illustrated that P adsorption by AMD sludge was relatively independent of the presence of other ionic species. In treating municipal secondary effluent, a phosphorus removal efficiency in excess of 98% was obtained. Results of this study indicated that it was very promising to utilize AMD sludge for phosphorus removal from secondary effluents and may be relevant to future efforts focused on the control of eutrophication in surface waters.

  13. Effects of three kinds of organic acids on phosphorus recovery by magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystallization from synthetic swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonghui; Dai, Yunrong; Hu, Qiong; Yu, Xiaohua; Qian, Feng

    2014-04-01

    P recovery from swine wastewater has become a great concern as a result of the high demand for P resources and its potential eutrophication effects on water ecosystems. The method of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystallization was used to recover P from simulated swine wastewater, and the effects of three organic acids (citric acid, succinic acid and acetic acid) on P removal efficiency and rate at different pH values were investigated. The results indicated that the P removal efficiency was worst affected by citric acid in the optimal pH range of 9.0-10.5, followed by succinic acid and acetic acid, and the influencing extent of organic acids decreased with the increasing pH value. Due to the complexation between organic acid and Mg(2+)/NH4(+), all of three organic acids could inhibit the P removal rate at the beginning of the reaction, which showed positive correlation between the inhibition effects and the concentration of organic acids. The high concentration of citric acid could completely suppress the MAP crystallization reaction. Moreover, citric acid and succinic acid brought obvious effects on the morphology of the crystallized products. The experimental results also demonstrated that MAP crystals could be obtained in the presence of different kinds and concentrations of organic acids.

  14. Does PtaRHE1, a poplar RING-H2 protein, play a role in water conduction through ABA signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Jihad; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2014-01-01

    RING (REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE) proteins with E3 ligase activity are largely represented in plants. They have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes by recognizing target proteins for ubiquitination. PtaRHE1, encoding a poplar RING-H2 domain-containing protein with E3 ligase activity has been previously shown to be expressed during the establishment of secondary vascular system in poplar. In the present report, we demonstrate that the expression of PtaRHE1 and the accumulation of its corresponding protein are modulated by the relative atmospheric and soil humidity and by abscisic acid. Overall, the integrated data are discussed within a working model highlighting a plausible function of PtaRHE1 in the signaling and/or in the regulation of water status in poplar. PMID:24393707

  15. The effect of amino acids on lipid production and nutrient removal by Rhodotorula glutinis cultivation in starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the components of amino acids in mixed starch wastewater (corn steep water/corn gluten water=1/3, v/v) were analyzed by GC-MS. Effects of amino acids on lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis and COD removal were studied. The results showed that mixed starch wastewater contained 9 kinds of amino acids and these amino acids significantly improved the biomass (13.63g/L), lipid yield (2.48g/L) and COD removal compared to the basic medium (6.23g/L and 1.56g/L). In a 5L fermentor containing mixed starch wastewater as substrate to culture R. glutinis, the maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid yield reached 26.38g/L, 28.90% and 7.62g/L, with the associated removal rates of COD, TN and TP reaching 77.41%, 69.12% and 73.85%, respectively. The results revealed a promising approach for lipid production with using amino acids present in starch wastewater as an alternative nitrogen source.

  16. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  17. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  18. Genotoxicity of the disinfection by-products resulting from peracetic acid- or hypochlorite-disinfected sewage wastewater.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Conti, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Veschetti, E; Cutilli, D; Ottaviani, M

    2005-03-01

    Wastewater disinfection is routinely carried out to prevent the spread of human pathogens present in wastewater effluents. To this aim, chemical and physical treatments are applied to the effluents before their emission in water bodies. In this study, the influence of two widely used disinfectants, peracetic acid (PAA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on the formation of mutagenic by-products was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected before and after disinfection, in winter and in summer, at a pilot plant installed in a municipal wastewater-treatment plant. Samples were adsorbed using silica C18 cartridges and the concentrates were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion test with strains TA98 and TA100. Non-concentrated water samples were tested with two plant genotoxicity assays (the Allium cepa root anaphase aberration test and the Tradescantia/micronucleus test). Mutagenicity assays in bacteria and in Tradescantia showed borderline mutagenicity in some of the wastewater samples, independent of the disinfection procedure applied. Negative results were obtained in the A. cepa anaphase aberration test. These results indicate that, in the conditions applied, wastewater disinfection with PAA and NaClO does not lead to the formation of significant amounts of genotoxic by-products.

  19. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application.

  20. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Liu, Fuqiang; Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-15

    An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201×7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost.

  1. Membrane bioreactor process of organic wastewater from brassylic acid manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z C; Zeng, P; Wang, S F; Gao, T Y

    2001-04-01

    The wastewater treatment from brassylic acid manufacturing plant using membrane bioreactor (MBR) was studied. The membrane bioreactor consisted of batch-operation biological aeration tank and ultrafiltration evaluation tank. The content of test included the affection of variation operation conditions on ultrafiltration separation, the general characteristics of MBR process, and the difference comparing with the conventional biological treatment. The results are as follows: (1) among the test membrane material, polyether sulphone (PES) membrane is more suitable for the wastewater treatment; (2) when the cutoff molecular weight is among 10,000-50,000, the higher the cutoff molecular weight, the bigger the water flux is in the test; (3) under the operation pressure, water flux increases accompanying with the increasing of operation pressure; (4) the paper filtered COD concentration has more affection on the water flux than the suspended solid concentration; (5) as the volume loading of MBR increases, the accumulation of high molecule organic substance and colloid increases, the membrane permeate COD concentration and paper filtered COD concentration increase too, meanwhile the water flux reduces; (6) when the sludge retention time of activated sludge of MBR increases, the accumulation of high molecule organic substance and colloid reduces, the membrane permeate COD concentration and paper filtered COD concentration reduce too, and the water flux increases; (7) comparing with the conventional biological process, the microbial activity is higher, but the microbial species is less.

  2. Extraction and recovery of methylene blue from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, G; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Leh, Cheu Peng; Norli, I

    2009-04-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of methylene blue (MB) from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid (extractant) in xylene has been studied at 27 degrees C. The extraction of the dye increased with increasing extractant concentration. The extraction abilities have been studied on benzoic acid concentration in the range of 0.36-5.8x10(-2) M. The distribution ratio of the dye is reasonably high (D=49.5) even in the presence of inorganic salts. Irrespective of the concentration of dye, extraction under optimal conditions was 90-99% after 15 min of phase separation. The extracted dye in the organic phase can be back extracted into sulphuric acid solution. The resultant recovered organic phase can be reused in succeeding extraction of dye with the yield ranging from 99 to 87% after 15 times reused, depending on the concentration of the initial feed solution. Experimental parameters examined were benzoic acid concentration, effect of diluent, effect of pH, effect of initial dye concentration, effect of equilibration time, various stripping agents, aqueous to organic phase ratio in extraction, organic to aqueous phase ratio in stripping and reusability of solvent.

  3. Production of volatile fatty acids from wastewater screenings using a leach-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Cadavid-Rodríguez, Luz Stella; Horan, Nigel J

    2014-09-01

    Screenings recovered from the inlet works of wastewater treatment plants were digested without pre-treatment or dilution using a lab-scale, leach-bed reactor. Variations in recirculation ratio of the leachate of 4 and 8 l/lreactor/day and pH values of 5 and 6 were evaluated in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for maximum total volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. By increasing the recirculation ratio of the leachate from 4 to 8 l/lreactor/day it was possible to increase VFA production (11%) and soluble COD (17%) and thus generate up to 264 g VFA/kg-dry screenings. These VFA were predominantly acetic acid with some propionic and butyric acid. The optimum pH for VFA production was 6.0, when the methanogenic phase was inhibited. Below pH 5.0, acid-producing fermentation was inhibited and some alcohols were produced. Ammonia release during the hydrolysis of screenings provided adequate alkalinity; consequently, a digestion process without pH adjustment could be recommended. The leach-bed reactor was able to achieve rapid rates of screenings degradation with the production of valuable end-products that will reduce the carbon footprint associated with current screenings disposal techniques.

  4. Enhanced electrochemical oxidation of Acid Red 3R wastewater with iron phosphomolybdate supported catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yue, Lin; Shi, Feng; Guo, Jianbo; Yang, Jingliang; Lian, Jing; Luo, Xiao; Guo, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Acid Red 3R (AR3R) was investigated with the new catalyst of iron phosphomolybdate (FePMo12) supported on modified molecular sieves type 4 Å (4A) as packing materials in the reactor. The results of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that the heteropolyanion had a Keggin structure. The optimal conditions for decolorization of simulated AR3R wastewater were as follows: current density 35 mA/cm², initial pH 4.0, airflow 0.08 m³/hour and inter-electrode distance 3.0 cm. With the addition of NaCl to the system, the decolorization efficiency increased. But Na₂SO₄had a negative effect on the decolorization efficiency, which was attributed to the negative salt effect. The degradation mechanisms of AR3R were also discussed in detail.

  5. Mechanistic investigation of industrial wastewater naphthenic acids removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm based processes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) have known environmental toxicity and are resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. The granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm treatment process has been shown to effectively treat OSPW NAs via combined adsorption/biodegradation processes despite the lack of research investigating their individual contributions. Presently, the NAs removals due to the individual processes of adsorption and biodegradation in OSPW bioreactors were determined using sodium azide to inhibit biodegradation. For raw OSPW, after 28 days biodegradation and adsorption contributed 14% and 63% of NA removal, respectively. For ozonated OSPW, biodegradation removed 18% of NAs while adsorption reduced NAs by 73%. Microbial community 454-pyrosequencing of bioreactor matrices indicated the importance of biodegradation given the diverse carbon degrading families including Acidobacteriaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae. Overall, results highlight the ability to determine specific processes of NAs removals in the combined treatment process in the presence of diverse bacteria metabolic groups found in GAC bioreactors.

  6. Treatment of the terephthalic acid-containing wastewater using a biological-aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Cai-Qin; Liu, Liang; Shen, Rong-Yan; Han, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the biological-aerated filter (BAF) was employed to treat the wastewater containing terephthalic acid (TA). Factors that affected the efficiency of TA and CODCr removal were evaluated experimetally, including pH, hydraulic loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and TA volume loading. At pH 7-8, hydraulic loading rate 0.067-0.48 m3/(m2 h), HRT more than 3.5h and TA loading 0.04-0.15g/(m3 d), the TA and CODCr removal efficiency was more than 93% and 87%, respectively. The mathematical model of matrix (TA) was obtained by Monod's relation and the experimental parameters of the model were 1.972 g/(m2d) and 9.782 mg/L.

  7. Novel passive co-treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, William H J; Winfrey, Brandon K; Nairn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous-flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. Synthetic AMD of pH 2.6 and acidity of 1870 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 equivalent containing a mean 46, 0.25, 2.0, 290, 55, 1.2, and 390 mg L(-1) of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn, respectively, was added at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, OK, to the system which had a total residence time of 6.6 d. During the 135-d experiment, dissolved Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were consistently decreased by 99.8, 87.8, 97.7, 99.8, 13.9, 87.9, and 73.4%, respectively, pH increased to 6.79, and net acidic influent was converted to net alkaline effluent. At a wasting rate of 0.69% of total influent flow, the system produced sludge with total Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations at least an order of magnitude greater than the influent mix, which presents a metal reclamation opportunity. Results indicate that AMD and MWW passive co-treatment is a viable approach to use wastes as resources to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  8. Photocatalytic ozonation of phenolic wastewaters: Syringic acid, tyrosol and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Olga; Fernandez, Lidia A; Carbajo, Maria; Beltran, Fernando; Rivas, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic ozonation of a mixture of 3 phenols (gallic acid, tyrosol and syringic acid) has been conducted under different operating conditions. The individual adsorption of the phenol type compounds onto titanium dioxide (photocatalyst) has been first evaluated. Equilibrium conditions are attained in less than an hour while the isotherm curves reveal that adsorption intensity increases in order: syringic acid < tyrosol < gallic acid. When the photocatalytic ozonation is applied, an optimum in titanium dioxide concentration is experienced (1.5 g L(-1)). Direct comparison of the photocatalytic ozonation to other less sophisticated oxidation systems (i.e., single ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photo-ozonation, etc.) indicates a higher efficiency of the former in terms of ozone uptake.

  9. Nitrogen removal of ramie stalk treated by acid wastewater combined with Clostridium thermocellum and the kinetic study of pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Li, Ting; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo

    2013-02-01

    A pretreatment was developed to remove nitrogen from ramie residue and cotton stalk to eliminate potential nitrogen pollutants in biomass energy production. In the pretreatment, straw was treated with acid wastewater from bioleaching for 3 h followed by Clostridium thermocellum incubation for 2 h. Most nitrogen was removed from biomass waste and the major was that in protein. Pyrolysis process revealed most hemicellulose was removed and the kinetics fitted the first-order equation well. Apparent activation energy of ramie residue increased a little and mass loss became concentrated. Ultimate analysis and pyrolysis analysis revealed the treatment did not weaken the application value of biomass in energy production. Replacing acid wastewater with sulphuric acid, a higher nitrogen removal could be achieved; however, activation energy increased sharply.

  10. A preliminary study for removal of heavy metals from acidic synthetic wastewater by using pressmud-rice husk mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ee, C. J.; Baharudin, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of combining pressmud and rice husk in the removal efficiencies of heavy metals in acidic synthetic wastewater. The ratios of pressmud to rice husk were varied at different percentages of weight ratio (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% 80% and 100%) and removal of heavy metals concentrations was observed. The result showed that the removal efficiency was increased with the addition of pressmud by up to almost 100%. Pressmud alone was able to remove 95% to 100% of heavy metals while rice husk alone managed to remove only 10% to 20% of heavy metals. The study also demonstrated that pressmud behaved as a natural acid neutralizer. Hence, the initial pH of the synthetically prepared acidic wastewater which was below 2 also was increased to pH ranging from 6 to 8.

  11. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2014-06-03

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

  12. Three-step biocatalytic reaction using whole cells for efficient production of tyramine from keratin acid hydrolysis wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wei, Yu; Lu, Yang; Wu, Siping; Liu, Qian; Liu, Junzhong; Jiao, Qingcai

    2016-02-01

    Tyramine has been paid more attention in recent years as a significant metabolite of tyrosine and catecholamine drug and an intermediate of medicinal material and some drugs. In this study, an effective, green, and three-step biocatalytic synthesis method for production of tyramine starting from serine in keratin acid hydrolysis wastewater was developed and investigated. Serine deaminase from Escherichia coli was first combined with tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter koseri, to convert L-serine to L-tyrosine. L-Tyrosine can then be decarboxylated to tyramine by tyrosinede carboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis. All these enzymes originated from recombinant whole cells. Serine deaminaseand tyrosine phenol-lyase could efficiently convert L-serine in wastewater to L-tyrosine at pH 8.0, 37 °C, and Triton X-100 of 0.04% when tyrosine phenol-lyase and its corresponding substrates were sequentially added. Tyrosine conversion rate reached 98 % by L-tyrosine decarboxylase. In scale-up study, the conversion yield of L-serine in wastewater to tyrosine was up to 89 %. L-Tyrosine was decarboxylated to tyramine with a high yield 94 %. Tyramine hydrochloride was obtained with a total yield 84 %. This study has provided an efficient way of recycling keratin acid hydrolysis wastewater to produce tyramine.

  13. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10(-5)Ω(-1)m(-1), 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t1/2=22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature.

  14. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 μm. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  15. Simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewater by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The zero-valent iron (ZVI) wastewater treatment has been applied to simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewaters. The simultaneous removal occurs by the reactions performed due to the sequential transformation of ZVI under the acidic condition. Fortunately the solution pH of semiconductor acidic wastewaters is low which is effective for the sequential transformation of ZVI. Firstly the reduction of nitrate is taken place by electrons generated by the corrosion of ZVI under acidic conditions. Secondly the ferrous ion generated by the corrosion of ZVI reacts with hydrogen peroxide and generates ·OH radical (Fenton reaction). The Fenton reaction consists of the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of ferric ion. Finally phosphate precipitates out with iron ions. In the simultaneous removal process, 1.6 mM nitrate, 9.0 mM hydrogen peroxide and 1.0 mM phosphate were completely removed by ZVI within 100, 15 and 15 min, respectively. The synergy among the reactions for the removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate was found. In the individual pollutant removal experiment, the removal of phosphate by ZVI was limited to 80% after 300 min. Its removal rate was considerably improved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and the complete removal of phosphate was achieved after 15 min.

  16. Genetics and Physiology of Acetate Metabolism by the Pta-Ack Pathway of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetyl phosphate (AcP), which can be converted to acetate by acetate kinase (Ack), with the concomitant generation of ATP. A ΔackA mutant displayed enhanced accumulation of AcP under aerobic conditions, whereas little or no AcP was observed in the Δpta or Δpta ΔackA mutant. The Δpta and Δpta ΔackA mutants also had diminished ATP pools compared to the size of the ATP pool for the parental or ΔackA strain. Surprisingly, when exposed to oxidative stress, the Δpta ΔackA strain appeared to regain the capacity to produce AcP, with a concurrent increase in the size of the ATP pool compared to that for the parental strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants exhibited enhanced (p)ppGpp accumulation, whereas the strain lacking Pta produced less (p)ppGpp than the wild-type strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants displayed global changes in gene expression, as assessed by microarrays. All strains lacking Pta, which had defects in AcP production under aerobic conditions, were impaired in their abilities to form biofilms when glucose was the growth carbohydrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the complex regulation of the Pta-Ack pathway and critical roles for these enzymes in processes that appear to be essential for the persistence and pathogenesis of S. mutans.

  17. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  18. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved.

  19. Use of acid preconditioning for enhanced dewatering of wastewater treatment sludges from the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Elliott, Allan

    2007-02-01

    In municipal and industrial practices, wastewater treatment sludges are generally conditioned with organic polymers before dewatering. The dewatering polymers are expensive and contribute significantly to the overall sludge management cost. This paper discusses a preconditioning strategy that holds great promise for enhancing dewatering properties of wastewater treatment sludges, while reducing the cost. In this approach, the waste activated sludge (WAS) is briefly preconditioned with an acid before flocculating with an organic polymer. Experimental results showed that acid preconditioning significantly enhanced dewatering. Separately acidifying WAS and subsequently combining it with primary sludge produced higher presscake solids than acidifying the combined sludge to the same final pH. Acidification exhibited the added benefit of reducing Escherichia coli counts in sludge, thus improving its biological character. This may provide flexibility in choosing a beneficial use application.

  20. Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Theresa A; Gray, Nicholas F

    2013-11-01

    Co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process is a novel treatment technology offering potential savings over alternative systems in materials, proprietary chemicals and energy inputs. The impacts of AMD on laboratory-scale activated sludge units (plug-flow and sequencing batch reactors) treating synthetic MWW were investigated. Synthetic AMD containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and SO4 at a range of concentrations and pH values was formulated to simulate three possible co-treatment processes, i.e., (1) adding raw AMD to the activated sludge aeration tank, (2) pre-treating AMD prior to adding to the aeration tank by mixing with digested sludge and (3) pre-treating AMD by mixing with screened MWW. Continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal; average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations<2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86% and 100%, respectively, in both systems. Manganese and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity; removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Pre-mixing with screened MWW was the best process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal. However, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting an alkali supplement may be necessary.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl acids in selected wastewater treatment plants and their discharge load within the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chirikona, Florah; Filipovic, Marko; Ooko, Seline; Orata, Francis

    2015-05-01

    A major ecological challenge facing Lake Victoria basin is the influx of chemical contaminants from domestic, hospital, and industrial effluents. Determined levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wastewater and sludge from selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kenya are presented and their daily discharge loads calculated for the first time within the Lake Victoria basin. Samples were extracted and separated using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS methodology. All sewage sludge and wastewater samples obtained from the WWTPs contained detectable levels of PFAAs in picogram per gram dry weight (d.w.) and in nanogram per liter, respectively. There was variability in distribution of PFAAs in domestic, hospital, and industrial waste with domestic WWPTs observed to contain higher levels. Almost all PFAA homologues of chain length C-6 and above were detected in samples analyzed, with long-chain PFAAs (C-8 and above chain length) being dominant. The discharge from hospital contributes significantly to the amounts of PFAAs released to the municipal water systems and the lake catchment. Using the average output of wastewater from the five WWTPs, a mass load of 1013 mg day(-1) PFAAs per day discharged has been calculated, with the highest discharge obtained at Kisumu City (656 mg day(-1)). The concentration range of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in wastewater was 1.3-28 and 0.9-9.8 ng L(-1) and in sludge samples were 117-673 and 98-683 pg g(-1), respectively.

  2. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment.

  3. Sugar and volatile fatty acids dynamic during anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, L R; Gomes, A C; Lopes, A; Albuquerque, A; Simões, R M

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production has been the main route used to exploit olive mill wastewater (OMW), after pretreatment and/or in combination with other effluents, but more recently the production of chemicals and biopolymers by biotechnological routes has deserved increasing attention by the scientific community. The present paper aims to explore the potential of fresh OMW as a source of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas. The time profile of VFAs production and the corresponding sugar consumption was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, in batch anaerobic assays. The experimental results have revealed the very high potential of the OMW for the production of VFAs, mainly due to the high sugar concentration in the effluent (37.8 g/L) and its complete conversion into VFAs, in a time period of 2-3 days. The most abundant VFAs were acetic (48-50%), n-butanoic (12-27%), iso-pentanoic (12-14%) and propanoic (5-13%). The ratio of VFA containing even and odd carbon chains increased with the reduction in the initial chemical oxygen demand concentration of the samples used in the experiments. The conversion of the VFAs to biogas was inhibited at concentrations of 3.5 g/L of VFAs.

  4. Two-stage combined treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongyang; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the combined treatment of field-collected acid mine drainages (AMD, pH = 4.2 ± 0.9, iron = 112 ± 118 mg/L, sulfate = 1,846 ± 594 mg/L) and municipal wastewater (MWW, avg. chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 234-333 mg/L) using a two-stage process. The process consisted of batch mixing of the two wastes to condition the mixture solutions, followed by anaerobic biological treatment. The mixings performed under a range of AMD/MWW ratios resulted in phosphate removal of 9 to ∼100%, the mixture pH of 6.2-7.9, and COD/sulfate concentration ratio of 0.05-5.4. The biological treatment consistently removed COD and sulfate by >80% from the mixture solutions for COD/sulfate ratios of 0.6-5.4. Alkalinity was produced in the biological treatment causing increased pH and further removal of metals from the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy of produced sludge with energy dispersion analysis suggested chemical precipitation and associated adsorption and co-precipitation as the mechanisms for metal removal (Fe: >99%, Al: ∼100%, Mn: 75 to ∼100%, Ca: 52-81%, Mg: 13-76%, and Na: 56-76%). The study showed promising results for the treatment method and denoted the potential of developing innovative technologies for combined management of the two wastes in mining regions.

  5. The adsorption of chromium (VI) from industrial wastewater by acid and base-activated lignocellulosic residues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos

    2007-06-01

    This study deals with the adsorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic and industrial wastewater, produced by a sewage plant. The activated carbons were prepared from a lignocellulosic raw material by thermal treatment at 450 and 650 degrees C in the presence of acid (AlCl(3), HCl, H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4)) and base (NaOH) agents. To optimize the adsorption of Cr(VI), the chemical modifications caused by each activating agent (related to the capability of Cr(VI) removal), and the optimal experimental conditions of the pH, Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and residence time, were studied. Thus, treatment with H(3)PO(4) gives rise to carbons with a high surface area and high efficiency for Cr(VI) removal at short equilibrium times. In contrast, the generation of active surface sites by means of NaOH requires longer equilibrium times, the adsorption being less effective than in the former case. The adsorption isotherms obey the Langmuir equation only in the first stages of the reaction but fit the Freundlich equations over the whole range studied, so the heat of adsorption can be easily calculated. The results also show that the activated carbons obtained can be recovered by filtration with an efficiency of 30% in the third cycle.

  6. Online Determination of Trace Amounts of Tannic Acid in Colored Tannery Wastewaters by Automatic Reference Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method was proposed for online determination of tannic acid in colored tannery wastewater by automatic reference flow injection analysis. Based on the tannic acid reduction phosphotungstic acid to form blue compound in pH 12.38 alkaline solutions, the shade of blue compound is in a linear relation to the content of tannic acid at the point of the maximum absorption peak of 760 nm. The optimal experimental conditions had been obtained. The linear range of the proposed method was between 200 μg L−1 to 80 mg L−1 and the detection limit was 0.58 μg L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.08% and 2.43% for 500 μg L−1 and 40 mg L−1 of tannic acid standard solution, respectively, (n = 10). The method had been successfully applied to determination of tannic acid in colored tannery wastewaters and the analytical results were satisfactory. PMID:20508812

  7. Evaluation of propeller/nacelle interactions in the PTA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Lyman, V.; Parker, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced highly-loaded propellers are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan engine. In order to realize these savings, the propeller must be installed so that the aerodynamics of the propeller/nacelle combination do not lead to excessive cyclic blade stresses or installation losses. The on-going, NASA sponsored, Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) has provided the first high-speed wind-tunnel data on an installed propfan complete with an inlet. This paper presents computational techniques that allow: (1) optimization of inlet plane location, (2) contouring of lip and cowl, and (3) estimation of propeller cyclic loads due to a nonuniform flowfield. These computational methods, in spite of the complexity of the configuration and the slipstream effects, provide predictions of aerodynamic performance which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  8. Comparative study on the efficiency of peracetic acid and chlorine dioxide at low doses in the disinfection of urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica

    2008-01-01

    A comparison was made between the efficiency of low doses of peracetic acid (PAA: 1.5 mg/l) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2): 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l) in the disinfection of secondary effluents of a wastewater treatment plant. Peracetic acid was seen to be more active than chlorine dioxide and less influenced by the organic content of the waste. Both PAA and ClO(2) (2.0 mg/l) lead to a higher reduction in total and faecal coliforms and E. coli than in phages (somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages) and enterococci. Detection of faecal coliforms and E. coli should therefore be accompanied by a search for these more resistant microorganisms when assessing the conformity of wastewater for irrigation use, or for discharge into surface waters. Coliphages are also considered suitable indicators of the presence of enteric viruses. Although the application of low doses of both disinfectants offers advantages in terms of costs and produces not significant quantities of byproducts, it is not sufficient to obtain wastewater suitable for irrigation according to the Italian norms (E. coli < 10/100 ml in 80 % of samples and <100/100 ml in the remaining samples). Around 65 % of the samples, however, presented concentrations of E. coli lower than the limit of 5,000/100 ml established by Italian norms for discharge into surface waters.

  9. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid, UV and ozone after enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gehr, Ronald; Wagner, Monika; Veerasubramanian, Priya; Payment, Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant uses enhanced physicochemical processes (ferric and/or alum coagulation) for suspended solids and phosphorus removal. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of peracetic acid (PAA), UV, or ozone to inactivate the indicator organisms fecal coliforms, Enterococci, MS-2 coliphage, or Clostridium perfringens in the effluent from this plant. PAA doses to reach the target fecal coliform level of 9000 CFU/100mL exceeded 6 mg/L; similar results were obtained for enterococci, and no inactivation of Clostridium perfringens was observed. However a 1-log reduction of MS-2 occurred at PAA doses of 1.5 mg/L and higher. It was expected that this effluent would have a high ozone demand, and would require relatively high UV fluences, because of relatively high effluent COD, iron and suspended solids concentrations, and low UV transmittance. This was confirmed herein. For UV, the inactivation curve for fecal coliforms showed the typical two-stage shape, with the target of 1000 CFU/100 mL (to account for photoreactivation) occurring in the asymptote zone at fluences >20 mJ/cm(2). In contrast, inactivation curves for MS-2 and Clostridium perfringens were linear. Clostridium perfringens was the most resistant organism. For ozone, inactivation was already observed before any residuals could be measured. The transferred ozone doses to reach target fecal coliform levels ( approximately 2-log reduction) were 30-50 mg/L. MS-2 was less resistant, but Clostridium perfringens was more resistant than fecal coliforms. The different behaviour of the four indicator organisms studied, depending on the disinfectant, suggests that a single indicator organism might not be appropriate. The required dose of any of the disinfectants is unlikely to be economically viable, and upstream changes to the plant will be needed.

  10. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples (2-780 µg/g), ii) the soil organic matter content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  11. Nondeterministic computational fluid dynamics modeling of Escherichia coli inactivation by peracetic acid in municipal wastewater contact tanks.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Crapulli, Ferdinando; Raisee, Mehrdad; Raspa, Giuseppe; Haas, Charles N

    2015-06-16

    Wastewater disinfection processes are typically designed according to heuristics derived from batch experiments in which the interaction among wastewater quality, reactor hydraulics, and inactivation kinetics is often neglected. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted in a nondeterministic (ND) modeling framework to predict the Escherichia coli inactivation by peracetic acid (PAA) in municipal contact tanks fed by secondary settled wastewater effluent. The extent and variability associated with the observed inactivation kinetics were both satisfactorily predicted by the stochastic inactivation model at a 95% confidence level. Moreover, it was found that (a) the process variability induced by reactor hydraulics is negligible when compared to the one caused by inactivation kinetics, (b) the PAA dose required for meeting regulations is dictated equally by the fixed limit of the microbial concentration as well as its probability of occurrence, and (c) neglecting the probability of occurrence during process sizing could lead to an underestimation of the PAA dose required by as much as 100%. Finally, the ND-CFD model was used to generate sizing information in the form of probabilistic disinfection curves relating E. coli inactivation and probability of occurrence with the average PAA dose and PAA residual concentration at the outlet of the contact tank.

  12. Comparative Inactivation of Murine Norovirus and MS2 Bacteriophage by Peracetic Acid and Monochloramine in Municipal Secondary Wastewater Effluent.

    PubMed

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Schwab, Kellogg J; McQuarrie, James; Bell, Kati; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2017-03-07

    Chlorination has long been used for disinfection of municipal wastewater (MWW) effluent while the use peracetic acid (PAA) has been proposed more recently in the United States. Previous work has demonstrated the bactericidal effectiveness of PAA and monochloramine in wastewater, but limited information is available for viruses, especially ones of mammalian origin (e.g., norovirus). Therefore, a comparative assessment was performed of the virucidal efficacy of PAA and monochloramine against murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage in secondary effluent MWW and phosphate buffer (PB). A suite of inactivation kinetic models was fit to the viral inactivation data. Predicted concentration-time (CT) values for 1-log10 MS2 reduction by PAA and monochloramine in MWW were 1254 and 1228 mg-min/L, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-log10 model predicted CT values for MNV viral reduction in MWW were 32, 47, and 69 mg-min/L for PAA and 6, 13, and 28 mg-min/L for monochloramine, respectively. Wastewater treatment plant disinfection practices informed by MS2 inactivation data will likely be protective for public health but may overestimate CT values for reduction of MNV. Additionally, equivalent CT values in PB resulted in greater viral reduction which indicate that viral inactivation data in laboratory grade water may not be generalizable to MWW applications.

  13. Assessing the effects of solids residence time and volatile fatty acid augmentation on biological phosphorus removal using real wastewater.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Christopher J; Coats, Erik R; Loge, Frank J

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the research presented herein was to evaluate the effects of solids residence time (SRT) and organic acid augmentation on biological phosphorus removal (BPR), with a focus on how these operational variables affect key metabolisms and the distribution of the microbial population. Using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors seeded with a mixed microbial consortium and fed real wastewater, we observed that longer SRTs can improve BPR performance; organic acid augmentation can stabilize BPR, but it is not necessary for process success; and higher volatile suspended solids concentrations correlate with improved phosphorus removal. The results also suggest that organic acids may not be critical in driving anaerobic phosphorus release, but in driving aerobic growth. Finally, given an observed population similarity across all tested bioreactors, BPR variability appears to be less influenced by the presence of specific microbes and more affected by the induction of critical metabolisms.

  14. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  15. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA): inactivation of coliphages and bacterial indicators in a municipal wastewater plant.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, F; De Luca, G; Sacchetti, R; Stampi, S

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of low doses of peracetic acid against viral and bacterial indicators in wastewater and to evaluate if the treatment allows regulatory requirements to be satisfied. A total of 31 samplings were carried out, each involving the collection of secondary effluent and of effluent disinfected with 1.2 or 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid (contact time 20 minutes). In each sample were measured: somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, Escherichia coli, total and faecal coliforms, enterococci. Peracetic acid disinfection showed significant differences between the reductions of the microorganisms tested: E. coli showed the highest reduction (1.78 and 2.43 Log respectively with 1.2 and 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid) and phages the lowest (ranging between 0.52 and 0.60 Log). Only a concentration of 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid would enable the effluent to be discharged into surface waters in compliance with Italian regulations. The variability of microbial resistance against the peracetic acid disinfection treatment, underlines the importance of assessing disinfection efficiency by using more than one indicator microorganism. The detection of E. coli could be usefully accompanied by tests for more resistant microorganisms such as enterococci or coliphages. In conclusion, peracetic acid can be used for the disinfection of effluents even at low doses, with the advantage of reducing costs and preventing the formation of significant amounts of genotoxic by-products.

  16. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Harriet; Imianovsky, Ulisses; Oliveira, Jorge L.B.; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2008-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30°C, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 μmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air) in three different culture media: (1) Paoletti medium (control), (2) Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water) and (3) Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%), while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO. PMID:24031187

  17. Simultaneous determination of neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater by high-performance liquid chromatography-post-column photochemically induced fluorimetry.

    PubMed

    González-Barreiro, C; Lores, M; Casais, M C; Cela, R

    2003-04-18

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of acidic and neutral pharmaceutical active compound (PhACs) residues in wastewater has been developed based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and photochemically induced fluorimetry. The photoderivatization conditions for each particular PhAC have been assessed. Off-line optimization of the HPLC separation for both neutral and acidic compounds has been utilised and evaluated. Detection limits in the low ng/ml range have been achieved without sample pretreatment. By applying the developed analytical method combined with solid-phase extraction to real wastewater samples an enrichment factor of approximately two orders of magnitude can be obtained.

  18. Removal of dorzolamide from biomedical wastewaters with adsorption onto graphite oxide/poly(acrylic acid) grafted chitosan nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kyzas, George Z; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J; Deliyanni, Eleni A

    2014-01-01

    A novel graphite oxide/poly(acrylic acid) grafted chitosan nanocomposite (GO/CSA) was prepared and used as biosorbent for the removal of pharmaceutical compound (dorzolamide) from biomedical synthetic wastewaters. The performance was evaluated taking into account pH, kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption. GO/CSA presented higher adsorption capacity in comparison with the parent materials (graphite oxide and poly(acrylic acid) grafted chitosan). All adsorbents prepared were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and potentiometric titration. The surface features were also evaluated after the dorzolamide adsorption in order to derive the adsorption mechanism. It was suggested that the reactive groups of GO and CSA can interact with the amino groups of dorzolamide and mainly the abundance of carboxyl groups of GO/CSA composite was the main reason for its enhanced adsorption capacity.

  19. Interactions among Hageman factor (HG, Factor XII), plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XI), plasma prekallikrein (PK, Fletcher factor) and high molecular weight kininogen (HMW-K, Fitzgerald factor) in blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Ratnoff, O D

    1979-01-01

    Studies of plasmas from individuals with Hageman trait (factor XII deficiency), plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) deficiency, Fletcher trait (plasma prekallikrein deficiency) and Fitzgerald trait (high molecular weight-kininogen deficiency) have revealed the importance of these proteins in blood coagulation. The interactions among them, however, are not fully elucidated. We have studied these reactions by two different approaches. (1) In a purified system, high molecular weight kininogen was absolutely required for activation of PTA by HF and ellagic acid (EA). The yield of activated PTA was proportional to the amount of HF, HMW-K, and PTA in the mixtures, suggesting that these three proteins may form a complex in the presence of EA. (2) In experiments with whole plasma, we took advantage of the adsorption of EA to Sephadex gels. When normal plasma or plasma deficient in HF, PK, HMW-K or PTA was exposed to Sephadex-EA and was separated by centrifugation, each supernatant plasma except that deficient in HF shortened the prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT) of HF-deficient plasma. Plasma simultaneously depleted of HMW-K, PK and PTA also shortened the PTT of HF-deficient plasma and of plasma depleted of HF and PK, but had virtually no procoagulant effect upon the PTT of plasma depleted of HF and MHW-K. Thus, exposure of HF in plasma to Sephadex-EA appeared to generate a clot-promoting form of HF in the absence of other clotting factors, but its expression required the presence of HMW-K.

  20. Ectopic expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a poplar RING-H2 protein with E3 ligase activity, alters plant development and induces defence-related responses

    PubMed Central

    Mukoko Bopopi, Johnny; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Himanen, Kristiina; Mol, Adeline; Vaessen, Quentin; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2010-01-01

    RING (really interesting new gene)-H2 domain-containing proteins are widely represented in plants and play important roles in the regulation of many developmental processes as well as in plant–environment interactions. In the present report, experiments were performed to unravel the role of the poplar gene PtaRHE1, coding for a RING-H2 protein. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicate a functional E3 ligase activity for PtaRHE1 with the specific E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5a. The overexpression of PtaRHE1 in tobacco resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by a curling of the leaves, the formation of necrotic lesions on leaf blades, growth retardation, and a delay in floral transition. The plant gene expression response to PtaRHE1 overexpression provided evidence for the up-regulation of defence- and/or programmed cell death-related genes. Moreover, genes coding for WRKY transcription factors as well as for mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), were also found to be induced in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type. In addition, histochemical β-glucuronidase staining showed that the PtaRHE1 promoter is induced by plant pathogens and by elicitors such as salicylic acid and cellulase. Taken together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase PtaRHE1 plays a role in the ubiquitination-mediated regulation of defence response, possibly by acting upstream of WIPK and/or in the activation of WRKY factors. PMID:19892745

  1. Peritonsillar abscess (PTA): clinical characteristics, microbiology, drug exposures and outcomes of a large multicenter cohort survey of 412 patients hospitalized in 13 French university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity.

  2. Determination of tannic acid in industrial wastewater based on chemiluminescence system of KIO₄-H₂O₂-Tween40.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng-gen; Li, Huai-fen

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of H₂O₂ with KIO₄ can produce chemiluminescence (CL) in the presence of the surfactant Tween40 and the CL intensity of the CL system KIO₄-H₂O₂-Tween40 can be strikingly enhanced after injection of tannic acid. On this basis, a flow injection method with CL detection was established for the determination of tannic acid. The method is simple, rapid and effective to determine tannic acid in the range of 7.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L with a determination limit of 2.3 × 10(-9) mol/L. The relative standard deviation is 2.6% for the determination of 5.0 × 10(-6 )mol/L tannic acid (n = 11). The method has been applied to determine the content of tannic acid in industrial wastewater with satisfactory results. It is believed that the CL reaction formed singlet oxygen (1)O(2)* and the emission was from an excited oxygen molecular pair O₂(¹Δ(g))O₂(¹∑⁻(g)) in the KIO₄-H₂O₂-Tween40 reaction. Tween40 played an important role in enhancing stabilization of the excited oxygen molecular pair O₂(¹Δ(g))O₂(¹∑⁻(g)) and in increasing CL intensity.

  3. Degradation of acid blue 40 dye solution and dye house wastewater from textile industry by photo-assisted electrochemical process.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson B; Pelegrino, Rosangela R L; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical processes are used for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation of one of the most abundant and strongly colored industrial wastewaters, which results from the dyeing of fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The experiments were carried out in an 18 L pilot-scale tubular flow reactor with 70%TiO(2)/30%RuO(2) DSA. A synthetic acid blue 40 solution and real dye house wastewater, containing the same dye, were used for the experiments. By using current density of 80 mA cm(-2) electrochemical process has the capability to remove 80% of color, 46% of TOC and 69% of COD. When used the photochemical process with 4.6 mW cm(-2) of 254 nm UV-C radiation to assist the electrolysis, has been obtained 90% of color, 64% of TOC and 60% of COD removal in 90 minutes of processing; furthermore, 70% of initial color was degraded within the first 15 minutes. Experimental runs using dye house wastewater resulted in 78% of color, 26% of TOC and 49% of COD in electrolysis at 80 mA cm(-2) and 90 min; additionally, when photo-assisted, electrolysis resulted in removals of 85% of color, 42% of TOC and 58% of COD. For the operational conditions used in this study, color, TOC and COD showed pseudo-first-order decaying profiles. Apparent rate constants for degradation of TOC and COD were improved by one order of magnitude when the photo-electrochemical process was used.

  4. Phosphorus extraction and sludge dissolution by acid and alkali treatments of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) treated wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ali, Toor Umair; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching characteristics of polyaluminium chlorides (PAC) treated wastewater sludge was investigated by wet chemicals (acid and alkali). Sludge fractionation showed non-apatite inorganic P was the dominant P (90.9% of TP) while apatite P only accounted for 3.7%. After 2h extraction with 1N NaOH or 2N HCl, 80.5% and 77.9% of total P was leached, while sludge dissolution reached 72.7% and 75.6%, respectively. Kinetic study with HCl and NaOH showed that P release and sludge dissolution follow first order reaction with rate constants of 0.50 and 0.35min(-1) (P release) and 0.47×10(-2) and 0.15×10(-2)min(-1) (sludge dissolution), respectively. Sequential extraction by NaOH/HCl leached 91.7% of the total P. This study will help in understanding the P release behavior of the PAC treated wastewater sludge.

  5. Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry preceded by solvent extraction to determine volatile fatty acids in wastewater of municipal, animal farm and landfill origin.

    PubMed

    Banel, Anna; Zygmunt, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    This study describes extraction of selected volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (containing from 2 up to 8 carbon atoms) with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from polluted aqueous samples followed by separation, identification and quantification by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction parameters such as time and number of extractions, volume ratio, effect of acidification and salt addition were optimized with respect to recovery, enrichment factor and repeatability. The VFAs studied were separated using an open tubular capillary column Stabilwax-DA (crossbond polyethylene glycol treated with nitroterephtalic acid). The limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the procedure developed were on the level of 0.1 to 0.5 mg L(-1). The analysis of real samples of municipal raw and treated wastewater, animal farms wastewater, and also landfill leachates showed that always dominant was acetic acid. The content of VFAs in animal farms wastewater was a few times higher than in municipal wastewater and in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. In surface and ground water close to municipal landfill only acetic acid was detected at higher concentrations in outflow than inflow water. This indicates that slight leakage from the landfill must have occurred.

  6. Adsorption of aluminum and lead from wastewater by chitosan-tannic acid modified biopolymers: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and process mechanism.

    PubMed

    Badawi, M A; Negm, N A; Abou Kana, M T H; Hefni, H H; Abdel Moneem, M M

    2017-06-01

    Chitosan was reacted by tannic acid to obtain three modified chitosan biopolymer. Their chemical structures were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis. The prepared biopolymers were used to adsorb Al(III) and Pb(II) metal ions from industrial wastewater. The factors affecting the adsorption process were biosorbent amount, initial concentration of metal ion and pH of the medium. The adsorption efficiency increased considerably with the increase of the biosorbent amount and pH of the medium. The adsorption process of biosorbent on different metal ions was fitted by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetics was followed Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process occurred according to diffusion mechanism which was confirmed by the interparticle diffusion model. The modified biopolymers were efficient biosorbents for removal of Pb(II) and Al(III) metal ions from the medium.

  7. Insertion of Self-Expandable Nitinol Stents Without Previous Balloon Angioplasty Reduces Restenosis Compared with PTA Prior to Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Harnek, Jan; Zoucas, Evita; Stenram, Unne; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the development of intimal hyperplasia after deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent with and without previous percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), with the results after PTA alone. Methods: In nine healthy pigs, the iliac arteries were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6 arteries) was treated with PTA; group 2 n 6)with insertion of self-expanding stents after PTA; and group 3 (n = 6) with stent insertion without previous PTA. After 8 weeks the vessels were examined with intravascular ultrasonography,histologic examination and morphometric analysis. Results: Although the injury index in group 1 (0.17{+-} 0.57) was lower (p <0.05) than in group 2 (0.26 {+-} 0.06) and group 3 (0.26 {+-} 0.08), PTA-treated arteries showed significantly (p <0.05) reduced mean luminal gain (0.53 {+-} 2.84) compared with arteries treated with PTA prior to stenting (2.58 {+-} 1.38) and compared with stenting alone (4.65 {+-}5.34). Stenting after PTA resulted in a higher (p<0.05) restenosis index (2.63 {+-} 1.06) compared with stenting without PTA (1.35 {+-} 0.59). Group 2 also had a significantly thicker intimap <0.05) and 83% and 74% higher intima/mediaratio (p <0.05) compared with groups 1 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent without previous PTA results in less intimalhyperplasia than if PTA is performed prior to stenting, suggesting that direct stenting can be used in angioplasty sessions with a favorable outcome.

  8. Water and catalytic isomerization of linear allylic alcohols by [RuCp(H2O-κO)(PTA)2](+) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane).

    PubMed

    Scalambra, Franco; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Romerosa, Antonio

    2017-04-12

    A new water soluble complex [RuCp(H2O-κO)(PTA)2](+) (1) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) has been synthesized and fully characterized by NMR and IR. The crystal structure of 1(CF3SO3)·3.5H2O was characterized by single crystal X-ray determination. The catalytic activity of this complex was evaluated for the isomerisation of linear allylic alcohols from 3-buten-2-ol to 1-octen-3-ol into the correspondent ketones under both an inert atmosphere and in air, using as solvents: water, the substrate, mixtures of water/substrate, MeOH and mixtures of MeOH/water. An isomerization experiment on a mixture of all the studied allylic alcohols was also carried out.

  9. The gas chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater samples: evaluation of experimental biases in direct injection method against thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Md Ahsan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-04-11

    The production of short-chained volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the anaerobic bacterial digestion of sewage (wastewater) affords an excellent opportunity to alternative greener viable bio-energy fuels (i.e., microbial fuel cell). VFAs in wastewater (sewage) samples are commonly quantified through direct injection (DI) into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this study, the reliability of VFA analysis by the DI-GC method has been examined against a thermal desorption (TD-GC) method. The results indicate that the VFA concentrations determined from an aliquot from each wastewater sample by the DI-GC method were generally underestimated, e.g., reductions of 7% (acetic acid) to 93.4% (hexanoic acid) relative to the TD-GC method. The observed differences between the two methods suggest the possibly important role of the matrix effect to give rise to the negative biases in DI-GC analysis. To further explore this possibility, an ancillary experiment was performed to examine bias patterns of three DI-GC approaches. For instance, the results of the standard addition (SA) method confirm the definite role of matrix effect when analyzing wastewater samples by DI-GC. More importantly, their biases tend to increase systematically with increasing molecular weight and decreasing VFA concentrations. As such, the use of DI-GC method, if applied for the analysis of samples with a complicated matrix, needs a thorough validation to improve the reliability in data acquisition.

  10. Mitigating ammonia inhibition of thermophilic anaerobic treatment of digested piggery wastewater: use of pH reduction, zeolite, biomass and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, L; Ho, G

    2012-09-15

    High free ammonia released during anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes is widely known to inhibit methanogenic microorganisms and result in low methane production. This was encountered during our earlier thermophilic semi-continuously fed continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treatment of piggery wastewater. This study explored chemical and biological means to mitigate ammonia inhibition on thermophilic anaerobic treatment of piggery wastewater with the aim to increase organic volatile carbon reduction and methane production. A series of thermophilic anaerobic batch experiments were conducted on the digested piggery effluent to investigate the effects of pH reduction (pH 8.3 to 7.5, 7.0 and 6.5) and additions of biomass (10% v/v and 19% v/v anaerobic digested piggery biomass and aerobic-anaerobic digested municipal biomass), natural zeolite (10, 15 and 20 g/L) and humic acid (1, 5 and 10 g/L) on methane production at 55 °C for 9-11 days. Reduction of the wastewater pH from its initial pH of 8.3 to 6.5 produced the greatest stimulation of methane production (3.4 fold) coupled with reductions in free ammonia (38 fold) and total volatile fatty acids (58% TVFA), particularly acetate and propionate. Addition of 10-20 g/L zeolite to piggery wastewater with and without pH reduction to 6.5 further enhanced total VFA reduction and methane production over their respective controls, with 20 g/L zeolite producing the highest enhancement effect despite the ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of the treated wastewaters remaining high. Without pH reduction, zeolite concentration up to 20 g/L was required to achieve comparable methane enhancement as the pH-reduced wastewater at pH 6.5. Although biomass (10% v/v piggery and municipal wastes) and low humic acid (1 and 5 g/L) additions enhanced total VFA reduction and methane production, they elevated the residual effluent total COD concentrations over the control wastewaters (pH-unadjusted and pH-reduced) unlike zeolite

  11. Acidic pharmaceuticals in domestic wastewater and receiving water from hyper-urbanization city of China (Shanghai): environmental release and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Ling

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence, behavior, and release of five acidic pharmaceuticals, including ibuprofen (IBP), naproxen (NPX), ketoprofen (KEP), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA), have been investigated along the different units in a tertiary-level domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in hyper-urbanization city of China (Shanghai). IBP was the most abundant chemicals among the measured in raw wastewater. The loads of the acidic pharmaceuticals in the WWTP influent ranged from 7.5 to 414 mg/day/1,000 inh, which were lower than those reported in the developed countries suggesting a less per capita consumption of pharmaceuticals in Shanghai. IBP obtained by highest removal (87 %); NPX and KEP were also significantly removed (69-76 %). However, DFC and CA were only moderately removed by 37-53 %, respectively. Biodegradation seemed to play a key role in the elimination of the studied pharmaceuticals except for DFC and CA. An annual release of acidic pharmaceuticals was estimated at 1,499 and 61.7 kg/year through wastewater and sludge, respectively, from Shanghai. Highest pharmaceuticals concentrations were detected in the effluent discharge point of the WWTP, indicating that WWTP effluent is the main source of the acidic pharmaceuticals to its receiving river. Preliminary results indicated that only DFC in river had a high risk to aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, the joint toxicity effects of these chemicals are needed to further investigate.

  12. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed < 0.2 were associated with early breakthrough of P, while more desirable S-shaped breakthrough curves resulted when 0.2 < Ed < 0.5. Computer simulations of the fixed bed process with the HSDM confirmed that if Ed was known, the shape of the breakthrough curve could be calculated. The surface diffusion coefficient D s was a critical factor in the calculation of Ed and could be estimated based on the sorption test conditions such as media characteristics, and influent flow rate and concentration. Optimal test results were obtained with a relatively small media particle size (average particle radius 0.028 cm) and resulted in 96 % removal of P from the influent over 46 days of continuous operation. These results indicate that fixed bed sorption of P would be a feasible option for the utilization of AMD residues, thus helping to decrease AMD treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  13. Kinetics of the reaction between ozone and phenolic acids present in agro-industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Dominguez, J R; Peres, J A

    2001-03-01

    The kinetics of the ozonation of three phenolic acids is investigated from ozone absorption experiments in a semi-continuous reactor. After the evaluation of stoichiometric ratios for the individual reactions between ozone and each phenolic acid, the oxidation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid by ozone is performed in a first stage. The influence of the operating variables on the degradation process is established, and the application of a mass transfer with chemical reaction model based on the film theory leads to the determination of the reaction orders and kinetic rate constants. The experimental absorption rates obtained agree well with those calculated theoretically. In the second stage, a mixture of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), beta-resorcylic acid (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid is ozonated under different experimental conditions. The kinetic study is performed by means of a competitive method that takes p-hydroxybenzoic acid as reference compound. The application of this model allows to determine the kinetic rate constants for each compound, which are correlated as a function of pH and temperature. The results obtained support that the kinetic regime of absorption is fast and pseudo-first order with respect to ozone, a condition required by the competitive method used.

  14. Determination of acidic pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters and spring waters by selective elution and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Richard; Becerril-Bravo, Elías; Silva-Castro, Vanessa; Jiménez, Blanca

    2007-10-26

    Although the trend in development of analytical methods for emerging contaminants is towards reduced sample preparation and increased detector selectivity, there are still benefits from removal of matrix material during sample preparation. This paper describes a simple method for acidic pharmaceuticals and a range of potential endocrine disrupting compounds in untreated wastewaters and spring waters. It is based on separation of the two classes during elution from the extraction cartridge with final analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 3,4-D was used as the recovery standard for the acids while 4-n-nonylphenol and [2H4]estrone were used for the endocrine disrupters; mean recoveries varied between 89% and 111%. The method was also extensively validated by fortification with the target compounds. Recoveries of acids were from 68% to 97% with relative standard deviations generally less than 10% and recoveries of endocrine disrupters were 68-109% with relative standard deviations less than 20%. Detection limits varied from 0.005 to 1 ng/L in spring water, and from 0.5 to 100 ng/L in untreated wastewater. Concentrations of the analytes in the wastewater ranged from 0.018 to 22.4 microg/L. Values were comparable to reported data, although concentrations were generally relatively high, probably because of a lack of treatment. Triclosan, phthalates, estrone, 17beta-estradiol, ibuprofen, and naproxen were present in the spring water from aquifers recharged indirectly with this wastewater after its use for irrigation; concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 25.0 ng/L. The much lower concentrations compared to wastewater indicate effective removal processes on passage through the soil and subsoil.

  15. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-20

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  16. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal. PMID:28216654

  17. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  18. Heterogeneous degradation of precipitated hexamine from wastewater by catalytic function of silicotungstic acid in the presence of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe2+.

    PubMed

    Taghdiri, Mehdi; Saadatjou, Naghi; Zamani, Navid; Farrokhi, Reyhaneh

    2013-02-15

    The industrial wastewater produced by hexamine plants is considered as a major environmental polluting factor due to resistance to biodegradation. So the treatment of such wastewater is required. In this work, the removal of hexamine from wastewater and its degradation have been studied. Hexamine was precipitated through formation of an insoluble and stable compound with silicotungstic acid. The oxidative heterogeneous degradation of precipitated hexamine was carried out with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) aqueous solution and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) under the catalysis of silicotungstic acid. The operating conditions including amount of precipitate, hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion dosage, temperature, time and pH were optimized by evaluating the removal of total organic carbon from system. A total organic carbon conversion higher than 70% was achieved in the presence of H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+). The experimental results showed that hexamine can be effectively degraded with H(2)O(2) and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) under the catalysis of silicotungstic acid. It was interesting that the solution of dissolved precipitate with H(2)O(2) can re-react with hexamine after the removal of excess hydrogen peroxide. This observation indicates the catalysis role of silicotungstic acid in the degradation of hexamine. A kinetic analysis based on total organic carbon reduction was carried out. The two steps mechanism was proposed for the degradation of hexamine.

  19. Analysis of acid transport through multi-phase epoxy mortars for wastewater structures.

    PubMed

    Valix, M

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of acid migration through epoxy mortars were examined. Diffusion coefficients of typical sewer bio-metabolised acids: sulphuric, nitric, citric and oxalic acids were determined by gravimetric sorption method and fitted to the multi-phase Jacob-Jones model. Acid permeation was characterised by hindered pore diffusion with the extent being determined by the polarity of the acid and epoxy, and by the microstructure of the epoxy. Epoxy with higher polarity was able to reduce the diffusion coefficients by 49, while dense phases of the coating reduced the diffusion coefficient by 5,100. These results reflect the relative influence of epoxy polarity and microstructure on their performance as protective liners in sewers.

  20. The Feasibility of Concentrating/Separating Dilute Nitrocellulose Acid Wastewaters by Reverse Osmosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Preliminary laboratory investigations using commercially available cellulose - acetate reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were conducted. The objective of this... cellulose - acetate to hydrolysis when continuously exposed in an acidic environment. The application of cellulose - acetate and modified sulfonated

  1. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  2. Characterization of bacterial diversity in an atrazine degrading enrichment culture and degradation of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret in industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Vasudevan, Venugopal; Nain, Lata; Singh, Neera

    2016-01-01

    An enrichment culture was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salt medium (MSM) (T1), MSM+soil extract (1:1, v/v) (T2) and soil extract (T3). Results suggested that enrichment culture required soil extract to degrade atrazine, as after second sequential transfer only partial atrazine degradation was observed in T1 treatment while atrazine was completely degraded in T2 and T3 treatments even after fourth transfer. Culture independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique confirmed selective enrichment of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Degradation of atrazine/metabolites in the industrial wastewater was studied at different initial concentrations of the contaminants [wastewater-water (v/v) ratio: T1, 1:9; T2, 2:8; T3, 3:7; T4, 5:5 and T5, undiluted effluent]. The initial concentrations of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret ranged between 5.32 and 53.92 µg mL(-1), 265.6 and 1805.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.85 and 16.12 µg mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment culture was able to completely degrade atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret up to T4 treatment, while no appreciable degradation of contaminants was observed in the undiluted effluent (T5). Inability of enrichment culture to degrade atrazine/metabolites might be due to high concentrations of cyanuric acid. Therefore, a separate study on cyanuric acid degradation suggested: (i) no appreciable cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of an unidentified metabolite in the medium where cyanuric acid was supplemented as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen; (ii) partial cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of unidentified metabolite in the medium containing additional nitrogen source; and (iii) complete cyanuric acid degradation in the medium supplemented with an additional carbon source. This unidentified metabolite observed during cyanuric acid degradation and also detected in the enrichment culture inoculated wastewater samples

  3. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-07-15

    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min.

  4. Impact of UV and peracetic acid disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm(2) and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters.

  5. Recovery of volatile fatty acids from fermentation of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Longo, S; Katsou, E; Malamis, S; Frison, N; Renzi, D; Fatone, F

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the pilot scale production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from sewage sludge through alkaline fermentation and the subsequent membrane filtration. Furthermore, the impact of the fermentation liquid on nutrient bioremoval was examined. The addition of wollastonite in the fermenter to buffer the pH affected the composition of the carbon source produced during fermentation, resulting in higher COD/NH4-N and COD/PO4-P ratios in the liquid phase and higher content of propionic acid. The addition of wollastonite decreased the capillary suction time (CST) and the time to filter (TTF), resulting in favorable dewatering characteristics. The sludge dewatering characteristics and the separation process were adversely affected from the use of caustic soda. When wollastonite was added, the permeate flux increased by 32%, compared to the use of caustic soda. When fermentation liquid was added as carbon source for nutrient removal, higher removal rates were obtained compared to the use of acetic acid.

  6. Disinfection of wastewater by hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid: development of procedures for measurement of residual disinfectant and application to a physicochemically treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Monika; Brumelis, Daina; Gehr, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The Montreal Urban Community Wastewater Treatment Plant (MUCWTP) located in Montreal. Quebec, Canada, uses physicochemical treatment processes prior to discharging wastewater into the St. Lawrence River via an outfall tunnel of 2 hours retention time. Although chlorination facilities exist, they are not being used, and the MUCWTP is seeking alternative methods for disinfection to achieve a 2- to 3-log fecal coliform reduction. Liquid chemical disinfectants were attractive options because of their low capital costs. This led to an investigation of the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid. A method for measuring peroxycompounds (hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide) was developed using the peroxidase-based oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfuric acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The validity of the method was confirmed using effluent from the MUCWTP. Recovery was higher than 90% for peracetic acid levels as low as 1.0 mg/L. Quenching of hydrogen peroxide was achieved with 50-mg/L catalase; quenching of peracetic acid was achieved with 100 mg/L of sodium thiosulfate, followed by 50 mg/L of catalase. Batch disinfection tests were conducted on MUCWTP effluent. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in wastewater over time could be modeled as a second-order decay, with the decay "constant" being a function of the initial concentration of peroxycompounds. This function was the same for both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, possibly indicating similar decomposition pathways in wastewater matrices. Disinfection was modeled using a modified Hom equation. Required doses of hydrogen peroxide to reach the target fecal coliform levels ranged from 106 to 285 mg/L, with the higher doses occurring when ferric chloride instead of alum was used as the coagulant. Hence, hydrogen peroxide was infeasible as a disinfectant for this application. On the other hand, the peracetic acid dose needed to

  7. Development of pyrF-Based Genetic System for Targeted Gene Deletion in Clostridium thermocellum and Creation of a pta Mutant ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shital A.; Olson, Daniel G.; Argyros, D. Aaron; Miller, Bethany B.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Murphy, Daniel M.; McCool, Jesse D.; Warner, Anne K.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

    2010-01-01

    We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes the enzyme phosphotransacetylase. The C. thermocellum Δpta strain did not produce acetate. These results are the first examples of targeted homologous recombination and metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum, a microbe that holds an exciting and promising future in the biofuel industry and development of sustainable energy resources. PMID:20693441

  8. Kinetics and microbial ecology of batch sulfidogenic bioreactors for co-treatment of municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongyang; Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2016-03-15

    The kinetics and microbial ecology in sulfidogenic bioreactors used in a novel two-stage process for co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) were investigated. Michaelis-Menten modeling of COD oxidation by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) (Vmax=0.33mgL(-1)min(-1), Km=4.3mgL(-1)) suggested that the Vmax can be reasonably achieved given the typical COD values in MWW and anticipated mixing with AMD. Non-competitive inhibition modeling (Ki=6.55mgL(-1)) indicated that excessive iron level should be avoided to limit its effects on SRB. The COD oxidation rate was positively correlated to COD/sulfate ratio and SRB population, as evidenced by dsrA gene copies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed diverse microbial communities dominated by sulfate reducing delta-proteobacteria. Microbial community and relative quantities of SRB showed significant differences under different COD/sulfate ratios (0.2, 1 and 2), and the highest dsrA gene concentration and most complex microbial diversity were observed under COD/sulfate ratio 2. Major species were associated with Desulfovirga, Desulfobulbus, Desulfovibrio, and Syntrophus sp. The reported COD kinetics, SRB abundances and the phylogenetic profile provide insights into the co-treatment process and help identify the parameters of concerns for such technology development.

  9. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify acidic drugs in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Herrera, Mercedes; Honda, Luis; Richter, Pablo

    2015-12-04

    A novel analytical approach involving an improved rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) procedure and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an ultraspray electrospray ionization source (UESI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS), in trap mode, was developed to identify and quantify four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and two anti-cholesterol drugs (ACDs) (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) that are widely used and typically found in water samples. The method reduced the amount of both sample and reagents used and also the time required for the whole analysis, resulting in a reliable and green analytical strategy. The analytical eco-scale was calculated, showing that this methodology is an excellent green analysis, increasing its ecological worth. The detection limits (LOD) and precision (%RSD) were lower than 90ng/L and 10%, respectively. Matrix effects and recoveries were studied using samples from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). All the compounds exhibited suppression of their signals due to matrix effects, and the recoveries were approximately 100%. The applicability and reliability of this methodology were confirmed through the analysis of influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Santiago, Chile, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 20.5μg/L and from 0.5 to 8.6μg/L, respectively.

  10. An efficient process for wastewater treatment to mitigate free nitrous acid generation and its inhibition on biological phosphorus removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA), which is the protonated form of nitrite and inevitably produced during biological nitrogen removal, has been demonstrated to strongly inhibit the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Herein we reported an efficient process for wastewater treatment, i.e., the oxic/anoxic/oxic/extended-idle process to mitigate the generation of FNA and its inhibition on PAOs. The results showed that this new process enriched more PAOs which thereby achieved higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the conventional four-step (i.e., anaerobic/oxic/anoxic/oxic) biological nutrient removal process (41 ± 7% versus 30 ± 5% in abundance of PAOs and 97 ± 0.73% versus 82 ± 1.2% in efficiency of phosphorus removal). It was found that this new process increased pH value but decreased nitrite accumulation, resulting in the decreased FNA generation. Further experiments showed that the new process could alleviate the inhibition of FNA on the metabolisms of PAOs even under the same FNA concentration. PMID:25721019

  11. An efficient process for wastewater treatment to mitigate free nitrous acid generation and its inhibition on biological phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA), which is the protonated form of nitrite and inevitably produced during biological nitrogen removal, has been demonstrated to strongly inhibit the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Herein we reported an efficient process for wastewater treatment, i.e., the oxic/anoxic/oxic/extended-idle process to mitigate the generation of FNA and its inhibition on PAOs. The results showed that this new process enriched more PAOs which thereby achieved higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the conventional four-step (i.e., anaerobic/oxic/anoxic/oxic) biological nutrient removal process (41 +/- 7% versus 30 +/- 5% in abundance of PAOs and 97 +/- 0.73% versus 82 +/- 1.2% in efficiency of phosphorus removal). It was found that this new process increased pH value but decreased nitrite accumulation, resulting in the decreased FNA generation. Further experiments showed that the new process could alleviate the inhibition of FNA on the metabolisms of PAOs even under the same FNA concentration.

  12. An efficient process for wastewater treatment to mitigate free nitrous acid generation and its inhibition on biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-27

    Free nitrous acid (FNA), which is the protonated form of nitrite and inevitably produced during biological nitrogen removal, has been demonstrated to strongly inhibit the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Herein we reported an efficient process for wastewater treatment, i.e., the oxic/anoxic/oxic/extended-idle process to mitigate the generation of FNA and its inhibition on PAOs. The results showed that this new process enriched more PAOs which thereby achieved higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the conventional four-step (i.e., anaerobic/oxic/anoxic/oxic) biological nutrient removal process (41 ± 7% versus 30 ± 5% in abundance of PAOs and 97 ± 0.73% versus 82 ± 1.2% in efficiency of phosphorus removal). It was found that this new process increased pH value but decreased nitrite accumulation, resulting in the decreased FNA generation. Further experiments showed that the new process could alleviate the inhibition of FNA on the metabolisms of PAOs even under the same FNA concentration.

  13. Adsorption capacities of poly-γ-glutamic acid and its sodium salt for cesium removal from radioactive wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeki; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2016-12-01

    Cesium removal from radioactive wastewaters was examined using water-insoluble poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and water-soluble sodium salt form poly-γ-L-glutamic acid (γ-PGANa) as biosorbents. The maximum adsorption capacities at equilibrium of γ-PGA and γ-PGANa for Cs were 345 mg-Cs(g-γ-PGA)(-1) at pH 6.0 and 290 mg-Cs(g-γ-PGANa)(-1) at pH 9.0, respectively. At lower pH < pKa, the carboxyl groups of γ-PGA primarily remained in the protonated form and adsorption of Cs only slightly occurred. At higher pH > pKa, the adsorption of Cs was significantly facilitated due to ionization of carboxyl groups to carboxylate ion. Adsorption of Cs at pH > 9.0 was inhibited due to the hydrolysis of Cs. The Langmuir model could successfully describe the isotherm data. For γ-PGA and γ-PGANa, the maximum adsorption capacities at equilibrium in the Langmuir model were 446 and 333 mg-Cs(g-adsorbent)(-1), respectively. The high adsorption capacities confirmed a potential utilization of γ-PGA and γ-PGANa for Cs removal. The adsorption of Cs by both γ-PGA and γ-PGANa attained the equilibrium within 0.5 min. The very quick equilibration is a benefit from the viewpoint of practical application. The spectra of FT-IR and XPS before and after adsorption confirmed the adsorption of Cs onto γ-PGA and γ-PGANa via electrostatic interaction with carboxylate anions.

  14. In situ air-water and particle-water partitioning of perfluorocarboxylic acids, perfluorosulfonic acids and perfluorooctyl sulfonamide at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Vierke, Lena; Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Palm, Wolf-Ulrich; Webster, Eva M; Ellis, David A; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Harner, Tom

    2013-08-01

    In situ measurements of air and water phases at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were used to investigate the partitioning behavior of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctyl sulfonamide (HFOSA) and their conjugate bases (PFC(-)s, PFS(-)s, and FOSA(-), respectively). Particle-dissolved (Rd) and air-water (QAW) concentration ratios were determined at different tanks of a WWTP. Sum of concentrations of C4-12,14 PFC(A)s, C4,6,8,10 PFS(A)s and (H)FOSA were as high as 50 pg m(-3) (atmospheric gas phase), 2300 ng L(-1) (aqueous dissolved phase) and 2500 ng L(-1) (aqueous particle phase). Particle-dissolved concentration ratios of total species, log Rd, ranged from -2.9 to 1.3 for PFS(A)s, from -1.9 to 1.1 for PFC(A)s and was 0.71 for (H)FOSA. These field-based values agree well with equilibrium partitioning data reported in the literature, suggesting that any in situ generation from precursors, if they are present in this system, occurs at a slower rate than the rate of approach to equilibrium. Acid QAW were also estimated. Good agreement between the QAW and the air-water equilibrium partition coefficient for C8PFCA suggests that the air above the WWTP tanks is at or near equilibrium with the water. Uncertainties in these QAW values are attributed mainly to variability in pKa values reported in the literature. The WWTP provides a unique environment for investigating environmental fate processes of the PFCAs and PFSAs under 'real' conditions in order to better understand and predict their fate in the environment.

  15. Ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceuticals found in treated wastewaters: study of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Benoît; Paxéus, Nicklas; Lo Giudice, Roberto; Pollio, Antonino; Garric, Jeanne

    2003-07-01

    In four countries (France, Greece, Italy, and Sweden) occurrence in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and ecotoxicity of the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were investigated. Bioassays were performed on bacteria, algae, microcrustaceans, and fishes in order to calculate their predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) and to perform a first approach of risk characterization. For this aim, risk has been estimated by the predicted environmental concentration/PNEC ratio and the measured environmental concentration/PNEC ratio. First, regarding the PNEC, carbamazepine appears to be the more hazardous compound. Second, even though it is demonstrated that carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and diclofenac have been detected in effluents, only carbamazepine have been detected in all sewage treatment plants with the greatest concentrations. Third, risk quotients greater than unity were calculated only for carbamazepine, suggesting that risk for the water compartment is expected.

  16. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  17. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  18. Electrochemical oxidation of tannic acid contaminated wastewater by RuO2/IrO2/TaO2-coated titanium and graphite anodes.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, M; Muthukumar, M; Raju, G Bhaskar

    2010-12-14

    The electrochemical oxidation of tannic acid contaminated wastewater by RuO2/IrO2/TaO2-coated titanium and graphite anodes has been investigated. The effect of the process variables, such as initial pH, current density, processing time, concentration of the electrolyte and anode materials, on the degradation of tannic acid was studied. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, chloride ion concentration and UV-Vis spectra were examined and discussed. The maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 94% was achieved at pH 5, operated at the current density of 8.10 mA/cm2, electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 0.1 M and at 60 min of electrolysis using graphite anodes. The experimental results showed that the electrochemical oxidation process could effectively reduce the COD from the tannic acid contaminated wastewater. An acidic pH showed the maximum reduction of COD compared with neutral and alkaline pH. Increase in current density, process time and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration with the increase in COD removal. Graphite anodes showed maximum removal of COD and better tannic acid degradation when compared with RuO2/IrO2/TaO2-coated titanium anodes.

  19. PTA Versus Carbofilm-Coated Stents in Infrapopliteal Arteries: Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T. Basile, A.; Cejna, M.; Fleischmann, D.; Funovics, M.; Gschwendtner, M.; Haumer, M.; Katzler, I. von; Kettenbach, J.; Lomoschitz, F.; Luft, C.; Minar, E.; Schneider, B.; Schoder, M.; Lammer, J.

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To determine the primary success and short-term patency of stent application as a primary treatment modality for high-grade lesions of the infrapopliteal arteries compared with treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in critical limb ischemia in a randomized prospective study. Methods: Endovascular therapy was performed on 95 lesions in 51 patients (mean age 72.0 years, range 47-80 years) who presented clinically with Fontaine stages III and IV. One patient underwent treatment in both limbs. After angiographic lesion identification, patients were randomized for treatment by PTA (53 lesions in 27 patients) or stent application (42 lesions in 24 patients). Follow-up by clinical investigation and conventional angiography or spiral CT angiography was performed in 37 patients (57 lesions) 6 to 12 months after the procedure, or when clinically indicated. Evaluation was performed by two observers, double-blinded, with thresholds for lesion restenosis of 50% and 70%. Statistical evaluation was performed on a lesion basis by Kaplan-Meier estimated probability rates, and log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. The primary endpoint was the angiographic patency rate of treated lesions. Results: The inter-reader agreement was high ({kappa} = 0.82). For the stent group the cumulative primary patency at 6 months was 83.7% at the 70% restenosis threshold, and 79.7% at the 50% restenosis threshold. For PTA, the primary patency at 6 months was 61.1% at the 70% restenosis threshold and 45.6% at the 50% restenosis threshold. Both results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Infrapopliteal stent application is an effective treatment modality for high-grade lesions in chronic critical limb ischemia. Compared with PTA, higher patency rates can be expected after 6 months.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Helium Pressurization System of Propulsion Test Article (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article (PTA) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSP's capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of lower feed system priming, 420 seconds of fuel and LOX pump priming and 150 seconds of engine firing. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA test data as it becomes available.

  1. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  2. PTA of Infrapopliteal Arteries: Long-term Clinical Follow-up and Analysis of Factors Influencing Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, Jan H. Koznar, Boris; Kovac, Josef; Lastovickova, Jarmila; Novotny, Jiri; Vedlich, Daniel; Skibova, Jelena

    2010-08-15

    This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLI who underwent infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The main goal was to evaluate clinical and morphological factors that influence the clinical outcome of PTA in long-term follow-up. A total of 1,445 PTA procedures were performed in 1,268 patients. Main indications for PTA included gangrene, nonhealing ulcers, or rest pain. The mean number of treated arteries was 1.77 artery/limb, and the majority of lesions were type TASC D. The technical success rate of PTA was 89% of intended-to-treat arteries. The main criterion of clinical success was functional limb salvage (LS). One-year follow-up involved 1,069 limbs. Primary and secondary 1-year LS rates were 76.1 and 84.4%, respectively. The effect of clinical and morphological parameters on the 1-year LS was that the only associated disease with an adverse effect on LS rate was DM combined with dialysis. Regarding limb preprocedural status, gangrene was clearly a negative predictor. The most important factor affecting LS was the number of patent arteries post-PTA: patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 patent arteries had 1-year primary LS rates of 56.4, 73.1, 80.4, and 83%, respectively. Long-term follow-up of LS rates demonstrated secondary LS rates of 84.4, 78.8, and 73.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Every effort should be made to perform PTA for as many arteries as possible, even if TASC D type, to improve clinical outcome. Our study shows that repeat PTA is capable of keeping the long-term LS rate close to 75%.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107.

    PubMed

    Sosio, Margherita; Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-23

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes. PMID:24459268

  5. Population dynamics in bioaugmented membrane bioreactor for treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Wang, Jing; Xing, Lin-Lin; Jiang, Nan; Gou, Min; Salah Uddin, M

    2009-01-01

    The performances and microbial population changes in laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) augmented with Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY were investigated in the present study. It was demonstrated that after 30 days acclimation, the non-augmented MBR system were able to degrade bromoamine acid (BAA) well. However, the efficiency of the system decreased with BAA concentration increasing. While the augmented MBR showed higher capability, in which the color and COD removal were more than 90% and 50%, respectively. By ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), it was found that BAA-utilizing populations gradually increased to become the dominant species in the non-augmented MBR. However, the augmented MBR possessed relatively stable treatment abilities, in which the introduced strain QYY could be persistent and co-exist well with the indigenous populations.

  6. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    PubMed

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps.

  7. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of Long Chain Free Fatty Acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zisu; Malyala, Divya; Dean, Lisa; Ducoste, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DWET) was developed to simultaneously measure LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. This method is based on the analysis of the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectrum, in which the absorbance of carboxyl bond (1710cm(-1)) and triglyceride bond (1745cm(-1)) were selected as the characteristic wavenumbers for total LCFFAs and FOG, respectively. A series of experiments using pure organic samples (Oleic acid/Palmitic acid in Canola oil) were performed that showed a linear relationship between the absorption at these two wavenumbers and the total LCFFA. In addition, the DWET method was validated using GC analyses, which displayed a high degree of agreement between the two methods for simulated oily wastewater suspensions (1-35% Oleic acid in Canola oil/Peanut oil). The average determination error of the DWET approach was ~5% when the LCFFA fraction was above 10wt%, indicating that the DWET could be applied as an experimental method for the determination of both LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. Potential applications of this DWET approach includes: (1) monitoring the LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in grease interceptor (GI) effluents for regulatory compliance; (2) evaluating alternative LCFFAs/FOG removal technologies; and (3) quantifying potential FOG deposit high accumulation zones in the sewer collection system.

  8. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  9. Naphthenic acids degradation and toxicity mitigation in tailings wastewater systems and aquatic environments: a review.

    PubMed

    Kannel, Prakash R; Gan, Thian Y

    2012-01-01

    Naphthenic acids, NAs (classical formula C(n)H(2n+z)O(2), where n is the carbon numbers, z represents zero or negative even integers), found in oil sands process waters (OSPWs), are toxic to aquatic environments depending upon several factors such as pH, salinity, molecular size and chemical structure of NAs. Among various available methods, biodegradation seems to be generally the most cost-effective method for decreasing concentrations of NAs (n ≤ 21) and reducing their associated toxicity in OSPW, however the mechanism by which the biodegradation of NAs occurs are poorly understood. Ozonation is superior over biodegradation in decreasing higher molecular weight alkyl branched NAs (preferentially, n ≥ 22, -6 ≥ z ≥ -12) as well as enabling accelerated biodegradation and reducing toxicity. Photolysis (UV at 254 nm) is effective in cleaving higher molecular weight NAs into smaller fragments that will be easier for microorganisms to degrade, whereas photocatalysis can metabolize selective NAs (0 ≥ z ≥ -6) efficiently and minimize their associated toxicity. Phytoremediation is applicable for metabolizing specific NAs (O(2), O(3), O(4), and O(5) species) and minimizing their associated toxicities. Petroleum coke (PC) adsorption is effective in reducing the more structurally complex NAs (preferentially 12 ≥ n ≥ 18 and z = -10, -12) and their toxicity in OSPWs, depending upon the PC content, pH and temperature. Several factors have influence on the degradation of NAs in OSPWs and aquatic environments, which include molecular mass and chemical structure of NAs, sediment structure, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and bacteria types.

  10. Robust Parameter Identification to Perform the Modeling of pta and poxB Genes Deletion Effect on Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Torres, V; Rios-Lozano, M; Badillo-Corona, J A; Chairez, I; Garibay-Orijel, C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a robust parameter identification algorithm to characterize the effect of gene deletion on Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655. Two genes (pta and poxB) in the competitive pathways were deleted from this microorganism to inhibit pyruvate consumption. This condition deviated the E. coli metabolism toward the Krebs cycle. As a consequence, the biomass, substrate (glucose), lactic, and acetate acids as well as ethanol concentrations were modified. A hybrid model was proposed to consider the effect of gene deletion on the metabolism of E. coli. The model parameters were estimated by the application of a least mean square method based on the instrument variable technique. To evaluate the parametric identifier method, a set of robust exact differentiators, based on the super-twisting algorithm, was implemented. The hybrid model was successfully characterized by the parameters obtained from experimental information of E. coli MG1655. The significant difference between parameters obtained with wild-type strain and the modified (with deleted genes) justifies the application of the parametric identification algorithm. This characterization can be used to optimize the production of different byproducts of commercial interest.

  11. Fast removal of tetracycline from wastewater by reduced graphene oxide prepared via microwave-assisted ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid induction method.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Wu, Zhibin; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Leng, Lijian; Jiang, Longbo; Xiao, Zhihua; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-09-01

    A green reagent of ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) was reported herein for reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with microwave assistance. The characteristics of EDDS reduced graphene oxide (ERG), and the tetracycline (TC) adsorption behavior of ERG was investigated. The results showed that the deoxygenation efficiency of GO strongly depended on the EDDS amount and the ERG can be successively obtained by recycled EDDS. The ERG obtained at EDDS/GO ratio of 5 (ERG5) exhibited a maximum capacity of 558.66 mg/g for TC adsorption, which is superior to GO and ERGs obtained at other EDDS/GO ratio. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 10 min, and the driving forces are likely the van der Waals forces, π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction and cation-π bonding between TC and the ERG surface. The adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, initial TC concentration, and ionic strength significantly affect the TC adsorption. The pseudo-second-order kinetics describes TC adsorption process very well, with correlation coefficients (R (2) ) greater than 0.99. The adsorption isotherm was best fitted by Freundlich equation, followed by Langmuir, Temkin, and Hill model equations. Analysis on adsorption thermodynamics shows that the adsorption is a spontaneous endothermic process. The ERG could be a cost-effective and promising sorbent for TC wastewater treatment due to its high-efficiency performance in real river water, medical wastewater, and municipal wastewater.

  12. Effects of gap size and UV dosage on decolorization of C.I. Acid Blue 113 wastewater in the UV/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Fan, Huan-Jung

    2005-02-14

    The wastewater from textile dyeing industry is difficult to be treated successfully according to both high variability of composition and color intensity. To investigate the effects of reactor gap size and UV dosage on the decolorization of dye wastewater, a commercially available azo dye C.I. Acid Blue 113 was chosen as a model compound. UV/H2O2 processes with various gap sizes and setups of plug flow reactor and recirculated batch reactor were proposed to deal with the dye wastewater in this study. The experimental parameters including the design of reactor configurations of annular gap size, and in batch system or plug flow reactors and hydrogen peroxide dosage, UV dosage were investigated. The gap size of reactor was adjusted by different diameter of reactor shells in order to optimize the reactor configuration. The color removal percentage was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency. An optimal hydrogen peroxide concentration of 46.53 mM was observed in this study for highest decolorization rate. Besides, the pseudo-first-order rate constant of 3.14 min(-1) was obtained by plug flow reactor with 0.5 cm gap size, 120.70 W/l of UV dosage and 23.27 mM of H2O2 dosage. The first-order rate constant, which was about 20 times less than that of plug flow reactor, was obtained 0.1422 min(-1) by recirculated batch reactor with 2.0 cm gap size, 7.0 W/l of UV and 23.27 mM of H2O2 dosages. Ultimately, we developed an effective pre-treatment or treatment technology for dye wastewater to provide the dyeing industries and dye manufacturers an alternative to meet the effluent standards.

  13. The combination of coagulation, acid cracking and Fenton-like processes for olive oil mill wastewater treatment: phytotoxicity reduction and biodegradability augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmadreza; Mehdipour, Fayyaz; Eslami, Akbar; Maleksari, Hajar Sharifi; Ghanbari, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is one of the most important industrial wastewaters in the world due to high organic load and phenolic compounds. In this study, an integration of three processes including coagulation, acid cracking and Fenton-like was evaluated to treat OOMW. The performance of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride was studied as coagulants. Among coagulants, ferric chloride showed the best results in comparison with the others. Coagulation process with FeCl3 removed 91.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 91.3% phenol, 98.9% total suspended solids and 99.2% turbidity at condition of pH = 6 and 3,000 mg/L coagulant dosage. Acid cracking process following the coagulation process with ferric chloride could slightly degrade organic compounds and provided suitable condition for the next process. Fenton-like process with zero valent iron (ZVI) was applied after coagulation and acid cracking. The optimal removal efficiency was achieved by Fenton-like process which was accomplished in condition of 7 g/L ZVI, 1,000 mg/L H2O2 and 180 min reaction time. The biodegradability of final effluent of this integration was improved significantly and biochemical oxygen demand5/COD value increased from 0.14 to 0.83. The results of germination tests revealed that phytotoxicity of the final effluent decreased.

  14. Single step natural poly(tannic acid) particle preparation as multitalented biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Aktas, Nahit

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of poly(tannic acid) (p(TA)) particles by crosslinking with glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDE) and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE). The p(TA) particles are negatively charged as obtained by the zeta potential measurements, -27mV. P(TA) particles are found to be an effective antioxidant material as 170mgL(-1) of p(TA) particle demonstrated the antioxidant equivalency of 82.5±7.2mgL(-1) of gallic acid (GA), used as standard in Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) method. Additionally, TA and p(TA) particles have a strong antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Furthermore, p(TA) particles were used as drug delivery materials by using model drugs such as TA itself, and GA in the release studies in PBS at pH7.4 at 37.5°C, and found that p(TA) particles can release 80.8 and 87.4% of the loaded TA and GA, respectively. Interestingly, p(TA) maintained its fluorescent property upon crosslinking of TA units. It is further demonstrated that p(TA) particles are as effective as cisplatin (a cancer drug) against A549 cancerous cells that both showed about 36 and 34% cell viability, respectively whereas linear TA showed 66% cell viability at 37.5μgmL(-1) concentration. Above this concentration p(TA) and cisplatin showed almost the same toxicity against A549 cancerous cells. Additionally, p(TA) particles are found to be much more biocompatible against L929 Fibroblast cells, about 84% cell viability in comparison to linear TA with about 53% at 75μgmL(-1) concentration.

  15. Inherently antioxidant and antimicrobial tannic acid release from poly(tannic acid) nanoparticles with controllable degradability.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Aktas, Nahit; Silan, Coskun

    2016-06-01

    From a natural polyphenol, Tannic acid (TA), poly(TA) nanoparticles were readily prepared using a single step approach with three different biocompatible crosslinkers; trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGGE), and trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). P(TA) particles were obtained with controllable diameters between 400 to 800nm with -25mV surface charge. The effect of synthesis conditions, such as the emulsion medium, pH values of TA solution, and the type of crosslinker, on the shape, size, dispersity, yield, and degradability of poly(Tannic Acid) (p(TA)) nanoparticles was systematically investigated. The hydrolytic degradation amount in physiological pH conditions of 5.4, 7.4, and 9.0 at 37.5°C were found to be in the order TMPGDEp(TA) nanoparticles can be controlled by the appropriate choice of crosslinker, and the pH of releasing media. The highest TA release, 600mg/g, was obtained for TMPGDE-crosslinked p(TA) particles in intestinal pH conditions (pH 9) over 3 days; whereas, a slow and linear TA release profile over almost 30 days was obtained by using PEGGE-crosslinked p(TA) in body fluid pH conditions (pH 7.4). The total phenol content of p(TA) particles was calculated as 70±1μgmL(-1) for 170μgmL(-1) p(TA), and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was found to be 2027±104mM trolox equivalent g(-1). Moreover, p(TA) nanoparticles demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against common bacterial strains. More interestingly, with a higher concentration of p(TA) particles, higher blood clotting indices were obtained.

  16. Heteropoly acid encapsulated into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel–Crafts acylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu

    2016-01-15

    A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6–31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole can reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%. - Graphical abstract: The PTA@ZIF-67 catalysts with different PTA content were prepared by encapsulating the PTA into ZIF-67 cage and the as-synthesized catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity for the Friedel–Craft acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride.

  17. The zinc finger protein PtaZFP2 negatively controls stem growth and gene expression responsiveness to external mechanical loads in poplar.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ludovic; Decourteix, Mélanie; Badel, Eric; Huguet, Stéphanie; Moulia, Bruno; Julien, Jean-Louis; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical cues are essential signals regulating plant growth and development. In response to wind, trees develop a thigmomorphogenetic response characterized by a reduction in longitudinal growth, an increase in diameter growth, and changes in mechanical properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these processes are poorly understood. In poplar, PtaZFP2, a C2H2 transcription factor, is rapidly up-regulated after stem bending. To investigate the function of PtaZFP2, we analyzed PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars (Populus tremula × Populus alba). To unravel the genes downstream PtaZFP2, a transcriptomic analysis was performed. PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars showed longitudinal and cambial growth reductions together with an increase in the tangent and hardening plastic moduli. The regulation level of mechanoresponsive genes was much weaker after stem bending in PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars than in wild-type plants, showing that PtaZFP2 negatively modulates plant responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Microarray analysis revealed a high proportion of down-regulated genes in PtaZFP2-overexpressing poplars. Among these genes, several were also shown to be regulated by mechanical stimulation. Our results confirmed the important role of PtaZFP2 during plant acclimation to mechanical load, in particular through a negative control of plant molecular responsiveness. This desensitization process could modulate the amplitude and duration of the plant response during recurrent stimuli.

  18. Biocompatible and biodegradable poly(Tannic Acid) hydrogel with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun; Aktas, Nahit; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    A novel resourceful bulk poly(Tannic Acid) (p(TA)) hydrogel was prepared by crosslinking TA molecules with an epoxy crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE), in an autoclave at 90°C for 2h. The obtained p(TA) hydrogels were in disk form and have highly porous morphology. The swelling characteristics of p(TA) hydrogels were investigated in wound healing pH conditions of pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the hydrogels showed good swelling and moisture content behavior. Especially, p(TA) hydrogels were found to be sensitive to pH 9 with 1669% maximum swelling. P(TA) hydrogels were completely degraded at pH 9 hydrolytically in 9 days. Total phenol contents and the effects of scavenging ABTS(+) radicals of degraded p(TA) hydrogels at pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 were evaluated and calculated in terms of gallic acid equivalent and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, respectively, and found to be very effective. Moreover, degraded p(TA) hydrogels display strong antimicrobial behavior against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria strains and Candida albicans fungus strain. The WST-1 results indicated that bulk p(TA) hydrogels have no cyctotoxicity to the L929 fibroblast cell line in vitro.

  19. Coupling of anodic oxidation and adsorption by granular activated carbon for chemical oxygen demand removal from 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhang; Zhao, Yuemin

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic (DSD) acid manufacturing wastewater using electrochemical oxidation coupled with adsorption by granular activated carbon. The COD removal is affected by the residence time and applied voltage. When the residence time is increased, lower value of COD effluent could be obtained, however, the average current efficiency (ACE) decreased rapidly, and so does the applied voltage. In addition, aeration could effectively enhance COD removal efficiency and protect anodes from corrosion. Furthermore, the acidic condition is beneficial to the rapid decrease of COD and the values of pH effluent are independent of the initial solution pH. The optimization conditions obtained from these experiments are applied voltage of 4.8 V, residence time of 180 min and air-liquid ratio of 4.2 with the COD effluent of about 690 mg L⁻¹. In these cases, the ACE and energy consumption are 388% and 4.144 kW h kg⁻¹ COD, respectively. These perfect results from the experiments illustrate that the combined process is a considerable alternative for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing high concentration of organic pollutants and salinity.

  20. Preparation and characterization of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid)/Chitosan hydrogel using gamma irradiation and its application in wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad, Y. H.

    2008-09-01

    Radiation grafting of chitosan with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) has been successfully performed. The effect of absorbed dose (kGy) and the chitosan:AMPS ratio on graft hydrogelization was studied. The structure of the prepared hydrogel was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy (IR). Thermal properties were simultaneously studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the polymerization variables on the swelling % of the prepared hydrogel was investigated. The highest equilibrium degree of swelling (38.6 g/g) and gel % (94.7%) of the prepared chitosan-AMPS hydrogel was at 40% AMPS and absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The removal of methylene blue, acid red dye, Cd (II) and Cr (III) from composed wastewater was also investigated. The effect of pH, the chitosan:AMPS ratio and the concentration of the pollutant on the adsorption process were studied.

  1. Sustained release of anticancer agent phytic acid from its chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug-delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Dorniani, Dena; Saifullah, Bullo; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with phytic acid (PTA) to form phytic acid-chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (PTA-CS-MNP). The obtained nanocomposite and nanocarrier were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermal analysis of MNPs and PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite confirmed the binding of CS on the surface of MNPs and the loading of PTA in the PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite. The coating process enhanced the thermal stability of the anticancer nanocomposite obtained. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite are pure magnetite. Drug loading was estimated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and showing a 12.9% in the designed nanocomposite. Magnetization curves demonstrated that the synthesized MNPs and nanocomposite were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetizations of 53.25 emu/g and 42.15 emu/g, respectively. The release study showed that around 86% and 93% of PTA from PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite could be released within 127 and 56 hours by a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and 4.8, respectively, in a sustained manner and governed by pseudo-second order kinetic model. The cytotoxicity of the compounds on HT-29 colon cancer cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The HT-29 cell line was more sensitive against PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite than PTA alone. No cytotoxic effect was observed on normal cells (3T3 fibroblast cells). This result indicates that PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite can inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells without causing any harm to normal cell. PMID:28392693

  2. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    PubMed

    Struger, J; Van Stempvoort, D R; Brown, S J

    2015-09-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events.

  3. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Effects of Articular Cartilage Constituents on Phosphotungstic Acid Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Lammi, Mikko J.; Ylärinne, Janne H.; Kauppinen, Sami; Rieppo, Lassi; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEμCT) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has shown potential for detecting collagen distribution of articular cartilage. However, the selectivity of the PTA staining to articular cartilage constituents remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of PTA for the collagen content in bovine articular cartilage. Adjacent bovine articular cartilage samples were treated with chondroitinase ABC and collagenase to degrade the proteoglycan and the collagen constituents in articular cartilage, respectively. Enzymatically degraded samples were compared to the untreated samples using CEμCT and reference methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Decrease in the X-ray attenuation of PTA in articular cartilage and collagen content was observed in cartilage depth of 0–13% and deeper in tissue after collagen degradation. Increase in the X-ray attenuation of PTA was observed in the cartilage depth of 13–39% after proteoglycan degradation. The X-ray attenuation of PTA-labelled articular cartilage in CEμCT is associated mainly with collagen content but the proteoglycans have a minor effect on the X-ray attenuation of the PTA-labelled articular cartilage. In conclusion, the PTA labeling provides a feasible CEμCT method for 3D characterization of articular cartilage. PMID:28135331

  5. Health risks of thallium in contaminated arable soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid plant in western Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Yimin

    2013-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soils poses a significant threat to human health due to the high toxicity of Tl and its ready assimilation by crops. Consumption of food crops contaminated with Tl is a major food chain route for human exposure. The health risks of Tl in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid factory were investigated in this paper. Results indicate that long-term Tl-containing wastewater irrigation resulted in Tl contamination of arable soils and crops. The pollution load index values indicated that the arable soils were moderately enriched with Tl. Tl was highly accumulated in the crops. The content of Tl in the edible plant portions of crops ranged from 1.2 mg/kg to 104.8 mg/kg, exceeding the recommended permissible limits for food crops. The daily intake of metals (DIM) values of Tl for both adults and children via the consumption of the food crops except soya beans were higher than the reference oral dose (RfD) limit recommend by the United States environmental protection agency (US-EPA). Health risk index (HRI) values were generally higher than 1, indicating that health risks associated with Tl exposure are significant and assumed to be dangerous to the health of local villagers. Therefore, much attention should be paid to avoid consumption of these Tl-contaminated crops that can cause great potential risks.

  6. Modified biofunctional p(tannic acid) microgels and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagbas, Selin; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2015-11-01

    Crosslinked poly(tannic acid) micro particles, p(TA), were synthesized using trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE) as crosslinker in a single step with high yield (73 ± 6%). The obtained p(TA) microgels possessed negative zeta potential, -27 mV, and the surface charge can be tuned by chemical modification using various modifying agents, such as 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl ammonium chloride (CHPACl) and chloro sulfonic acid (CSA) to generate microgels with different zeta potentials, e.g., -18 mV and -36 mV, respectively. Modified p(TA) microgels are found to be thermally less stable than bare p(TA) particles. Additionally, upon chemical modification of p(TA) particles, the antioxidant capacity of the p(TA) microgels decreased confirming the utilization of some of the phenolic groups, the main functional groups responsible for the antioxidant property of TA moieties. Moreover, the antimicrobial properties increased approximately four fold against three common bacterial strains; Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. P(TA) microgels as TA molecules have a natural capability to reduce metal ions, allowing in situ reduction of absorbed Ag and Cu ions to the corresponding metal nanoparticles within the p(TA) microgel network. The composite p(TA)-M (M: Ag or Cu) nanoparticle demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity against the mentioned bacteria compared to the bare p(TA) microgels. Moreover, bare and modified p(TA) microgels are shown to be drug carrier materials by loading three model drugs, phenylephrine HCl (PHE), trimethoprim (TMP), and naproxen (NP), and releasing them in phosphate buffer saline PBS (pH 7.4) at 37.5 °C.

  7. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  8. Acetate fluxes in Escherichia coli are determined by the thermodynamic control of the Pta-AckA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Enjalbert, Brice; Millard, Pierre; Dinclaux, Mickael; Portais, Jean-Charles; Létisse, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli excretes acetate upon growth on fermentable sugars, but the regulation of this production remains elusive. Acetate excretion on excess glucose is thought to be an irreversible process. However, dynamic 13C-metabolic flux analysis revealed a strong bidirectional exchange of acetate between E. coli and its environment. The Pta-AckA pathway was found to be central for both flux directions, while alternative routes (Acs or PoxB) play virtually no role in glucose consumption. Kinetic modelling of the Pta-AckA pathway predicted that its flux is thermodynamically controlled by the extracellular acetate concentration in vivo. Experimental validations confirmed that acetate production can be reduced and even reversed depending solely on its extracellular concentration. Consistently, the Pta-AckA pathway can rapidly switch from acetate production to consumption. Contrary to current knowledge, E. coli is thus able to co-consume glucose and acetate under glucose excess. These metabolic capabilities were confirmed on other glycolytic substrates which support the growth of E. coli in the gut. These findings highlight the dual role of the Pta-AckA pathway in acetate production and consumption during growth on glycolytic substrates, uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that controls its flux in vivo, and significantly expand the metabolic capabilities of E. coli. PMID:28186174

  9. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Is there an association between prior anti-inflammatory drug exposure and occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA)? A national multicenter prospective observational case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure in patients with sore throat managed with or without antibiotic therapy influenced the risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter case-control study in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 comparing patients admitted with PTA to matched controls: patients with sore throat but without PTA who were followed up for 10 days after visiting their primary-care physician. In the multivariate stepwise logistic regression model comparing 120 cases with PTA to 143 controls, factors significantly associated with PTA were male gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; p = 0.03), smoking (OR, 2.0; p = 0.03), and prior self-medication with systemic AIAs (OR, 3.5; p = 0.01). Topical treatment was associated with significant protection against PTA (OR, 0.3; p < 0.001). In conclusion, self-medication with systemic AIAs appears to be an independent factor associated with the occurrence of PTA. This is an important message as non-steroidal AIAs access is favored by their over-counter availability in pharmacies. This finding must be interpreted with caution due to the study design and a prospective, randomized study is needed to substantiate these possible causal risk factors.

  11. Electro membrane extraction of sodium diclofenac as an acidic compound from wastewater, urine, bovine milk, and plasma samples and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Pourahadi, Ahmad; Nojavan, Saeed; Banitaba, Mohammad Hossein; Nasiri-Aghdam, Mahnaz

    2012-04-13

    Electro membrane extraction (EME) as a new microextraction method was applied for extraction of sodium diclofenac (SDF) as an acidic compound from wastewater, urine, bovine milk and plasma samples. Under applied potential of 20 V during the extraction, SDF migrated from a 2.1 mL of sample solution (1mM NaOH), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), into a 30 μL acceptor solution (10 mM NaOH), exist inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The negative electrode was placed in the donor solution, and the positive electrode was placed in the acceptor solution. 1-octanol was immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene as SLM. Then the extract was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-detection for quantification of SDF. Best results were obtained using a phosphate running electrolyte (10 mM, pH 2.5). The ranges of quantitation for different samples were 8-500 ngmL(-1). Intra- and inter-day RSDs were less than 14.5%. Under the optimized conditions, the preconcentration factors were between 31 and 66 and also the limit of detections (LODs) ranged from 2.7 ng mL(-1) to 5 ng mL(-1) in different samples. This procedure was applied to determine SDF in wastewater, bovine milk, urine and plasma samples (spiked and real samples). Extraction recoveries for different samples were between 44-95% after 5 min of extraction.

  12. Development and validation of a new survey: Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the impact of efforts to train more science teachers such as the PhysTEC Project and to help with early identification of future teachers, we are developing the survey of Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP) to measure students' views of teaching as a career, their interest in teaching and the perceived climate of physics departments towards teaching as a profession. The instrument consists of a series of statements which require a response using a 5-point Likert-scale and can be easily administered online. The survey items were drafted by a team of researchers and physics teacher candidates and then reviewed by an advisory committee of 20 physics teacher educators and practicing teachers. We conducted 27 interviews with both teacher candidates and non-teaching STEM majors. The survey was refined through an iterative process of student interviews and item clarification until all items were interpreted consistently and answered for consistent reasons. In this presentation the preliminary results from the student interviews as well as the results of item analysis and a factor analysis on 900 student responses will be shared.

  13. Wind tunnel performance results of an aeroelastically scaled 2/9 model of the PTA flight test prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Rose, Gayle E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests of the SR-7A advanced prop-fan have been completed in support of the Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. The test showed that the SR-7A model performed aerodynamically very well. At the cruise design condition, the SR-7A prop fan had a high measured net efficiency of 79.3 percent.

  14. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid oxidation in sulfate and real olive oil mill wastewater by electrochemical advanced processes with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Flores, Nelly; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2017-01-05

    The degradation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a ubiquitous component of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), has been studied by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed in either a 0.050M Na2SO4 solution or a real OOMW at pH 3.0, using a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 generation. Hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface from water oxidation in all processes and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2 in EF and PEF were the main oxidants. In both matrices, the oxidation ability of the processes increased in the order AO-H2O2acid decay obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The PEF treatment of 1.03mM 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in 0.050M Na2SO4 allowed 98% mineralization at 360min even at low current density, whereas 80% mineralization and a significant enhancement of biodegradability were achieved with the real OOMW.

  15. Studies on the reactivity of organometallic Ru-, Rh- and Os-pta complexes with DNA model compounds.

    PubMed

    Dorcier, Antoine; Hartinger, Christian G; Scopelliti, Rosario; Fish, Richard H; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    The reactions of arene-metal complexes (arene=p-cymene, benzene or pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, metal=Ru, Rh or Os), including 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[3.3.1.1]decanephosphine (pta) and chloro co-ligands, with 9-methylguanine, adenine, and a series of nucleosides were studied in water to ascertain the binding modes. The products were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Tandem mass spectrometry was found to provide excellent information on preferential binding sites. In general, the N7 position on guanine (the most basic site) was found to be the preferred donor atom for coordination to the metal complexes. The X-ray structures of the precursor complexes, [(eta5-C10H15)RhCl(pta-Me)2]Cl2, [(eta6-C10H14)OsCl(pta)2]Cl, and [(eta6-C6H6)OsCl2(CH3CN)], are also reported.

  16. Deletion of poxB, pta, and ackA improves 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Danfeng; Xiang, Gang; Jia, Zongxiao; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-03-01

    To date, few studies have focused on reducing the toxic by-product acetate during 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, the effects of deleting the poxB, pta, and ackA genes, which are involved in the two main acetate synthesis pathways, on cell growth and 1,3-propanediol production were investigated. Although acetate synthesis via pyruvate oxidase (PoxB, encoded by poxB) generally seems unnecessary and wasteful, PoxB was shown to play an important role in K. pneumoniae. Deletion of poxB severely inhibited cell growth, and the poxB mutant exhibited an anomalously high accumulation of acetate in aerobic cultures and failed to produce an endogenous supply of carbon dioxide (CO2) in anaerobic cultures. It is interesting that both the aerobic and anaerobic growth defects of the poxB mutant were corrected by further deleting pta and ackA, which blocked the other main acetate synthesis pathway. The poxB-pta-ackA mutant excreted less acetate and showed an excellent ability to produce 1,3-propandiol. The final 1,3-propanediol yield and concentration in a 2-L fed-batch fermentation reached 0.66 (mol/mol) and 76.8 g/L, respectively, which were 16 and 15 % greater, respectively, than those of the parent strain.

  17. Lactic acid FGD additives from sugar beet wastewater. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1997-12-31

    Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as the SO{sub 2} dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ion available in large amounts. Currently, lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this use, but the proposed work will develop a new source of inexpensive lactate. The project objective is to evaluate two novel methods for recovering and processing the lactic and other volatile acid by-products produced during the processing of sugar beets. These methods are (1) freeze crystallization concentration of lactic acid and (2) ion exchange of lactate with recovery as the ester. In the first quarter, bench-scale testing of the freeze crystallization concept will be performed at B.C. Technologies using its freeze-thaw simulation method, and analysis of the recovered fractions will be performed at the EERC. B.C. Technologies has a low-cost technology utilizing ambient winter conditions. The goal of this effort is to increase the concentration of lactic acid or the calcium salt from 1--10% or higher in the brine or concentrate fraction.

  18. Beneficial Biofilms: Wastewater and Other Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the use of beneficial biofilms for the production of industrial chemicals such as ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. It also emphasizes application of biofilm reactors for treatment of dairy industry wastewater, oily sea water...

  19. Occurrence and fate of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist transformation product valsartan acid in the water cycle--a comparative study with selected β-blockers and the persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame.

    PubMed

    Nödler, Karsten; Hillebrand, Olav; Idzik, Krzysztof; Strathmann, Martin; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    The substantial transformation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan to the transformation product 2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (referred to as valsartan acid) during the activated sludge process was demonstrated in the literature and confirmed in the here presented study. However, there was a severe lack of knowledge regarding the occurrence and fate of this compound in surface water and its behavior during drinking water treatment. In this work a comparative study on the occurrence and persistency of valsartan acid, three frequently used β-blockers (metoprolol, atenolol, and sotalol), atenolol acid (one significant transformation product of atenolol and metoprolol), and the two widely distributed persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame in raw sewage, treated wastewater, surface water, groundwater, and tap water is presented. Median concentrations of valsartan acid in the analyzed matrices were 101, 1,310, 69, <1.0, and 65 ng L(-1), respectively. Treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants were confirmed as significant source. Regarding concentration levels of pharmaceutical residues in surface waters valsartan acid was found just as relevant as the analyzed β-blockers and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. Regarding its persistency in surface waters it was comparable to carbamazepine and acesulfame. Furthermore, removal of valsartan acid during bank filtration was poor, which demonstrated the relevance of this compound for drinking water suppliers. Regarding drinking water treatment (Muelheim Process) the compound was resistant to ozonation but effectively eliminated (≥90%) by subsequent activated carbon filtration. However, without applying activated carbon filtration the compound may enter the drinking water distribution system as it was demonstrated for Berlin tap water.

  20. Wastewater Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before ... is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  1. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-01-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h−1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder. PMID:26162092

  2. Performance, carotenoids yield and microbial population dynamics in a photobioreactor system treating acidic wastewater: Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiangkun; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent organic loading rate (OLR) were investigated in a photobioreactor containing PNSB (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)-chemoheterotrophic bacteria to treat volatile fatty acid wastewater. Pollutants removal, biomass production and carotenoids yield in different phases were investigated in together with functional microbial population dynamics. The results indicated that properly decreasing HRT and increasing OLR improved the nutrient removal performance as well as the biomass and carotenoids productions. 85.7% COD, 89.9% TN and 91.8% TP removals were achieved under the optimal HRT of 48h and OLR of 2.51g/L/d. Meanwhile, the highest biomass production and carotenoids yield were 2719.3mg/L and 3.91mg/g-biomass respectively. In addition, HRT and OLR have obvious impacts on PNSB and total bacteria dynamics. Statistical analyses indicated that the COD removal exhibited a positive relationship with OLR, biomass and carotenoids production. PNSB/total bacteria ratio had a positive correlation with the carotenoids yield.

  3. Application of sequential expanded granular sludge bed reactors for biodegradation of acetate, benzoate, terephtalate and p-toluate in purified terephtalic acid production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y S; Han, G B

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of four major constituents from purified terephtalic acid production wastewater in sequential two expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors was studied. The performance of the system was evaluated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, methane production, stability, granular sludge adaptability as well as reversion of bacterial inhibition. With volumetric loading rates of 1.9-25 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1) and terephtalate and p-toluate of 584-821 mg L(-1), average removal efficiencies of 97.6% and 75.2% were achieved in the EGSB reactors, respectively. In these conditions, gas production reached a total methane production rate of 0.33 L g-COD(-1) in the two-stage EGSB reactor system. The disturbance of the EGSB reactors was observed at a feed concentration above around 6.9 g-COD L(-1) because of higher influent COD concentration compared to other experiments.

  4. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  5. Aldehyde-alcohol reactions catalyzed under mild conditions by chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and phosphotungstic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

    2011-12-01

    Porous materials based on chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic frameworks (MIL-101) and their composites with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were studied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in aldehyde-alcohol reactions exemplified by acetaldehyde-phenol (A-P) condensation and dimethylacetal formation from benzaldehyde and methanol (B-M reaction). The MIL-101 was synthesized solvothermically in water, and the MIL101/PTA composite materials were obtained by either impregnation of the already prepared MIL-101 porous matrix with phosphotungstic acid solution or by solvothermic treatment of aqueous mixtures of Cr(NO(3))(3), and terephthalic and phosphotungstic acids. The MIL101/PTA materials appeared to be effective catalysts for both A-P and B-M reactions occurring at room temperature, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 h (A-P) to 1.5-2 h (B-M) and turnover numbers over 600 for A-P and over 2900 for the B-M reaction, respectively. A synergistic effect of the strong acidic moieties (PTA) addition to mildly acidic Brønsted and Lewis acid cites of the MIL-101 was observed with the MIL101/PTA composites. The ability of the PTA and MIL101/PTA materials to strongly absorb and condense acetaldehyde vapors was discovered, with the MIL101/PTA absorbing over 10-fold its dry weight of acetaldehyde condensate at room temperature. The acetaldehyde was converted rapidly to crotonaldehyde and higher-molecular-weight compounds while in contact with MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA materials. The stability of the MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA catalysts was assessed within four cycles of the 1-day alcohol-aldehyde reactions in terms of the overall catalyst recovery, PTA or Cr content, and reaction rate constants in each cycle. The loss of the catalyst over 4 cycles was approximately 10 wt % for all tested catalysts due to the incomplete recovery and minute dissolution of the components. The reaction rates in all cycles remained unchanged and the catalyst losses stopped after the third cycle. The developed

  6. Effect of Olive mill wastewater spreading on soil wettability and acidity under different season in a semi humid area: A field study in Bait Reema - West Bank - Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamimi, Nesreen; Marei Sawalha, Amer; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is generated seasonally in large amounts during the olive oil production in Palestine, and it is often disposal of in uncontrolled manner into the open environment. OMW has a high amount of phototoxic compounds, high salinity and acidity and therefore is challenging when disposed on soil. The objective of this study was to study the persistence and degree of water repellency during different season of OMW application in soil samples (0-5 cm deep), and to elucidate how extent this phenomenon is associated with soil acidity, to analyze the relationships between soil water repellency and environmental factors including, temperature and moisture and to describe the seasonal variation in the phenol concentration of the soil. In order to understand how climatic conditions at the time of OMW disposal affect the development of soil water repelleny in field, soil acidity and phenol content in soil, we conducted a field study in Bait Reema village in the West Bank - Palestine. The study site is characterized by 1.5 m thick brown rendzina and has an annual average rainfall of 550 mm. On an extensively used olive orchard field, we implemented 16 plots (2.5 x 3.5 m). OMW application (14 L / m2) was conducted either in winter, spring or summer on two replicate plots distributed randomly among the 16 plots. To test the effect of soil moisture on the persistence of OMW effects, we implemented an OMW application in summer on two additional plots, but kept those plots moist before and after OMW application until start of the rain season. For each of the treatment variants, we implemented two control plots which were treated in the same way as their counterparts, but with tap water. Soil samples (0-5 cm) were collected after 2 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months , 9 months, 12 months , and 18 months. pH was determined and analyzed in aqueous soil extracts (1:5), the total phenol content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, soil water

  7. Serial mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange solid-phase extraction for separation of basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lavén, Martin; Alsberg, Tomas; Yu, Yong; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Sun, Hongwen

    2009-01-02

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method is presented whereby 15 basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater were simultaneously extracted and subsequently separated into different fractions. This was achieved using mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange SPE (Oasis MCX and MAX) in series. Analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/QTOF-MS). A fast separation was achieved, with all compounds eluting within 6min, narrow chromatographic peaks, with a peak base width of 6s on average, and a high mass accuracy of quantified wastewater sample ions, with average mass errors in absolute value of 0.7mDa or 2.7ppm. The recovery of the SPE method in the analysis of sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent wastewater was on average 80% and the ion suppression 30%. For less demanding samples Oasis MCX used alone may be an alternative method, although for STP influent waters containing high loads of organic compounds the clean-up achieved using only Oasis MCX was insufficient, leading to unreliable quantitation. Furthermore, serial SPE separation according to molecular charge added an additional degree of analyte confirmation. For quantitation, an approach combining external standard calibration curves, isotopically labelled surrogate standards and single-point standard addition was used. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in the analysis of influent and effluent wastewater from an STP, using small sample volumes (25-50mL). The effluent wastewater had been subjected to three different treatments; activated sludge, activated sludge followed by ozonation, and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Ozone treatment proved superior in removal of the analysed pharmaceuticals, while the MBR provided higher removal efficiencies than the activated sludge process.

  8. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  9. Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2 Triggers Local and Systemic Immune Response Against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Although induced systemic resistance (ISR) is well-documented in the context of plant-beneficial bacteria interactions, knowledge about the local and systemic molecular and biochemical defense responses before or upon pathogen infection in grapevine is very scarce. In this study, we first investigated the capacity of grapevine plants to express immune responses at both above- and below-ground levels upon interaction with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2. We then explored whether the extent of priming state could contribute to the PTA-CT2-induced ISR in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves. Our data provide evidence that this bacterium colonized grapevine roots but not the above-ground plant parts and altered the plant phenotype that displayed multiple defense responses both locally and systemically. The grapevine roots and leaves exhibited distinct patterns of defense-related gene expression during root colonization by PTA-CT2. Roots responded faster than leaves and some responses were more strongly upregulated in roots than in leaves and vice versa for other genes. These responses appear to be associated with some induction of cell death in roots and a transient expression of HSR, a hypersensitive response-related gene in both local (roots) and systemic (leaves) tissues. However, stilbenic phytoalexin patterns followed opposite trends in roots compared with leaves but no phytoalexin was exuded during plant-bacterium interaction, suggesting that roots could play an important role in the transfer of metabolites contributing to immune response at the systemic level. Unexpectedly, in B. cinerea-infected leaves PTA-CT2-mediated ISR was accompanied in large part by a downregulation of different defense-related genes, including HSR. Only phytoalexins and glutathion-S-transferase 1 transcripts were upregulated, while the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was maintained at a higher level than the control. This suggests that decreased

  10. Are aphasic patients who fail the GOAT in PTA? A modified Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test for persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Jain, N S; Layton, B S; Murray, P K

    2000-02-01

    Because the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) requires oral or written response, it risks misclassifying as amnestic aphasic patients who are not, in fact, amnestic. To correct for possible classification errors due to anomia, a modified multiple-choice format of the GOAT (AGOAT) was developed. The average GOAT score of 10 control nonaphasic head-injured patients suggested that an AGOAT score of 90 corresponds to the standard GOAT cutoff of 75 for resolution of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). Using this criterion, 8 of 15 aphasic head-injured patients who technically were classified as amnestic on the GOAT were classified as nonamnestic on the AGOAT.

  11. Free sulfurous acid (FSA) inhibition of biological thiosulfate reduction (BTR) in the sulfur cycle-driven wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Wang, Lianlian; Wu, Yaoguo; Bond, Philip L; Zhang, Yuhan; Chang, Xing; Deng, Baixue; Wei, Li; Li, Qin; Wang, Qilin

    2017-06-01

    A sulfur cycle-based bioprocess for co-treatment of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastes with freshwater sewage has been developed. In this process the removal of organic carbon is mainly associated with biological sulfate or sulfite reduction. Thiosulfate is a major intermediate during biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, and its reduction to sulfide is the rate-limiting step. In this study, the impacts of saline sulfite (the ionized form: HSO3(-) + SO3(2-)) and free sulfurous acid (FSA, the unionized form: H2SO3) sourced from WGFD wastes on the biological thiosulfate reduction (BTR) activities were thoroughly investigated. The BTR activity and sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) populations in the thiosulfate-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor decreased when the FSA was added to the UASB influent. Batch experiment results confirmed that FSA, instead of saline sulfite, was the true inhibitor of BTR. And BTR activities dropped by 50% as the FSA concentrations were increased from 8.0 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-4) mg H2SO3-S/L. From an engineering perspective, the findings of this study provide some hints on how to ensure effective thiosulfate accumulation in biological sulfate/sulfite reduction for the subsequent denitrification/denitritation. Such manipulation would result in higher nitrogen removal rates in this co-treatment process of WFGD wastes with municipal sewage.

  12. [Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of non-penetrating injuries to the subclavian artery. A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Giorgetti, P L; Lovaria, A

    1996-05-01

    Non penetrating injuries to the subclavian vessels are uncommon. We present a case of a young patient with an isolated blunt trauma of the right subclavian artery. The patient, a 25 year-old woman, was admitted to our Institute after a motor-vehicle accident, with a physical findings of absent peripheral pulses and right clavicular fracture, confirmed by non-invasive vascular evaluation and X-ray of the chest. Diagnosis was established by an urgent selective angiography that showed a subintimal hematoma with occlusion of the vessel and peripheral ischemia of the arm. The patient clinical status (hemodynamically stable) permitted a conservative management and a transluminal percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) with a trans-femoral catheter balloon. After radiologic treatment, the patient showed good palpable peripheral pulses. Clavicular fracture was treated by esternal stabilization. We believe that in selected patients, without other serious life-threatening injures, the intimal artery injury can be treated by a conservative and now also radiologic Therapy; PTA treatment avoids morbidity and mortality associated with surgical intervention.

  13. Removal of endocrine disruptors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through wastewater chlorination: the effect of pH, total suspended solids and humic acids and identification of degradation by-products.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two groups of emerging pollutants the significance of which rests on their persistent detection in the aquatic environment and their possible adverse effects. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major ways for transporting such chemicals in the aquatic environment. Chlorination is usually the last stage of treatment before wastewater being disposed to the aquatic environment. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of chlorine dose and specific wastewater characteristics (pH, total suspended solids and humic acids) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through chlorination. Another objective of this study is the identification of chlorination by-products of specific EDCs and NSAIDs and their dependence on contact time. Based on the results it is concluded that the effect of chlorine dose and humic acids concentration on the degradation of target compounds during chlorination is minimal. On the contrary, pH is a critical parameter which highly affects process performance. Moreover, it is concluded that not only the free available chlorine species, but also the properties of EDCs and NSAIDs under different pH conditions can affect chlorination process performance. The effect of TSS on the degradation of the target compounds during chlorination is more profound for chemicals with high Kow values and therefore higher affinity to partition to the particulate phase (i.e. nonylphenols, triclosan). Several degradation by-products were identified through chlorination of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and diclofenac. The dependence of these by-products on chlorination contact time is also demonstrated.

  14. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  15. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Microthrix parvicella" Bio17-1, a long-chain-fatty-acid-accumulating filamentous actinobacterium from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Muller, Emilie E L; Pinel, Nicolás; Gillece, John D; Schupp, James M; Price, Lance B; Engelthaler, David M; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter; Luong, Khai; Baliga, Nitin S; Korlach, Jonas; Keim, Paul S; Wilmes, Paul

    2012-12-01

    "Candidatus Microthrix" bacteria are deeply branching filamentous actinobacteria which occur at the water-air interface of biological wastewater treatment plants, where they are often responsible for foaming and bulking. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of a strain from this genus: "Candidatus Microthrix parvicella" strain Bio17-1.

  16. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-27

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h(-1). The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  17. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h-1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  18. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-01-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h−1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment. PMID:26503896

  19. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology.

  20. Identification and characterization of a matrix metalloproteinase (Pta1-MMP) expressed during Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seed development, germination completion, and early seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Ratnaparkhe, Supriya M; Egertsdotter, E M Ulrika; Flinn, Barry S

    2009-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications occur during plant growth, development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Key modulators of ECM modification in vertebrates, the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have also been described in a few plants. Here, we report the identification of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Pta1-MMP and its characterization during seed development and germination. Pta1-MMP protein has the structural characteristics of other plant MMPs, the recombinant protein exhibits Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity, and is inhibited by EDTA and the active site-binding hydroxamate inhibitor GM6001. The Pta1-MMP gene is expressed in both embryo and megagametophyte, with transcript levels increasing in both during the period from proembryo to early cotyledonary stage, then declining during late embryogenesis and maturation drying. Protein extracts exhibited similar developmental-stage MMP-like activity. Seed germination was stimulated by GA(3) and inhibited by ABA, and the timing of germination completion was mirrored by the presence of MMP-like protease activity in both water- and GA(3)-imbibed embryos. Pta1-MMP gene transcript levels increased in association with radicle protrusion for both GA(3)- and water-treated embryos, in agreement with MMP-like activity. In contrast, by 11 days after imbibition, Pta1-MMP gene transcripts in ABA-treated embryos were at levels similar to the other treatments, although MMP-like activity was not observed. The application of GM6001 during Loblolly pine seed germination inhibited radicle protrusion. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be involved in ECM modification, facilitating the cell division and expansion required during seed development, germination completion, and subsequent seedling establishment.

  1. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  2. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  3. CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PTA GENE DELETED MUTANT OF C CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR BUTYRIC ACID FERMENTATION. (R829479C016)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Heteropoly acid encapsulated into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel-Crafts acylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H3PW12O40 denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6-31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole can reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%.

  5. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  6. Simultaneous stack gas scrubbing wastewater purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Variations of a process for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and using it to treat municipal waste water are described. The once-through system lowers the pH of the scrubbing water from minor depressions to a pH of about 2.5 under certain conditions. A recycle system uses iron for catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid allowing very large amounts of sulfur dioxide to be absorbed in a small portion of water. The partial recycle system uses municipal wastewater and iron as a scrubbing medium, followed by neutralization of the wastewater with lime to produce an iron hydroxide precipitation which, when removed, produces tertiary quality treated wastewater. The SO2 scrubber is described, test results are analyzed, and a preliminary capital cost estimate for the three processes is included.

  7. Control of acetate production rate in Escherichia coli by regulating expression of single-copy pta using lacI(Q) in multicopy plasmid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Gu; Liao, James C

    2008-02-01

    A tightly regulated gene expression system composed of a single-copy target gene under the control of a lac promoter derivative and lacI gene in a multicopy plasmid is proposed, and its ability to control the flux of a metabolic pathway is demonstrated. A model system to control the flux of acetyl-CoA to acetyl phosphate was constructed by integrating pta, a gene encoding phosphotransacetylase, under a tac promoter into the chromosome of E. coli with a pta-negative background and transforming a multicopy plasmid containing the lac iota(Q) gene into the strain. The production rate of acetate was shown to be tightly controlled when varying the concentration of the inducer (IPTG) in the model system.

  8. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  9. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  10. Study on mechanism of wet air oxidation of emulsification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen W; Zeng, Xin P; Xiao, Yao M; Gu, Guo W

    2009-04-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) can effectively be used to treat high-concentration, non-biodegradable emulsification wastewater that contains nonionic matters. Gas chromatograph analysis of emulsification wastewater after oxidation indicated that a catalyst increased production of fatty acids but could not promote its oxidation between 160 and 180 degrees C. When the temperature was greater than or equal to 220 degrees C, the catalyst not only increased production of fatty acids initially but effectively promoted its oxidation in later stages and significantly reduced the concentration of residual surfactants. Experiments proved that fatty acids (especially acetic acid) were the primary intermediate products and that oxidation of these acids was the rate-limiting step. During the process of catalytic WAO of emulsification wastewater, active oxygen molecules attacked organic matters resulting in production of fatty acids, ketone, alcohol, hydrocarbon, and oligo-polyether through radical chain reactions.

  11. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  12. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  13. High titer L-lactic acid production from corn stover with minimum wastewater generation and techno-economic evaluation based on Aspen plus modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiaoe; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Yi; Bao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Technological potentials of l-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock were investigated by experimental and techno-economic studies. An optimal performance with 104.5 g/L in l-lactic acid titer and 71.5% in overall yield from cellulose in corn stover to l-lactic acid using an engineered Pediococcus acidilactici strain were obtained by overcoming several technical barriers. A rigorous Aspen plus model for l-lactic acid production starting from dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was developed. The techno-economic analysis shows that the minimum l-lactic acid selling price (MLSP) was $0.523 per kg, which was close to that of the commercial l-lactic acid produced from starch feedstock, and 24% less expensive than that of ethanol from corn stover, even though the xylose utilization was not considered. The study provided a prototype of industrial application and an evaluation model for high titer l-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock.

  14. Batch culture biodegradation of methylhydrazine contaminated NASA wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nwankwoala, A U; Egiebor, N O; Gilbert, C; Nyavor, K

    1999-04-01

    The batch culture degradation of NASA wastewater containing mixtures of citric acid, methylhydrazine, and their reaction product was studied. The organic contaminants present in the NASA wastewater were degraded by Achromobacter sp., Rhodococcus B30 and Rhodococcus J10. While the Achromobacter sp. showed a preference for the degradation of the citric acid, the Rhodococcus species were most effective in reducing the methylhydrazine and the reaction product. Removals of more than 50% were observed for citric acid, methylhydrazine and the reaction product when the NASA wastewater was inoculated with the microbes in batch cultures. Simulation and chemical characterization of citric acid and hydrazine mixtures show that the interaction is partly of a chemical nature and leads to the formation of a conjugated UV/Visible absorbing compound. An 'azo' carbonyl derivative of the citric acid, consistent with the spectral data obtained from the investigation, has been proposed as the possible product.

  15. Denitrification and neutralization treatment by direct feeding of an acidic wastewater containing copper ion and high-strength nitrate to a bio-electrochemical reactor process.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Motoyama, H; Kuroda, M

    2001-12-01

    The feasibility of the direct denitrification treatment of copper metal pickling wastewater by using a bio-electrochemical reactor process was investigated experimentally. Carbon electrodes were installed in the reactor as the anode and cathode and denitrifying microorganisms were fixed on the surface of the cathode. The reactor was continuously operated by applying an electric current and feeding acetate. In this reactor, copper ion removal and denitrification proceeded simultaneously and the pH value of the treated water was increased almost to neutral. The electric current that passed through the cathode contributed to the removal of the copper ion and the generation of hydrogen gas. The generated hydrogen gas as well as the added acetate was effectively utilized for denitrification. A theoretical evaluation of pH in the effluent suggested that the pH increase was mainly caused by the generation of hydroxyl ion during denitrification. In addition, the inorganic carbon species generated during denitrification with acetate and by the electrochemical oxidation of anodic carbon acted as a buffer to minimize a further increase of pH at higher nitrate removal efficiencies. These results demonstrated that copper ion removal, denitrification and neutralization could be achieved simultaneously by using a single bioelectrochemical reactor.

  16. Comparison of sulfidogenic up-flow and down-flow fluidized-bed reactors for the biotreatment of acidic metal-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Gungor, Murat

    2010-12-01

    Biotreatment of Cu- and Zn-containing synthetic wastewater was studied in sulfate-reducing up-flow (UFBR) and down-flow fluidized-bed reactors (DFBR) at 35 degrees C. The robustness of the systems was studied by stepwise increasing feed metal concentrations (total metal concentrations 25-300 mg/L) and decreasing feed pH (down to 2.0). Lactate was used as a carbon and energy source for sulfate reducing bacteria. After start-up, sulfate reduction and COD oxidation efficiencies were 60-86% and 87-95% in UFBR and, 40-88 and 55-95% in DFBR, respectively. Optimum COD/sulfate ratio for sulfate reduction was 0.85 and 1.25 for UFBR and DFBR, respectively. Approximately 70% and 55% of the electrons produced from lactate oxidation were used for sulfate reduction in UFBR and DFBR, respectively. Sulfide production and metal precipitation capacity of UFBR were higher than those of DFBR, although down-flow regime gave the possibility of metal recovery. Metals were precipitated more than 99% in both reactors. XRF analyses showed that metals were precipitated as metal-sulfides.

  17. Biodegradation and reversible inhibitory impact of sulfamethoxazole on the utilization of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cetecioglu, Zeynep; Ince, Bahar; Gros, Meritxell; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damia; Ince, Orhan; Orhon, Derin

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the chronic impact and biodegradability of sulfamethoxazole under anaerobic conditions. For this purpose, a lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was operated in a sequence of different phases with gradually increasing sulfamethoxazole doses of 1 to 45 mg/L. Conventional parameters, such as COD, VFA, and methane generation, were monitored with corresponding antimicrobial concentrations in the reactor and the methanogenic activity of the sludge. The results revealed that anaerobic treatment was suitable for pharmaceutical industry wastewater with concentrations of up to 40 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole. Higher levels exerted toxic effects on the microbial community under anaerobic conditions, causing the inhibition of substrate/COD utilization and biogas generation and leading to a total collapse of the reactor. The adverse long-term impact was quite variable for fermentative bacteria and methanogenic achaea fractions of the microbial community based on changes inflicted on the composition of the residual organic substrate and mRNA expression of the key enzymes.

  18. Increase of cytotoxicity during wastewater chlorination: Impact factors and surrogates.

    PubMed

    Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying; Yang, Yang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Feng

    2017-02-15

    Toxic and harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were formed during wastewater chlorination. It was recently suggested that cytotoxicity to mammalian cells reflects risks posed by chlorinated wastewater. Here, ATP assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chlorination significantly increased cytotoxicity of treated wastewater. Factors affecting cytotoxicity formation during wastewater chlorination were investigated. Quenching with sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid decreased the formed cytotoxicity, while ammonium kept the cytotoxicity stable. The chlorine dose required for the maximum cytotoxicity increase was dramatically affected by DOC and ammonia concentrations. The maximum cytotoxicity increase, defined as the cytotoxicity formation potential (CtFP), occurred when wastewater was treated for 48h with a chlorine dose of 2·DOC+11·NH3N+10 (mg-Cl2/L). During chlorination, the amounts of AOX formation was found to be significantly correlated with cytotoxicity formation when no DBPs were destroyed. AOX formation could be used as a surrogate to estimate cytotoxicity increase during wastewater chlorination. Besides, the CtFP of 14 treated wastewater samples was assessed ranged from 5.4-20.4mg-phenol/L. The CtFP could be estimated from UV254 of treated wastewater because CtFP and UV254 were strongly correlated.

  19. Task 2.0 -- Air quality assessment, control, and analytical methods: Subtask 2.11 -- Lactic acid FGD additives from sugar beet wastewater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1998-06-01

    Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization as the SO{sub 2} dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ions available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this, but the project work will lead to development of a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high as 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley, a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a byproduct for use in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and other applications. The feasibility of two novel lactate recovery schemes applicable to dilute streams was evaluated in the project.

  20. Task 2.0 - Air Quality Assessment, Control, and Analytical Methods Subtask 2.11 - Lactic Acid FGD Additives From Sugar Beet Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Edwin S

    1998-02-01

    Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as the SO2 dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ion available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this use, but this project will develop a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley (1 million gallons/day), a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a by- product for use in FGD and other applications.

  1. Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Osawa, Misako; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater were treated by the combined method of activated sludge and ionizing radiation in laboratory scale. Oseltamivir, aspirin, and ibuprofen at 5 μmol dm-3 in wastewater were decomposed by the activated sludge at reaction time for 4 h. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were not biodegraded completely, but were eliminated by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. The rate constants of the reactions of these pharmaceuticals with hydroxyl radicals were estimated by the competition reaction method to be 4.0-10×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. Decompositions of the pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation were simulated by use of the rate constants and the amount of total organic carbon as parameters. Simulation curves of concentrations of these pharmaceuticals as a function of dose described the experimental data, and the required dose for the elimination of them in wastewater by ionizing radiation can be estimated by this simulation.

  2. Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

    2007-06-01

    Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

  3. Cutting Balloon Angioplasty (CBA) Versus Conventional Balloon Angioplasty (PTA) in the Pre-Dilatation of Carotid Artery Stenosis: Our Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele Iezzi, Roberto

    2007-11-15

    A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) for the predilatation of tight fibrocalcified carotid stenosis before carotid artery stenting (CAS). We also compared the intraprocedural results of CBA with those of conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in terms of postdilatation rate. The study population was composed of 32 patients who underwent CAS requiring predilatation before stent implantation. In detail, predilatation was performed by using a conventional balloon (PTA) in 14 patients (group A) and a cutting balloon (CBA) in 18 patients (group B). Intraprocedural and periprocedural mortality, major and minor procedural and neurologic complications, arterial damage, and embolic debris found in the distal filter were recorded. We statistically compared the rate of postdilatation obtained in the two groups. Technical success was obtained in 100% of the cases. No death, major neurologic or periprocedural complications, or arterial damage were recorded in either group. Minor neurologic reactions were recorded in 1 patient from group A (4%) and in 1 patient from group B (3%). Embolic debris was found in the distal filter in 2 patients from group A (8%) and in 3 patients from group B (10%). Postdilatation was necessary in 14 patients from group A (100%) and in 9 patients from group B (50%) (p < 0.05). Although limited to a small number of patients, compared with PTA, CBA seems to be a safe and effective procedure for the predilatation of tight fibrocalcified carotid stenoses before stent placement and may decrease the need for postdilatation in this patient population.

  4. Blood fluidity and outcome after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA): role of plasma viscosity and low platelet count in predicting restenosis.

    PubMed

    van der Loo, Bernd; Kovacevic, Tamara; Krieger, Elisabeth; Banyai, Susanne; Banyai, Martin; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R; Jagacic, Dorijan; Rousson, Valentin; Koppensteiner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    Rheological abnormalities are well known in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We wanted to determine whether rheological variables are related to restenosis after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). In 114 patients (62 men; median age 70 years) undergoing femoropopliteal PTA for symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation, whole blood viscosity, hematocrit, fibrinogen, platelet count, leukocytes and C-reactive protein were determined the day after the procedure and at 1, 3, and 12 months. The primary endpoint was restenosis >50% documented by duplexsonography up to 12 months. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the risk of restenosis for postinterventional values of rheological variables. Forty-eight patients (42%) developed restenosis at 12 months. Patients with restenosis had higher baseline plasma viscosity (PV) (medians, 1.71 vs. 1.65 millipascal seconds [mPa.s]; p = 0.04) and lower platelet count (224 vs. 240 x 10(3)/microl; p = 0.03) than patients without restenosis. The hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI) of incident restenosis was 9.2 (1.12-76; p = 0.03) for PV and 0.99 (0.99-1.0; p = 0.07) for PLT. When examining jointly both high PV and low platelet count (PLT), patients with PV > 1.66 mPa.s and PLT < 233 x 10(3)/microl (i.e. variables split at their respective median) had an increased risk of restenosis (log-rank test p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that plasma viscosity (p = 0.02), low platelet count (p = 0.01), lesion length (p = 0.0037) and lack of hypertension (p = 0.01) were associated with restenosis at 12 months. No associations were found between restenosis and the other rheological and inflammatory variables studied. Our data suggest that increased PV and low PLT contribute to restenosis after femoropopliteal PTA.

  5. Sorption isotherms, kinetic and optimization process of amino acid proline based polymer nanocomposite for the removal of selected textile dyes from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sharista; Anand, K; Gengan, R M; Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Maity, Arjun

    2016-12-01

    In this article, adsorption and kinetic studies were carried out on three textile dyes, namely Reactive Blue 222 (RB 222), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145). The dyes studied in a mixture were adsorbed under various conditions onto PRO-BEN, a bentonite modified with a new cationic proline polymer (l-proline-epichlorohydrin polymer). The proline polymer was characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. The PRO-BEN composite was characterized by FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) (zeta potential), TEM imaging, SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (characterize the binding energy). During adsorption studies, factors involving pH, temperature, the initial concentrations of the dyes and the quantity of PRO-BEN used during adsorption were established. The results revealed that the adsorption mechanism was categorized by the Langmuir type 1 isotherm. The adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated that adsorption did not only depend on the intraparticle diffusion of the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters verified that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs free energy values indicated that physisorption had occurred. Successful adsorption of dyes from an industrial effluent was achieved. Desorption studies concluded that PRO-BEN desorbed the dyes better than alumina. This can thereby be viewed as a recyclable remediation material. The PRO-BEN composite could be a cost efficient alternative towards the removal of organic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  6. The pitfalls of protein quantification in wastewater treatment studies.

    PubMed

    Avella, A C; Görner, T; de Donato, Ph

    2010-09-15

    Proteins, as one of the principal components of organic matter in wastewater, require adequate quantification to determine their concentration in the different stages of wastewater treatment process. Recent studies have used the corrected Lowry Method for protein quantification arguing that this method can differentiate proteins from interfering humic substances. In this study, the classic Lowry Method, the corrected Lowry Method and a commercial assay kit were assessed for the protein quantification in the presence of humic acid.

  7. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  8. PtaRHE1, a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein of the ATL family, has a regulatory role in secondary phloem fibre development.

    PubMed

    Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Moussawi, Jihad; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Van Acker, Rebecca; Kohler, Annegret; Candiracci, Julie; Twyffels, Laure; Spokevicius, Antanas V; Bossinger, Gerd; Laurans, Françoise; Brunel, Nicole; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Boerjan, Wout; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2015-06-01

    REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE (RING) proteins play important roles in the regulation of many processes by recognizing target proteins for ubiquitination. Previously, we have shown that the expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, is associated with tissues undergoing secondary growth. To further elucidate the role of PtaRHE1 in vascular tissues, we have undertaken a reverse genetic analysis in poplar. Within stem secondary vascular tissues, PtaRHE1 and its corresponding protein are expressed predominantly in the phloem. The downregulation of PtaRHE1 in poplar by artificial miRNA triggers alterations in phloem fibre patterning, characterized by an increased portion of secondary phloem fibres that have a reduced cell wall thickness and a change in lignin composition, with lower levels of syringyl units as compared with wild-type plants. Following an RNA-seq analysis, a biological network involving hormone stress signalling, as well as developmental processes, could be delineated. Several candidate genes possibly associated with the altered phloem fibre phenotype observed in amiRPtaRHE1 poplar were identified. Altogether, our data suggest a regulatory role for PtaRHE1 in secondary phloem fibre development.

  9. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  10. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  12. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  13. Desulfotomaculum alcoholivorax sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic, spore-forming, sulfate-reducer isolated from a fluidized-bed reactor treating acidic metal- and sulfate-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kaksonen, Anna H; Spring, Stefan; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2008-04-01

    A moderately thermophilic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from a fluidized-bed reactor treating acidic water containing metal and sulfate. The strain, designated RE35E1T, was rod-shaped and motile. The temperature range for growth was 33-51 degrees C (optimum 44-46 degrees C) and the pH range was 6.0-7.5 (optimum pH 6.4-7.3). The strain grew optimally without additional NaCl. The electron acceptors were 10 mM sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur and 1 mM (but not 10 mM) sulfite. Various alcohols and carboxylic acids were utilized as electron donors. Fermentative growth occurred on pyruvate. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7. The major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1 omega 10c and iso-C17 : 0. Strain RE35E1T was related to representatives of the genera Desulfotomaculum and Sporotomaculum, the closest relatives being Desulfotomaculum arcticum DSM 17038T (96.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Sporotomaculum hydroxybenzoicum DSM 5475T (92.0 % similarity). Strain RE35E1T represents a novel species, for which the name Desulfotomaculum alcoholivorax sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RE35E1T (=DSM 16058T=JCM 14019T).

  14. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  15. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  16. A study of photocatalytic graphene–TiO{sub 2} synthesis via peroxo titanic acid refluxed sol

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Wasu; Boonamnuayvitaya, Virote

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} synthesized via PTA as a precursor demonstrates exclusively anatase phase. • The TEM image of GR–TiO{sub 2} (PTA) demonstrates that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are successfully loaded onto graphene sheet. • The specific surface area seems to increase with increasing weight ratio of graphene oxide. It was observed that GR–TiO{sub 2} showed higher adsorption compared to bare TiO{sub 2} (PTA). • The GR–TiO{sub 2} (PTA, 1:50) catalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity than any other catalyst. - Abstract: In the present work, graphene–TiO{sub 2} (GR–TiO{sub 2}) photocatalyst with various weight ratios of graphene was synthesized using peroxo titanic acid solution (PTA) as a precursor for TiO{sub 2}. Graphene oxide prepared by Hummer's method was converted to graphene under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in ethanol–water solvent for 48 h. The as-prepared GR–TiO{sub 2} composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The automated potentiostat was applied to measure the photocurrent generations of prepared catalysts. The photocatalytic activities of GR–TiO{sub 2} (PTA) catalysts were determined by measuring the percentage methylene blue (MB) degradation. The results showed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were successfully loaded onto graphene sheet and the surface area of catalysts increased with increasing weight ratio of graphene. In addition, GR–TiO{sub 2} (PTA, 1:50) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among the catalysts under UV and visible light irradiation. The adsorption edge of GR–TiO{sub 2} was shifted to a longer wavelength of 400 nm in comparison with that of pure TiO{sub 2} (PTA). The increase in the photocatalytic performance of GR–TiO{sub 2} (PTA) catalyst may be attributed to the increase in surface area, the extension of light absorption in

  17. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E

    2014-06-10

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed.

  18. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  19. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  20. [Modern approaches to wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivan'ko, O M

    2013-01-01

    The present state and prospects of new methods for cleaning in the water and wastewater using membrane separation, are examples of application of this technology in the treatment of surface and subsurface natural waters, seawater desalination, wastewater treatment plants.

  1. Caproiciproducens galactitolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium capable of producing caproic acid from galactitol, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Seung Jeon, Byoung; Kim, Seil; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2015-12-01

    A strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated BS-1T, was isolated from an anaerobic digestion reactor during a study of bacteria utilizing galactitol as the carbon source. Its cells were 0.3-0.5 μm × 2-4 μm, and they grew at 35-45 °C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Strain BS-1T produced H2, CO2, ethanol, acetic acid, butyric acid and caproic acid as metabolic end products of anaerobic fermentation. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain BS-1T represented a novel bacterial genus within the family Ruminococcaceae, Clostridium Cluster IV. The type strains that were most closely related to strain BS-1T were Clostridium sporosphaeroides KCTC 5598T (94.5 %), Clostridium leptum KCTC 5155T (94.3 %), Ruminococcus bromii ATCC 27255T (92.1 %) and Ethanoligenens harbinense YUAN-3T (91.9 %). Strain BS-1T had 17.6 % and 20.9 % DNA-DNA relatedness values with C. sporosphaeroides DSM 1294T and C. leptum DSM 753T, respectively. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 dimethyl aldehyde (DMA) (22.1 %), C16 : 0 aldehyde (14.1 %) and summed feature 11 (iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and/or C18 : 2 DMA; 10.0 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 50.0 mol%. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics allowed strain BS-1T to be clearly distinguished from other taxa of the genus Clostridium Cluster IV. On the basis of these data, the isolate is considered to represent a novel genus and novel species within Clostridium Cluster IV, for which the name Caproiciproducens galactitolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is BS-1T ( = JCM 30532T and KCCM 43048T).

  2. The use of concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater as a conditioning agent for adjusting acidity and minimizing ammonia volatilization in livestock manure composting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Kong, Haimin; Lu, Beibei; Wang, Jibing; Xie, Yuan; Fang, Ping

    2015-09-15

    In this study, concentrated monosodium glutamate waste (CMGW) was proposed as a conditioning agent to adjust acidity and decrease ammonia (NH3) volatilization in thermophilic aerobic composting based on two incubation experiments. The results showed that with the addition of CMGW, NH3 volatilization of compost mixture under high temperature phase decreased significantly and pH met the current national standard within 5.5-8.5. When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by repeated application of CMGW. Furthermore, although the electrical conductivity increased with the application of CMGW, both the germination index and the microbial respiration of compost mixture implied that CMGW had no negative effects on the maturity of compost, instead, a comprehensive maturity might be accelerated. It was concluded that CMGW was an optional conditioning agent for thermophilic aerobic composting of livestock manure in regards to adjusting acidity and preventing nitrogen loss from NH3 volatilization.

  3. Magnetically isolated Cu(II)Gd(III) pairs in the series [Cu(acacen)Gd(pta)(3)], [Cu(acacen)Gd(hfa)(3)], [Cu(salen)Gd(pta)(3)], and [Cu(salen)Gd(hfa)(3)], [acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetoniminate(-)), salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideniminate(-)), hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dionate(-), pta = 1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethylhexane-2,4-dionate(-)].

    PubMed

    Ryazanov, M; Nikiforov, V; Lloret, F; Julve, M; Kuzmina, N; Gleizes, A

    2002-04-08

    [Cu(salen)Gd(pta)(3)] (1), [Cu(acacen)Gd(pta)(3)] (2), and [Cu(acacen)Gd(hfa)(3)] (3) are three heterobimetallic [Cu(II)Gd(III)] complexes of general formula [Cu(SB)Gd(beta-dik)(3)], in which a N,N',O,O' Schiff base (SB) ligand [acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetoniminate(-)), salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminate(-))] tetracoordinates Cu(II) and chelates Gd(III) as a tris(beta-diketonate) complex [hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dionate(-); pta = 1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethylhexane-2,4-dionate(-)]. They crystallize as a triclinic structure (space group P). The cell parameters are a = 9.8616(10) A, b = 12.1976(13) A, c = 18.4187(22) A, alpha = 90.671(14) degrees, beta = 100.588(13) degrees, gamma = 103.684(12) degrees, V = 2113 A(3), and Z = 2 for 1; a = 9.7560(11) A, b = 12.2924(13) A, c = 18.9368(22) A, alpha = 88.449(14) degrees, beta = 87.269(14) degrees, gamma = 67.629(12) degrees, V = 2098 A(3), and Z = 2 for 2; and a = 12.5726(15) A, b = 15.5985(18) A, c = 18.3724(21) A, alpha = 85.963(13) degrees, beta = 85.411(14) degrees, gamma = 80.766(14) degrees, V = 3539 A(3), and Z = 4 for 3. The Cu(O,O')Gd bridging cores show folding angles about O,O' in the range 139 degrees -147 degrees and intramolecular Cu small middle dot small middle dot small middle dotGd distances of about 3.3 A. In the solid state, the molecules form centrosymmetric pseudodimers [Cu(SB)Gd(beta-dik)(3)](2), through the overlap of the Cu(SB) entities. Resulting intradimer Cu...Cu distances are 5.941(1) A for 1, 4.831(1) A for 2, and 4.511(1) and 3.868(1) A for 3 which comprises two symmetrically independent dimers. The temperature dependence of complexes 1-3 was investigated in the range 1.8-300 K and revealed weak ferromagnetic interactions. Results are discussed in light of the structural features and of available magnetostructural data for other heterobimetallic [Cu(II)Gd(III)] complexes, including [Cu(salen)Gd(hfa)(3)] (4) (Ramade, I.; Kahn, O.; Jeannin, Y.; Robert, F

  4. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  5. Studies on the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater by activated carbon developed from Tamarind wood activated with sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, C K; Sahu, J N; Mahalik, K K; Mohanty, C R; Mohan, B Raj; Meikap, B C

    2008-05-01

    The low-cost activated carbon were prepared from Tamarind wood material by chemical activation with sulphuric acid for the adsorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solution. The activated carbon developed shows substantial capacity to adsorb Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The parameters studied include physical and chemical properties of adsorbent, pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial concentrations. The kinetic data were best fitted to the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models. The isotherm equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum removal of lead(II) was obtained 97.95% (experimental) and 134.22 mg/g (from Langmuir isotherm model) at initial concentration 40 mg/l, adsorbent dose 3g/l and pH 6.5. This high uptake showed Tamarind wood activated carbon as among the best adsorbents for Pb(II).

  6. Polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid-grafted-natural rubber as bio-adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous standard solution and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Phetphaisit, Chor Wayakron; Yuanyang, Siriwan; Chaiyasith, Wipharat Chuachuad

    2016-01-15

    Bio-adsorbent modified natural rubber (modified NR) was prepared, by placing the sulfonic acid functional group on the isoprene chain. This modification was carried out with the aim to prepare material capable to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. The structures of modified NR materials were characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies. Thermal gravimetric analysis of modified NR showed that the initial degradation temperature of rubber decreases with increasing amount of polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) in the structure. In addition, water uptake of the rubber based materials was studied as a function of time and content of PAMPS. The influence of the amount of PAMPS grafted onto NR, time, pH, concentration of metal ions, temperature, and regeneration were studied in terms of their influence on the adsorption of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+)). The adsorption isotherms of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model, while Cu(2+) was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. However, the results from these two isotherms resulted in a similar behavior. The adsorption capacity of the modified NR for the various heavy metals was in the following order: Pb(2+)∼Cd(2+)>Cu(2+). The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 272.7, 267.2, and 89.7 mg/g of modified rubber, respectively. Moreover, the modified natural rubber was used for the removal of metal ions in real samples of industrial effluents where the efficiency and regeneration were also investigated.

  7. Novel molecularly imprinted polymer using 1-(α-methyl acrylate)-3-methylimidazolium bromide as functional monomer for simultaneous extraction and determination of water-soluble acid dyes in wastewater and soft drink by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xubiao; Zhan, Youcai; Tu, Xinman; Huang, Yining; Luo, Shenglian; Yan, Liushui

    2011-02-25

    Novel water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized in methanol-water systems with Tratarzine as template and 1-(α-methyl acrylate)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (1-MA-3MI-Br) as functional monomer, which has π-π hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interactions with template molecule. 1-MA-3MI-Br molecularly imprinted polymers (1-MA-3MI-Br-MIPs) were used as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of water-soluble acid dyes from wastewater and soft drink. The good linearity of the method was obtained in a range of 5.0-2000 μg/L with the correlation coefficient of > 0.999. The detection limits were in a range of 0.13-0.51 μg/L for the water-soluble acid dyes in wastewater and 0.095-0.84 μg/L for those in soft drink. The mean recoveries for the acid dyes are from 89.1% to 101.0% in spiked wastewater and 91.0-101.3% in spiked soft drink. Compared with strongly anion exchange solid phase extraction (SAX-SPE), mixture anion exchange solid phase extraction (MAX-SPE), and 1-MA-3MI-Br non-imprinted solid phase extraction (1-MA-3MI-Br-NISPE), almost all of the matrix interferences were removed by 1-MA-3MI-Br-MISPE, exhibiting higher selectivity, recovery and enrichment ability for the acid dyes and better baselines in the results of HPLC analysis.

  8. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  9. Effect of temperature and hydraulic retention time on volatile fatty acid production based on bacterial community structure in anaerobic acidogenesis using swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Shin, Seung Gu; Lim, Juntaek; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature (T) on bacterial community structure and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production of an acidogenic process, and VFA production and changes in the bacterial community in three identical automated anaerobic continuously-stirred tank reactors were analyzed using response surface analysis (RSA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). For RSA, 11 trials were conducted to find the combination of T and HRT under which VFA production was greatest; VFA production was affected more by HRT than by T. To identify the bacterial community structure in each trial, DNA from each experimental point of the RSA was analyzed using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and eight bacteria species were detected. NMDS was conducted on band intensities obtained using DGGE, and bacterial community structure was affected more by T than by HRT. Taken together, these results suggest that VFA production during acidogenesis was more dependent on the physicochemical properties of acidogens, such as their specific growth rate or contact time with of substrates, than on changes in the microbial community.

  10. Hyrdothermally prepared biochars from potato peels. Activation of biochars with phosphoric acid for use as sorbents for cobalt removal from wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakkovikiotis, Evangelos; Kyzas, George; Deliyanni, Eleni; Matis, Kostas

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, activated carbons (ACs) were hydrothermally prepared with an environmental friendly preparation route from biomass (specifically from potato peels). The prepared biochars were activated with phosphoric acid (chemical activation). The porous texture and the surface chemistry of the biochars and the relative activated carbons prepared were investigated and were compared to the activated carbon prepared and activated by pyrolysis, in one step procedure. Biochars and activated carbon materials were also characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared activated carbons were used as adsorbents for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption were studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as the change of enthalpy (ΔH0), entropy (ΔS0) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG0) of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  11. Effective removal of mercury(II) ions from chlor-alkali industrial wastewater using 2-mercaptobenzamide modified itaconic acid-grafted-magnetite nanocellulose composite.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Shainy, F

    2015-10-15

    A novel adsorbent, 2-mercaptobenzamide modified itaconic acid-grafted-magnetite nanocellulose composite [P(MB-IA)-g-MNCC] was synthesized for adsorbing mercury(II) [Hg(II)] ions selectively from aqueous solutions. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric studies were performed to characterize the adsorbent. The optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption was found to be 8.0, and the adsorption attained equilibrium within 60 min. The kinetic data were found to follow pseudo-second-order which assumes the ion exchange followed by complexation mechanism. The temperature dependence indicates an exothermic process. The well agreement of equilibrium data with Freundlich adsorption model confirms the multilayer coverage of Hg(II) onto P(MB-IA)-g-MNCC. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 240.0 mg/g. Complete removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution was possible with an adsorbent dosage of 2.0 g/L. Spent adsorbent was effectively degenerated with 0.1M HCl. The present investigation shows that P(MB-IA)g-MNCC is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  12. Evaluation of Methods for the Analysis of Small Molecular Weight End-Products of Wastewater Ozonation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    number) Acetic Acid Glyoxal Oxalic Acid Dimethylglyoxal Glyoxylic Acid Ozonation Formaldehyde Methylglyoxal Wastewater Analysis Formic Acid 20. A... methylglyoxal and dimethylglyoxal at about 2-mg/L levels, the precision for glyoxal was not acceptable. Formaldehyde - Formaldehyde was readily determined by...chromatographic methods have been developed to determine glyoxal, methylglyoxal (pyruvaldehyde), and dimethylglyoxal (2,3-butanedione) in a single

  13. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  14. Preparation of polyelectrolytes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Radoiu, Marilena T; Martin, Diana I; Calinescu, Ioan; Iovu, Horia

    2004-01-02

    Liquid-phase polymerisation of acrylamide-acrylic acid to form polyelectrolytes used in wastewater cleaning was examined using accelerated electron beam and microwave irradiation methods. Polymerisation was carried out in aqueous solutions at temperatures approximately 60 degrees C. Monomers total concentration was established at 40% (36% acrylamide and 4% acrylic acid). Only using the features of simultaneous radiation-induction and microwave heating can result in the formation of linear polymer chains with good water solubility and low residual monomer concentration. The flocculation capacity of the obtained polymers was tested using two wastewaters, one sampled from a slaughterhouse and the other from a vegetable oil plant. Quality indicators such as total suspended matters (TSM), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and fat, oils and grease (FOG) were measured before and after the treatment with polymeric flocculants and compared with the results obtained in classical treatment with Al(2)(SO(4))(3). It was found that the combined treatment with polymers and Al(2)(SO(4))(3) increases the degree of purification of both wastewaters up to 99%.

  15. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid-coconut oil supported liquid membrane for the separation of copper ions from copper plating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, P; Navaneetha Gopalakrishnan, A; Palanivelu, K

    2007-01-01

    Permeation of Cu(II) from its aqueous solution through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) carrier dissolved in coconut oil has been studied. The effects of Cu(II), pH (in feed), H2SO4 (stripping) and D2EHPA (in membrane) concentrations have been investigated. The stability of the D2EHPA-coconut oil has also been evaluated. High Cu(II) concentration in the feed leads to an increase in flux from 4.1 x 10(-9) to 8.9 x 10(-9) mol/(m2 x s) within the Cu(II) concentration range 7.8 x 10(-4)-78.6 x 10(-4) mol/L at pH of 4.0 in the feed and 12.4 x 10-4 mol/L D2EHPA in the membrane phase. Increase in H2SO4 concentration in strip solution leads to an increase in copper ions flux up to 0.25 mol/L H2SO4, providing a maximum flux of 7.4 x 10(-9) mol/(m2 x s). The optimum conditions for Cu(II) transport are, pH of feed 4.0, 0.25 mol/L H2SO4 in strip phase and 12.4 x 10(-4) mol/L D2EHPA (membrane) in 0.5 microm pore size polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. It has been observed that Cu(II) flux across the membrane tends to increase with the concentration of copper ions. Application of the method developed to copper plating bath rinse solutions has been found to be successful in the recovery of Cu(II).

  16. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  17. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  18. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents advances in noteworthy research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations and system design; operation and maintenance; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  19. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  20. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  1. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29-barnase gene.

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Shi, W; Deng, X X

    2003-12-01

    Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (AS). The highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. Transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation was performed for 3 days at 19 degrees C than at 23 or 28 degrees C. Almost no resistant callus was obtained if the cocultivation medium lacked AS. The transformation procedure yielded transgenic Valencia plants containing the pTA29-barnase gene, as verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by Southern blotting. Because male sterility is a common factor leading to seedlessness in citrus cultivars with parthenocarpic characteristics, production of seedless citrus genotypes by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is a promising alternative to conventional breeding methods.

  2. Syntheses, structures, and antimicrobial activity of new remarkably light-stable and water-soluble tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate silver(I) derivatives of N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane salt - [mPTA]BF4.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Pettinari, Claudio; Marchetti, Fabio; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Lupidi, Giulio; Badillo Patzmay, Gretta Veronica; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2015-01-20

    Two new silver(I) complexes of formula [Ag(mPTA)4](Tpms)4(BF4) (1) and [Ag(Tpms)(mPTA)](BF4) (2) (mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane cation, Tpms = tris(pyrazol-1-yl)methanesulfonate anion) have been synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analyses, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR, ESI-MS, and IR spectroscopic techniques. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of 1 discloses a noncoordinated nature of the Tpms species, existing as counterions around the highly charged metal center [Ag(mPTA)](5+), 1 being the first reported coordination compound bearing a κ(0)-Tpms. 1 features high solubility and stability in water (S25 °C ≈ 30 mg·mL(-1)). The two complexes interact with calf thymus DNA via intercalation mode, binding to the BSA with decrease of its tryptophan fluorescence with a static quenching mechanism. The two new silver complexes exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities screened in vitro against the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans.

  3. Relationship of cytokeratin 20 and CD44 protein expression with WHO/ISUP grade in pTa and pT1 papillary urothelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Desai, S; Lim, S D; Jimenez, R E; Chun, T; Keane, T E; McKenney, J K; Zavala-Pompa, A; Cohen, C; Young, R H; Amin, M B

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of immunoreactivity of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and CD44 across the spectrum of urothelial neoplasia using the WHO/ISUP consensus classification. A total of 120 papillary urothelial pTa and pT1 tumors (8 papillomas, 8 neoplasms of low malignant potential, and 42 low-grade and 62 high-grade carcinomas) were immunostained by using CK20 and CD44 antibodies. The relationships of tumor grade, pathologic stage, recurrences, and progression in stage with CK20 and CD44 immunoreactivity were assessed. WHO/ISUP grade correlated with tumor stage (P < 0.005), recurrence (P = 0.02), and progression in stage (P = 0.031). Normal urothelium showed CK20 immunoreactivity restricted to a few umbrella cells. Expression of CD44 in normal urothelium was restricted to the basal cell layer. Loss of CD44 immunoreactivity and increasing CK20 positivity were significantly associated with increasing tumor grade and stage (P < 0.005). An inverse relationship was observed in the staining patterns of CK20 and CD44 within individual cases, as well as in the aggregate data, with 79.2% of tumors with CD44 loss showing CK20 positivity (P < 0.001). In conclusion, CK20 and CD44 immunoreactivity are significantly related to the WHO/ISUP grade and to each other, and our data suggest their potential combined utility in predicting biologic behavior in patients with papillary urothelial pTa and pT1 neoplasms.

  4. BIORECOVERY OF METALS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine water is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metallic sulfides by certain bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewaters contain substantial quantities of dissolved solids with the particular pollutants dependant u...

  5. Removal of dinitrotoluenes in wastewater by sono-activated persulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Su, Yi-Chang

    2012-07-01

    Oxidative degradation of dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) in wastewater was performed using persulfate anions combined with ultrasonic irradiation, wherein a synergistic effect is observed. The batch-wise experiments were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating parameters on sono-activated persulfate oxidation, including ultrasonic power intensity, persulfate anion concentration, reaction temperature and acidity of wastewater. It is noteworthy that the nitrotoluene contaminants could be almost completely eliminated by virtue of sono-activated persulfate oxidation, wherein sulfate radicals serve as principal oxidants, of which amounts are significantly enhanced via addition of sodium sulfate. Based on the results given by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), it is postulated that the methyl group of DNTs preliminarily underwent oxidation pathway into dinitrobenzoic acid, followed by decarboxylation to form 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). In sum, the sono-activated persulfate oxidation is a promising method for treatment of nitrotoluenes in wastewater.

  6. Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Iniya Kumar; Xiao, Liwen; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin; Shi, Jianghong

    2013-06-15

    Use of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipid production by oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was studied with the purpose of recycling potato processing wastewater for biodiesel production. The wastewater contained high concentrations of solids, starch and nutrients. Sterilization of the potato processing wastewater resulted in a thick gelatinized medium, causing the fungi to grow slow. In order to overcome this problem, the wastewater was diluted with tap water at three dilution ratios (25%, 50% and 75% before fermentation). Dilution of the wastewater not only enhanced lipid production, starch utilization and amylase secretion but also COD and nutrient removal. The dilution ratio of 25% was found to be optimum for lipid production and the maximum lipid concentration obtained was 3.5 g/L. Lipid accumulation was influenced by amylase secretion, and the amylase activity was up to 53.5 IU/mL at 25% dilution. The results show that phosphate limitation may be the mechanism to stimulate the lipid accumulation. In addition to lipid production, removals of COD, total soluble nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus up to 91%, 98% and 97% were achieved, respectively. Microbial lipids of A. oryzae contained major fatty acids such as palmitic acid (11.6%), palmitolic acid (15.6%), stearic acid (19.3%), oleic acid (30.3%), linolenic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (6.5%) suggesting that the lipids be suitable for second generation biodiesel production.

  7. A novel membrane bioreactor for detoxifying industrial wastewater. 1. Biodegradation of phenol in a synthetically concocted wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.G. )

    1993-04-25

    A novel process has been used to biodegrade phenol present in acidic and salty synthetically concocted wastewater. The process utilizes a membrane bioreactor, in which the phenol present in the wastewater is separated from the inorganic components by means of a silicone rubber membrane. Transfer of the phenol from the wastewater and into a biological growth medium allows biodegradation to proceed under controlled conditions which are unaffected by the hostile inorganic composition of the wastewater. At a wastewater flow rate of 18 mL h[sup [minus]1], 98.5% of the phenol present in the wastewater at an inlet concentration of 1,000 mg L[sup [minus]1] was degraded; at a contact time of 1.9 h, 65% of the phenol was degraded. Phenol degradation was accompanied by growth of a biofilm on the membrane tubes and by conversion of approximately 80% of the carbon entering the system to CO[sub 2] carbon. Analysis of the transport of phenol across the membrane revealed that the major resistance to mass transfer arose in the diffusion of phenol across the silicon rubber membrane. A mathematical model was used to describe the transfer of phenol across the membrane and the subsequent diffusion and reaction of phenol in the biofilm attached to the membrane tube.

  8. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  9. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  10. Wastewater treatment as an energy production plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Daniel A.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential for net energy production at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Historically, wastewater treatment plants have been designed with the emphasis on process reliability and redundancy; efficient utilization of energy has not received equal consideration. With growing demands for energy and increased budgetary pressures in funding wastewater treatment plant costs, methods of reducing energy consumption and operating costs were explored in a new and novel direction pointed towards energy production rather than energy consumption. To estimate the potential for net energy production, a quantitative analysis was performed using a mathematical model which integrates the various unit operations to evaluate the overall plant energy balance. Secondary treatment performance analysis is included to ensure that the energy evaluation is consistent with plant treatment needs. Secondary treatment performance was conducted for activated sludge, trickling filters and RBCs. The equations for the mathematical model were developed independently for each unit operation by writing mass balance equations around the process units. The process units evaluated included those for preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, disinfection, and sludge treatment. Based on an analysis of both energy reduction and energy recovery methods, it was shown that net energy production at a secondary WWTP is possible utilizing technologies available today. Such technologies include those utilized for plant operations, as well as for energy recovery. The operation of fuel cells using digester gas represents one of the most significant new opportunities for energy recovery at wastewater facilities. The analysis predicts that a trickling filter WWTP utilizing commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from digester gas can provide for facility energy needs and have both electrical and thermal energy available for

  11. Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

  12. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  13. Effect of mine wastewater on nutrient removal and lipid production by a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Salama, El-Sayed; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Jung Rae; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Effect of mine wastewater on the nutrient removal efficiency of a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) with simultaneous lipid production was investigated. Different dilution ratios (1-10%) of CMW either with mine wastewater (MWF) or mine wastewater without Fe (MWOF) were used. M. reisseri showed the highest growth (0.8gL(-1)) and nutrient uptake (35.9mgTNL(-1) and 5.4mgTPL(-1)) at 3% MWF ([Fe]tot=6.7mgL(-1)), and the highest lipid productivity (10.4mgL(-1)day(-1)) at 5% MWF ([Fe]tot=11.2mgL(-1)) after 15days. CMW supported the algal autoflocculation due to formation of phosphate, calcium and magnesium precipitates at a high suspension pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the microalgal lipids possessed 79-82% of C16/C18 fatty acids. Application of mine wastewater improved the nutrient removal efficiency, growth and lipid productivity of M. reisseri cultivated in CMW.

  14. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel

    PubMed Central

    Massimi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d−1) > 1). All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock. PMID:27635353

  15. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295μgL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater.

  16. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kabra, Akhil N; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-08-15

    The biomass and lipid/carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus under mixotrophic condition using food wastewater and flue gas CO2 with municipal wastewater was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-2%) of municipal wastewater with food wastewater were evaluated in the presence of 5, 10 and 14.1% CO2. The food wastewater (0.5-1%) with 10-14.1% CO2 supported the highest growth (0.42-0.44 g L(-1)), nutrient removal (21-22 mg TN L(-1)), lipid productivity (10-11 mg L(-1)day(-1)) and carbohydrate productivity (13-16 mg L(-1)day(-1)) by S. obliquus after 6 days of cultivation. Food wastewater increased the palmitic and oleic acid contents up to 8 and 6%, respectively. Thus, application of food wastewater and flue gas CO2 can be employed for enhancement of growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and wastewater treatment efficiency of S. obliquus under mixotrophic condition, which can lead to development of a cost effective strategy for microalgal biomass production.

  17. Three-dimensional imaging of the mouse heart and vasculature using micro-CT and whole-body perfusion of iodine or phosphotungstic acid.

    PubMed

    Dunmore-Buyze, P Joy; Tate, Elsbeth; Xiang, Fu-li; Detombe, Sarah A; Nong, Zengxuan; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Drangova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated histological staining compounds as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) contrast agents, delivered by soaking tissue specimens in stain and relying on passive diffusion for agent uptake. This study describes a perfusion approach using iodine or phosphotungstic acid (PTA) stains, delivered to an intact mouse, to capitalize on the microvasculature as a delivery conduit for parenchymal staining and direct contact for staining artery walls. Twelve C57BL/6 mice, arterially perfused with either 25% Lugol's solution or 5% PTA solution were scanned intact and reconstructed with 26 µm isotropic voxels. The animals were fixed and the heart and surrounding vessels were excised, embedded and scanned; isolated heart images were reconstructed with 13 µm isotropic voxels. Myocardial enhancement and artery diameters were measured. Both stains successfully enhanced the myocardium and vessel walls. Interestingly, Lugol's solution provided a significantly higher enhancement of the myocardium than PTA [2502 ± 437 vs 656 ± 178 Hounsfield units (HU); p < 0.0001], delineating myofiber architecture and orientation. There was no significant difference in vessel wall enhancement (Lugol's, 1036 ± 635 HU; PTA, 738 ± 124 HU; p = 0.29), but coronary arteries were more effectively segmented from the PTA-stained hearts, enabling segmented imaging of fifth- order coronary artery branches. The combination of whole mouse perfusion delivery and use of heavy metal-containing stains affords high-resolution imaging of the mouse heart and vasculature by micro-CT. The differential imaging patterns of Lugol's- and PTA-stained tissues reveals new opportunities for micro-analyses of cardiac and vascular tissues.

  18. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  19. New data on electron-beam purification of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.

    2002-11-01

    Recent environmental applications of radiation technology, developed in the author's laboratory, are presented in this paper. They are electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery-produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of plant materials, electron-beam purification of wastewater from carboxylic acids (for example, formic acid) and removal of petroleum products (diesel fuel, motor oil and residual fuel oil) from water by γ-irradiation.

  20. Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Tipprasertsin, Kannika; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye solutions showed that the volume treated (until the breakthrough occurred) increased with decreasing particle size, influent reactive dye concentration and flow rate, and increasing bed depth. The bed depth service time model was suitable for describing the experimental data. The treated flute reed was able to reduce color efficiently, 99% for dyeing textile wastewater with ten adsorption columns in series and 78% for printing textile wastewater with a single adsorption column. The difference in the numbers of columns used for the two types of actual textile wastewater led to a substantial discrepancy in suspended solids removal, 99% for dyeing wastewater and 12% for printing wastewater. Similar pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) results were obtained for the two types of textile wastewater. The acid pretreatment of flute reed resulted in dramatic decreases in pH after the adsorption and very acidic effluents (pH 3). Increases of COD after the adsorption due to organic leaching from the treated flute reed were observed. A different pretreatment method to solve these pH and COD problems is needed before flute reed can be used in practice.

  1. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  2. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment…

  3. Method for treating contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Fochtman, E.G.; Forbes, F.S.; Koch, R.L.

    1983-09-06

    A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

  4. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  5. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  6. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  7. Effect of disinfection upon dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in wastewater: bacterial bioassays.

    PubMed

    Arana, I; Santorum, P; Muela, A; Barcina, I

    2000-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in organic matter content of wastewater effluents attributable to chlorination and ozonation have been analysed using bioassays as well as organic carbon direct measures. Bioassays were carried out using the bacterial populations of wastewater and two Escherichia coli strains as test micro-organisms. Our results indicate that pure strains present some advantages over indigenous bacteria. Although wastewater bacterial populations are better adapted to growth in wastewater, E. coli strains are more sensitive to changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. Moreover, the use of pure cultures allows estimation of the portion of DOC which can be converted in cell biomass, the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Finally, the results obtained using prototrophic and the auxotrophic strains of E. coli suggested that ozonation alters the amino acid composition of wastewater while chlorination does not change the quantity nor the quality of the DOC present in effluents.

  8. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  9. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  10. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  11. In-flight near- and far-field acoustic data measured on the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) testbed and with an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far-field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full-scale SR-7L advanced turboprop that was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream 2 aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long-distance propagation models to predict en route noise. In-flight data were taken for seven test cases. Near-field acoustic data were taken on the Gulfstream fuselage and on a microphone boom that was mounted on the Gulfstream wing outboard of the propeller. Far-field acoustic data were taken by an acoustically instrumented Learjet that flew in formation with the Gulfstream. These flight tests were flown from El Paso, Texas, and from the NASA Lewis Research Center. A comprehensive listing of the aeroacoustic results from these flight tests which may be used for future analysis are presented.

  12. Acetylcholine-like and trimethylglycine-like PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) derivatives for the development of innovative Ru- and Pt-based therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Valeria; Fogagnolo, Marco; Marchi, Andrea; Marvelli, Lorenza; Sforza, Fabio; Bergamini, Paola

    2014-05-19

    The PTA N-alkyl derivatives (PTAC2H4OCOMe)X (1X: 1a, X = Br; 1b, X = I; 1c, X = PF6; 1d, X = BPh4), (PTACH2COOEt)X (2X: 2a, X = Br; 2b, X = Cl; 2c, X = PF6), and (PTACH2CH2COOEt)X (3X: 3a, X = Br; 3c, X = PF6), presenting all the functional groups of the natural cationic compounds acetylcholine or trimethylglycine combined with a P-donor site suitable for metal ion coordination, were prepared and characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The X-ray crystal structures of 1d and 2c were determined. Ligands 1c, 2b, and 3c were coordinated to Pt(II) and Ru(II) to give the cationic complexes cis-[PtCl2(L)2]X2 and [RuCpCl(PPh3)(L)]X (L = 1, 2, 3, X = Cl or PF6) designed with a structure targeted for anticancer activity. The X-ray crystal structure of [CpRu(PPh3)(PTAC2H4OCOMe)Cl]PF6 (1cRu) was determined. The antiproliferative activity of the ligands and the complexes was evaluated on three human cancer cell lines.

  13. Measurement and prediction of propeller flow field on the PTA aircraft at speeds of up to Mach 0.85. [Propfan Test Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, Abdullah S.

    1988-01-01

    High speed subsonic transports powered by advanced propellers provide significant fuel savings compared to turbofan powered transports. Unfortunately, however, propfans must operate in aircraft-induced nonuniform flow fields which can lead to high blade cyclic stresses, vibration and noise. To optimize the design and installation of these advanced propellers, therefore, detailed knowledge of the complex flow field is required. As part of the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) program, a 1/9 scale semispan model of the Gulfstream II propfan test-bed aircraft was tested in the NASA-Lewis 8 x 6 supersonic wind tunnel to obtain propeller flow field data. Detailed radial and azimuthal surveys were made to obtain the total pressure in the flow and the three components of velocity. Data was acquired for Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 0.85. Analytical predictions were also made using a subsonic panel method, QUADPAN. Comparison of wind-tunnel measurements and analytical predictions show good agreement throughout the Mach range.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  1. Calcium sulfate solubility in organic-laden wastewater. Progress report, September 1981-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Banz, I.; Luthy, R.G.

    1982-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the solubility of calcium sulfate in wastewaters, and to examine the effect of organic constituents in wastewater and in synthetic waters on calcium sulfate solubility. The study entailed both laboratory experiments and chemical equilibria computer modeling. The calcium sulfate solubility product in a solvent-extracted, ammonia-stripped coal gasification wastewater was found to be 3.65 x 10/sup -5/ M/sup 2/; this is 45% higher than that observed in clean water. Wastewater treated further by activated carbon adsorption showed the solubility product of calcium sulfate to be 2.87 x 10/sup -5/ M/sup 2/. This is only 14% higher than that observed in clean water; this indicates that organic material removed in the adsorption process may be responsible for enhanced solubility in wastewater. Synthetic wastewaters were prepared using humic-like organic compounds, since it was believed that humic-like material accounted for a major fraction of the residual organic carbon content of solvent-extracted coal gasification wastewater. Calcium sulfate solubility in oxidized samples of resorcinol, catechol, and tannic acid showed little difference from that in clean water. In humic acid, however, the calcium sulfate solubility product was 47% higher than in clean water; this increase in solubility product was similar to that observed in pretreated wastewater, indicating that a complex organic material is responsible for the increase in solubility. These results imply that calcium and organic constituents in wastewater form a chemical complex which has the effect of increasing total calcium in solution without preciptating calcium sulfate. Thus higher levels of calcium and sulfate may be maintained in wastewaters destined for reuse in recirculating cooling waters than would be indicated by considering only inorganic chemical interactions. 51 references, 18 figures, 40 tables.

  2. Biomass fly ashes as low-cost chemical agents for Pb removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Günther, Annika; Dias, Diogo; Mendes, Benilde

    2014-06-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the removal efficiency of Pb from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using biomass fly ashes. The biomass fly ashes were produced in a biomass boiler of a pulp and paper industry. Three concentrations of Pb(2+) were tested in the synthetic wastewater (1, 10 and 1000 mg Pb/L). Moreover, two different wastewaters were collected in an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) of an industry of lead-acid batteries: (i) wastewater of the equalization tank, and (ii) IWWTP effluent. All the wastewaters were submitted to coagulation-flocculation tests with a wide range of biomass fly ashes dosage (expressed as Solid/Liquid - S/L - ratios). All supernatants were characterized for chemical and ecotoxicological parameters. The use of biomass fly ashes has reduced significantly the Pb concentration in the synthetic wastewater and in the wastewaters collected in the IWWTP. For example, the definitive coagulation-flocculation assays performed over the IWWTP effluent presented a very low concentration of Pb (0.35 mg/L) for the S/L ratio of 1.23 g/L. Globally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the supernatants resulting from the coagulation-flocculation assays of all wastewaters has indicated an overall reduction on the ecotoxicity of the crude wastewaters, due to the removal of Pb.

  3. A nine-point pH titration method to determine low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hainan; Zhang, Daijun; Lu, Peili; He, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in wastewater is significant for understanding the wastewater nature and the wastewater treatment process optimization based on the usage of Activated Sludge Models (ASMs). In this study, a nine-point pH titration method was developed for the determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater. The method was evaluated using synthetic wastewater containing VFA with the concentration of 10-50 mg/l and the possible interfering buffer systems of carbonate, phosphate and ammonium similar to those in real municipal wastewater. In addition, the further evaluation was conducted through the assay of real wastewater using chromatography as reference. The results showed that the recovery of VFA in the synthetic wastewater was 92%-102 and the coefficient of variance (CV) of reduplicate measurements 1.68%-4.72%. The changing content of the buffering substances had little effect on the accuracy of the method. Moreover, the titration method was agreed with chromatography in the determination of VFA in real municipal wastewater with R(2)= 0.9987 and CV =1.3-1.7. The nine-point pH titration method is capable of satisfied determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

  4. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival.

  5. Development of a diagnostic tool: the wastewater collection network odour wheel.

    PubMed

    Decottignies, V; Huyard, A; Kelly, R F; Barillon, B

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nuisance odour problems and the application of an effective odour management programme for the associated industrial activity may be achieved using a representative odour wheel and Odour Profile Analysis methodology. The odour wheel is a very useful tool for conducting odour quality control monitoring and developing a constructive dialogue regarding nuisance odours with the public. Previously, odours from wastewater treatment plant activities have been identified and described with a dedicated odour wheel. The oxidation state of the organic chemicals responsible for a given odour depends on multiple parameters specific to the individual wastewater collection networks (residence time of wastewater, topographic disposition and network slope, aeration and on line chemical treatment processes). This is especially important for odorous nitrogen, sulfur and volatile fatty acids. Trained sensory odour panels combined with chemical analyses have been used to study wastewater collection network odours and to adapt the wastewater odour wheel accordingly. The wastewater collection network odour wheel has been produced using the results of five sampling campaigns; eight out of the 11 odour families constituting the wastewater odour wheel have been identified and consequently validated for sewer networks. Different groups of odours have been perceived according to the presence or absence of wastewater effluents at the various sampling points.

  6. Bioremediation of domestic and industrial wastewaters integrated with enhanced biodiesel production using novel oleaginous microalgae.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Sartaj, Km; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-10-01

    The study illustrates the synergistic potential of novel microalgal, Chlamydomonas debaryana IITRIND3, for phycoremediation of domestic, sewage, paper mill and dairy wastewaters and then subsequent utilisation of its biomass for biodiesel production. Among these wastewaters, maximum lipid productivity (87.5 ± 2.3 mg L(-1) day(-1)) was obtained in dairy wastewater with removal efficiency of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon to be 87.56, 82.17, 78.57 and 85.97 %, respectively. Metal ions such as sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium were also removed efficiently from the wastewaters tested. Pigment analysis revealed loss of chlorophyll a while increase in carotenoid content in algal cells cultivated in different wastewaters. Biochemical data of microalgae grown in different wastewaters showed reduction in protein content with an increase in carbohydrate and lipid contents. The major fatty acids in algal cells grown in dairy wastewater were C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:2 and C18:3. The physical properties of biodiesel derived from microalgae grown in dairy wastewater were in compliance with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 fuel standards and were comparable to plant oil methyl esters.

  7. Photo-assisted oxidation of an oily wastewater using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Philippopoulos, C J; Poulopoulos, S G

    2003-03-17

    The primary objective was to study the purification of an oily wastewater from a lubricant production unit using ultraviolet irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. The influence of hydrogen peroxide concentration, initial pH of the solution and of the addition of ferric ions on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was examined. In each case, the concentration of the compounds contained in the oily wastewater was determined. It was shown that a 20-45% COD removal was achieved with 830-1660 mg l(-1) H(2)O(2). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the organic compounds of the wastewater decomposed to organic acids that were very resistant to photo-oxidation. Among these compounds, ethylene glycol remained almost unchanged by the attack from hydroxyl radicals. Acidic pH and Fe(III) addition enhanced significantly the photo-oxidation of the wastewater.

  8. The use of low-cost adsorbents for wastewater purification in mining industries.

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Evgenia; Sillanpää, Mika

    2013-11-01

    Recently, great attention has been paid to the environmental problems in mining industry. At present there are different ways of mineral processing, as well as various methods of wastewater treatment, most of them are expensive. Work is ongoing to find low-cost treatments. In this article, low-cost adsorbents, potentially useful for wastewater treatment on mining and metallurgical plants, are reviewed; their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of their application are compared. Also adsorption of different metals and radioactive compounds from acidic environment similar to composition of mining and metallurgical wastewaters is considered.

  9. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  10. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  11. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  12. Converting Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of Cellulosic Ethanol Fermentation Wastewater into Microbial Lipid by Oleaginous Yeast Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Hu, Mingshan; Zhang, Huizhan; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-27

    Cellulosic ethanol fermentation wastewater is the stillage stream of distillation column of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD is required to reduce before the wastewater is released or recycled. Without any pretreatment nor external nutrients, the cellulosic ethanol fermentation wastewater bioconversion by Trichosporon cutaneum ACCC 20271 was carried out for the first time. The major components of the wastewater including glucose, xylose, acetic acid, ethanol, and partial of phenolic compounds could be utilized by T. cutaneum ACCC 20271. In a 3-L bioreactor, 2.16 g/L of microbial lipid accumulated with 55.05% of COD reduced after a 5-day culture of T. cutaneum ACCC 20271 in the wastewater. The fatty acid composition of the derived microbial lipid was similar with vegetable oil, in which it could be used as biodiesel production feedstock. This study will both solve the environmental problem and offer low-cost lipid feedstock for biodiesel production.

  13. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  14. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  15. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  16. The Sources and Solutions: Wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wastewater treatment plants process water from homes and businesses, which contains nitrogen and phosphorus from human waste, food and certain soaps and detergents, and they can be a major source of nutrient pollution.

  17. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Lalit S.

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  18. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  19. Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of the Haloacetic Acids, A Major Class of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are formed during the disinfection of drinking water, wastewaters and recreational pool waters. Currently, five HAAs [bromoacetic acid (BAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), chloroacetic acid (CAA), dichloroacetic ac...

  20. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable... wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the... Air Force (AAC/WMO) have been involved in preliminary studies that provide extensive useful background information for this project. These studies show

  1. Olive mill wastewater treatment in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells.

  2. A novel cyanide-selective colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor: first molecular security keypad lock based on phosphotungstic acid and CN- inputs.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2014-02-15

    Rhodamine B (RhB) an available dye has been developed as novel and efficient colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensor for cyanide ions in an absolutely aqueous media. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescent emission titrations experiments have been employed to study the sensing process. RhB could act as an efficient "ON-OFF" fluorescent response for phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40 or PTA) based on an ion associate process. Also (RhB(+))3 · PTA(3-) could operate as an "OFF-ON" fluorescent sensor for cyanide anions based on a ligand substitution process. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for CN(-) which responds at 0.3 and 0.04 μmol L(-1) concentration levels by absorption and fluorescent method respectively. Depending upon the sequence of addition of PTA and CN(-) ions into the solution, RhB could be as a molecular security keypad lock with PTA and CN(-) inputs. The ionic inputs to new fluorophore have been mimicked as a superimposed electronic molecular keypad lock. The results were compared successfully (>96%) with the data of a spectrophotometry approved method (EPA 9014-1) for cyanide ions.

  3. Application of solar photo-Fenton toward toxicity removal and textile wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique Rodrigues; de Souza, Felipe Antônio Ribeiro; Oliveira, Sílvia Corrêa; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2016-08-27

    Solar photo-Fenton represents an innovative and low-cost option for the treatment of recalcitrant industrial wastewater, such as the textile wastewater. Textile wastewater usually shows high acute toxic and variability and may be composed of many different chemical compounds. This study aimed at optimizing and validating solar photo-Fenton treatment of textile wastewater in a semi-pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) for toxicity removal and wastewater reclamation. In addition, treated wastewater reuse feasibility was investigated through pilot tests. Experimental design performed in this study indicated optimum condition for solar photo-Fenton reaction (20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 500 mg L(-1) of H2O2; pH 2.8), which achieved 96 % removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 99 % absorbance removal. A toxicity peak was detected during treatment, suggesting that highly toxic transformation products were formed during reaction. Toxic intermediates were properly removed during solar photo-Fenton (SPF) treatment along with the generation of oxalic acid as an ultimate product of degradation and COS increase. Different samples of real textile wastewater were treated in order to validate optimized treatment condition with regard to wastewater variability. Results showed median organic carbon removal near 90 %. Finally, reuse of treated textile wastewater in both dyeing and washing stages of production was successful. These results confirm that solar photo-Fenton, as a single treatment, enables wastewater reclamation in the textile industry. Graphical abstract Solar photo-Fenton as a revolutionary treatment technology for "closing-the-loop" in the textile industry.

  4. A simple and sensitive flow injection method based on the catalytic activity of CdS quantum dots in an acidic permanganate chemiluminescence system for determination of formaldehyde in water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method in which CdS quantum dots (QDs) enhanced the CL intensity of a KMnO4-formaldehyde (HCHO) reaction was offered for the determination of HCHO. This CL system was based on the catalytic activity of CdS QDs and their participation in the CL resonance energy transfer (CRET) phenomenon. A possible mechanism for the supplied CL system was proposed using the kinetic curves of the CL systems and the spectra of CL, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis). The emanated CL intensity of the KMnO4-CdS QDs system was amplified in the presence of a trace level of HCHO. Based on this enhancement effect, a simple and sensitive flow injection CL method was suggested for the determination of HCHO concentration in environmental water and wastewater samples. Under selected optimized experimental conditions, the increased CL intensity was proportional to the HCHO concentration in the range of 0.03-4.5 μg L(-1) and 4.5-10.0 μg L(-1). The detection limits (3σ) were 0.0003 μg L(-1) and 1.2 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for eleven replicate determinations of 4.0 μg L(-1) HCHO were 2.2%. Furthermore, the feasibility of the developed method was investigated via the determination of HCHO concentration in environmental water and wastewater samples.

  5. Comparative examination of titania nanocrystals synthesized by peroxo titanic acid approach from different precursors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Aizawa, Mami; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Hatori, Hiroaki; Uekawa, Naofumi; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2008-06-15

    Titanium dioxide nanocrystalline particles were synthesized by peroxo titanium acid (PTA) approach from titanium alkoxide and inorganic salt precursors, and their structural and surface properties, porosities, and photocatalytic activities were comparatively examined by XRD, TG/DTA, DRIFT, UV-vis, low temperature N(2) adsorption, and methyl orange (MO) degradation. It was found that nanoparticles with single anatase phase can be obtained from alkoxide precursor even near room temperature if synthesis conditions are appropriately controlled. PTA-derived anatase nanoparticles from titanium alkoxide precursor have smaller crystalline sizes and better porosities, and contain less amount of peroxo group and no organic impurities as compared to those from TiCl(4) precursor. The advantages in structural property, porosity, and surface properties (few deficiencies) lead to a much better photocatalytic activity for TiO(2) nanoparticles from titanium alkoxide precursor in comparison with those from TiCl(4) precursor.

  6. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  7. Amino acid sequence of bacterial microbe-associated molecular pattern flg22 is required for virulence.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kana; Taguchi, Fumiko; Suzuki, Tomoko; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki

    2008-09-01

    Flagellin proteins derived from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 and flg22Pa (QRLSTGSRINSAKDDAAGLQIA), one of the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) in bacterial flagellin, induce cell death and growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana. To examine the importance of aspartic acid (D) at position 43 from the N-terminus of a flagellin in its elicitor activity, D43 was replaced with valine (V) and alanine (A) in P. syringae pv. tabaci flagellin and flg22Pta. The abilities of flagellins from P. syringae pv. tabaci D43V and D43A to induce cell death and growth inhibition were reduced, whereas the abilities of flg22PtaD43V and flg22PtaD43A were abolished. These results indicate that D43 is important for elicitor activity in P. syringae pv. tabaci. When tobacco plants were inoculated with each bacterium by the spray method, both P. syringae pv. tabaci D43V and D43A mutants had remarkably reduced ability to cause disease symptoms. Both mutants had reduced or no swimming and swarming motilities and adhesion ability. In P. syringae pv. tabaci D43V, little flagellin protein was detected and few flagella were observed by electron microscopy. These results indicate that mutant flagella are unstable and that flagellar motility is impaired. Thus, the amino acid residue required for MAMP activity is important for the intrinsic flagellar function.

  8. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria.

  9. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  10. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

  11. Biodegradation of polyalcohol ethoxylate by a wastewater microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Sharvelle, Sybil E; Garland, Jay; Banks, M K

    2008-04-01

    Polyalcohol ethoxylate (PAE), an anionic surfactant, is the primary component in most laundry and dish wash detergents and is therefore highly loaded in domestic wastewater. Its biodegradation results in the formation of several metabolites and the fate of these metabolites through wastewater treatment plants, graywater recycling processes, and in the environment must be clearly understood. Biodegradation pathways for PAE were investigated in this project with a municipal wastewater microbial consortium. A microtiter-based oxygen sensor system was utilized to determine the preferential use of potential biodegradation products. Results show that while polyethylene glycols (PEGs) were readily degraded by PAE acclimated microorganisms, most of the carboxylic acids tested were not degraded. Biodegradation of PEGs suggests that hydrophobe-hydrophile scission was the dominant pathway for PAE biodegradation in this wastewater community. Ethylene glycol (EG) and diethylene glycol (DEG) were not utilized by microbial populations capable of degrading higher molecular weight EGs. It is possible that EG and DEG may accumulate. The microtiter-based oxygen sensor system was successfully utilized to elucidate information on PAE biodegradation pathways and could be applied to study biodegradation pathways for other important contaminants.

  12. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    PubMed

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning.

  13. Formation of oxidation byproducts from ozonation of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wert, Eric C; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Drury, Doug D; Snyder, Shane A

    2007-04-01

    Disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in tertiary wastewater was examined after ozonation (O(3)) and advanced oxidation with O(3) and hydrogen peroxide (O(3)/H(2)O(2)). O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) were applied at multiple dosages to investigate DBP formation during coliform disinfection and trace contaminant oxidation. Results showed O(3) provided superior disinfection of fecal and total coliforms compared to O(3)/H(2)O(2). Color, UV absorbance, and SUVA were reduced by O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2), offering wastewater utilities a few potential surrogates to monitor disinfection or trace contaminant oxidation. At equivalent O(3) dosages, O(3)/H(2)O(2) produced greater concentrations of assimilable organic carbon (5-52%), aldehydes (31-47%), and carboxylic acids (12-43%) compared to O(3) alone, indicating that organic DBP formation is largely dependent upon hydroxyl radical exposure. Bromate formation occurred when O(3) dosages exceeded the O(3) demand of the wastewater. Bench-scale tests with free chlorine showed O(3) is capable of reducing total organic halide (TOX) formation potential by at least 20%. In summary, O(3) provided superior disinfection compared to O(3)/H(2)O(2) while minimizing DBP concentrations. These are important considerations for water reuse, aquifer storage and recovery, and advanced wastewater treatment applications.

  14. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Marín, Claudia; Osorio, Paula; Benítez, Norberto

    2010-05-15

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards: Wastewater. 63.1256 Section... for Pharmaceuticals Production § 63.1256 Standards: Wastewater. (a) General. Each owner or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  7. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  8. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  11. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  12. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  18. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  19. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  1. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  2. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  3. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  4. Separation of coal conversion wastewater components by reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Studies of reverse-osmosis separation of process-derived components from aqueous streams conclude that aromatic-polyamide membranes generally provide better rejection of coal-conversion wastewater components than cellulose-acetate membranes, especially with regard to nonionized organic components. The pH of the feed stream strongly influences the rejection of ammonia, bicarbonate, sulfide, phenol, and borates. Separation of bases (ammonia) decreases with pH, while the separation of acids (bicarbonate, sulfide, phenol, and boric acid) increases with pH.

  5. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M.; Krasnov, George S.; Belova, Anastasia A.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Kharitonov, Sergey L.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wastewater, the taxonomic structure of AS biocenosis was found to become stable in time, and each WWTP demonstrated a unique taxonomic pattern. Most pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus, Trichococcus, etc.), which are abundantly represented in incoming sewage, were significantly decreased in AS of all WWTPs, except for the slaughterhouse wastewater. Additional load of bioreactors with influent rich in petroleum products and organic matter was associated with the increase of bacteria responsible for AS bulking and foaming. Here, we present a novel approach enabling the prediction of the metabolic potential of bacterial communities based on their taxonomic structures and MetaCyc database data. We developed a software application, XeDetect, to implement this approach. Using XeDetect, we found that the metabolic potential of the three bacterial communities clearly reflected the substrate composition. We revealed that the microorganisms responsible for AS bulking and foaming (most abundant in AS of slaughterhouse wastewater) played a leading role in the degradation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids, and other bioorganic compounds. Moreover, we discovered that the chemical, rather than the bacterial composition of the incoming wastewater was the main factor in AS structure formation. XeDetect (freely available: https://sourceforge.net/projects/xedetect) represents a novel powerful tool for the analysis of the metabolic capacity of bacterial communities. The tool will

  6. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions.

    PubMed

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M; Krasnov, George S; Belova, Anastasia A; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kharitonov, Sergey L; Klimina, Kseniya M; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wastewater, the taxonomic structure of AS biocenosis was found to become stable in time, and each WWTP demonstrated a unique taxonomic pattern. Most pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus, Trichococcus, etc.), which are abundantly represented in incoming sewage, were significantly decreased in AS of all WWTPs, except for the slaughterhouse wastewater. Additional load of bioreactors with influent rich in petroleum products and organic matter was associated with the increase of bacteria responsible for AS bulking and foaming. Here, we present a novel approach enabling the prediction of the metabolic potential of bacterial communities based on their taxonomic structures and MetaCyc database data. We developed a software application, XeDetect, to implement this approach. Using XeDetect, we found that the metabolic potential of the three bacterial communities clearly reflected the substrate composition. We revealed that the microorganisms responsible for AS bulking and foaming (most abundant in AS of slaughterhouse wastewater) played a leading role in the degradation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids, and other bioorganic compounds. Moreover, we discovered that the chemical, rather than the bacterial composition of the incoming wastewater was the main factor in AS structure formation. XeDetect (freely available: https://sourceforge.net/projects/xedetect) represents a novel powerful tool for the analysis of the metabolic capacity of bacterial communities. The tool will

  7. Treatment of papermaking tobacco sheet wastewater by electrocoagulation combined with electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiangjuan; Gao, Yang; Huang, Hanping

    2015-01-01

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the efficiency of electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum (Al) anode and stainless steel net cathode combined with electrochemical oxidation with a β-PbO₂anode or a mixed metal oxide (MMO) anode for treatment of papermaking tobacco sheet wastewater, which has the characteristics of high content of suspended solids (SS), intensive color, and low biodegradability. The wastewater was first subjected to the EC process under 40 mA/cm² of current density, 2.5 g/L of NaCl, and maintaining the original pH of wastewater. After 6 minutes of EC process, the effluent was further treated by electrochemical oxidation. The results revealed that the removal of SS during the EC process was very beneficial to mass transfer of organics during electrochemical oxidation. After the combined process, 83.9% and 82.8% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal could be achieved on the β-PbO₂and MMO anodes, respectively. The main components of the final effluent were biodegradable organic acids, such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and hexahyl carbonic acid; the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD₅/COD) ratio increased from 0.06 to 0.85 (Al + β-PbO₂) or 0.80 (Al + MMO). Therefore, this integrated process is a promising alternative for pretreatment of papermaking tobacco sheet wastewater prior to biological treatment.

  8. Method and apparatus for treatment of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1982-01-19

    A method is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia. The process comprises the steps of: distilling the wastewater to remove the free ammonia; treating the distilled wastewater with soda ash to decompose the fixed ammonia; and distilling the treated wastewater to remove the decomposed ammonia. An apparatus is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia comprising: an ammonia still for removing free and fixed ammonia; a source of soda ash solution; and means for feeding the soda ash solution from said soda ash source to the ammonia still to decompose the fixed ammonia.

  9. Detoxification of olive mill wastewater using superabsorbent polymers.

    PubMed

    Davies, L C; Novais, J M; Martins-Dias, S

    2004-01-01

    The detoxification of agro-industrial effluents using superabsorbent polymers is a new and innovative process. Olive mill wastewater constitutes a major environmental problem in Mediterranean countries due to the large volumes generated, the seasonality of the industry, and the high content of polyphenols and organic matter. The application of superabsorbent polymers allows olive mill wastewater to be used as a fertilizer, as it is immobilized, increasing the biological activity that decreases its phytotoxicity, thus making its water, organic matter and mineral content usable for plant nutrition. Various parameters that characterise olive mill wastewater were evaluated after absorption in 2 different superabsorbent polymers (SAP1 and SAP2). The organic matter was equally distributed in both phases, while there was a concentration of protein and sodium in solution. The K:Na ratio decreased from 70:1 to 2:1. The polyphenol desorption from the gel into solution was found to follow Fick's law. The mass transfer coefficients were 0.147 min(-1) and 0.0085 min(-1) for SAP1 and SAP2, respectively. Phytotoxicity tests were carried out with SAP2. Olive mill wastewater in SAP2 with polyphenol concentrations up to 200 mg l(-1) revealed no phytotoxicity, and even stimulated Lepidium sativum growth, while olive mill wastewater without superabsorbent polymer revealed growth inhibition for all concentrations tested. Caffeic acid degradation by the immobilised biomass followed zero order kinetics. Degradation constants of 0.087 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) and 1.156 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) were found. Fungi that developed in the plant growth medium were identified as Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp.

  10. Determination of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids in Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for the extraction from wastewater-treatment sludge and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C6 to C12), 7-3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (7-3 FTCA) and 8-2 fluorotelomer 2-unsaturated carboxylic acid (8-2 FTUCA) using LC/MS/MS.

  11. Altered DNA Binding and Amplification of Human Breast Cancer Suppressor Gene BRCA1 Induced by a Novel Antitumor Compound, [Ru(η6-p-phenylethacrynate)Cl2(pta)

    PubMed Central

    Chakree, Korawan; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Dyson, Paul J.; Ratanaphan, Adisorn

    2012-01-01

    The ruthenium-based complex [Ru(η6-p-phenylethacrynate)Cl2(pta)] (pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[3.3.1.1]decane), termed ethaRAPTA, is an interesting antitumor compound. The elucidation of the molecular mechanism of drug activity is central to the drug development program. To this end, we have characterized the ethaRAPTA interaction with DNA, including probing the sequence specific modified DNA structural stability and DNA amplification using the breast cancer suppressor gene 1 (BRCA1) of human breast and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines as models. The preference of ethaRAPTA base binding is in the order A > G > T > C. Once modified, the ethaRAPTA-induced BRCA1 structure has higher thermal stability than the modified equivalents of its related compound, RAPTA-C. EthaRAPTA exhibits a higher efficiency than RAPTA-C in inhibiting BRCA1 amplification. With respect to both compounds, the inhibition of BRCA1 amplification is more effective in an isolated system than in cell lines. These data provide evidence that will help to understand the process of elucidating the pathways involved in the response induced by ethaRAPTA. PMID:23202946

  12. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.

  13. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  14. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  15. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  16. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  17. Occurrence of eight household micropollutants in urban wastewater and their fate in a wastewater treatment plant. Statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Laure; Munoz, Jean-François; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Yvon, Jacques; Dauchy, Xavier; France, Xavier; Le, Nang Dinh; France-Lanord, Christian; Görner, Tatiana

    2014-05-15

    The occurrence in urban wastewater of eight micropollutants (erythromycin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), ofloxacin, sucralose, triclosan, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) originating from household activities and their fate in a biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated. Their concentrations were assessed in the liquid and solid phases (sewage particulate matter and wasted activated sludge (WAS)) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis of sewage from two different urban catchments connected to the WWTP showed a specific use of ofloxacin in the mixed catchment due to the presence of a hospital, and higher concentrations of sucralose in the residential area. The WWTP process removed over 90% of ibuprofen and triclosan from wastewater, while only 25% of ofloxacin was eliminated. Erythromycin, sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater, the influent and effluent concentrations remaining at about 0.7 μg/L, 3 μg/L and 10 ng/L respectively. The behavior of PFOS and 4-nonylphenol was singular, as concentrations were higher at the WWTP outlet than at its inlet. This was probably related to the degradation of some of their precursors (such as alkylphenol ethoxylates and polyfluorinated compounds resulting in 4-NP and PFOS, respectively) during biological treatment. 4-NP, ofloxacin, triclosan and perfluorinated compounds were found adsorbed on WAS (from 5 ng/kg for PFOA to 1.0mg/kg for triclosan). The statistical methods (principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions) were applied to examine relationships among the concentrations of micropollutants and macropollutants (COD, ammonium, turbidity) entering and leaving the WWTP. A strong relationship with ammonium indicated that some micropollutants enter wastewater via human urine. A statistical analysis of WWTP operation gave a model for estimating micropollutant output from the WWTP based on a measurement of

  18. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  19. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  20. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  1. Microbial Electrolytic Carbon Capture for Carbon Negative and Energy Positive Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Zhe; Rau, Greg H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-07-07

    Energy and carbon neutral wastewater management is a major goal for environmental sustainability, but current progress has only reduced emission rather than using wastewater for active CO2 capture and utilization. We present here a new microbial electrolytic carbon capture (MECC) approach to potentially transform wastewater treatment to a carbon negative and energy positive process. Wastewater was used as an electrolyte for microbially assisted electrolytic production of H2 and OH(-) at the cathode and protons at the anode. The acidity dissolved silicate and liberated metal ions that balanced OH(-), producing metal hydroxide, which transformed CO2 in situ into (bi)carbonate. Results using both artificial and industrial wastewater show 80-93% of the CO2 was recovered from both CO2 derived from organic oxidation and additional CO2 injected into the headspace, making the process carbon-negative. High rates and yields of H2 were produced with 91-95% recovery efficiency, resulting in a net energy gain of 57-62 kJ/mol-CO2 captured. The pH remained stable without buffer addition and no toxic chlorine-containing compounds were detected. The produced (bi)carbonate alkalinity is valuable for wastewater treatment and long-term carbon storage in the ocean. Preliminary evaluation shows promising economic and environmental benefits for different industries.

  2. Invited review: anaerobic fermentation of dairy food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A N; Nelson, B K

    2012-11-01

    Dairy food wastewater disposal represents a major environmental problem. This review discusses microorganisms associated with anaerobic digestion of dairy food wastewater, biochemistry of the process, factors affecting anaerobic digestion, and efforts to develop defined cultures. Anaerobic digestion of dairy food wastewater offers many advantages over other treatments in that a high level of waste stabilization is achieved with much lower levels of sludge. In addition, the process produces readily usable methane with low nutrient requirements and no oxygen. Anaerobic digestion is a series of complex reactions that broadly involve 2 groups of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic microorganisms: acidogens and methanogens. The first group of microorganisms breaks down organic compounds into CO(2) and volatile fatty acids. Some of these organisms are acetogenic, which convert long-chain fatty acids to acetate, CO(2), and hydrogen. Methanogens convert the acidogens' products to methane. The imbalance among the different microbial groups can lead not only to less methane production, but also to process failure. This is due to accumulation of intermediate compounds, such as volatile fatty acids, that inhibit methanogens. The criteria used for evaluation of the anaerobic digestion include levels of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids, methane:carbon ratio, and the gas production rate. A steady state is achieved in an anaerobic digester when the pH, chemical oxygen demand of the effluent, the suspended solids of the effluent, and the daily gas production remain constant. Factors affecting efficiency and stability of the process are types of microorganisms, feed C:N ratio, hydraulic retention time, reactor design, temperature, pH control, hydrogen pressure, and additives such as manure and surfactants. As anaerobic digesters become increasingly used in dairy plants, more research should be directed toward selecting the best cultures that maximize methane production from dairy

  3. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  4. Wastewater Characterization Survey Victor Valley, Wastewater Reclamation Authority and Hazardous Waste Survey at George AFB, Californi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    and the type of pretreatment required are speculative. By the compounds found in the wastewater characterization and hazardous waste survey, SBRs ...shall oean a station positioned In a. sewer system at which wastewater is pumped to a higher level . (67) Sewer shall mean a pipe or conduit that...USAFOEHL REPORT 87-004EQO073AEF WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY VICTOR VALLEY, WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY AND HAZARDOUS WASTE SURVEY AT

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Wastewater Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to wastewater inputs associated with urbanization, overview of combined sewer overflows, overview of how wastewater inputs can contribute to enrichment or eutrophication, overview of how wastewater inputs can affect reproduction by stream fauna.

  6. Evaluation of polar organic micropollutants as indicators for wastewater-related coastal water quality impairment.

    PubMed

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Aloupi, Maria; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Licha, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Results from coastal water pollution monitoring (Lesvos Island, Greece) are presented. In total, 53 samples were analyzed for 58 polar organic micropollutants such as selected herbicides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, stimulants, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals. Main focus is the application of a proposed wastewater indicator quartet (acesulfame, caffeine, valsartan, and valsartan acid) to detect point sources and contamination hot-spots with untreated and treated wastewater. The derived conclusions are compared with the state of knowledge regarding local land use and infrastructure. The artificial sweetener acesulfame and the stimulant caffeine were used as indicators for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. In case of a contamination with untreated wastewater the concentration ratio of the antihypertensive valsartan and its transformation product valsartan acid was used to further refine the estimation of the residence time of the contamination. The median/maximum concentrations of acesulfame and caffeine were 5.3/178 ng L(-1) and 6.1/522 ng L(-1), respectively. Their detection frequency was 100%. Highest concentrations were detected within the urban area of the capital of the island (Mytilene). The indicator quartet in the gulfs of Gera and Kalloni (two semi-enclosed embayments on the island) demonstrated different concentration patterns. A comparatively higher proportion of untreated wastewater was detected in the gulf of Gera, which is in agreement with data on the wastewater infrastructure. The indicator quality of the micropollutants to detect wastewater was compared with electrical conductivity (EC) data. Due to their anthropogenic nature and low detection limits, the micropollutants are superior to EC regarding both sensitivity and selectivity. The concentrations of atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon did not exceed the annual average of their environmental quality standards (EQS) defined by the European Commission. At two sampling

  7. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  8. Outsource water/wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, J.A.; Cichon, E.J.

    1997-08-01

    For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  11. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  12. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  13. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  16. Source analysis of organic matter in swine wastewater after anaerobic digestion with EEM-PARAFAC.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhuo; Zheng, Ping; Ding, Aqiang; Zhang, Meng; Abbas, Ghulam; Li, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Swine wastewater is one of the most serious pollution sources, and it has attracted a great public concern in China. Anaerobic digestion technology is extensively used in swine wastewater treatment. However, the anaerobic digestion effluents are difficult to meet the discharge standard. The results from batch experiments showed that plenty of refractory organic matter remained in the effluents after mesophilic anaerobic digestion for 30 days. The effluent total COD (tCOD) and soluble COD (sCOD) were 483 and 324 mg/L, respectively, with the sCOD/tCOD ratio of 0.671. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that the dissolved organic matter in the effluents was tryptophan-like substance, humic acid substance, and fulvic acid substance. Based on the appearance time during anaerobic digestion, tryptophan-like substance and humic acid substance were inferred to originate from the raw swine wastewater, and the fulvic acid substance was inferred to be formed in the anaerobic digestion. This work has revealed the source of residual organic matter in anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater and has provided some valuable information for the post-treatment.

  17. Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

  18. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  19. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  20. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-28

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation.

  1. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G. N.; Mohan, S. Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste-recycling Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Lim, Juntaek; Jo, Minho; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-11-01

    Food waste-recycling (FWR) wastewater was evaluated as feedstock for two-stage anaerobic digestion at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The FWR wastewater tested contained high concentrations of organic materials and had chemical oxygen demand (COD) >130 g/L and volatile solids (VS) >55 g/L. Two identical two-stage anaerobic digesters were operated to investigate the performance at six HRTs ranging from 10-25 days. In the acidogenic reactor, the total carbohydrate reduction efficiency and volatile fatty acid production dramatically decreased when acidogenic HRT was <2.5 days (i.e., total two-stage HRT = 15 days). High organic removal ratios of 75.5-85.9% for COD and 68.8-83.6% for VS were achieved throughout the two-stage process. Methane production rate of 1.7-3.6 L-gas/L-reactorṡd was observed. These results suggested that two-stage anaerobic process was successful at the laboratory scale with FWR wastewater as feedstock.

  3. Waste to resource: Converting paper mill wastewater to bioplastic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Tamis, Jelmer; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Dijkman, Henk; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2012-11-01

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by microbial enrichments on paper mill wastewater. The complete process includes (1) paper mill wastewater acidogenic fermentation in a simple batch process, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community in a selector operated in sequencing batch mode with feast-famine regime, (3) Cellular PHA content maximization of the enrichment in an accumulator in fed-batch mode. The selective pressure required to establish a PHA-producing microbial enrichment, as derived from our previous research on synthetic medium, was validated using an agro-industrial waste stream in this study. The microbial enrichment obtained could accumulate maximum up to 77% PHA of cell dry weight within 5 h, which is currently the best result obtained on real agro-industrial waste streams, especially in terms of biomass specific efficiency. Biomass in this enrichment included both Plasticicumulans acidivorans, which was the main PHA producer, and a flanking population, which exhibited limited PHA-producing capacity. The fraction of P. acidivorans in the biomass was largely dependent on the fraction of volatile fatty acids in the total soluble COD in the wastewater after acidification. Based on this observation, one simple equation was proposed for predicting the PHA storage capacity of the enrichment. Moreover, some crucial bottlenecks that may impede the successful scaling-up of the process are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    De Francisci, Davide; Su, Yixi; Iital, Arvo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-04-05

    In the present study, the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat-panel photobioreactors. Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to the four dilution rates, while chemical oxygen demand removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions. The biomass obtained at the highest dilution rate was characterized for its content of lipids, proteins and pigments. The average yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), protein, lutein, chlorophylls and β-carotene was 62.4, 388.2, 1.03, 11.82 and 0.44 mg per gram dry biomass, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that potentially more than 70% of revenue was from the production of pigments, that is, chlorophyllin (59.6%), lutein (8.9%) and β-carotene (5.0%) while reduction in discharging costs of the treated wastewaters could account for 19.6% of the revenue. Due to the low market price of biodiesel, the revenue from the above was found to be the least profitable (1.4%). Even when combining all these different revenues, this cultivation strategy was found with the current prices to be uneconomical. Power consumption for artificial light was responsible for the 94.5% of the production costs.

  5. In-plant testing of membranes to treat electroplating wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, D. B.; Talu, Orhan

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report submitted for the work performed under the NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-301 for the project entitled 'In-Plant Testing of Membranes To Treat Electroplating Waste water'. The main objective of the research project was to determine if the crosslinked polyacrylic acid salt films developed by NASA scientists could be used for heavy metal removal from the wastewater generated by the metals-finishing or electroplating industry. A variety of tasks identified in the original proposal were completed. These included: (1) analysis of our industrial partner Aetna Plating's zinc electroplating process and its wastewater treatment needs for zinc removal; (2) design and construction of a laboratory-scale unit to continuously supply and remove the ion exchange films from the zinc wastewater; (3) performance of a series of runs on such a unit to determine its operating characteristics; and (4) design of a prototype unit for use at the industrial site. In addition, there were a number of tasks that had not been identified in the original proposal but were later judged to be necessary for the successful completion of the project. These were: (1) batch equilibrium and kinetic experiments with analysis of the experimental results to accurately determine the equilibrium and kinetic parameters for the ion exchange films; (2 ) simulation studies for proper design of the prototype unit; and (3) preliminary runs to exchange the films from H form to Calcium form.

  6. Electrolytic treatment of Standard Malaysian Rubber process wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Yazid, Ahmad Yuzri Ahmad

    2008-01-31

    A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content.

  7. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  8. Wastewater neutralization control based on fuzzy logic: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Adroer, M.; Alsina, A.; Aumatell, J.; Poch, M.

    1999-07-01

    Many industrial wastes contain acidic or alkaline materials that require neutralization of previous discharge into receiving waters or to chemical and biological treatment plants. The control of the wastewater neutralization process is subjected to several difficulties, such as the highly nonlinear titration curve (with special sensitivity around neutrality), the unknown water composition, the variable buffering capacity of the system, and the changes in input loading. To deal with these problems, this study proposes a fixed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) structure coupled with a tuning factor. The versatility and robustness of this controller has been proved when faced with solutions of variable buffering capacity, with acids that cover a wide pK range and with switches between acids throughout the course of a test. Laboratory experiments and simulation runs using the proposed controller were successful in a wide operational range.

  9. Carbon recovery from wastewater through bioconversion into biodegradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesco; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Campanari, Sabrina; Villano, Marianna; Werker, Alan; Majone, Mauro

    2017-07-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable polyesters that can be produced in bioprocesses from renewable resources in contrast to fossil-based bio-recalcitrant polymers. Research efforts have been directed towards establishing technical feasibility in the use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) for PHA production using residuals as feedstock, mainly consisting of industrial process effluent waters and wastewaters. In this context, PHA production can be integrated with waste and wastewater biological treatment, with concurrent benefits of resource recovery and sludge minimization. Over the past 15 years, much of the research on MMC PHA production has been performed at laboratory scale in three process elements as follows: (1) acidogenic fermentation to obtain a volatile fatty acid (VFA)-rich stream, (2) a dedicated biomass production yielding MMCs enriched with PHA-storing potential, and (3) a PHA accumulation step where (1) and (2) outputs are combined in a final biopolymer production bioprocess. This paper reviews the recent developments on MMC PHA production from synthetic and real wastewaters. The goals of the critical review are: a) to highlight the progress of the three-steps in MMC PHA production, and as well to recommend room for improvements, and b) to explore the ideas and developments of integration of PHA production within existing infrastructure of municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment. There has been much technical advancement of ideas and results in the MMC PHA rich biomass production. However, clear demonstration of production and recovery of the polymers within a context of product quality over an extended period of time, within an up-scalable commercially viable context of regional material supply, and with well-defined quality demands for specific intent of material use, is a hill that still needs to be climbed in order to truly spur on innovations for this field of research and development.

  10. Effects of chemical agent injections on genotoxicity of wastewater in a microfiltration-reverse osmosis membrane process for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Tang, Xin; Sun, Ying-Xue; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Jing-Jing

    2013-09-15

    With combined microfiltration (MF)/ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) process being widely used in municipal wastewater reclamation, RO concentrate with high level genotoxicity is becoming a potential risk to water environment. In this study, wastewater genotoxicity in a MF-RO process for municipal wastewater reclamation and also the effects of chemical agent injections were evaluated by SOS/umu genotoxicity test. The genotoxicity of RO concentrate ranged 500-559 μg 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide)/L and 12-22 μg 4-NQO/mg DOC, was much higher than that of RO influent. Further research suggested that Kathon biocide was a key chemical agent associated with the genotoxicity increase. Kathon biocide used in RO system was highly genotoxic in vitro and Kathon biocide retained in RO system could contribute to a higher genotoxicity of RO concentrate. Hence, treatments for biocides before discharging are necessary. Chlorination of secondary effluent could significantly decrease the genotoxicity and increasing chlorine dosage could be an efficacious method to decrease the genotoxicity of RO concentrate. According to the result of the experiment, the dosage of chlorine in dual-membrane process could be set to about 2.5 mg Cl₂/L. The effect of antiscalant (2-phosphomobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid) was also investigated; it turned out to have no effect on genotoxicity.

  11. Organic compounds in olive mill wastewater and in solutions resulting from hydrothermal carbonization of the wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Baskyr, I

    2013-09-01

    Organic components in olive mill wastewater (OMW) were analyzed by exhaustive solvent extraction of the lyophilisate followed by pre-chromatographic derivatization techniques and GC/MS-analysis of the extracts. Simple biophenols including tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr) and homovanillic alcohol as well as complex biophenols including decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon proved most abundant analytes. Hydroxylated benzoic and cinnamic acids are less abundant, which may indicate a humification process to have occurred. The pattern of organic components obtained from native OMW was compared with that obtained from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of the waste product. Former results provided strong evidence that HTC of OMW at 220°C for 14h results in an almost complete hydrolysis of complex aglycons. However, simple biophenols were not decomposed on hydrothermal treatment any further. Phenol and benzenediols as well as low molecular weight organic acids proved most abundant analytes which were generated due to HTC. Similarly to aglycons, lipids including most abundant acylglycerines and less abundant wax esters were subjected almost quantitatively to hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions. Fatty acids (FAs) released from lipids were further decomposed. The pathways of volatile analytes in both native OMW and aqueous HTC solutions were studied by solventless headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction. Basically, a wide array low molecular alcohols and ketones occurring in native OMW survived the HTC process.

  12. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources.

  13. Kinetics and Effects of Dichloroacetic Acid in Rainbow Trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) are continuously released to surface waters in municipal wastewater effluents. Very little is known, however, about their potential to adversely impact aquatic life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake, distribution, elimination...

  14. Bio-remediation of colored industrial wastewaters by the white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus and their enzymes.

    PubMed

    Faraco, V; Pezzella, C; Miele, A; Giardina, P; Sannia, G

    2009-04-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus whole cells and their ligninolytic enzymes on models of colored industrial wastewaters was evaluated. Models of acid, direct and reactive dye wastewaters from textile industry have been defined on the basis of discharged amounts, economic relevance and representativeness of chemical structures of the contained dyes. Phanerochaete chrysosporium provided an effective decolourization of direct dye wastewater model, reaching about 45% decolourization in only 1 day of treatment, and about 90% decolourization within 7 days, whilst P. ostreatus was able to decolorize and detoxify acid dye wastewater model providing 40% decolourization in only 1 day, and 60% in 7 days. P. ostreatus growth conditions that induce laccase production (up to 130,000 U/l) were identified, and extra-cellular enzyme mixtures, with known laccase isoenzyme composition, were produced and used in wastewater models decolourization. The mixtures decolorized and detoxified the acid dye wastewater model, suggesting laccases as the main agents of wastewater decolourization by P. ostreatus. A laccase mixture was immobilized by entrapment in Cu-alginate beads, and the immobilized enzymes were shown to be effective in batch decolourization, even after 15 stepwise additions of dye for a total exposure of about 1 month.

  15. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  17. Ferrous and Sulfide Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    chromium contaminants and the precipitation of heavy metal contaminants from contaminated electroplating wastewater. The wastewater is first adjusted...to a pH of from about 8 to 10 and then treated with sodium sulfide to provide sulfide ions to effect precipitation of heavy metal contaminants followed

  18. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  19. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  20. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  1. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    PubMed

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2016-02-11

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m(-3) for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Wastewater temperature decrease in pressure sewers.

    PubMed

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Pekkala, Mari

    2008-12-01

    The centralization of wastewater treatment in large central treatment plants and the connection of sparsely populated areas to sewerage systems have increased the time wastewater is retained in sewers. These retention times lead to a decrease in wastewater temperature and affect wastewater treatment, especially the removal of nitrogen. In this study, temperature changes in long transfer sewers were examined. The temperature change was greatest at the end of winter and in the front part of the sewer. Temperature changes in the front parts of the sewers ranged from 0.16 to 0.27 degree C/km, and in the end parts from 0.02 to 0.10 degree C/km. When expressed in terms of the retention time for wastewater in the sewer, the temperature changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 degree C per retention hour.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  4. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  5. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  6. Utilization of secondary-treated wastewater for the production of freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, C; Morales-Amaral, M M; Acién, F G; Escudero, R; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Molina-Grima, E

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we studied the potential use of secondary-treated wastewater as nutrient source in the production of freshwater microalgae strains. Experiments were performed indoors in a semicontinuous mode, at 0.3 day(-1), simulating outdoor conditions. We demonstrated that all the tested strains can be produced by using only secondary-treated wastewater as the nutrient source. The utilization of secondary-treated wastewater imposes nutrient-limiting conditions, with maximal biomass productivity dropping to 0.5 g l(-1) day(-1) and modifies the biochemical composition of the biomass by increasing the amount of lipids and carbohydrates while reducing the biomass protein content. We measured fatty acid content and productivity of up to 25 %d.wt. and 110 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. We demonstrated that all the tested strains were capable of completely removing the nitrogen and phosphorus contained in the secondary-treated wastewater, and while the use of this effluent reduced the cells' photosynthetic efficiency, the nitrogen and phosphorus coefficient yield increased. Muriellopsis sp. and S. subpicatus were selected as the most promising strains for outdoor production using secondary-treated wastewater as the culture medium; this was not only because of their high productivity but also their photosynthetic efficiency, of up to 2.5 %, along with nutrient coefficient yields of up to 96 gbiomass gN (-1) and 166 gbiomass gP (-1). Coupling microalgae production processes to tertiary treatment in wastewater treatment plants make it possible to recover nutrients contained in the water and to produce valuable biomass, especially where nutrient removal is required prior to wastewater discharge.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  8. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the University of Houston. Testing was conducted over a period of six months to evaluate the coating’s (1) chemical resistance and (2) bonding strength for infrastructure applications. For chemical resistance, coated concrete and clay bricks with holidays (holes created in the coating) were used to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating/substrate bond under a corrosive environment. Twenty coated concrete (dry and wet) and 20 coated clay brick (dry and wet) specimens were exposed to DI water and sulfuric acid solution (pH=1), and the specimens were visually inspected and weight changes measured. Evaluation of the coating-to-substrate bonding strength was determined using two modified ASTM test methods – one to determine bond strength of the coating with two specimens sandwiched together using the coating, and the second to determine the bond strength by applying a tensile load to the coating applied to specimens of each substrate. Forty-eight bonding tests were performed over the six month evaluation. The tests resulted in the following conclusions about Standard Cement’s SEC 4553 coating: • After the six-month chemi

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Baskyr, I; Weiner, B; Koehler, R; Wedwitschka, H; Kopinke, F-D

    2013-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology to treat wet biomasses aimed at producing a biochar material. Herein, olive mill wastewater (OMW) was subjected to HTC. Mass balance considerations provide evidence that the yield of biochar is low (~30%, w/w), which is associated with a low fraction of carbohydrates in OMW. The combination of different preparation schemes, pre-chromatographic derivatization reactions and GC/MS analysis for the analysis of organic compounds in aqueous HTC-solutions allowed to identify and quantify a wide array of analytes which belong either to intrinsic constituents of OMW or to characteristic HTC-breakdown products. Biophenols, such as hydroxyl-tyrosol (OH-Tyr), tyrosol (Tyr) account for the most abundant members of the first group. Most abundant breakdown products include phenol and benzenediols as well as short-chain organic acids. Secoiridoids, such as decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon, all of them being typical components of OMW, are less abundant in HTC-solutions.

  10. Experimental Oily Wastewater Separation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-28

    simulants, and bilgewater demonstrated the 0017 1A T3 IOOOpp Rovs 69Is eu.,sIT4 Unclassified $*Ccu1fV Cf.ANOPOCAr,0U Of tM#$ 0444 fftf em -- nd...Oxyphotolysls Reactor Assembly 0 (From Shipboard Installation) .... ............ 4-3 4-3. 1200-Watt UV Lamp Stabilizer, Enclosure for 550-Watt and 700-Watt...steel reactor assembly where the dissolved components in the oily wastewater are oxidized with ozone in the presence of UV radiation. During the

  11. Conducting polypyrrole films as a potential tool for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Smith, Warren T; Wong, Danny K Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate conducting polypyrrole films as a potential green technology for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in wastewaters using Acid Red 1 as a model analyte. These films were synthesised by anodically polymerising pyrrole in the presence of Acid Red 1 as a supporting electrolyte. In this way, the anionic Acid Red 1 is electrostatically attracted to the cationic polypyrrole backbone formed to maintain electroneutrality, and is thus entrapped in the film. These Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole films were characterised by electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Based on a two-level factorial design, the solution pH, Acid Red 1 concentration and polymerisation duration were identified as significant parameters affecting the entrapment efficiency. The entrapment process will potentially aid in decolourising Acid Red 1-containing wastewaters. Similarly, in a cathodic process, electrons are supplied to neutralise the polypyrrole backbone, liberating Acid Red 1 into a solution. In this work, following an entrapment duration of 480 min in 2000 mg L(-1) Acid Red 1, we estimated 21% of the dye was liberated after a reduction period of 240 min. This allows the recovery of Acid Red 1 for recycling purposes. A distinctive advantage of this electrochemical Acid Red 1 treatment, compared to many other techniques, is that no known toxic by-products are generated in the treatment. Therefore, conducting polypyrrole films can potentially be applied as an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents.

  12. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal...

  13. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal...

  15. Analysis of VX nerve agent hydrolysis products in wastewater effluents by ion chromatography with amperometric and conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Piao, Haishan; Marx, Randall B; Schneider, Steven; Irvine, David A; Staton, John

    2005-09-30

    An analytical method, based on the use of ion chromatography, was developed to monitor the levels of three regulated VX hydrolysis products in the effluent from a biological wastewater treatment process--ethylmethylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid and 2-(diisopropyl)aminoethanethiol. Previous methods have not been applied to wastewater matrices or 2-(diisopropyl)aminoethanethiol. Despite the specificity and sensitivity constraints of this method, it was possible to measure the compounds in bioreactor effluents down to a level substantially below the US Army discharge limit of 0.1% (w/v). Analytical data was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) at an independent laboratory.

  16. Effect of electrochemical oxidation on biodegradability and toxicity of batik industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Devagi; Halim, Azhar A.

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the increase in biodegradability and reduction in toxicity level in the batik wastewater treatment. Basically, the wastewater treatment from batik industry contained chemicals especially dyes which are not biodegradable and contains higher toxicity level because of the chemical compartment which comes out during the wastewater discharge and this could lead high risk in health wise to humans and all the aquatic living organisms. Thus, this research was carried to enhance the effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation method by using the batik wastewater. Optimal parameters such as pH, time, distance between graphite electrodes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration as it activates as the electrolyte was done to obtain the removal of BOD, COD and color in the batik wastewater. The research study found that the removal of COD and color was high in the acidic conditions which are pH 5 with the removal of COD, 89.71% and color 93.89%. The ratio of BOD5/ COD successfully increased from 0.015 to 0.271 which mean it increase by 94.46% and the toxicity level using Toxtrax method (10017) also successfully reduced from 1.195% to 0.129% which means the samples which were slightly toxic were reduced to non-toxic level.

  17. Removal of mercury from chloralkali electrolysis wastewater by a mercury-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain

    SciTech Connect

    Canstein, H. von; Li, Y.; Timmis, K.N.; Deckwer, W.D.; Wagner-Doebler, I.

    1999-12-01

    A mercury-resistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to remediate in laboratory columns mercury-containing wastewater produced during electrolytic production of chlorine. Factory effluents from several chloralkali plants in Europe were analyzed, and these effluents contained total mercury concentrations between 1.6 and 7.6 mg/liter and high chloride concentrations and had pH values which were either acidic or alkaline. A mercury-resistant bacterial strain, Pseudomonas putida Spi3, was isolated from polluted river sediments. Biofilms of P.putida Spi3 were grown on porous carrier material in laboratory column bioreactors. The bioreactors were continuously fed with sterile synthetic model wastewater or nonsterile, neutralized, aerated chloralkali wastewater. The authors found that sodium chloride concentrations up to 24 g/liter did not inhibit microbial mercury retention and that mercury concentrations up to 7 mg/liter could be treated with the bacterial biofilm with no loss of activity. When wastewater samples from three different chloralkali plants in Europe were used, levels of mercury retention efficiency between 90 and 98% were obtained. Thus, microbial mercury removal is a potential biological treatment for chloralkali electrolysis wastewater.

  18. A Multi-tracer Approach to Determining the Fate of Wastewater in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J. E.; Beller, H. R.; Leif, R.; Singleton, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    In California, demand for limited fresh water supplies for use as drinking water has increased, and recycled water is increasingly used for irrigation or for groundwater recharge. In this study, analysis of multiple tracers, including general minerals, stable isotopes of the water molecule (for source water identification and evidence for evaporation) and of nitrate (wastewater denitrification indicators), and tritium-helium groundwater age, allow identification and quantification of the fraction of water produced at a well that originated as applied wastewater effluent. Wastewater target compounds include metabolites of alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants, pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen and carbamazepine, personal care products such as triclosan and polycyclic musk fragrance compounds, the insect repellent DEET, and caffeine. In spite of a high fraction (up to 70 percent) of wastewater recharge produced at monitoring wells from two sites (in Livermore, CA and Gilroy, CA), the only detections greater than 50 ng/L were of alkylphenol carboxylic acids and the anti-seizure pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and primadone. However, even these compounds occurred at concentrations in groundwater that were significantly lower than concentrations observed in treated wastewater effluent. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  19. Electricity generation from an inorganic sulfur compound containing mining wastewater by acidophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ni, Gaofeng; Christel, Stephan; Roman, Pawel; Wong, Zhen Lim; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Dopson, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Sulfide mineral processing often produces large quantities of wastewaters containing acid-generating inorganic sulfur compounds. If released untreated, these wastewaters can cause catastrophic environmental damage. In this study, microbial fuel cells were inoculated with acidophilic microorganisms to investigate whether inorganic sulfur compound oxidation can generate an electrical current. Cyclic voltammetry suggested that acidophilic microorganisms mediated electron transfer to the anode, and that electricity generation was catalyzed by microorganisms. A cation exchange membrane microbial fuel cell, fed with artificial wastewater containing tetrathionate as electron donor, reached a maximum whole cell voltage of 72 ± 9 mV. Stepwise replacement of the artificial anolyte with real mining process wastewater had no adverse effect on bioelectrochemical performance and generated a maximum voltage of 105 ± 42 mV. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the microbial consortia resulted in sequences that aligned within the genera Thermoplasma, Ferroplasma, Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus and Acidithiobacillus. This study opens up possibilities to bioremediate mining wastewater using microbial fuel cell technology.

  20. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage.

  1. Efficient electricity production and simultaneously wastewater treatment via a high-performance photocatalytic fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbiao; Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Baoxue; Li, Xuejin; Chen, Hongchong; Chen, Quanpeng; Wang, Zhongsheng; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Cai, Weimin

    2011-07-01

    A great quantity of wastewater were discharged into water body, causing serious environmental pollution. Meanwhile, the organic compounds in wastewater are important sources of energy. In this work, a high-performance short TiO(2) nanotube array (STNA) electrode was applied as photoanode material in a novel photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system for electricity production and simultaneously wastewater treatment. The results of current work demonstrate that various model compounds as well as real wastewater samples can be used as substrates for the PFC system. As a representative of model compounds, the acetic acid solution produces the highest cell performance with short-circuit current density 1.42 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage 1.48 V and maximum power density output 0.67 mW cm(-2). The STNA photoanode reveals obviously enhanced cell performance compared with TiO(2) nanoparticulate film electrode or other long nanotubes electrode. Moreover, the photoanode material, electrolyte concentration, pH of the initial solution, and cathode material were found to be important factors influencing the system performance of PFC. Therefore, the proposed fuel cell system provides a novel way of energy conversion and effective disposal mode of organics and serves well as a promising technology for wastewater treatment.

  2. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mhongole, Ofred J; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Forslund, Anita; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater use for crop irrigation and aquaculture is commonly practiced by communities situated close to wastewater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among isolates from wastewater and Tilapia fish. A total of 123 Salmonella spp. isolates were isolated from 52 water and 21 fish intestinal samples. Genotyping of Salmonella spp. isolates was done by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique. A total of 123 Salmonella spp. isolates represented 13 different serovars and 22 PFGE groups. Salmonella serovars showed resistance to 8 out of 14 antimicrobials; sulfamethaxazole (94%), streptomycin (61%), tetracycline (22%), ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (17%), trimethoprim (11%); gentamycin and chloramphenicol (6%). Salmonella Kentucky, S. Chandans, S. Durban and S. Kiambu showed multiple antimicrobial resistance to 7, 6 and 3 antimicrobials, respectively. This study has demonstrated that wastewater at the study sites is contaminated with Salmonella spp. which are resistant to common antimicrobials used for treatment of diseases in humans. Wastewater may, therefore, contaminate pristine surface water bodies and foodstuffs including fish and irrigated crops as well as food handlers.

  3. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  4. Investigation of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants in Greece: occurrence, removal and environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an extensive study on the presence of eighteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Greece has been conducted. The study covered four sampling periods over 1-year, where samples (influents; effluents) from eight WWTPs of various cities in Greece were taken. All WWTPs investigated are equipped with conventional activated sludge treatment. A common pre-concentration step based on SPE was applied, followed by LC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS. Further confirmation of positive findings was accomplished by using LC coupled to a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The results showed the occurrence of all target compounds in the wastewater samples with concentrations up to 96.65 μg/L. Paracetamol, caffeine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and salicylic acid were the dominant compounds, while tolfenamic acid, fenofibrate and simvastatin were the less frequently detected compounds with concentrations in effluents below the LOQ. The removal efficiencies showed that many WWTPs were unable to effectively remove most of the PPCPs investigated. Finally, the study provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in wastewaters by means of the risk quotient (RQ). RQs were more than unity for various compounds in the effluents expressing possible threat for the aquatic environment. Triclosan was found to be the most critical compound in terms of contribution and environmental risk, concluding that it should be seriously considered as a candidate for regulatory monitoring and prioritization on a European scale on the basis of realistic PNECs. The results of the extensive monitoring study contributed to a better insight on PPCPs in Greece and their presence in influent and effluent wastewaters. Furthermore, the unequivocal identification of two transformation products of trimethoprim in real wastewaters by using the advantages of the LTQ Orbitrap capabilities

  5. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 1. METAL PRECIPITATION FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewater...

  6. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash filtrates into zeolites 2: utilization in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Filtrates were collected using a codisposal reaction wherein fly ash was reacted with acid mine drainage. These codisposal filtrates were then analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for quantitative determination of the SiO2 and Al2O3 content. Alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis was then applied to the filtrates to convert the fly ash material into zeolites. The zeolites formed under the experimental conditions were faujasite, sodalite, and zeolite A. The use of the fly ash-derived zeolites and a commercial zeolite was explored in wastewater decontamination experiments as it was applied to acid mine drainage in different dosages. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Pb metal ions in the treated wastewater were investigated. The results of the treatment of the acid mine drainage with the prepared fly ash zeolites showed that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Hg were decreased as the zeolite dosages of the fly ash zeolite (FAZ1) increased.

  7. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Fermentation Wastewater Treatment by Oleaginous Yeast Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lian; Huang, Chao; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xue-Fang; Wang, Bo; Wang, Can; Zeng, Xin-An; Chen, Xin-De

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value (about 18,000 mg/L) was biologically treated by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum without any pretreatment. During fermentation, most COD degradation was finished within 48 h and finally, a maximum COD degradation of 68% was obtained. The highest biomass and lipid content was 4.9 g/L and 14.7%, respectively. Various materials including sugars (glucose and xylose), organic acids (acetic acid and butyric acid), and alcohol compounds (ethanol and butanol) could be utilized as carbon sources by T. cutaneum simultaneously; thus, it has a broad carbon source spectrum and is a potential microorganism for biological treatment for various wastewaters. Overall, the lipid composition of microbial oils produced by this bioconversion is similar to that of vegetable oils, and thus, it could be used for biodiesel production.

  8. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  9. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  10. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  11. Suitability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) as wastewater indicators in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Wang-Rong; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jin-Na; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2017-07-15

    Wastewater indicator is a useful tool for evaluating the wastewater impact on natural water, but there is little information about the suitability of wastewater indicators for different regions. This study aimed to select suitable wastewater indicators in the Pearl River Delta region, south China by screening a range of wastewater related organic compounds. The screening campaign was carried out by investigating the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 93 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 5 artificial sweeteners (ASs) in nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in the region, and the occurrence of these target compounds in the contaminated and clean surface water of the Pearl River. An ideal wastewater indicator should be hydrophilic, source-specific for domestic wastewater, ubiquitous in contaminated surface water with detection frequency (DF) >80% and absent in background water samples. For liable indicators, high removal rates (>90%) should be observed in WWTPs and they should be detected in all the influent samples at concentrations fifty times higher than their limits of quantification. For conservative indicators, low removal rates (<50%) should be observed in WWTPs and they should be detected in all the effluent samples at concentrations fifty times higher than their limits of quantification. Based on the above criteria, sucralose and fluconazole were selected as conservative indicators in the region, while cyclamate, saccharin, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, paracetamol, salicylic acid and caffeine were selected as liable indicators.

  12. Electrocoagulation of wastewater from almond industry.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; García, Vicente; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    This work was carried out to study the treatment of almond industry wastewater by the electrocoagulation process. First of all, laboratory scale experiments were conducted in order to determine the effects of relevant wastewater characteristics such as conductivity and pH, as well as the process variables such as anode material, current density and operating time on the removal efficiencies of the total organic carbon (TOC) and the most representative analytical parameters. Next, the wastewater treatment process was scaled up to pre-industrial size using the best experimental conditions and parameters obtained at laboratory scale. Finally, economic parameters such as chemicals, energy consumption and sludge generation have been discussed.

  13. Enhanced biomass production through optimization of carbon source and utilization of wastewater as a nutrient source.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Pawar, Radheshyam R; Jung, Sokhee P; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2016-12-15

    The study aimed to utilize the domestic wastewater as nutrient feedstock for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae by evaluating appropriate carbon source. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in municipal wastewater under various carbon sources (glucose, glycerol, and acetate), followed by optimization of appropriate carbon source concentration to augment the biomass, lipid, and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized conditions, namely of 5 g/L glucose, C. vulgaris showed higher increments of biomass with 1.39 g/L dry cell weight achieving biomass productivity of 0.13 g/L/d. The biomass accumulated 19.29 ± 1.83% total lipid, 41.4 ± 1.46% carbohydrate, and 33.06 ± 1.87% proteins. Moreover, the cultivation of Chlorella sp. in glucose-supplemented wastewater removed 96.9% chemical oxygen demand, 65.3% total nitrogen, and 71.2% total phosphate. The fatty acid methyl ester obtained showed higher amount (61.94%) of saturated fatty acid methyl esters associated with the improved fuel properties. These results suggest that mixotrophic cultivation using glucose offers great potential in the production of renewable biomass, wastewater treatment, and consequent production of high-value microalgal oil.

  14. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ13PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ13PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs.

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of methylhydrazine and hydrazine contaminated NASA wastewater in fixed-film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nwankwoala, A U; Egiebor, N O; Nyavor, K

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) wastewater that contains mixtures of highly concentrated methylhydrazine/hydrazine, citric acid and their reaction product was studied on a laboratory-scale fixed film trickle-bed reactor. The degrading organisms, Achromobacter sp., Rhodococcus B30 and Rhodococcus J10, were immobilized on coarse sand grains used as support-media in the columns. Under continuous flow operation, Rhodococcus sp. degraded the methylhydrazine content of the wastewater from a concentration of 10 to 2.5 mg/mL within 12 days and the hydrazine from approximately 0.8 to 0.1 mg/mL in 7 days. The Achromobacter sp. was equally efficient in degrading the organics present in the wastewater, reducing the concentration of the methylhydrazine from 10 to approximately 5 mg/mL within 12 days and that of the hydrazine from approximately 0.8 to 0.2 mg/mL in 7 days. The pseudo first-order rate constants of 0.137 day(-1) and 0.232 day(-1) were obtained for the removal of methylhydrazine and hydrazine, respectively, in wastewater in the reactor column. In the batch cultures, rate constants for the degradation were 0.046 and 0.079 day(-1) for methylhydrazine and hydrazine respectively. These results demonstrate that the continuous flow bioreactor afford greater degradation efficiencies than those obtained when the wastewater was incubated with the microbes in growth-limited batch experiments. They also show that wastewater containing hydrazine is more amenable to microbial degradation than one that is predominant in methylhydrazine, in spite of the longer lag period observed for hydrazine containing wastewater. The influence of substrate concentration and recycle rate on the degradation efficiency is reported. The major advantages of the trickle-bed reactor over the batch system include very high substrate volumetric rate of turnover, higher rates of degradation and tolerance of the 100% concentrated NASA wastewater. The

  16. Effect of Polonite used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on soil properties and fertility of a mountain meadow.

    PubMed

    Cucarella, Victor; Mazurek, Ryszard; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kopeć, Michał; Renman, Gunno

    2009-07-01

    Reactive filter materials used for phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater can be disposed of as soil amendments after treatment, thus recycling P and other macro- and micro-nutrients to plants. In addition, materials with a high pH and Ca content, such as Polonite, are potential soil conditioners, which can be particularly beneficial for acid soils. Polonite previously used for on-site wastewater treatment was applied as a soil amendment to a mountain meadow. The amendment significantly increased soil pH and decreased the hydrolytic acidity, thus reducing Al toxicity risks. The effects were comparable to those of liming. No difference in yield and P uptake by meadow plants was observed. The uptake of metals was lower for amended soils, especially the uptake of Mn. Using Polonite after wastewater treatment as a soil amendment is thus a viable disposal alternative that can replace liming, when necessary, being capable of recycling P and other nutrients to meadow plants.

  17. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  18. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  19. Charlo Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022551, the Consolidated Charlo-Lake County Water & Sewer District is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed swale that runs to Dublin Gulch.

  20. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  1. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, René A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jurg; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-08-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laboratory BESs now approach levels that come close to the requirements for practical applications. However, full-scale implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment is not straightforward because certain microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved that have not previously been encountered in any other wastewater treatment system. Here, we identify these challenges, provide an overview of their implications for the feasibility of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment and explore the opportunities for future BESs.

  2. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  3. SCIENCE BRIEF: REHABILITATION OF WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    System rehabilitation is the application of infrastructure repair, renewal and replacement technologies in order to reinstate functionality of a wastewater system or subsystem. The proper balance of the repair, renewal, and replacement depends on the condition assessment, the lif...

  4. Woodcock Home Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030554, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority is authorized to discharge from its Woodcock Home Addition Wastewater Treatment Facility in Lake County, Montana, to a swale draining to Middle Crow Creek.

  5. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  6. Role of p53 in the cellular response following oleic acid accumulation in Chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Lee, Ah Young; Chang, Seung-Hee; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-03

    Abnormal accumulation of fatty acids triggers the harmful cellular response called lipotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the cellular response following accumulation of oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid, in human Chang liver cells. OA droplets were distributed freely in the cytoplasm and/or degraded within lysosomes. OA exposure increased ATP production and concomitantly dilated mitochondria. At 24h after OA exposure, cell viability decreased slightly and was coupled with a reduction in mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, the alteration in cell viability was also associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and changes in the cell cycle. Moreover, OA treatment increased the expression of autophagy- and apoptotic cell death-related proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we investigated the role of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, in the cellular response elicited by OA accumulation. OA-induced changes in cell viability and ATP production were rescued to control levels when cells were pretreated with pifithrin-alpha (PTA), a p53 inhibitor. By contrast, the expressions of LC3-II and perilipin, proteins required for lipophagy, were down-regulated by PTA pretreatment. Taken together, our results suggest that p53 plays a key role in the cellular response elicited by OA accumulation in Chang liver cells.

  7. Wastewater Treatment Evaluation, Mather AFB, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Flov measurement. g. Poli.’ihing lagoons. h. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion. i. Sludge drying on sand beds. In this report, processes a... process . Solids (sludge) removed from the wastewater in the secondary clarifiers are pumped to the treatment facility influent channel upstream from...undetermined amount of wastewater to return, by gravity, to the recirculation pumps. The effluent from the two secondary clarifiers is combined at

  8. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  9. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  10. Determination of N-chloramines in As-samra chlorinated wastewater and their effect on the disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, M K; al-Sheikh, A M

    2001-04-01

    Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant of wastewater due to its capacity to inactivate most pathogenic microorganisms quickly. However, chlorine reacts with natural organic compounds present in wastewater to produce some undesirable organic byproducts. One such class of compounds is the nitrogenous compounds. The reaction between chlorine and compounds containing a nitrogen atom with one or more hydrogen atoms attached to it will form chloramines which have lower disinfection efficiency. Eighty percent of the wastewater generated in Jordan is treated at the Khirbet As-Samra wastewater treatment plant for eventual use in agriculture. In this study efficiency of chlorination was studied by collecting samples from the effluent of the treatment plant. The yield concentration of N-chloramines upon chlorination was determined. Efficiency of disinfection process as a function of contact time, concentration of chlorine dosage, concentration of nitrogenous compound and pH were studied. In this study, it has been found that at a chlorine dosage of 15 mg/L and contact time of 15 min, the percentage total coliform kill in As-samra wastewater sample was 100%. After addition of histidine, glycine and phenylalanine (15 mg/L in each case) to the wastewater sample, the percentage of total coliform kill dropped to 58, 78 and 79% respectively. When chlorine dosage was increased to 24 mg/L the percentage total coliform kill reached 96, 99 and 100% in wastewater samples treated with 5 mg/L histidine, glycine and phenylalanine, respectively. The percentage total coliform kill dropped to zero in wastewater samples treated with histidine, glycine and phenylalanine at a concentration of 30 mg/L each. This work supports the theory that amino acids and ammonia preferentially react with chlorine to form N-chloramine which significantly reduces the disinfection efficiency of the chlorination process.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  12. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  13. Differential BPA levels in sewage wastewater effluents from metro Detroit communities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Putt, David A; Jurban, Michael; Joiakim, Aby; Friedrich, Klaus; Kim, Hyesook

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in both aquatic and surface sediment environments because it is continuously released into sewage wastewater effluent. The measurement of BPA at wastewater treatment plants is rarely performed even though the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that current levels of environmental BPA could be a threat to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the aims of this study were to measure BPA levels in sewage wastewater at different collection points over a 1-year period and to compare the levels of BPA to 8-isoprostane, a human derived fatty acid, found in sewage wastewater. We analyzed pre-treated sewage samples collected from three source points located in different communities in the metropolitan Detroit area provided by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department. Human urine samples were also used in the study. BPA and 8-isoprostane were measured using ELISA kits from Detroit R&D, Inc. BPA levels from the same collection point oscillated more than 10-fold over 1 year. Also, BPA levels fluctuated differentially at each collection point. Highly fluctuating BPA values were confirmed by LC/MS/MS. The concentration of BPA in sewage wastewater was ~100-fold higher than the concentration of 8-isoprostane, while urinary concentration was ~20-fold higher. Thus, BPA levels discharged into the sewage network vary among communities, and differences are also observed within communities over time. The difference in BPA and 8-isoprostane levels suggest that most of the BPA discharged to sewage wastewater might be derived from industries rather than from human urine. Therefore, the continuous monitoring of BPA could account for a better regulation of BPA release into a sewage network.

  14. Combination of ruthenium(II)-arene complex [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)] (RAPTA-C) and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib results in efficient angiostatic and antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Berndsen, Robert H.; Weiss, Andrea; Abdul, U. Kulsoom; Wong, Tse J.; Meraldi, Patrick; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Dyson, Paul J.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2017-01-01

    Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib. This drug combination results in strong synergistic inhibition of cell viability in human endothelial (ECRF24 and HUVEC) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells. Additionally, erlotinib significantly enhances the cellular uptake of RAPTA-C relative to treatment with RAPTA-C alone in human ovarian carcinoma cells, but not endothelial cells. Drug combinations induce the formation of chromosome bridges that persist after mitotic exit and delay abscission in A2780 and A2780cisR, therefore suggesting initiation of cellular senescence. The therapeutic potential of these compounds and their combination is further validated in vivo on A2780 tumors grown on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, and in a preclinical model in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms effective anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activity in vivo, based on a significant reduction of microvascular density and a decrease in proliferating cells. PMID:28223694

  15. Polyelectrolyte-promoted forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid process for dye wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Wang, Peng; Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-06-05

    Polyelectrolytes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis process in terms of high water flux, minimum reverse flux, and ease of recovery. In this work, the concept of a polyelectrolyte-promoted forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system was demonstrated and applied to recycle the wastewater containing an acid dye. A poly(acrylic acid) sodium (PAA-Na) salt was used as the draw solute of the FO to dehydrate the wastewater, while the MD was employed to reconcentrate the PAA-Na draw solution. With the integration of these two processes, a continuous wastewater treatment process was established. To optimize the FO-MD hybrid process, the effects of PAA-Na concentration, experimental duration, and temperature were investigated. Almost a complete rejection of PAA-Na solute was observed by both FO and MD membranes. Under the conditions of 0.48 g mL(-1) PAA-Na and 66 °C, the wastewater was most efficiently dehydrated yet with a stabilized PAA-Na concentration around 0.48 g mL(-1). The practicality of PAA-Na-promoted FO-MD hybrid technology demonstrates not only its suitability in wastewater reclamation, but also its potential in other membrane-based separations, such as protein or pharmaceutical product enrichment. This study may provide the insights of exploring novel draw solutes and their applications in FO related processes.

  16. Presence of Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater Down Gradient from Wastewater Lagoons Receiving Partially Treated Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater can contain traces of the pharmaceutical compounds that are used within a given household or community. These chemicals can act as markers of the wastewater, and their presence can help determine potential sources of contamination of water resources. For this study, gr...

  17. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  18. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  19. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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  20. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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