Science.gov

Sample records for acid rain solutions

  1. Acid rain: Engineering solutions, regulatory aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; Elliott, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Keeping up with efforts to control acid rain, this reference presents current scientific aspects associated with the problem of political and legislative concerns and ideas for developing effective mitigation programs at reasonable cost. The contributors are the authorities in attendance at the Second International Conference on Acid Rain - and this work represents the first time engineers and managers with firsthand knowledge of systems and equipment to reduce SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions gathered in one place. Throughout the book, some 200 tables, charts, diagrams, and photographs augment the textual material.

  2. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

  4. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  5. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  8. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  10. Gas turbines and acid rain - Looking at some solutions

    SciTech Connect

    May, W.

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the technology available for reducing the sulfur emissions of gas turbines that are implicated in the production of acid rain. The alternatives reviewed are limestone scrubbing, spray dryer absorption and limestone injection into boilers. The last process is not feasible for gas turbines and of the other two the author recommends limestone scrubbing.

  11. Who'll stop the rain. One solution to the acid rain problem: an analysis of Senate Bill 768

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrin, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Acid rain has now found its way into the economic and political arena, where geopolitical debates about the causes, effects, and mitigation or elimination of acid rain grow increasingly heated. After an overview of the acid rain problem and the ineffectiveness of the Clean Air Act, the author analyzes Senator Stafford's Bill (S. 768) in light of its economic, political, and environmental impact. The bill amends the Clean Air Act by calling for a three-stage plan in reducing acid rain damage. However it lacks adequate funding appropriations to equitably support its policies. To become an effective solution, the bill needs to include an emissions tax and/or trust fund that will generate revenues. It must also mandate nitrogen oxide emission reductions in conjunction with the proposed sulfur dioxide reductions.

  12. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  13. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  14. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  15. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  16. Acid rain sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.; Schwieger, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of acid rain and how it can be controlled. The book is divided into seven key sections: the problem and the legislative solutions; international mitigation programs; planning the US program; emissions reduction-before combustion; emissions/reduction-during combustion; emissions reduction-after combustion and engineering solutions under development. 13 papers have been abstracted separately.

  17. The acid rain sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.; Schwieger, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    A reference collection of specialized information discussions on areas critical to the acid rain issue: problem definition, impact of legislation, emissions standards, international perspective, cost scenarios, and engineering solutions. The text is reinforced with 130 illustrations and about 50 tables. Contents: International mitigation programs. Emissions reduction: before combustion; during combustion; after combustion. Engineering solutions under development.

  18. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  19. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  20. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  1. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  2. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  3. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  4. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  5. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  6. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  7. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  8. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, K.

    1983-01-01

    Deposition of acidic substances from the atmosphere is considered by many to be, along with increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere, one of the most serious environmental problems of this generation. Despite the limited title of this small book, it touches, in a nontechnical and elementary way, on all of the important aspects of this subject: definitions, history, suspected causes and harmful effects, proposed remedial actions, the case for additional research, and political and economic impacts. The material is presented largely as statements and opinions of scientists and governmental officials. The book is reportorial in style and reasonably balanced in its presentation of contrasting and opposing opinions about causes, effects, and remedies, although the final chapter, What Citizens Can Do, includes the names and addresses of organizations involved in efforts to protect clean air, forestry and wilderness areas. Also included are school projects and examples of what individuals and groups have done to help us understand the problem and/or to promote action.

  9. Acid rain: Rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Acid rain is now one of the most serious environmental problems in developed countries. Emissions and fallout were previously extremely localized, but since the introduction of tall stacks policies in both Britain and the US - pardoxically to disperse particulate pollutants and hence reduce local damage - emissions are now lifted into the upper air currents and carried long distances downwind. The acid rain debate now embraces many western countries - including Canada, the US, England, Scotland, Wales, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland - and a growing number of eastern countries - including the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. The problem of acid rain arises, strictly speaking, not so much from the rainfall itself as from its effects on the environment. Runoff affects surface water and groundwater, as well as soils and vegetation. Consequently changes in rainfall acidity can trigger off a range of impacts on the chemistry and ecology of lakes and rivers, soil chemistry and processes, the health and productivity of plants, and building materials, and metallic structures. The most suitable solutions to the problems of acid rain require prevention rather than cure, and there is broad agreement in both the political scientific communities on the need to reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere. Book divisions discuss: the problem of acid rain, the science of acid rain, the technology of acid rain, and the politics of acid rain, in an effort to evaluate this growing global problem of acid rain.

  10. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  11. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  12. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  13. Acid rain information book

    SciTech Connect

    Bubenick, D.V.

    1984-01-01

    The potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations. It follows the logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research.

  14. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  15. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  16. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  17. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  18. Acid rain information clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Twenty-one research institutions, environmental organizations, trade associations and government agencies from the United States and Canada are co-sponsoring Acid Rain: The Relationship Between Sources and Receptors, a conference to be held December 3-4, 1986 at the Sheraton National Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. The conference, designed for a nontechnical audience as well as specialists in acid rain research, will cover the nature and scope of scientific understanding and research programs, identify areas of consensus and disagreement, and assess policy options in the light of current understanding. A special session on December 3 will address the legal aspects of source-receptor relationships.

  19. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-04

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  20. Scientist, researchers, and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, L.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The role of the hidden participants in agenda-setting for environmental issues is discussed. These personnel involve academics, researchers, career bureaucrats, congressional staffers, consultants, and administration appointees below the top level. Scientists have been publicly involved in the acid rain issue from the beginning, using the media to dramatize the possible catastrophic consequences of acid rain. Presently, the scientific community is not in consensus about the solutions to the problem. Since the initial enactment of the National Acid Precipitation Act in 1980, not a single acid rain law has been passed, although many bills have been proposed. Spokesman for the coal and utility industries and Reagan administration personnel have used the scientific disagreements to delay abatement actions and refute claims that acid rain is a severe problem. Another result of the confusion is a distrust and even disdain for academic work. One possible solution to the stalemate is an accurate form for resolving scientific disputes that have a strong political component and that the forum should have a mechanism for converging on accurate science. 19 refs.

  1. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  2. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  3. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  4. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  5. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  6. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  7. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  8. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  9. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  10. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  11. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  12. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  13. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  14. Acid rain trends summarized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the northeastern United States, the acidity of precipitation has changed little in recent years, although the acidity is increasing in other regions. That's the latest word from a comprehensive review by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of more than 200 published reports of acid rain research from the past 30 years. The report contributes to the controversy over whether increased sulfur emissions from Midwest powerplants increase the acidity of precipitation in the Northeast.“When the results of the many individual studies are combined, they show that acidification of precipitation in the Northeast, which has the most damaging level of acidity on a regional basis, occurred primarily before the mid-1950's and has been largely stabilized since the mid-1960s,” said John T. Turk, a research hydrologist at the USGS Denver office and author of the 18-page summary report.

  15. [Effects of solution pH and simulated acid rain on the behavior of two sulfonylurea herbicides in soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2007-03-01

    By the methods of batch equilibration and leaching, this paper studied the effects of solution pH and simulated acid rain on the behavior of bensulfuron-methyl and metsulfuron-methyl in soil. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these two herbicides fitted Freundlich equation well, and their adsorbed amounts reduced obviously with the increasing pH of water-soil system, which in turn promoted the translocation of the herbicides in soil. The adsorption coefficient (Kf) was positively correlated with soil organic matter and clay contents, while negatively correlated with soil pH. The higher pH of simulated acid rain had a greater contribution on the leaching of the two sulfonylurea herbicides, and their leached amount was increased with increasing acid rain. There was a close relationship between the leaching of the herbicides and the properties of soil. The soils with higher contents of organic matter and clay had a greater retention capability to the herbicides.

  16. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  17. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  18. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

  19. Acid rain: effects on fish and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.S.; Multer, E.P.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The following questions concerning acid rain are discussed: what is acid rain; what causes acid rain; where do sulfur and nitrogen oxides originate; what areas in the U.S. are susceptible to acid rain; are there early warning signals of acidification to aquatic resources; how does acid rain affect fishery resources; does acid rain affect wildlife; and how can effects of acid rain be reduced.

  20. Acid rain: the Canada connection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    A review of a controversial new book called The Silent Alliance is presented. The book deals with very sensitive issues: acid rain, electricity imports from Canada, and Canada's alleged role in US acid rain legislation. Canadian officials are accused of lobbying strenuously for acid rain legislation in the US so Canada can increase its already large electricity exports to the US. It is concluded that the wide divergence between Canada's statements and practice on acid rain, and the numerous incentives to export additional electricity, should cause the US to examine Canada's lobbying efforts critically.

  1. Simulated acid rain on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

  2. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  3. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  4. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  5. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  6. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  7. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  8. Acid rain and dry deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides information on the formation of acid rain and the long-range transport of air pollutants. The effects of acid precipitation on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are highlighted and technical and policy issues associated with the delineation and implementation of control strategies for acid rain and dry deposition are covered. Dry deposition is addressed, with emphasis given to precipitation metals and organics.

  9. Effects of acid rain on grapevines

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Dee, R.J.; Kender, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines (Vitis labrusca, Bailey) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to pH 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, eight additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid rain solutions at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. With Concord in 1981, few foliar lesions on leaves were visible at pH 2.75. In contrast, many leaf lesions with decreased fruit soluble solids in the absence of acid rain leaf lesions at pH>2.5 remains unclear. Acute sprays (pH 2.75) at anthesis reduced pollen germination in four grape cultivars. However, fruit set was reduced in only one of these. Only the cultivars de Chaunac and Ives had reduced berry soluble solids with chronic weekly sprays at pH 2.75. Reduction in soluble solids was not associated with increased oxidant stipple (ozone injury) in Concord and de Chaunac cultivars, but this association was observed in Ives. There was no evidence that acid rain in combination with ozone increased oxidant stipple as occurs when ozone and SO/sub 2/ are combined. Grape yields were not influenced by acid rain treatments. There was no evidence that acid rain at ambient pH levels had negative effects on grape production or fruit quality.

  10. Effects of acid rain on grapevines

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Dee, R.J.; Kender, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, 8 additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid rain solutions at pH 2.75 and 3.25. With Concord in 1981, few foliar lesions on leaves were visible at pH 2.75. In contrast, many leaf lesions with decreased fruit soluble solids were observed at pH 2.5 in 1980. The relationship between acid-rain and oxidant stipple, chlorosis, and soluble solids in the absence of acid rain leaf lesions at pH>2.5 remains unclear. Acute sprays (pH2.75) at anthesis reduced pollen germination in four grape cultivars. However, fruit set was reduced in only one of these. Grape yields were not influenced by acid rain treatments. There was no evidence that acid-rain at ambient pH levels had negative effects on grape production or fruit quality.

  11. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  12. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  15. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  16. Benefits of acid rain controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.G.

    1984-04-01

    The acid rain debate has been distorted by a mistaken political paradigm. This paradigm holds that acid rain controls will benefit only a few lakes and streams, mostly in the Adirondack Mountains in northeastern New York State. It holds that the costs of a control program will fall on the Midwest but that none of the benefits will occur there since no sensitive lakes and streams are found in that area. The author discussed this problem and pointed out that sulfur dioxide was responsible for several types of pollution damage and that all the states would benefit from the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions.

  17. THE ACID RAIN NOX PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 350,000 and 400,000 tons of annual NOx emissions have been eliminated as a result of Phase I of the Acid Rain NOx Program. As expected. the utilities have chosen emissions averaging as the primary compliance option. This reflects that, in general, NO x reductions have ...

  18. THE ACID RAIN NOX PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 350,000 and 400,000 tons of annual NOx emissions have been eliminated as a result of Phase I of the Acid Rain NOx Program. As expected. the utilities have chosen emissions averaging as the primary compliance option. This reflects that, in general, NO x reductions have ...

  19. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  20. Nature in the Classroom: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    As a lesson topic, acid rain is defined, its chemistry given, and its development since the 1950s described. The worldwide effects of acid rain are discussed along with the available technology for controlling the problem. (CM)

  1. Nature in the Classroom: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    As a lesson topic, acid rain is defined, its chemistry given, and its development since the 1950s described. The worldwide effects of acid rain are discussed along with the available technology for controlling the problem. (CM)

  2. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  3. Acid Rain Program Opt-in Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Opt-in Program, which allows sources not required to participate in the Acid Rain Program the opportunity to enter the program on a voluntary basis and receive Acid Rain Program allowances.

  4. An analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: to what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects.

  5. Acid rain control: the costs of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Gilleland, D.S.; Swisher, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Illinois Energy Resources Commission and the Coal Extraction and Utilization Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and held in Carbondale on March 18, 1984. Topics addressed include: the sources and impacts of acid rain, the problems inherent in modeling the impacts of acid rain legislation, the effects of acid rain legislation on the socio-economic sector, compliance costs, and the impact of acid rain legislation on related industries (railroads).

  6. Acid Rain: What We Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Eville

    1983-01-01

    Addresses questions about the nature, source, and history of acid rain. In addition, discusses the questions: Why is acid rain a problem? Is acid rain getting worse? What is the threat of further problems? Concludes that it is time to act on the problem and recommends an appropriate course of action. (JN)

  7. Acid Rain: What We Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Eville

    1983-01-01

    Addresses questions about the nature, source, and history of acid rain. In addition, discusses the questions: Why is acid rain a problem? Is acid rain getting worse? What is the threat of further problems? Concludes that it is time to act on the problem and recommends an appropriate course of action. (JN)

  8. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  9. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  10. Acid rain: rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one governments have now resolved to cut their nations' own emissions of sulfur dioxide by at least 30% (over 1980 levels) by 1993, and hope to persuade the main producers of sulfur oxides to join them in an international attack on the problem. This book discusses the complex political maneuvers of the countries that are major exporters and importers of acid rain and its precursors. The scientific and technological aspects of the acid ran problem and strategies for alleviating it take up two-thirds of the book.

  11. Acid rain. Rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.

    1988-01-01

    The book examines the implications of recent scientific studies, and sets the political debate in the main 'polluting' countries--Britain and the United States--into its proper international context. It provides a wealth of U.S. data, including a history of the development of U.S. acid rain policy. The author presents a review of the evidence for damage and the statistics of change. Data is drawn from around the world, with particular emphasis on damage in Scandinavia and West Germany.

  12. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  13. Acid rain threatens marine life

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    In freshwater, acid rain harms aquatic organisms because one of its components, sulfur dioxide, lowers the water's pH. In seawater, the damage comes from other components of acid precipitation: nitrogen oxides. Acting as a nutrient, nitrogen promotes excessive algal growth, which blocks sunlight and depletes dissolved oxygen, thereby suffocating other plants and animals. Known as eutrophication, this phenomenon has been increasing in both frequency and intensity on the Atlantic coast during the past few years. The New York City-based Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), study focused on the Chesapeake Bay, the nation's largest estuary and an important spawning ground for many species of economic importance. It has long been known that the bay is suffering from nitrogen pollution. Until now, it was assumed that most of the nitrogen was coming from sewage and agricultural runoff. However, based on data collected from both federal and state agencies, EDF scientists estimated that nitrates from acid rain are responsible for 25% of the nitrogen entering the bay. The report says that if present trends continue, airborne nitrates will contribute 42% of annual nitrogen deposits into the Chesapeake Bay by the year 2030.

  14. Acid rain impacts on calcium nutrition and forest health

    Treesearch

    Donald H. DeHayes; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; G. Richard Strimbeck

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystems throughout the world are exposed to acid rain, a complex solution consisting largely of H+, SO42-, NH4+, and NO3- pollutant ions derived from sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Although the public in...

  15. Acid rain information book. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of widespread acid rain demand that the phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty and summarizes current and projected research. The report is organized by a logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures and regulatory options. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  16. Analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-12-11

    Although science has largely determined that man-made emissions cause acid rain, there is uncertainty concerning the extent and timing of its anticipated effects. Thus, at the present time scientific information alone does not lead unequivocally to a conclusion on whether it is appropriate to begin control actions now or to await better understanding. Given this uncertainty, decisionmakers must weigh the risks of further, potentially avoidable environmental damage against the risks of economic impacts from acid rain control actions which may ultimately prove to be unwarranted. GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: To what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects. 5 figures, 20 tables.

  17. Acid rain said to threaten Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-29

    A report on April 25, 1988 by the Environmental Defense Fund blames acid rain for pollution of Chesapeake Bay. The nitrates in the rain are reported to account for 25% of the nitrogen load of the bay. This increases the acidity of the bay, thereby acting as a fertilizer to promote algal growth. It is postulated that acid rain contributes as much nitrogen to the bay as point sources, which include raw sewage and industrial plants.

  18. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  19. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  20. Acid Rain Students Do Original Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outdoor Communicator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    At Park Senior High School (Cottage Grove, Minnesota), 46 juniors and seniors planted 384 red pine seedlings in connection with their original research on acid rain, with advice from Dr. Harriet Stubbs, director of the Acid Precipitation Awareness Program (West Saint Paul), which has been developing acid rain teaching materials. (MH)

  1. Acid rain and sugar maple decline

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg

    2017-01-01

    Through the increased combustion of fossil fuels, humans have dramatically increased pollutant additions of sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere where it conbines with water to form sulfuric and nitric acids, creating acid rain (Driscoll et al. 2001). Incoming acid rain has various impacts on human and natural systems, including the accelerated degradation of built...

  2. Acid Rain Students Do Original Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outdoor Communicator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    At Park Senior High School (Cottage Grove, Minnesota), 46 juniors and seniors planted 384 red pine seedlings in connection with their original research on acid rain, with advice from Dr. Harriet Stubbs, director of the Acid Precipitation Awareness Program (West Saint Paul), which has been developing acid rain teaching materials. (MH)

  3. Pollen selection under acid rain stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous pollen grains. In vitro and in vivo bulked segregant analysis using RAPDs was used to search for differences in DNA constitution between the survivors of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed pollen populations in vitro and between the progenies of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed populations during pollination, respectively. No evidence for the pollen selection under acid rain stress was obtained in any of the test systems. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide led to significant reduction of tube elongation at 4 hr and had no effect on pollen germination at any time interval tested. Total proteins extracted from control and acid rain stressed pollen grain populations exhibited no differences. The reduction of corn pollen germination in vitro under acid rain stress was mainly due to pollen rupture. The present data indicates the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth under acid rain stress may be a physiological response rather than a genetic response. A simple, nontoxic, and effective method to separate germinated from ungerminated pollen grains has been developed using pollen from corn (Zea mays, L. cv. Pioneer 3747). The separated germinated pollen grains retained viability and continued tube growth when placed in culture medium.

  4. Lake sensitivity to acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Shurkin, J.; Goldstein, R.

    1985-06-01

    Research in the Adirondacks suggests that watershed dynamics are the key to a lake's vulnerability to acidification. The Electric Power Research Institute's Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) produced a computer model that successfully integrated the physical and chemical factors that determine these dynamics. The research required an unprecedented level of awareness of how watersheds work and how rain, soil, forests, and rocks interact. One outcome of the field and laboratory studies was the finding that some soils act as buffers, taking certain ions out of the water, while some added ions. While the ability of the watershed as a whole to neutralize acid is the main determinant of a lake's vulnerability, seasonal changes demonstrate that time is a factor. The model is in demand to test water in other locations and to explore buffering agents. 2 figures.

  5. Acid Rain: Activities for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven complete secondary/college level acid rain activities are provided. Activities include overview; background information and societal implications; major concepts; student objectives; vocabulary/material lists; procedures; instructional strategies; and questions/discussion and extension suggestions. Activities consider effects of acid rain on…

  6. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  7. Acid Rain: Activities for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven complete secondary/college level acid rain activities are provided. Activities include overview; background information and societal implications; major concepts; student objectives; vocabulary/material lists; procedures; instructional strategies; and questions/discussion and extension suggestions. Activities consider effects of acid rain on…

  8. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  9. Airborne scientists begin Ohio acid rain study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Atmospheric scientists spent June flying through storm clouds over Ohio to collect rain and air samples to better understand rain chemistry, the conditions that cause acid rain and methods for controlling it. The authors will be collecting samples in the Columbus, Ohio area because many of the materials suspected of causing acid rain, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen peroxide, can be found in this vicinity. The study is part of the US Department of the Energy's Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation program (PRECP).

  10. Acid Rain: A Teaching Focus for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Renee B.; Adams, Neil D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of acid rain provides ample opportunities for active, interdisciplinary learning. This article describes 12 hands-on activities designed to expand students' understanding of acid rain. Background information on acid rain is included. (LB)

  11. Acid Rain: A Teaching Focus for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Renee B.; Adams, Neil D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of acid rain provides ample opportunities for active, interdisciplinary learning. This article describes 12 hands-on activities designed to expand students' understanding of acid rain. Background information on acid rain is included. (LB)

  12. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was <4.0. The effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry became increasingly apparent as the experiment proceeded (except for Na(+) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)). The net exports of NO₃(-), SO₄(2-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) increased about 42-86% under pH 2.5 treatment as compared to CK. The Ca(2+) was sensitive to SAR, and the soil could release Ca(2+) through mineral weathering to mitigate soil acidification. The concentration of exchangeable Al(3+) in the soil increased with increasing the acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively.

  13. Proposed acid-rain rules: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet discusses the interdependence of the core acid rain rules.

  14. Acid rain: In the UK and Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    Acid rain is not just an American problem; it is the most serious environmental problem facing the UK and Europe as well. Its effect will continue to cause untold damage there unless drastic changes are made to the production processes that spew out the chemicals from which acid rain forms. This book provides both an explanation of what acid rain is and a guide to what action will be necessary to get rid of it. It aslo chronicles the development of the environmentalist agitation which is now central to green politics throughout Europe.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  17. Acid rain and its ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of rain-water is identified as one of the most serious environmental problems of transboundary nature. Acid rain is mainly a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids depending upon the relative quantities of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen emissions. Due to the interaction of these acids with other constituents of the atmosphere, protons are released causing increase in the soil acidity Lowering of soil pH mobilizes and leaches away nutrient cations and increases availability of toxic heavy metals. Such changes in the soil chemical characteristics reduce the soil fertility which ultimately causes the negative impact on growth and productivity of forest trees and crop plants. Acidification of water bodies causes large scale negative impact on aquatic organisms including fishes. Acidification has some indirect effects on human health also. Acid rain affects each and every components of ecosystem. Acid rain also damages man-made materials and structures. By reducing the emission of the precursors of acid rain and to some extent by liming, the problem of acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem has been reduced during last two decades.

  18. Acid rain: a primer on what, where, and how much

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    Acid rain is introduced by defining its components: wet and dry deposition. Data bases on precipitation chemistry from several monitoring networks are used to show where acid rain occurs. Precipitation chemistry and air quality data are used to discuss what is in acid rain. Maps of the deposition of the major constituents of wet deposition are presented to contrast the amount of material deposited (deposition) in acid rain with its composition (concentration). The interactions of acid rain with the surfaces on which it falls are used to trace the paths by which acid rain reaches surface and soil waters. Implications of acid rain effects are introduced but not discussed in detail.

  19. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  20. Acid Rain: A Student's First Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Beth Ann; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to help students better understand the science, citizen action, and research issues that are part of the acid rain problem. The guide is designed for students in grades 4-8 and their teachers. Following an introduction, the first seven sections are informative in nature. They include: (1) "Observations about Acidity";…

  1. Acid Rain Materials for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Factor, Lance; Kooser, Robert G.

    This booklet contains three separate papers suitable for use in an advanced high school or college chemistry course. The first paper provides background information on acids and bases. The second paper provides additional background information, focusing on certain aspects of atmospheric chemistry as it relates to the acid rain problem. An attempt…

  2. Acid rains`s dirty business: Stealing minerals from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.

    1996-04-12

    This article describes the hidden environmental effects of acid rain - leaching of base mineral ions from the soil, often changing soil chemistry dramatically. The primary information comes from Ecosystem studies at Hubbard Brook of Likens and Buso. The article also discusses both other opinions and possible solutions.

  3. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System.

  4. Acid rain and electric utilities 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO{sub 2}, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO{sub x} control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances.

  5. Acid rain: the impact of local sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaite, P.; Esposito, M.P.; Szabo, M.F.; Devitt, T.W.

    1980-11-24

    It has been assumed that acid rain is predominantly a problem of long-range transport of pollutants from large fossil fuel combustion sources, namely coal-fired utilities. However, close examination of fuel use information and source emission characteristics in the Adirondacks, Florida, and California suggests that local oil burning and automotive sources may be major contributors to the occurrence of acid rain in these areas. This report describes the possible role of local combustion sources in the production of acid rain, discusses the implications of the findings, and their relevance to alternative control strategies for acid rain. Oil-fired boilers, especially the smaller commercial, industrial, and residential units, produce at least 3 to 10 times as much primary sulfate per unit of sulfur content as coal-fired units. Moreover, oil-fired units emit comparatively large quantities of catalytic compounds capable of rapidly converting still more sulfur oxide to sulfate in the atmosphere. Thus, in areas where large quantities of oil are burned, the direct impact from locally generated sulfates may equal or even exceed that produced by imported sulfates derived from distant coal-burning sources. Fuel consumption data show that large quantities of oil are being consumed in areas experiencing acid rain. Forty percent of the residual and 36 percent of the distillate oil burned in the United States is consumed in the eight-state area surrounding the Adirondacks. California is the next largest oil-consuming area and Florida is third. Nitric acid is responsible for about 30 percent of rainfall acidity in the Northeast and Florida, and for about 30 to 75 percent of the rainfall acidity in California.

  6. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  7. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  8. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  10. Acid Rain: A Description of Bilingual Friesland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zondag, Koen

    1984-01-01

    Using acid rain as a metaphor, discusses the status of the Frisian language and culture as one which, though apparently thriving, is really threatened. Examines the sources of this threat, i.e., the education system, the church, mass communication and transportation, and the demise of the Frisian village community. (SED)

  11. Acid Rain Program CEM audit program

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, K.O.T.; Alexander, T.H.; Dupree, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation will give an overview of the Acid Rain Program CEM Audit Program: electronic and field audits. The presentation will include the reasons for audits, field audit types and levels the steps used in develop in the audit program and the audit procedures.

  12. Acid Rain: Resource Materials for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides listings of acid rain resource material groups under: (1) printed materials (pamphlets, books, articles); (2) audiovisuals (slide/tape presentations, tape, video-cassette); (3) miscellaneous (buttons, pocket lab, umbrella); (4) transparencies; (5) bibliographies; and (6) curriculum materials. Sources and prices (when applicable) are…

  13. Acid Rain. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Colin; Barber, Jacqueline; Coonrod, Jan

    This teacher's guide presents a unit on acid rain and introduces hands-on activities for sixth through eighth grade students. In each unit, students act as real scientists and gather evidence by using science process skills such as observing, measuring and recording data, classifying, role playing, problem solving, critical thinking, synthesizing…

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  15. Acid Rain. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Colin; Barber, Jacqueline; Coonrod, Jan

    This teacher's guide presents a unit on acid rain and introduces hands-on activities for sixth through eighth grade students. In each unit, students act as real scientists and gather evidence by using science process skills such as observing, measuring and recording data, classifying, role playing, problem solving, critical thinking, synthesizing…

  16. Acid Rain: A Description of Bilingual Friesland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zondag, Koen

    1984-01-01

    Using acid rain as a metaphor, discusses the status of the Frisian language and culture as one which, though apparently thriving, is really threatened. Examines the sources of this threat, i.e., the education system, the church, mass communication and transportation, and the demise of the Frisian village community. (SED)

  17. Acid Rain: Resource Materials for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides listings of acid rain resource material groups under: (1) printed materials (pamphlets, books, articles); (2) audiovisuals (slide/tape presentations, tape, video-cassette); (3) miscellaneous (buttons, pocket lab, umbrella); (4) transparencies; (5) bibliographies; and (6) curriculum materials. Sources and prices (when applicable) are…

  18. Effects of acid rain on crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Cowling, E.B.; Dochinger, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    A general treatment of the subject of acid rain and its effets are discussed along with sources of acid rain and its near-term (the last couple of decades). The effects of acid rain on terrestrial ecosystems are treated in some detail. Some treatment is given of the ecosystem-level effects of acid precipitation.

  19. Fraud in the acid rain debate

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge, C.

    1984-06-01

    Electric utility executives, according to the author, and millions of other Americans are the victims of a gigantic fraud being carried on in the name of controlling acid rain. This fraud, states the author, involves the distorted, dire image of acidity in nature being created by environmental groups, politicians and others - to gain public sympathy for their legislative goals. The alleged fraud involves the very nature of the legislation being promoted as a low-cost cure for acid rain. On the basis of scientific evidence to date there is no assurance it will reduce acidity by any appreciable amount, but on the other hand it most certainly will cost users of electricity hundreds of billions of dollars in new costs. What has already happened to the nuclear industry is also meant for coal.

  20. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  1. Influence of acid rain upon water plumbosolvency.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M R

    1985-01-01

    The West of Scotland has had particular problems in the past associated with soft acidic water supplies and uptake of lead from domestic plumbing systems by such water. As a consequence of this, health problems related to overexposure to lead have been identified. The current debate on acidification of ground waters by acid rain is therefore particularly pertinent to this area. Studies have shown that even a modest decrease in pH will result in very substantial increase in plumbosolvency. This was found to be of particular importance in the city of Glasgow and town of Ayr, where prior to water treatment, pH values were 6.3 and 5.4, respectively, and where, consequentially, large numbers of homes did not comply with lead in water standards. Closed-loop lime-dosing systems were introduced in both Glasgow and Ayr to increase the pH with immediate decrease in the lead content of the water and, subsequently, blood lead concentrations of the subjects living in these areas. Such closed-loop systems will compensate for any acidity in water supplies, whether of natural origin or originating from acid rain precipitation. However, when such treatment has not been applied, any increase in water acidity due to acid rain which is, in many cases, already unacceptable. which is, in many cases, already unacceptable. PMID:4076078

  2. Acid rain on Acid soil: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Krug, E C; Frink, C R

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  3. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  4. Acid Rain: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the nature, extent, consequences, and sources of problems associated with acid precipitation. Explains the dilemma in specific countries with an emphasis on Eurasia, India, and the Artic. Discusses control options and international efforts to abate acidification in the environment. (ML)

  5. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  10. Acid rain in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Deviney, Frank A.; Olson, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Visitors to Shenandoah National Park (SNP) enjoy the animal and plant life and the scenery but may not realize how vulnerable these features are to various threats, such as invasion of exotic plants and insects, improper use of park resources by humans, and air and water pollution. The National Park Service strives to protect natural resources from such threats to ensure that the resources will be available for enjoyment now and in the future. Because SNP has limited influence over the air pollution that envelops the region, acidic deposition--commonly known as acid rain--is one of the more challenging threats facing park managers. With the help of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, park managers can understand how acid rain interacts with ground- and surface-water resources, which enables them to explain why reductions in air pollution can help preserve park resources. Such understanding also provides essential insight into ecosystem processes, as managers strive to unravel and resolve other environmental problems that are interrelated to acid rain.

  11. Acid rain stone test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, Bruce R.

    1984-04-01

    As a part of the United States National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Task Group G: Effects on Materials and Cultural Resources, which is chaired by Ray Herrmann, the National Park Service has established four test sites for 10-year testing of two kinds of dimension stone used in buildings and monuments. The four sites are (from south to north) Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, N.C. (activated May 25, 1984); the roof of the West End Branch of the Washington, D.C. Library (activated August 11, 1984); the Department of Energy Compound at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of Bell Telephone Laboratories near Chester, N.J. (activated June 5, 1984); and Huntington Wildlife Forest in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, N.Y. (activated June 19, 1984).

  12. Direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content of terrestrial plants in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Enzai; Dong, Dan; Zeng, Xuetong; Sun, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Xiaofei; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors in China have resulted in widespread acid rain since the 1980s. Although efforts have been made to assess the indirect, soil mediated ecological effects of acid rain, a systematic assessment of the direct foliage injury by acid rain across terrestrial plants is lacking. Leaf chlorophyll content is an important indicator of direct foliage damage and strongly related to plant productivity. We synthesized data from published literature on experiments of simulated acid rain, by directly exposing plants to acid solutions with varying pH levels, to assess the direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content across 67 terrestrial plants in China. Our results indicate that acid rain substantially reduces leaf chlorophyll content by 6.71% per pH unit across the recorded plant species. The direct reduction of leaf chlorophyll content due to acid rain exposure showed no significant difference across calcicole, ubiquist or calcifuge species, implying that soil acidity preference does not influence the sensitivity to leaf injury by acid rain. On average, the direct effects of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll on trees, shrubs and herbs were comparable. The effects, however varied across functional groups and economic use types. Specifically, leaf chlorophyll content of deciduous species was more sensitive to acid rain in comparison to evergreen species. Moreover, vegetables and fruit trees were more sensitive to acid rain than other economically used plants. Our findings imply a potential production reduction and economic loss due to the direct foliage damage by acid rain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Acid Rain Program: Monitoring the future

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of the development of the Acid Rain Program`s approach to Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and their use in the market based pollution control program of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The roles of the regulatory agencies are discussed and projections are put forward as to how the roles will evolve over time. In addition a discussion of the activities the regulated community is expected to focus on is presented. Finally, a discussion occurs about the requirements that new technologies and instrument providers and purchasers should keep in mind about the Acid Rain Program`s monitoring requirements as they attempt to bring new products into this market.

  14. Court date for EPA acid rain rule

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-04

    In an acid rain rulemaking that appears headed straight for the courtroom, the Environmental Protection Agency this week announced new limits on emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal-fired power plants. The regulations, announced March 1, are expected to achieve a 1.8 million ton per year reduction in power plant NOx emissions, which are considered a major contributor to acid rain. The agency issued companion regulations last year to cut power plant discharges of sulfur dioxide, the other major acid rain pollutant. The NOx rulemaking elicited contradictory responses from utility industry officials. One point of contention involves the agency's definition of low-NOx burner technology, a key regulatory determination. If a utility installs EPA-defined low-NOx burner technology and still cannot meet the new NOx limits, it can apply for a less stringent [open quotes]alternative emission limit.[close quotes] The other issue likely to be raised by industry officials involves the January 1995 compliance deadline for utilities included in Phase I of the NOx program. While EPA will allow individual utilities to seek a deadline extension until April 1996 in the event of operational difficulties, the agency rejected the industry's request for an across-the-board extension.

  15. State acid rain permitting programs: A report from EPA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    States and EPA are laying the groundwork for state acid rain permitting in Phase 2 of the Acid Rain Program. Early indications suggest a high degree of state compliance with the acid rain permitting requirements of the Acid Rain Program. Phase 2 acid rain permitting forms have been revised and are available on EPA`s Technology Transfer Network. EPA has developed a policy and rationale concerning submission of Phase 2 permit applications, as well as suggested state timing and methodology regarding adoption of 40 CFR Part 76, the NO{sub x} regulation.

  16. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  17. `Scientific uncertainty` scuttles new acid rain standard

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, R.

    1995-10-01

    An EPA report to Congress due this month will report on the controversial question of whether the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) adequately protect sensitive areas of the United States from acid rain, and recommends against establishing a new `acid deposition standard` to protect sensitive areas of the United States from acid rain. Rebecca Renner reports on the scientific issues underlying that decision and the efforts of one state to overturn it. The report to Congress, required by the CAAA, asked the Agency to report on the feasibility of setting an acid deposition standard to protect sensitive areas. EPA missed the original 1993 deadline and is under court order to issue the final report by October 15. The draft report identifies the lakes and streams of the Appalachian mountains as sensitive resources that receive damaging concentrations of acidic deposition. Three areas where sensitive water resources have been well studied were selected as providing the best available data for modeling case studies: the Adirondacks; the mid-Appalachian region, including parts of Pennsylvania. West Virginia, Maryland, and Virginia; and the Southern Blue Ridge in Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia. Results are discussed. 6 refs.

  18. Geographical distribution and temporal variation of rain acidity over China

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Xing Wang; Yan-Bo Pang; Guo-An Ding

    1996-12-31

    In recent decade, large areas of acid rain have appeared in China. With the increasing emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} year by year, the acidity of precipitation has increased, and the acid rain area is expanding. Presently, the acid rain in China has become the third largest area of acid rain in the world, next to Europe and North America. The Chinese government took action against acid rain and planned a five-year National Acid Deposition Research Project. The space-time distribution and variation of rain acidity described in this paper is a part of this project. China is a large country. The area is almost equal to that of Europe. Its climate varies greatly and spans the tropics, subtropics, temperate and frigid zone. There is a varied topography including mountain, hilly country, desert and plain, on the other hand the distribution of anthropogenic sources are not even. All of the human and natural factors caused different chemical composition in different parts of China, the acidity of precipitation varies also. The acidity of the precipitation is the most important parameter in the acid rain research. In order to obtain the regional representative distribution of rain acidity, National Acidic Deposition Research Monitoring Network with 261 monitoring sites was established in 1992. This paper summarizes the rain acidity of 21355 precipitation samples, and gave the annual, seasonal, and the monthly pH contours. Results show that the acid rain area has expanded from the south during winter. Regional differences of monthly acid precipitation exists, generally, the rain acidity level is higher during summer and fall and lower during winter and spring in the northern provinces. The 9 opposite is the case in the southern provinces. The central areas are in a transitional situation. The geographical distribution and temporal variation of rain acidity are quite different from North America and Europe.

  19. [The influence of simulated acid rain on acidity and K+ leaching regulation of different soil layers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Daizhang; Jiang, Xin; Bian, Yongrong; Sun, Lei; Li, Rui; He, Jizheng

    2003-03-01

    The influence of simulated acid rain on acidity and K+ release of different soil layers of red soil from Jiangxi was investigated in the lab when surface soil was mixed with KCl. The results indicated that pH of leaching solution first decreased, then increased in the different soil layers, but pH at the beginning moment of leaching existed prominent differences and pH of leachate of pH 2.5 acid rain in A and AB layers again decreased during subsequent stage. There was a peak value of EC of leachate appearing at the beginning stage, it showed that nutrient ions in soil rapidly moved downwards into lower depth of profile. K+ concentration of effluent solution was related to acidity of acid rain and the pH2.5 value of acid rain accelerated K+ transportation downwards along profile. K+ release of A soil layer was divided into two moments which one was the rapid rate of K+ release process at the moment of beginning and then into the middle rate of release process. As to pH 4.5 value of acid rain, it also existed rapid and slow rate processes.

  20. Primer on acid precipitation. A killing rain: the global threat of acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlick, T.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the book A Killing Rain: The Global Threat of Acid Precipitation by Thomas Pawlick which presents an overview of the problems associated with acid rain. The book covers the effects of acid rain on aquatic ecosystems, forests materials, and agriculture. It also deals with abatement technologies and sociopolitical topics associated with acid rain.

  1. The greenhouse effect and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  3. Compliance report, 1997. Acid rain program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The 1997 Compliance Report once again announces 100 percent compliance with the Acid Rain Program, now in its third year of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) compliance and its second year of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compliance. Affected facilities continued to exceed the targets set for both pollutants by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The early reductions seen in 1995 and 1996 for SO{sub 2} continue, with affected utility units beating their 1997 target by 23 percent. The overcompliance with the NO{sub x} target also continues, achieving an average emission rate for Phase 1 units 16 percent below the compliance rate.

  4. Acid rain reduced in eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on our analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, we conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  5. Acid rain and the environment: an ethical perspective. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines the acid rain problem and the conflicts in values and interests that it precipitates in order to formulate some suggestions for U.S. policy. The thesis discusses the different sources of acid precursors and their significance, then examines the effects of these pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This is followed by a discussion of measures both to mitigate the effects of acid rain and prevent acid rain such as fluidized-bed combustion, timing, and coal washing. Federal funding to implement an Acid Rain Control Program is recommended; such a program should improve industry standards based on the maximum amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released.

  6. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; de Vries, Wim

    2017-09-12

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China. Our results show a non-linear direct effect of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate, including a neutral to positive effect above pH 5.0 and a negative effect below that pH level. The acid rain sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis showed no significant difference between herbs and woody species below pH 5.0, but the impacts above that pH level were strongly different, resulting in a significant increase in leaf photosynthetic rate of woody species and an insignificant effect on herbs. Our analysis also indicates a positive effect of the molar ratio of nitric versus sulfuric acid in the acid solution on leaf photosynthetic rate. These findings imply that rainwater acidity and the composition of acids both affect the response of leaf photosynthesis and therefore result in a non-linear direct effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ≥3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain.

  8. Accelerated aging of outdoor insulation under acid rain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Nancy Ellen

    2000-11-01

    Outdoor insulation has evolved from glass to ceramics to epoxy in the past decades, and more recently into the area of polymer composites. Accelerated aging must be performed to examine the effectiveness of materials prior to use under actual service conditions. Traditionally this aging has been performed with sodium chloride as the conductive component in the high humidity and wet tests. This approach does not necessarily represent actual service conditions, as globally the precipitation is acidic in nature and contains many constituents in addition to sodium and chloride. The main focus of this work was to examine the effect of acid precipitation on materials used in outdoor insulation applications. This was achieved through the use of a rotating tracking wheel and a controlled high humidity chamber with the application of a synthetic acid rain solution. The analysis techniques utilized to examine the results of the accelerated aging were leakage current monitoring, evaluation of changes in dielectric properties as well as electron microscopy. In addition, changes in hydrophobicity were quantified. Based on experimental observations, a first order life prediction model was developed to investigate the usefulness of the acid rain aging technique. This model was founded on the results of a series of tests conducted with varying solution conductivity, while maintaining constant acid content. This model permits the prediction of the life of a material at normal precipitation conductivity levels.

  9. Acid rain: the relationship between sources and receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Acid Rain: The Relationship Between Sources and Receptors consists of a collection of papers and discussions from the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse. The conference, held in December 1986, was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute, and the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP).

  10. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress

    Treesearch

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period....

  11. Pyrite oxidation under simulated acid rain weathering conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Heping; Wang, Luying; Wen, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingyou

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the electrochemical corrosion behavior of pyrite in simulated acid rain with different acidities and at different temperatures. The cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that pyrite has the same electrochemical interaction mechanism under different simulated acid rain conditions, regardless of acidity or environmental temperature. Either stronger acid rain acidity or higher environmental temperature can accelerate pyrite corrosion. Compared with acid rain having a pH of 5.6 at 25 °C, the prompt efficiency of pyrite weathering reached 104.29% as the acid rain pH decreased to 3.6, and it reached 125.31% as environmental temperature increased to 45 °C. Increasing acidity dramatically decreases the charge transfer resistance, and increasing temperature dramatically decreases the passivation film resistance, when other conditions are held constant. Acid rain always causes lower acidity mine drainage, and stronger acidity or high environmental temperatures cause serious acid drainage. The natural parameters of latitude, elevation, and season have considerable influence on pyrite weathering, because temperature is an important influencing factor. These experimental results are of direct significance for the assessment and management of sulfide mineral acid drainage in regions receiving acid rain.

  12. Acid rain: how great a menace

    SciTech Connect

    LaBastille, A.

    1981-11-01

    Dead lakes in the Adirondacks and Scandinavia are among the victims of the worldwide burning of fossil fuels and the release of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and other contaminants. Efforts to relieve pollution caused by industrial and utility burning by building taller smokestacks may have worsened the problem by causing pollutants to circulate with air masses making up global weather systems. This overview of the problem identifies vulnerable areas, traces the history of man's awareness of acidic rain, and describes some of the detective work involved in tracing emissions to sensitive areas. Nature's buffering mechanisms and man's efforts to sweeten lakes and soil are described. The implications for international relations are serious as nation's seek ways to control the movement of pollutants across boundaries and to work together to find a curative approach. 4 figures, (DCK)

  13. Aluminum: A neurotoxic product of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.B.

    1994-07-01

    Two separate but converging concerns have resulted in an upsurge in research on aluminum ion in the past 15 years. Acid rain releases Al(III) from soils into fresh waters, where it is for the first time accessible to living organisms. Though long considered benign, Al(III) has recently been found to cause bone and neurological disorders, while its role in Alzheimer`s disease remains uncertain. The greater availability of Al(III), coupled with its demonstrated harmful effects, challenges chemists to describe its chemistry and biochemistry. Many interactions of Al(III) have been described, but several questions remain unsolved. A great deal of work not within the scope of this Account is described in several edited volumes. (This Account uses Al(III) as a generic term for the 3+ ion when a specific form is not indicated). 96 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Acid rain: Implications for the Lake States forests

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the ''acid rain'' issue, to summarize a new research initiative investigating the role of sulfur deposition on the condition of Lake States hardwood forests, and finally, to discuss the potential implications of acidic rain on Lake States forests, given current levels of uncertainty.

  15. Acid rain debate: is one man's power another man's poison

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, K.B.

    1983-08-01

    This is a general article on the acid rain problem. It summarizes what is known about the sources and kinds of pollutants that cause acid rain, control strategies as they currently exist, and the political matrix in which these issues are being dealt with in the United States.

  16. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  17. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  18. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  19. Acid rain - A further look at the evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, A.W.

    1986-03-01

    There is widespread belief that acid rain is damaging lakes and forests in eastern North America, and that the threat of further damage is severe enough to warrant prompt remedial action. The cause of acid rain, hence ecological damage, is popularly held to be the sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) created by the combustion of fossil fuels. This popular belief rests on a narrow selection of data, and is not substantiated by the broader body of knowledge which is available. Nevertheless, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress proposing large reductions in SO/sub 2/ emissions. For example, the first bill introduced in 1985 was S.52, ''The Acid Rain Control Act of 1985.'' It calls for reducing SO/sub 2/ emissions by 10 million tons annually. While the language of S.52 and similar bills is not specific on causes and effects of acid rain, the testimony before Congressional committees made it clear that the concerns focus on the actual or potential acidification of lakes and soils by acid rain, and actual or potential impacts of acid rain on fish, other aquatic life, trees, crops, and human health. This article assesses the merits of these contentions about acid rain by examining technical evidence that relates SO/sub 2/ emissions to the acidity of rain to actual or potential environmental impacts.

  20. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  1. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  2. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  3. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  4. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.D.

    1993-07-01

    This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

  5. European concern about acid rain is growing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.A.

    1985-01-28

    The growing concern about acid rain in Europe with particular reference to West Germany, the UK and Scandinavia is discussed. Damage has occurred not only to trees but also to many historic buildings throughout Europe. The mechanism of acid deposition is outlined; monitoring systems have established correlations between transport of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the UK and central Europe and increased acidity in lakes and rivers in Scandinavia. In November 1979 thirty four countries and the European Economic Community signed a convention on longrange transboundary air pollution; in 1983 Finland, Norway, and Sweden proposed that member countries of the so-called 30% Club should cut annual sulfur emissions 30% from their 1980 base emission levels, by 1993 at the latest. The UK and the US are conspicuous by their absence from the 30% Club. In the UK in particular it is argued that firm proof is lacking that sulfur dioxide is the prime factor in forest decline; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and ozone may be more critical factors.

  6. Interactions between greenhouse gas policies and acid rain control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.; Kane, R.L.; Mansueti, L.

    1997-12-31

    Conventional wisdom and much of the public policy debate have usually drawn a clean delineation between acid rain issues and global warming concerns. This traditional approach of evaluating one policy at a time is too simplistic to serve as a framework for electric utilities making major capital investment and fuel procurement decisions to comply with various environmental requirements. Potential Climate change regulation can affect acid rain compliance decisions, and acid rain compliance decisions will affect future GHG emissions. This paper explores two categories of linkages between these different environmental issues. First, the assumptions one makes regarding future climate change policies can have a profound impact on the economic attractiveness of various acid rain compliance strategies. Second, decisions regarding acid rain compliance strategy can have greenhouse gas implications that might prove more or less difficult to address in future climate change legislation.

  7. The acid rain debate. Scientific, economic, and political dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Yanarella, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on the political and legal aspects of the acid rain debate, the policy options for resolving the controversy, and the international dimensions of acid rain control. The contributors highlight concerns drawn primarily from the developing study of acid rain in political science, economics, public administration, and policy analysis - concerns that are the focal point of the public debate over the nature, impact, and cost of acid rain and the mitigation of its effects. The book complements the body of research from the natural sciences and responds to the need for applied study to help resolve the current policy stalemate on this environmental issue. The essays are supplemented by a comprehensive annotated bibliography on acid rain and relevant social science research.

  8. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  9. Acid rain reduced in Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.A.; Bowersox, V.C.; Grimm, J.W.

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and free hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) in precipitation decreased from 10% to 25% over a large area of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 as compared to the previous 12-year (1983--1994) reference period. These decreases were unprecedented in magnitude and spatial extent. In contrast, nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) concentrations generally did not change over this period. The largest decreases in both H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations, which nearly mimicked one another, occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set limitations on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from a large number of utility-owned coal-fired sources. Phase 1 of the CAAA required that these limitations be met by January 1, 1995. On the basis of their analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, the authors conclude that significant declines in acid rain occurred in many parts of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 because of large reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions in this region and a corresponding reduction in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations in precipitation.

  10. The Acid Rain Program: Compliance by design

    SciTech Connect

    Braudt, T.

    1995-09-01

    There is much discussion in the business world today regarding re-engineering of key business processes. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated regulations to implement the Acid Rain Program in 1990 which, in effect, establish new and vital business processes necessary to support fossil power generation. While these regulations specify the requirements of the Program, they do not specify the methods and organizational responsibilities necessary to attain and maintain compliance. Pre-engineering is the up-front design of a business process that incorporates regulatory requirements and links those requirements to functions, business process inputs and outputs, and responsible organizations. Using these techniques, Millican and Associates (M and A) has developed a compliance program business model from which seamless procedures can be derived which effectively assume compliance and reasonable inquiry. The resultant program assures CEMS data integrity, enables the DR to certify the integrity of the data, and provides the capability to prove this integrity to auditors and inspectors. This paper describes the development and application of this model to the challenge of Clean Air Act compliance.

  11. [Stress effects of simulant acid rain on three woody plants].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaolin

    2002-09-01

    Osmanthus fragrana, Chimonanthus praecox and Prunus persica were used as materials to investigate the effect of simulant acid rain on chlorophyll (Chl) content, cell membrane permeability(L%), the content of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in three woody plants with different resistance, and effects of the light and dark conditions on acid rain injury. The results showed that the change degree of four kinds of physiological and biochemical indexes for these woody plants was as sequence: Osmanthus fragrana > Chimonanthus praecox > Prunus persica. The change of chlorophyll content in these woody plants was not obviously when acid rain stress was influenced by the light and dark.

  12. Acid rain compliance: Coordination of state and federal regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new statute. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Some utilities are regulated by several states, some by a single state and by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and some by multiple states, by the FERC, and by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for reviewing acid rain compliance strategies if least cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on ratepayers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and addresses possible approaches that utility regulators may take to deal with this problem.

  13. Integrated gasification combined cycle: Commercial option for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The overwhelming success of the Cool Water integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant has re-defined coal gasification as a commercial option for acid rain control. This 120 MW facility emits less than 0.034 pounds SO/sub x/ and 0.059 pounds NO/sub x/ per million Btu feed coal. The potential of IGCC for new power plants is more clear-cut than for acid rain control because the acid rain issue currently involves existing power plants. Traditionally, coal gasification has been ignored as a technology option for acid rain control on existing coal-fired boilers. This paper analyzes coal gasification as an economically attractive option for significant SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ reduction in existing power plants.

  14. Economic impact of acid rain. [New York; Wisconsin; Canada; Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The environmental and economic impact of acid rain is documented for the eastern United States (New York, Wisconsin) and Canada and Scandinavia. Damage to lakes and other water resources, fisheries, forests and agriculture is emphasized.

  15. Acid rain in the West: separating politics and environmental fact

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, R.E.

    1985-05-16

    A review of findings of scientific studies characterizing the phenomenon of acidification of rainwater concludes, by separating out political considerations, that there is no acid rain emergency or crisis in the West. There are no data to indicate that acid rain is even a problem. Important regional differences distinguish the situation in the East from the West. These include physical differences in rain chemistry; in natural and man-made emissions densities; in the interactions among climate, soils, geology, vegetation, and other factors; and especially in relative proportions of utility versus other man-made and natural emissions. 1 table.

  16. Effects of simulated acid rain on fertility of litchi.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dong-liang; Liu, Xing-hui; Guo, Su-zhi

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of calcium in fertility of pollen and pistil under simulated acid rain was investigated. The germination percentage of pollen treated with acid rain of pH 4.5 was 9.42% lower than that of control, and that of pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 were 22.47%, 45.49% and 71.62%, respectively. Simultaneously, the injury character of pollen was obviously observed when flowers were treated with acid rain of pH 3.5. The difference in fruit setting rate between the female flower treated with acid rain of pH 4.0 and the control was significant at p < 0.05. Ca(NO3)2 of 0.2-0.4 mmol/L could promote pollen germination under the stress of acid rain. The beneficial function was reduced when calcium concentration surpassed 0.8 mmol/L. Spraying 2 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2 reduced the injury of acid rain to pistil and increased fruit-setting rate significantly. The physiological importance of calcium during pollen germination and pistil development was also discussed.

  17. Effects of pretreatment with simulated acid rain on the severity of dogwood anthracnose

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, K.O.; Berrang, P.; Mavity, E.

    1996-06-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain on dogwood anthracnose severity were evaluated in a series of greenhouse and field experiments over a 4-year period. In 1990 and 1991, Cornus florida seedlings received 10 weekly foliar applications of simulated rain adjusted to pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. They were then placed under mature dogwoods naturally infected with Discula destructive. In both years, the percent leaf area infected increased significantly as the pH of the simulated rain solution decreased. In 1992 and 1993, seedlings were wrapped in plastic bags below the root collar to permit separate application of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5) or normal rain (pH 5.5) to the foliage or the growing medium or both. Application of pH 2.5 rain to the growing medium increased disease severity. Foliar applications alone did not increase disease. These results suggest that changes in nutrient availability, rather than foliar damage, are responsible for the increase in anthracnose severity in dogwoods pretreated with simulated acid rain. 41 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid Rain...

  20. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid Rain...

  1. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid Rain...

  2. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid Rain...

  3. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid Rain...

  4. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  5. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  6. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  7. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  8. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  9. Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide. Activities for Grades 4 to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This guide on acid rain for elementary and secondary students is divided into three study areas: (1) What Causes Acid Rain; (2) What Problems Acid Rain Has Created; (3) How You and Your Students Can Help Combat Acid Rain. Each section presents background information and a series of lessons pertaining to the section topic. Activities include…

  10. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  11. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  12. EPA releases study describing potential acid rain damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acid rain researchers on August 24 offered evidence that if sulfur emissions are not reduced in the future, aquatic systems in the South will suffer damage from acid rain. Evidence also indicates that reductions in sulfur emissions could improve the health of damaged lakes in the Northeast. The study Future Effects of Long-Term Sulfur Deposition on Surface Water Chemistry: The Direct/Delayed Response Project, developed 50-year projections of watershed quality under three plausible acidic deposition, or acid rain, scenarios. Three areas were studied - the Northeast, comprising all of New England and parts of New York and Pennsylvania; the Mid-Appalachian Region, covering much of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the Southern Blue Ridge Province, an area covering parts of North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina and Georgia. The study is a key element in the closing months of the 10-year National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.

  13. The Effects of Acid Rain on Forest Nutrient Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale W.; Turner, John; Kelly, J. M.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. In all cases the anion associated with acid inputs must be mobile in the soil if leaching is to occur; immobilization of anions can effectively prevent cation leaching. Soil acidification will occur only if the often substantial buffering capacity of the soil in question is exceeded by acid inputs and if cation weathering from primary minerals is insufficient to offset cation losses by leaching. Such circumstances are rare but certainly could occur in theory, at least, given sufficiently large acid inputs on poorly buffered soils. Soils most sensitive to change are thought to be those of moderately acid pH and low cation exchange capacity. Neither very acid soils nor neutral, highly buffered soils are sensitive to acidification by acid rain. Given extremely high acid inputs, acid rain can cause temporary increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitritication as well as Al mobilization in soils. While temporary increases in N availability can cause increased forest growth in N-deficient forests, increased Al availability can cause toxic reactions in tree roots. Little is known about tree Al toxicity levels as yet, however. It must be emphasized that assessment of acid rain effects is a problem of quantification. Given sufficiently high inputs on sensitive sites, negative effects of acid rain must occur, as is true of inputs of any substance, including H2O. Acid rain inputs of sufficient magnitude to cause acute effects, such as growth increase due to N mobilization or growth decrease due to Al mobilization, are apparently very rare under ambient field conditions. Long-term effects on forest nutrient status can be either beneficial or adverse, depending on site nutrient status, silvicultural

  14. Acid rain and atmospheric chemistry at Allegheny Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.R.; Brachaczek, W.W.; Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Japar, S.M.; Norbeck, J.M.; Keeler, G.J.

    1987-07-01

    Rain chemistry was measured in August 1983 on Allegheny Mountain and Larel Hill in southwester Pennsylvania. The average composition approximated an H/sub 2/SO/sub 5//HNO/sub 3/ mixture with a volume-weighted average pH of 3.5 and an SO/sub 4//sup 2 -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ mole ratio of 1.8. There was very little undissociated (weak) acidity and very little S(IV). The acidic rains were associated with air masses traversing SO/sub 2/ source regions west of the sites; stagnation and intervening precipitation were important influences. The geographic scale for a halving of rain SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentration downwind of SO/sub 2/ sources was approx.440 km. Scavenging ratios were inferred for SO/sub 2/, aerosol SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and HNO/sub 3/. On average about half of the rain SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ resulted from scavenging of SO/sub 2/, the rest from scavenging of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The rain H/sup +/ was attributed about 25% to HNO/sub 3/, 55% to scavenging of SO/sub 2/, and 20% to scavenging of aerosol acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. Cumulative deposition totals in rain were compared with deposition in fog and with dry deposition in the same experiment. A crude acid-deposition budget was calculated as follows: 47%, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in rain; 23%, SO/sub 2/ dry deposition without dew; 16%, HNO/sub 3/ in rain; 11%, HNO/sub 3/ dry deposition without dew; 2%, HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in fog and dew; 0.5%, aerosol dry deposition without dew. 86 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Acid rain attack on outdoor sculpture in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Richard A.

    2016-12-01

    A major concern motivating research in acid rain materials effects has been the potential for damage to cultural heritage, particularly outdoor marble and bronze sculpture. However, a combination of field and laboratory studies has failed to show a correlation between rain pH and loss of materials. In order to understand this counterintuitive lack of acid rain effect, an aqueous geochemical modeling approach was used to analyze rain runoff chemistry for the relative importance of acid rain neutralization, dry deposition, and in the case of marble, natural carbonate dissolution. This approach involved the development of pH - SO42- phase diagrams for marble (calcium carbonate) and bronze (copper) under ambient environmental conditions. This then enabled reaction path modeling of the acid neutralization process using the pH range typically found in wet deposition (3.5-6). The results were for marble that the theoretical maximum amount of Ca2+ ion that could be lost due acid rain neutralization would be 0.158 mmol/l compared to 10.5 mmol/l by dry deposition, and for bronze, the Cu2+ ion losses would be 0.21 mmol/l and 47.3 mmol/l respectively. Consequently dry deposition effects on these materials have the potential to dominate over wet deposition effects. To test these predictions the geochemical models were applied to examples of data sets from mass balance (runoff vs rainfall) studies on a marble statue in New York City and some bronze memorial plaques at Gettysburg PA. Although these data sets were collected in the early 1980s they remain valid for demonstrating the mass balance method. For the marble statue, the mean Ca2+ losses by dry deposition was about 69% of the total compared 0.3% for acid rain neutralization, which was less than the natural carbonate dissolution losses of 0.8%. For the bronze, the mean Cu2+ losses were 70.6% by SO42- dry deposition and 23% by NO3- dry deposition compared to 6.4% by acid rain neutralization. Thus for both cases the wet

  16. Corrosion of 85-5-5-5 bronze in natural and synthetic acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morselli, L.; Bernardi, E.; Chiavari, C.; Brunoro, G.

    In order to investigate the decay of bronzes exposed to acid wet depositions, a comparative study has been performed by following the corrosion behaviour of different sets of bronze specimens exposed either to natural rain or to a similar solution, without organic compounds, artificially reproduced in laboratory. The as cast G85 bronze specimens were exposed to aggressive solutions for different periods through a wet-dry technique. The pH trend of the solutions and the amount of metals transferred into the solutions were periodically monitored. OM, SEM, XRD, RAMAN analyses and ac electrochemical measurements were performed on the artificially weathered specimens. Preliminary results, showing the difference between the ageing in natural and synthetic rain, suggest the influence of the organic components on the corrosion process. In particular, the growth of a more uniform protective layer of corrosion products on the metal surface exposed to the natural rain could be attributed to these components.

  17. [Relationship between simulated acid rain stress and leaf reflectance].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-dong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhou, Guo-mo; Jiang, Zi-shan

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental problem. Serious acid rain pollution in subtropical China has constituted a potential threat to the health of the local forest. In the present paper, the changing properties of the chlorophyll concentration and spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for the six subtropical broad-leaved tree species leaves under simulated acid rain (SAR) treatment with different pH levels were studied. With the increasing strength of the SAR, the chlorophyll concentrations of the experimental species under pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 treatment were higher than that under pH 5.6; the spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 were lower than that for pH 5.6 in general; while there weren't significant differences between pH 2.5 and pH 4.0. After the treatment with different levels of SAR, the differences in spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths mainly focused around the green peak and red edge on the reflectance curve. The subtropical broad-leaved tree species studied were relatively not sensitive to acid rain stresses; some stronger acid rain may accelerate the growth of the tree species used here to some extent.

  18. The regional costs and benefits of acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Congress recently enacted acid rain control legislation as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments following a decade-long debate among disparate regional interests. Although Congress succeeded in drafting a law acceptable to all regions, the regional costs and benefits of the legislation remain uncertain. The research presented here attempts to estimate the regional costs and benefits and the economic impacts of acid rain controls. These estimates are made using a modeling system composed of econometric, linear programming and input-output models. The econometric and linear programming components describe markets for electricity and coal. The outputs of these components including capital investment, electricity demand, and coal production are taken as exogenous inputs by a multiregional input-output model. The input-output model produces estimates of changes in final demand, gross output, and employment. The utility linear programming model also predicts sulfur dioxide emissions (an acid-rain precursor). According to model simulations, the costs of acid rain control exceed the benefits for many regions including several regions customarily thought to be the major beneficiaries of acid rain control such as New England.

  19. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The term 'acid rain' refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42-) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  20. Field evaluation of an acid rain-drought stress interaction.

    PubMed

    Banwart, W L

    1988-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed to simulate natural field conditions for growing agricultural crops while controlling conditions to study specific environmental effects. This report briefly describes the use of moveable rain exclusion shelters (10.4 x 40.9 m) to study the results of the interaction of acid rain and drought stress on corn and soybean yields. The rain exclusion shelters are constructed of galvanized pipe framing and covered with polyethylene film. Movement is automated by a rain switch to protect crops from ambient rainfall and to treat them with simulated acid rain The facility simulates a real environment with respect to variables such as solar exposure, wind movement, dew formation, and insect exposure, while allowing careful control of moisture regimes. Soybeans and corn were treated with average rainfall amounts, and with one-half and one-quarter of these rainfall amounts (drought stress) at two levels of rainfall acidity, pH 5.6 and 3.0. While drought stress resulted in considerable yield reduction for Amsoy and Williams soybeans, no additional reduction in yield was observed with rainfall of pH 3.0, as compared to rainfall of approximately pH 5.6. Similar results were observed for one corn cultivar, Pioneer 3377. For one year of the study however, yield of B73 x Mo17 (corn) was reduced 3139 kg ha(-1) by the most severe drought, and an additional 1883 kg ha(-1) by acid rain of pH 3.0, as compared to the control (pH 5.6). Yield reduction from acidic rain was considerably less at full water rates, resulting in a significant pH by drought stress interaction. However, during the second year of the experiment, no pH effect or drought by pH interaction was observed for this cultivar. The reason for the difference in the two years was not identified.

  1. Differential Gene Expression of Longan Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shan; Pan, Tengfei; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2017-05-01

    Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao. This fragment is the transcription factor activated by second messenger substances in longan leaves after signal perception of acid rain.

  2. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  3. (Cunninghamia lanceolata) caused by acid rain with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaozan; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is using hyperspectral data to detect the reflectance differences of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) which are sensitive to acidic stress and have been under different degrees of acid deposition stress for a long time. The hyperspectral reflectance for Chinese fir leaf is measured by Fieldspec Pro FR under three simulated acid rain levels (pH2.5, 4.0 and 5.6) during three years in order to monitor the response of leaf. The results indicated: (1) chlorophyll concentration of Chinese fir increased with the increasing of the simulated rain acidity in the late experimental period; (2) the 1st derivative values increased at the green edge (480-540nm) and red edge (680-760nm) with pH increasing; (3) the RVI550 and GNDVI values did differ significantly at pH2.5 and 5.6 treatment; (4) red edge position was found moving to longer wave bands with increasing rain acidity along with the experimental time; (5) there are significant differences vale at blue 510nm and 690nm wavelength between different treatments that can be used to be an useful parameters to distinguish the severity of acid deposition. The research also indicated that the hyperspectral parameters can be used to monitor the acid rain stress on trees.

  4. Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, An; Wu, Guangxue; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150μm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Continuous-emission monitoring: Proposed acid-rain rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowances Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CRF Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet summarizes the key components of the proposed Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75).

  6. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  7. Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Dayal, P.

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. EPA acid rain program compliance experience at TU electric

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will address TU Electric`s experiences in the area of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s Acid Rain Program; Final Rule, January 11, 1993. The Acid Rain Program was required as a result of the passing into law of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. As a result of these documents, TU Electric was required to install and certify 54 approved monitoring systems at its generating facilities in Texas. TU Electric installed, certified and currently maintains, on a daily basis, 35 fully monitored and 19 approved alternative monitoring systems.

  9. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  10. Further emissions cuts needed for speedier acid rain recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Some people may have thought that the problem of acid deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, had been solved in the United States with the passage of the Acid Deposition Control Program under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA).Although that legislation has helped to dramatically limit emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide—gases that can react in the atmosphere and form acidic compounds, including fine particles of sulfates and nitrates— much steeper cuts are needed for a quicker recovery from acid rain in the north-eastern United States, according to a new scientific appraisal of the effectiveness of measures called for in that law. The appraisal was issued on March 26 and is entitled “Acidic Deposition in the Northeastern United States: Sources and Inputs, Ecosystem Effects, and Management Strategies.”

  11. Acid Monsoonal Rains in Nepal in August 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazis, C. A.; Best, B.; Johnson, J.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Hodges, D.; Johansen, A. M.; Upreti, B.

    2010-12-01

    Monsoonal rains between the months of May and September constitute approximately 80% of Nepal’s annual precipitation, controlling river discharge and flooding patterns, sustaining native vegetation and agriculture, and influencing physical and chemical weathering rates. Acid rain events, if common during the monsoon season, could have significant impact on regional ecosystems as well as chemical weathering rates and patterns. In this study, precipitation samples were collected in August 2008 and August 2009 from a site in the town of Bhulbhule on the Marsyandi River in north-central Nepal. These samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ion chemistry and trace element chemistry. In 2008, daily samples were collected between August 12 and August 25. Of these fourteen samples, eleven were acid rain, with pH between 4.1 and 4.8. The remaining three, collected between August 14 and August 16 had pH vaules between 6.6 and 7.0. In 2009, samples were collected again between August 12 and August 25. During the first four days of this interval, samples were collected after each precipitation event and thereafter they were collected daily. In 2009, all but one sample collected had a pH above 6.1 and five samples had values above 8.0. The lowest pH measured was 5.5. Major ion chemistry reveals a number of differences between the 2008 precipitation samples and the 2009 samples. For example, 2009 samples have higher K and Cl concentrations and thus tend to have lower Ca/K and SO4/Cl ratios. When comparing the acid rain and non-acid rain samples collected in 2008, the most distinct difference is the presence of PO4 in measurable amounts (0.2 to 1.1 ppm) in the acid rain samples. In this poster we discuss these differences in major ion chemistry in terms of local and regional weather patterns and potential ion sources.

  12. Acid rain and the NAPAP study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This article reports on preliminary state of science and technology reports on acidic deposition released by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. These are part of the integrated assessment of acidic deposition and related air pollutants to be released at a later date. SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and effects are discussed.

  13. Innovative role of statistics in acid rain performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Warren-Hicks, W.; Etchison, T.; Lieberman, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 mandated that affected electric utilities reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, the primary precursors of acidic deposition, and included an innovative market-based SO{sub 2} regulatory program. A central element of the Acid Rain Program is the requirement that affected utility units install CEMS. This paper describes how the Acid Rain Regulations incorporated statistical procedures in the performance tests for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) and how statistical analysis was used to assess the appropriateness, stringency, and potential impact of various performance tests and standards that were considered for inclusion in the Acid Rain Regulations. Described here is the statistical analysis that was used to set a relative accuracy standard, establish the calculation procedures for filling in missing data when a monitor malfunctions, and evaluate the performance tests applied to petitions for alternative monitoring systems. The paper concludes that the statistical evaluations of proposed provisions of the Acid Rain Regulations resulted in the adoption of performance tests and standards that were scientifically substantiated, workable, and effective.

  14. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘acid rain’ refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42−) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  15. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  16. Acid Rain - This cloud has no silver lining

    Treesearch

    Gail Michaels

    2000-01-01

    Twenty years ago, acid rain was the environmental cause du jour, a symptom of all that was wrong with humans and their relationship to the environment. Its discovery was accidental, ironic for what turned out to be such a wide-ranging problem. "Hub" Vogelman, a University of Vermont botanist, noticed something troubling in the precipitation data he and his...

  17. A Gaming Approach to the Acid Rain Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Norio; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an educational microcomputer gaming system for dealing with the acid rain problem in Western Europe and discusses its objectives, rules, problems, and future perspectives. Usefulness of gaming as an operational aid in formulating appropriate energy policies worldwide is emphasized. (MBR)

  18. A Gaming Approach to the Acid Rain Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Norio; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an educational microcomputer gaming system for dealing with the acid rain problem in Western Europe and discusses its objectives, rules, problems, and future perspectives. Usefulness of gaming as an operational aid in formulating appropriate energy policies worldwide is emphasized. (MBR)

  19. Ten utilities receive acid rain bonus allowances from EPA

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently awarded 1,349 acid rain bonus allowances to ten utilities for energy efficiency and renewable energy measures. An allowance licensesthee emission of one ton of sulfur dioxide. A limited number of allowances are allocated to utilities to ensure that emissions will be cut to less than 9 million tons per year.

  20. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator will...

  1. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator will...

  2. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator will...

  3. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator will...

  4. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator will...

  5. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0.

  6. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  7. Red herring in acid rain research

    SciTech Connect

    Havas, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Likens, G.E.

    1984-06-01

    Five common misconceptions, red herrings, regarding the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems are described in an attempt to clarify some of the confusion they have created. These misconceptions are the following: Bog lakes have been acidic for thousands of years; thus the acidification of lakes is not a recent phenomenon. The early methods for measuring pH are in error; therfore, no statements can be made regarding historical trends. Acidification of lakes and streams results from changed land use practices (forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry) and not acid deposition. The decrease in fish populations is caused by overfishing, disease, and water pollution, not acidification. Because lakes that receive identical rainfall can have considerable different pHs, regional lake acidification cannot be due to acid precipitation. It is easy to suggest a whole series of alternative, and often unlikely, explanations of the causes and consequences of acid deposition. These keep scientists busy for years assembling and examining data only to conclude that the explanation is not valid. These tactics cause, and perhaps are designed to cause, continuous delay in remedial action. They fail to take into account the large body of information that deals with the sources of the acid deposition and the seriousness of its effects.

  8. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  9. Learning About Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide for Grades 6 through 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find on this page a link to the Acid Rain Teacher's Guide for Students Grades 6-8. This guide contains information, class discussions and experiments teachers can use to teach students about acid rain.

  10. Acid Rain Education and Its Implications for Curricular Development: A Teacher Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Germann, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes a survey which was designed to obtain information on acid rain education. Reviews results pertaining to instructional time, instructional topics, use of labs from a common resource guide, and preference of materials related to acid rain education. (ML)

  11. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  12. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  13. Acid Rain Education and Its Implications for Curricular Development: A Teacher Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Germann, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes a survey which was designed to obtain information on acid rain education. Reviews results pertaining to instructional time, instructional topics, use of labs from a common resource guide, and preference of materials related to acid rain education. (ML)

  14. Growth and xylem water potential of white oak and loblolly pine seedlings as affected by simulated acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. ); McLaughlin, S.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Effects of simulated acidic rainfall on the growth and water relations of white oak (Quercus albya L.) and loblolly pin (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown under two fertility regimes were examined. Seedling of each species grown in a loam soil were exposed to two simulated rains per week of pH 4.8, 4.2 or 3.6 for 26 wk. High and low fertility regimes were imposed by monthly application of one-half and one-quarter concentration, respectively, of Hoagland's solution No. 2. Diameter growth of both species was reduced by exposure to rains of the higher acidities regardless of fertility treatment, and seedlings that received pH 4.2 and 3.6 rains also exhibited greater foliar chlorosis and necrosis than those that received rains of pH 4.8. The high fertility treatment stimulated diameter growth of white oak, but height growth, shoot and root dry weights and total root length were no substantially affected b acid rain or fertility treatments in either species. Following the final rain applications, drought was simulated by withholding irrigation for 2 wk, and seedling xylem pressure potential was then measured using the pressure chamber technique. Xylem pressure potential of white oak seedlings which had received rains of pH 3.6 was significantly lower than that of seedlings which had received rains of higher pH, a result that became more pronounced as soil water potential decreased. Rain acidity had little effect on the xylem pressure potential of loblolly pine, however. Soil pH analyses before initiation and after completion of the rain applications indicated that rainfall of pH 3.6 increased soil acidity more than rains of pH 4.2 or 4.8, although changes in soil pH were small overall. 26 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  15. The urban perspectives of acid rain. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1993-06-04

    This report documents discussions held during a workshop an Urban Perspective of Acid Rain. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Director, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). NAPAP anticipates giving increased emphasis to the benefits in urban areas of emissions reductions. The goal of this informal, exploratory workshop was to serve as a first step towards identifying pollutant monitoring, and research and assessment needs to help answer, from an urban perspective, the two key questions posed to NAPAP by Congress: (1) what are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid rain control program, and (2) what reductions in deposition, rates are needed in order to prevent adverse effects? The workshop addressed research activities needed to respond to these questions. The discussions focused. sequentially, on data needs, data and model availability, and data and modeling gaps. The discussions concentrated on four areas of effects: human health, materials, urban forests, and visibility.

  16. A collaborative effort to model plant response to acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.; Irving, P.; Kuja, A.; Lee, J.; Shriner, D.; Troiano, J.; Perrigan, S.; Cullinan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Radish plants were exposed three times per week to simulated acidic rain at pH values of 2.6 to 5.4 over the course of four weeks in trials performed at Argonne, Illinois; Ithaca and Upton, New York; Corvallis, Oregon; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Toronto, Canada. Uniform genotype, soil media and planting techniques, treatment procedures, biological measurements, and experimental design were employed. Growth of plants differed among trials as a result of variation in greenhouse environmental conditions according to location and facilities. Larger plants underwent greater absolute but lower relative reductions in biomass after exposure to the higher levels of acidity. A generalized Mitscherlich function was used to model the effects of acidity of simulated rain on dry mass of hypocotyls using data from three laboratories that performed duplicate trials. The remaining data, from three other laboratories that performed only one trial each, were used to test the model. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Adirondack tourism: perceived consequences of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report seeks to place in perspective the perceived effects of acid precipitation on the tourist industry in the Adirondacks. The 9375-square mile park is host to almost nine million tourists annually, not including seasonal residents. Since the park was established almost 100 years ago, there have been many changes in tourist characteristics, available recreational facilities, kinds of activities, accessibility of the area, and land use and resource management policies. The tourist industry has been influenced by both controllable and uncontrollable factors. At present the overwhelming majority of recreational opportunities and natural resources important to the Adirondack tourist industry are relatively unaffected by acid precipitation. Fishing, a significant component of the tourist industry, is the most vulnerable, but any presumed adverse economic effect has to be weighed against the location of the impacted waters, total Adirondack fishing habitat, substitution available, habitat usage, fisherman characteristics, resource management, and the declining importance of fishing as an Adirondack recreational attraction. Concern is expressed as to whether present minimal acidification impacts are the precursor of major future impacts on Adirondack terrestrial and aquatic environments, and ultimately tourism. Tourism in the Adirondacks is increasing, while many other regional employment sectors are declining. It is becoming a more stable multiseason industry. Its future growth and character will be affected by government, private organization, business community, and resident controversies regarding land use and resource management attitudes, policies, budgets, and regulations. The acid precipitation issue is only one of many related controversies. 65 references, 2 figures.

  18. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid Rain...

  19. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid Rain...

  20. Acid rain: Engineering solutions, regulatory aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; Elliott, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains six sections, each containing several papers. The section titles are: Problem Definition, Development of a Mitigration Program, Legislative and Politics, SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ Emissions Reduction-Before Combustion, SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ Emissions Reduction-During Combustion, and SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ Emissions Reduction-After Combustion.

  1. Acid rain study: Do it again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    James Mahoney, newly appointed head of the Reagan administration's National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), got a writing assignment last week from Rep. James Scheuer (D-N.Y.) , a subcommittee chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology (SST).At a hearing on April 27, 1988, Mahoney agreed to Scheuer's request that he rewrite by Labor Day the executive summary o f an interim report o n NAPAP's progress that was submitted to Congress during September 1987. The summary, written by Mahoney's predecessor, J. Laurence Kulp, was immediately criticized by scientists, legislators, and environmental groups as a distortion of facts and a whitewash of the scientific conclusions of the interim report. Kulp resigned within a week of the summary's release.

  2. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1986-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollutants is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern United States and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. The principle objective is to examine how seasonal changes in lake water transparency are related to annual acidic load. Further, the relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units is being examined. Finally, the utility of Thematic Mapper (TM) based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes is being investigated.

  3. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1986-01-01

    A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forests. The number of lakes affected in northeastern United States and on the Canadian Shield is thought to be enormous. Seasonal changes in lake transparency are examined relative to annual acidic load. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units is being examined. Finally, the utility of Thematic Mapper (TM) based observations is being used to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes.

  4. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  5. Evaluation of the Acid Rain approach to monitor certification

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    November 15, 1990 saw the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Within this law are the requirements for all electric utility units greater than 25 megawatts of generated electrical capacity to monitor SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}. This paper summarizes the Acid Rain Program`s approach to Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) certification testing requirements and their purpose in this market based pollution control program, created as a result of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents a brief introduction to the theory behind the required tests. The author then presents summary evaluation of the certification test results for CEMS installed at the Phase 1 sources affected by the Acid Rain Program.

  6. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  7. Interactions of gaseous-pollutant and acid-rain effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    This research addresses the significance of individual and combined effects of gaseous pollutants and acid rain on plant growth and development. It is specifically structured to determine the importance of pollutant interactions at concentrations, combinations and exposure frequencies typical of the eastern regional environment. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies are designed to establish pollutant-concentration thresholds for damage from SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, and acid rain. Research to date has determined visible-injury thresholds and growth-and-yield thresholds for a variety of cultivars of bean, wheat, radish, tomato, and loblolly pine. The thresholds vary within cultivars of a species and between species.

  8. Phase I of acid rain program is a success

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    As of January 1, 1995, Phase I of the acid rain program required the 110 largest, high-emitting utility plants (located in 21 states) to comply with intermediate sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission limitation requirements. These controls are designed to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions from units to less than or equal to 2.50 pounds per million Btu (lb/MMBtu). According to a report recently released by EPA, all of the facilities affected by phase I successfully met their compliance obligations. The results of the Phase I performance evaluation were published in a July 1996 report entitled `1995 Compliance Results - Acid Rain Program,` and are presented here in brief. 1 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Why Isn't My Rain as Acidic as Yours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek, O. T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses three topics that have been improperly applied to the acidic precipitation issue. They are: (1) use of the pH scale; (2) acidity; and (3) solution equilibria of strong and weak acids. Implications for instruction are considered. (JN)

  10. CR@BaSO4: an acid rain-indicating material.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Xu, Xin-Hui

    2011-12-28

    The CR@BaSO(4) hybrid was synthesized, characterized and used as an acid rain-indicating (ARI) material. A painted ARI umbrella was discolored after exposure to simulated acid rain of pH 5 or less and returned to the initial color after the rain stopped. Such a functionalized material may make acid rain visual to remind people in real-time. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Fully engineered approach to acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, F.W. )

    1994-01-01

    Regulations and methods for control of sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions have been developed and are fairly well understood. However, nitrous oxide (NO[sub x]) reduction requirements are only now being mandated. Owners of major emissions sources will be unable to continue to defer compliance with evolving legislation. Unfortunately, the objectives of state and federal environmental regulatory authorities differ and conflict with those of utilities, public utility commissions, and ratepayers. The uncertainties caused by the differences make it difficult to prepare any proposed plan or budget that will be acceptable to all. Reduction in NO[sub x] emissions does not necessarily mean overall environmental improvement. Often, objectionable pollutants result from the reaction of chemicals present in a given environment and emitted as harmful atmospheric pollution. Ozone is such a pollutant. With the chemical concentration anomalies involved, the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions may result in greater damage. The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) or Urban Airshed Model (UAM) being used to analyze area-wide conditions are still unable to make this distinction and, even at best, the variables involved render any solution to be uncertain. Engineering has responded to these myriad problems by developing a fully documented and engineered low-cost approach: a boiler-specific, defensible, technical, and economically analytical computer model that can be quickly updated as conditions, costs, and regulations change. The results can be programmed into an on-line system to include environmental optimization into economic dispatch. A step-by-step description of the approach aimed at economic NO[sub x] reduction is the subject of this article.

  12. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Treesearch

    D. S. Shriner

    1976-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted...

  13. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    PubMed

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  14. Acid Rain and Friendly Neighbors. The policy dispute between Canada and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schmandt, J.; Roderick, H.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain and Friendly Neighbors is a source book that summarizes the results of the various studies of acid rain and traces the issues historically. Contents: Part One: The Search for a Bilateral Agreement. Acid rain is different; The nature and effects of acid rain: a comparison of assessments; U.S.-Canadian negotiations on acid rain; Part Two: Domestic Policy Development. Canada's acid rain policy: federal and provincial roles; The U.S. policy response to acid rain; Environmental and economic interests in Canada and the United States; Part Three: Supportive Structures. The international joint commission: the role it might play; Lessons from the Great Lakes water quality agreements; Supporting structures for resolving environmental disputes among friendly neighbors.

  15. Integrated assessment modeling in Canada: The case of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Y.K.G.; Barr, M.; Lam, D.

    1998-12-31

    In the past, environmental decision making has been based on analysis of policy options with respect to emission reduction, deposition or concentration of pollutants and the design of preventive strategies using disparate single-model and discipline results. It was impossible to obtain optimal solution to environmental problems because it is difficult to conduct a coherent, systematic and sound analysis of environmental problems using a single disciplinary model. Thus, a need arises for an integrated approach in environmental policy making. The trend in environmental management is a move from single pollutant/single-effect to multi-pollutant/multi-effect approach and to the inclusion of socioeconomic issues for the purposes of determining the interaction of the environment with the economy. Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) enables us to examine these kinds of issues by creating logical and scientific relationship between the functioning of various ecosystems and the manner in which they respond to external stimuli. Recognizing the crucial role that an integrative approach could play in the development of sound environmental decision making, Environment Canada and other government agencies have jointly participated in the development of IAM. Using data on emissions, depositions, source-receptor matrix, costs of emission abatement, models describing the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, IAM can be used to identify optimal emission reduction strategies that benefit both the economy and ecology. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how economic aspects of emission abatement can be incorporated into IAM using acid rain as a case. The present study compared findings of optimal abatement strategies when economic abatement costs are included and when they are not.

  16. Role of acid rain in atmospheric deposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winchester, J.W.

    1990-12-31

    A study was conducted to assess the potential importance of atmospheric nitrate deposition for a north Florida estuary. A comparison, based on statistical analysis of fluxes of ten dissolved constituents of rain water and river water, has been carried out for the watershed of the Apalachicola River, utilizing weekly rain water chemical data from the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP) for five sites within the watershed area, monitored from 1978-84 until late 1989, and less frequent river water chemical data from the U.S. Geological Survey for one site at Chattahoochee, Florida, monitored from 1965 until late 1989. Similar statistical analysis was performed on monitoring data for the Sopchoppy and Ochlockonee Rivers of north Florida. Atmospheric deposition to the watershed appears to be sufficient to account for essentially all the dissolved nitrate and ammonium and total organic nitrogen flow in the three rivers. However, after deposition most of the nitrate may be transformed to other chemical forms during the flow of the rivers toward their estuaries. In an additional statistical analysis of rain water monitoring data from the eight state southeastern USA region, it was found that both meteorological conditions and transport from pollution sources appear to control deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate acid air pollutants.

  17. Streams in Catskill Mountains still susceptible to acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    Precipitation in North America has become less acidic over the past 2 decades because of reduced power plant emissions and compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments [Sirois, 19937rsqb;. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were developed to reduce the acidity of sensitive surface waters, which are primarily in upland forested environments, where acidified waters and associated high aluminum concentrations are toxic to many species of aquatic flora and fauna [Schindler et al., 1989]. Our studies show that in spite of less acidic precipitation, the buffering capacity of streams in upland forests of the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York has not increased in recent years. These data suggest that long-term leaching by acid rain has lowered exchangeable calcium ion concentrations in the soil in upland areas, where the underlying, slow-weathering bedrock provides an inadequate supply of cations to neutralize acidity.

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain on the pollen germination and pollen tube growth of apple (Malus sylvestris Miller cv. Golden).

    PubMed

    Munzuroglu, O; Obek, E; Geckil, H

    2003-01-01

    The pollens of apple flowers have been treated with simulated acid rain solutions in range of pHs 2.9 to 5.0 in order to determine the threshold proportion values that lead the observed symptoms of detriments of acid rain. Compared to controls (pH 6.5), pollen germination decreased by 41.75% at pH 3.3 and pollen tube elongation decreased by 24.3% at pH 3.4. Acid rain threshold proportion value was around pH 3.3 and 3.4 for apple pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, respectively. Furthermore, pollen tube elongation was determined to be more sensitive to acid rain than pollen germination. The pH values below 3.1 resulted in complete destruction of pollen tubes. Pollen germination entirely stopped at around pH 3.0. Finally, it has been shown that the acid rain has a blocking effect on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in apple. The conclusion is that not only pH value but also the quantity of acid rain is important factor in germination. The results were found statistically significant through the LSD test at levels of p < 0.05 and p < 0.01.

  19. Responses of tropical legumes from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Guilherme C; Silva, Luzimar C

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the morphological and anatomical effects of simulated acid rain on leaves of two species native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Paubrasilia echinata and Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya. Saplings were subjected to acid rain in a simulation chamber during 10 days for 15 min daily, using H2SO4 solution pH 3.0 and, in the control, deionized water. At the end of the experiment, fragments from young and expanding leaves were anatomically analyzed. Although L. ferrea var. leiostachya leaves are more hydrophobic, rain droplets remained in contact with them for a longer time, as in the hydrophilic P. echinata leaves, droplets coalesce and rapidly run off. Visual symptomatology consisted in interveinal and marginal necrotic dots. Microscopic damage found included epicuticular wax flaking, turgor loss and epidermal cell shape alteration, hypertrophy of parenchymatous cells, and epidermal and mesophyll cell collapse. Formation of a wound tissue was observed in P. echinata, and it isolated the necrosis to the adaxial leaf surface. Acid rain increased thickness of all leaf tissues except spongy parenchyma in young leaves of L. ferrea var. leiostachya, and such thickness was maintained throughout leaf expansion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acidity causing increase in leaf tissue thickness. This could represent the beginning of cell hypertrophy, which was seen in visually affected leaf regions. Paubrasilia echinata was more sensitive, showing earlier symptoms, but the anatomical damage in L. ferrea var. leiostachya was more severe, probably due to the higher time of contact with acid solution in this species.

  20. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1987-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollution is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern U.S. and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. How seasonal changes in lake transparency are related to annual acidic load was examined. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units was also examined. The utility of Thematic Mapper based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes was investigated. The potential for this optical response is related to a number of local ecophysical factors with bedrock geology being, perhaps, the most important. Other factors include sulfate deposition, vegetative cover, and terrain drainage/relief. The area of southern Ontario contains a wide variety of geologies from the most acid rain sensitive granite quartzite types to the least sensitive limestone dolomite sediments. Annual sulfate deposition ranges from 1.0 to 4.0 grams/sq m.

  1. Collaborative effort to model plant response to acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.; Kuja, A.; Shriner, D.; Perrigan, S.; Irving, P.; Lee, J.; Troiano, J.; Cullinan, V.

    1988-06-01

    Radish plants were exposed three times per week to simulated acidic rain at pH values of 2.6 to 5.4 over the course of four weeks in trials performed at Argonne, Illinois; Ithaca and Upton, New York; Corvallis, Oregon; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Toronto, Canada. Uniform genotype, soil media and planting techniques, treatment procedures, biological measurements, and experimental design were employed. Growth of plants differed among trials as a result of variation in greenhouse environmental conditions according to location and facilities. Larger plants underwent greater absolute but lower relative reductions in biomass after exposure to the higher levels of acidity. A generalized Mitscherlich function was used to model the effects of acidity of simulated rain or dry mass of hypocotyls using data from three laboratories that performed duplicate trials. The remaining data, from three other laboratories that performed only one trial each, were used to test the model. When the laboratory by trial effect was removed, lack of fit to the Mitscherlich function was insignificant. Thus, a single mathematical model satisfactorily characterized the relationship between acidity and mean plant response.

  2. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 3: Aquatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, D.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report is an assessment of information on the aquatic effects of acid rain, produced to act as technical support for development of an acid rain strategy. It first reviews the previous aquatic effects assessment of 1990 and aquatic effects monitoring and research conducted post-1990. It then presents and discusses results of research that proceeds from the knowledge base and status presented in the 1990 assessment. First, the chemical and biological changes observed in aquatic ecosystems since the early 1980s are assessed, including an analysis of the factors (such as declining acidic deposition) that influence the changes. Regional differences and hysteresis between acidification and recovery responses are also discussed. Second, interactions between the acidity stressor and other atmospherically based stressors such as climate change and contaminant deposition are considered. Third, the effectiveness of existing critical and target loads in protecting aquatic ecosystems is re-evaluated. Finally, the likely effect of full implementation of the planned sulphur dioxide controls in Canada and the United States on aquatic chemistry and biology is predicted using up-to-date modelling tools. Knowledge gaps are identified along with recommended actions to be implemented.

  3. Analysis of acid rain patterns in northeastern China using a decision tree method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Jiang, Hong; Jin, Jiaxin; Xu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qingxin

    2012-01-01

    Acid rain is a major regional-scale environmental problem in China. To control acid rain pollution and to protect the ecological environment, it is urgent to document acid rain patterns in various regions of China. Taking Liaoning Province as the study area, the present work focused on the spatial and temporal variations of acid rains in northeastern China. It presents a means for predicting the occurrence of acid rain using geographic position, terrain characteristics, routinely monitored meteorological factors and column concentrations of atmospheric SO 2 and NO 2. The analysis applies a decision tree approach to the foregoing observation data. Results showed that: (1) acid rain occurred at 17 stations among the 81 monitoring stations in Liaoning Province, with the frequency of acid rain from 0 to 84.38%; (2) summer had the most acid rain occurrences followed by spring and autumn, and the winter had the least; (3) the total accuracy for the simulation of precipitation pH (pH ≤ 4.5, 4.5 < pH ≤ 5.6, and pH > 5.6) was 98.04% using the decision tree method known as C5. The simulation results also indicated that the distance to coastline, elevation, wind direction, wind speed, rainfall amount, atmospheric pressure, and the precursors of acid rain all have a strong influence on the occurrence of acid rains in northeastern China.

  4. Effect of an acid rain environment on limestone surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mossotti, V.G.; Lindsay, J.R.; Hochella, M.F. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    As part of a study to assess mineralogical alterations in building stone caused by acid rain, Salem limestone samples were exposed for one year in several urban and one rural environments. Samples exposed in the rural location were chemically indistinguishable from the freshly quarried limestone (control material). All samples collected from urban exposure sites developed gypsum stains on the grounding surfaces, where the stones were unwashed by precipitation. However, the bulk chemistry of the urban samples (not including the stain) was virtually identical to that of the control stone. Sulfur (in the form of sulfate) was disseminated over the calcite grain surfaces to a depth less than 10 nanometer in the freshly quarried limestone; an identical sulfate layer was found on the calcite grains after the 1-y exposure period. Mass balance calculations and sulfur isotope patterns indicate that the gypsum stain on the protected surfaces consists of adventitious sulfur. A model, involving the attack of SO/sub 2/ on dry calcite, was used to define the conditions for stain formation on dry, protected surfaces. This suggests that under arid conditions, once the surface has been saturated with gypsum, the quantity of stain deposited on an unwashed surface is independent of atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentration. On rain-washed surfaces experiencing gas-solid attack during intermittent dry periods, the quantity of gypsum produced by a gas-solid reaction mechanism should strongly correlate with both the frequency of rain events and the atmospheric SO/sub 2/ level, provided that the rain events are frequent and clearly delimited by periods of dryness.

  5. Illinois Power, PacifiCorp protest EPA acid rain plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-09-07

    In language clearly threatening legal action, PacifiCorp and Illinois Power have lodged a strong protest with the EPA over its decision to defer action on utility Phase I acid rain substitution plans. They specifically complained about EPA`s deferral of a plan under which PacifiCorp`s Gadsby Unit 3, Wyodak Unit BW91 and Jim Bridger Units BW71, 72, and 73 would serve as substitution for Illinois Power`s Baldwin Unit 2 for 1996-99. This was one of more than 75 plans deferred by the EPA.

  6. [Characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Hong; Chen, Bin-Bin; Sui, Ping; Lin, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38.1% and 61.9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40.6% and 59.4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4.1-5.5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone) and outside of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone). There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, PM10, and the pH of rain in Fuzhou.

  7. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  8. California's fog is far more polluted than acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1982-11-01

    In the Los Angeles area, measurements reveal that the fog has a pH between 2.5 and 3. Near congested areas, the fog is consistenly acidic and is laden with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion, lead, copper, nickel, vanadium and aldehydes. Acid fog formation involves a conversion of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ to sulfuric and nitric acids. Unlike acid rain, acid fog remains suspended in the air for hours and is a threat to human health as well as vegetation and materials. Fog forms close to the ground where concentrations of pollutants are higher than they are further aloft. Acid fog seems to be related to ground-based pollution sources, particularly power plant and automobile emissions. Samples were collected in locations far from major pollution sources and used to test the composition and acidity of normal fog. The pH values ranged from 3, near Los Angeles, to 7, near Morro Bay. Mathematical models are used to explain changes in acidity over time and to indicate a cyclical pattern.

  9. Erosion by acid rain, accelerating the tracking of polystyrene insulating material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Chen, L.; Yoshimura, N.

    2000-05-01

    Because outdoor insulating materials in service are subjected to numerous wet and dry cycles, it is necessary to establish their performance in acid rain. The erosion effect of acid rain on atactic polystyrene insulating material is investigated using accelerated ageing by artificial acid rain. The degradation mechanisms of material structure and tracking resistance are discussed. The experimental results reported here show that the erosion of acid rain causes the degradation of the surface chemical and physical structures of polystyrene (PS) material so that the surface conductivity of aged material increases. Under electrical stress, the surface discharge current increases, and the local surface is deteriorated so that the tracking is initiated earlier and the material rapidly fails. The degradation rate of PS material in acid rain varies as function of the ion concentration, pH and conductivity of acid rain. Only the severe acid rain of high acidity and conductivity can exert an influence on PS insulating material. The concentration of actual rainwater is insufficient to lead to obvious erosion on PS insulation. PS insulation could resist on the erosion of normal acid rainwater. Even though clear degradation occurs with strong acid rain, PS could behave quite well in mild acid rain conditions.

  10. A modeling study on acid rain and recommended emission control strategies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. J.; Jin, L. S.; Li, Z. K.; Lam, K. S.

    This paper presents a brief description of the sources and characteristics of air pollution in China, documenting acid rain aggravation and its regional distribution in the past years. Simulation of SO 2 ground-level concentration and sulfur deposition in 1995 was performed with the Nanjing University developed acid deposition model system (NJUADMS) and compared with the national observations and the model output of the RAINS-ASIA. Furthermore, the acid rain control policy and its countermeasures adopted for the country are presented.

  11. Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

  12. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  13. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  14. Acid rain and our nation`s capital: A guide to effects on buildings and monuments

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.

    1997-03-01

    This booklet focuses on acid rain and its impact on our Nation`s capital. This booklet will define acid rain, explain what effects it has on marble and limestone buildings, and show, on a walking tour, some of the places in our Nation`s capital where you can see the impact of acid precipitation.

  15. Acid Rain: A Selective Bibliography. Second Edition. Bibliography Series Twenty-One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid.…

  16. A novel approach for structure quantification of fatty acids films on rain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Adriana Z.; Pogorzelski, Stanisław J.; Kogut, Anna D.

    A complete compositional or structural description of naturally occurring surfactants on rainwater is not currently feasible. A main limitation of previous work has been the lack of means for correlating force-area characteristics with the chemical makeup of the films. Instead of analyzing the chemical composition of rain water film-forming organics, it is postulated here to introduce the novel scaling procedures (2D virial equation of state and 2D polymer film scaling theory) applied to the surface pressure-area ( π- A) isotherms and surface pressure-temperature ( π- T) isochors, and resulting from generalized physical formalisms modified to a multicomponent surfactant film. A set of the introduced structural film state parameters could become sensitive indicators for surface-active source-specific organic matter pathways tracing, where the measurement of surfactant concentration and chemical analyses are avoided. Performed comprehensive film studies on rain, marine and snow-melted water samples exhibited significant and differentiated film structural parameters variability. The developed procedure allows one to recover the film parameters ( π, Γ, Alim, Eisoth) present originally at the raindrop surface from the Langmuir trough data supplemented with the simultaneously taken rain event characteristics (rain rate and rain drop diameter distribution). It requires the partitioning effect of the surfactant molecules between the surface and bulk phases to be estimated where the entering quantities are: the partitioning coefficient Kp= Γ/ c and a degree of the rain water interfacial system area development Ar/ Vr evaluated here using the fatty acids concentrations as model input data. The latter parameter depends on the rain rate and the form of the drop size distribution function differing significantly from the Marshall-Palmer one at low Ir (<1 mm h -1). The partitioning factor Kp related to the physicochemical composition of the film-composing material exhibited

  17. The role of EPA`s Acid Rain Division in the Ozone Transport Commission`s NOx budget program

    SciTech Connect

    Schary, C.; Culligan, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Ozone Transport Commission`s (OTC) Nitrogen Oxides (NO{sub x}) Budget Program will implement the emissions reduction goal of the 1994 Memorandum of Understanding between its twelve member states and the District of Columbia. The program will achieve its significant NO{sub x} reductions from electric utilities and industrial boilers using a {open_quotes}cap-and-trade{close_quotes} approach modeled after the US Environmental Protection Agency`s sulfur dioxide emissions trading under the Acid Rain Program. The similarity of the two programs has led to the development of an important partnership between the OTC states and EPA`s Acid Rain Division, Over the past two years, Acid Rain Program staff have shared their technical expertise and assisted extensively in the development of the program`s rules. Leveraging the investment EPA made in the systems used to run the Acid Rain Program, the OTC states have asked the Acid Rain Division to administer the data systems for them, and together are working to expand its existing Emissions Tracking System and to modify a clone of the sulfur dioxide Allowance Tracking System, to fulfill the unique requirements of the NO{sub x} Budget Program. This partnership is an important example of the new type of cooperation and sharing of expertise and resources that should develop between EPA and states as they launch multi-state programs to address regional pollution problems that defy a single-state solution.

  18. [Yesterday, today, tomorrow. A retrospective look at the acid rain problem].

    PubMed

    Buijsman, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Last century, at the end of the seventies, Europe was startled by a serious environmental problem: acid rain. Acid rain was held responsible for the decline of fishes in Scandinavian lakes. Later, it was suggested that acid rain could lead to forest dieback over vast areas of Europe. Forests in the Netherlands could be at great risk, as well. It was clear to everyone what it was all about, for 'rain' means water falling from the atmosphere and the meaning of 'acid' was evident, too. Acid rain caused much commotion in the eighties but, since then, it has faded into the background. Why is it, that there is so little attention paid to acid rain these days? Maybe the acid rain problem was a hype; with an exaggerated reaction to a problem that was, in fact, insignificant. This article aims to reconstruct the history of one of the most prominent environmental problems of the twentieth century. The article describes the origin of the acid rain problem in the 1960s and describes the scientific research that was carried out to develop a better understanding of the problem from an atmospheric chemical point of view. Subsequently, it treats the rise of public awareness in the seventies. The article subsequently focuses on the situation in the Netherlands. The initial research into forest health showed alarming results. This led to widespread concern within The Netherlands, which, once more, urged the government to come into action. Some measures to reduce air-polluting emissions were already taken in the early 1980s. However, these were meant, mainly, to improve local air quality. As the eighties progressed, acid rain provided an additional argument for reducing air pollution. This article presents the consequences of the emission reductions for the acidity of acid rain, and it discusses--in brief--the acid rain problem in light of current scientific knowledge. Finally, it answers the question of why forests did not die.

  19. Acid rain at Kennedy Space Center, Florida - Recent observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the period July, 1977 to September, 1979, rainfall was collected in the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center and subjected to appropriate chemical analysis for purposes of characterization of general composition and acidity. Results obtained form the basis for future comparisons, should significant alteration of the chemical composition of rain occur during the space shuttle era. Acidity extremes calculated on a monthly basis from event samples collected from five sites within a 200 sq km area varied from pH 5.1 in November, 1977, and April, 1978 to pH 4.3 in July, 1978 and July, 1979. Weighted average pH for the entire period was 4.55. Acidity was due to the presence of sulfuric and nitric acids. The mole ratio of excess SO4(-2):NO3(-) was typically greater than one. Monthly weighted average Cl(-) concentrations ranged from 20-240 micromoles/liter. The Cl(-):Na(+) ratio was slightly lower than that present in sea water.

  20. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  1. Study on the relationship between meteorological conditions and acid rain in mid-eastern Fujian.

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Liu, J X; Cai, Y Y; Li, B L; Wang, Z L; Chen, B B

    2009-08-01

    Based on the acid rain observation data and the contemporaneous historical synoptic charts of Mid-Eastern Fujian during the period of 1991 to 2003, we analyzed the distribution characteristics of acid rain in different seasons, weather types, precipitation grades and wind directions. The results showed that the acid pollution in Mid-Eastern Fujian was still serious. In winter, the precipitation pH value was 4.79, and the acid rain frequency was 60.62% which was twice higher than that in summer. The pH value of warm shear-type precipitation at 850 hPa was 4.79. Nearly half of these precipitations had the problems of acid rain pollution. The acid rain frequency of the inverted trough type was only 26.11% which was the lowest one in all types. There was no marked difference of the acid rain distribution characteristics between ahead-of-trough and behind-the-trough. The precipitation pH values of the five grades were lower than 5.30 and the acid rain frequency changed as an inverted U shape with the increasing of the rainfall. The pH values of precipitations in the eight wind directions were generally below 5.20, and the acid rain frequencies were about 40%.

  2. Occurrence of acid rain in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Summer 1981. The role of the catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.W.; Ghane, H.

    1982-01-01

    Between June and October 1981, acid rain falling in Baton Rouge, LA was studied. The acidity of the rain ranged for pH 3.9 to pH 5.8. Preliminary data showed that rain associated with thermal cumulo nimbus tended to be more acidic, but rain associated with active cold fronts were less acid. This may relate to dispersion and dilution of the acid aerosols by the cold front. It is proposed that exhaust from automobiles fitted with catalytic converters is a substantial contributor to the acid rain problem, and that their net value to the abatement of pollution must be questioned, particularly in regions of the country where smog is not a problem. (JMT)

  3. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  4. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid Rain...

  5. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  6. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  7. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  8. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid Rain...

  9. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid Rain...

  10. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings.

  11. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid Rain...

  12. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid Rain...

  13. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  14. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  15. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  16. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  17. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  18. Responses of microbial populations in the rhizosphere to deposition of simulated acidic rain onto foliage and/or soil.

    PubMed

    Shafer, S R

    1992-01-01

    Air pollutants or some chemicals applied to plant foliage can alter the ecology of the rhizosphere. Experiments were conducted to distinguish among possible foliage-mediated versus soil- or root-mediated effects of acid deposition on microorganism in the rhizosphere. Seedlings of a sorghum x sudangrass hybrid in pots of non-sterile soil-sand mix in a greenhouse were exposed to simulated rain solution adjusted with H2SO4 + HNO3 to pH 4.9, 4.2, 3.5 or 2.8. Solutions were applied as simulated rain to foliage and soil, foliage only (soil covered by plastic, and deionized water applied directly to the soil), or soil only (solution applied directly to the soil). Solutions were applied on 16 days during a 6-week period (1.5 cm deposition in 1 h per application). Plant shoot and root dry weights and population densities of selected types of bacteria, filamentous actinomycetes and fungi in the rhizosphere were quantified after exposures were completed. Deposition of simulated acidic rain onto foliage alone had no effect on plant biomass or microbial population densities in the rhizosphere (colony-forming units per gram of rhizosphere soil). However, plant growth was stimulated and all microbial populations in the rhizosphere increased 3- to 8-fold with increased solution acidity (relative to pH 4.9 solution) when solution penetrated the soil. Statistical analyses indicated that the acid dose-population response relationships for soil-only and foliage-and-soil applications were not different. Thus, no foliage-mediated effect of simulated acidic rain on rhizosphere ecology was detected.

  19. Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)

  20. Interactive effects of cadmium and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Minmin; Wang, Lei; Liang, Chanjuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, increased initial fluorescence and damaged the chloroplast structure in soybean seedlings. In the combined treatment, the change in the photosynthetic parameters and the damage of chloroplast structure were stronger than those of any single pollution. Meanwhile, Cd(2+) and acid rain had the interactive effects on the test indices in soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain on the photosynthetic parameters due to the serious damage to the chloroplast structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effects of simulated acid rain on chloroplast activity in Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. wulongling leaves].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dongliang; Liu, Xinghui

    2002-12-01

    A decreased content of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid (Car) was found in the Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. wulongling leaves when treated with < pH 3.5 acid rain. The decline of Chl content was caused by the reduction of Chla, while Chlb was less sensitive to the acid rain, which resulted in a decrease of Chla/Chlb ratio. The content of Car and the ratio of Chla to Chlb reduced with the duration of stress time. The injury of acid rain to photosynthetic pigments was intensified by illumination. The activities of photoreduction, photophosphorylation and H(+)-ATPase activity decreased with the reduction of pH value under the simulated acid rain. Therefore, the injury of electron transport chain and the uncoupling of photophosphorylation might lead to the ineffective absorption, transportation and transformation of light energy. In our study, the process of photophosphorylation was more sensitive to acid rain than that of photoreduction.

  2. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Overview of acid rain monitoring activities in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, J.; Kinsman, J.D.

    1982-06-01

    Acid rain is known to acidify natural waters, resulting in damage to fish and other components of the aquatic ecosystem, degradation of drinking water supplies, deterioration of man-made structures, erosion of soils and damage to forests and crops. Recent monitoring devices and 71 studies conducted or on-going in North America are surveyed. Tables are presented that describe the name or title of the study, the organization or agency that funds each study, the chemical parameters monitored, the geographic extent and location of the study, the time period of operation, the types of samples used, where samples are analyzed, and a contact for further information. The Aerochem metrics wet-dry collector is the most widely used instrument for collection of wet deposition and appears to be reliable in collecting precipitation samples for chemical analysis. Much of the wet deposition monitoring focuses on the between-year differences in precipitation acidity. No simple method for monitoring dry deposition is available on an experimental or commercial basis. The frequency of special events needs to be analyzed using existing climatological data. 32 references, 3 tables.

  4. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A numerical study of the acid rain in northern Taiwan in winter season

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ching-Sen; Deng, Zen-Sing

    1996-12-31

    Two-thirds of the land mass of Taiwan island is covered by mountains. In winter precipitation could occur in northern Taiwan when the prevailing wind was from northeastern direction. In northern Taiwan the acid rain (pH value less than 5.0) in winter time could contribute about 30 rain in the whole year. A three-dimensional numerical model with terrain following coordinated system was used to simulate the precipitation system and the characteristics of acid rain. A smooth terrain was assumed in the model. A mean sounding was used to initialize the numerical model when acid rain occurred in northern Taiwan during winter time from 1991 to 1993. Investigations of the effect of pollutions from abroad on the acid rain in northern Taiwan in winter are considered for the future.

  6. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  7. Sulfur and associated elements and acidity in continental and marine rain from north Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Darzi, Michael; Winchester, John W.

    1980-08-01

    Rainwater was sampled for every rainfall occurrence between November 7, 1978, and January 26, 1979, in Tallahassee, Florida, a generally unpolluted area in the southeastern United States, about 50 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The elemental composition was determined for 12 elements, S, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb, by proton-induced X ray emission from 4 ml aliquots of 38 different rain samples. The elemental composition of the rain was found to be different for rain associated with northerly and southerly air flow regimes. In north air flow rain, originating from more polluted northern areas, concentrations of Pb, S, and Fe were higher and strong correlations of Br, Ca, and Fe with Pb were observed. Thus the north air flow rain exhibits polluted and continental characteristics. On the other hand, most elemental concentrations were lower in south air flow rain originating in the Gulf of Mexico, and strong correlations between elements such as S, K, Ca, and Br, but not with Pb, were observed. These results indicated a strong influence by sea spray. The north and south air flow rains also differed significantly in their acidity. In northern rain the average pH was 4.4 with a minimum of 3.7, whereas in southern rain the average pH was 5.3 with a minimum of 4.6. A strong correlation between pH and logarithmic sulfur concentration was observed in northern rain but not in southern rain. This suggests that most of the sulfur in northern rain is sulfuric acid transported from pollution sources, whereas southern rain includes much neutralized seawater sulfate.

  8. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-01-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:4076081

  9. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water.

  10. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings.

  11. Separating analysis from politics: Acid rain in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, A.

    1999-12-31

    Over the last twenty years, policy-makers in Europe have attempted to solve the problem of acid rain using detailed analysis grounded in natural science and economics. The results are impressive, as Europeans have successfully implemented a number of international agreements to reduce pollution emissions, agreements that in theory achieve the greatest environmental benefit at the lowest aggregate cost across Europe. This article examines the analysis on which these policies were based. First, it finds a pattern of investigating the use of cost-benefit analysis, together with a lack of usefulness associated with the actual results of such analysis. Second, it finds that the analytic framework that came to replace cost-benefit analysis--critical loads--contained many of the same uncertainties and political decisions that plagued cost-benefit analysis. Nevertheless, critical loads analysis was seen as less value-laden and more reliable, and contributed significantly to policy development. Desire for rapid action led policy-makers to ignore or overlook the politics and uncertainties inherent in efforts at scientific assessment and modeling.

  12. May acid rain legislation excuse performance obligations under coal contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Sarosdy, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of1990 (CAAA) require 111 electric utility plants to reduce significantly their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides by January 1, 1995. Further reductions of these emissions by all electric utilities will be required prior to January 1, 2000. Many electric utilities find themselves unable to utilize coal purchased under long-term contracts before the enactment of the CAAA unless they make significant and costly modifications to their generating facilities and/or purchase sulfur dioxide allowances. The act of installing new equipment to meet the requirements may cause a utility to be unable to meet its annual purchase agreements. The purpose of this article is to review the extent to which the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 may give rise to a claim of force majeure, commercial impracticability or frustration of purpose. An extensive body of case law exists concerning the applicability of the doctrine of force majeure, commercial impracticability, and frustration of purpose to governmental actions affecting a buyer's ability to take a commodity purchased under a long-term contract. This case law should provide guidance to the analysis and resolution of claims asserted by electric utilities as a result of their inability, due to compliance with the CAAA, to take coal under long-term contracts.

  13. Acid rain: Delays and management changes in the federal research program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program is to help resolve the scientific uncertainties associated with acid rain and determine if and how it should be controlled. It has yet to issue its first assessment report originally scheduled for release in 1985. NAPAP officials believe that, by 1990, their ongoing research program will provide sufficient new information about the causes and effects of acid rain to serve as the basis for policy recommendations.

  14. Trace element composition characteristics and acidity of central-Alabama rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, S. K.; Tekyi-Mensah, O.; Sims, J. F.; Williams, J. R.; Alford, W. L.

    1991-11-01

    Elemental concentrations and acidity of central Alabama rain have been studied by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Seventeen elements (Na, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) have been found to occur in the rain samples. Samples collected during the initial five-month period (January-May, 1985) showed characteristics that are described here. The elemental composition of southerly air flow rains was found to be different from that of northerly air flow rains with the latter containing relatively higher concentrations of S, Ca, Cu and Zn, indicating a more polluted area to the north. Correlation coefficients were calculated for pairs of elements in an attempt to determine possible sources of pollutants. A strong correlation was found between pH and logarithmic sulfur concentration for northern rains but not for southern rains.

  15. Particle-facilitated lead and arsenic transport in abandoned mine sites soil influenced by simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Shaoping, Hu; Xincai, Chen; Jiyan, Shi; Yingxu, Chen; Qi, Lin

    2008-05-01

    The role of acid rain in affecting Pb and As transport from mine tailings was investigated by pumping simulated acid rain at a infiltration rate of 10.2 cm/h through soil columns. Simulated acid rain with pH of 3.0, 4.5 and 5.6 were used as leaching solutions. Results showed that 86.9-95.9% of Pb and 90-91.8% of As eluted from the columns were adsorbed by particles in the leachates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that particles released from the columns were mainly composed of flocculated aggregates and plate or rod shaped discrete grains. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed that these particles were predominantly silicate minerals. Results from our experiments demonstrated that when rapid infiltration conditions or a rainstorm exist, particle-facilitated transport of contaminants is likely to the dominant metal transport pathway influenced by acid rain.

  16. Study for Corrosion and Hydrogen Evolution Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Simulated Acid Rain Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammam, R. H.; Fekry, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements at the open circuit potentials and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a simulated acid rain containing inorganic additives. The ac circuit model for Ti-6Al-4V alloy at corrosion interface in simulated acid rain containing inorganic additives was proposed, which was based on two time constants equivalent circuit. Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a simulated acid rain of pH 1.5 containing inorganic additives showed a characteristic of a capacitive behavior. The effect of different concentrations of the inorganic additives (iodate, dichromate, phosphate, and nitrate) on the corrosion of the alloy in acid rain water (ARW) was also studied. It was found that the corrosion rate decreases drastically in the solution containing iodate, dichromate, and phosphate anions; however, nitrate anions increase the corrosion rate of the alloy. The investigated inorganic additives had inhibiting effect on the corrosion of the alloy in ARW, and their efficiency decreases according to the order: iodate > dichromate > phosphate > blank > nitrate. Polarization data results are in good agreement with EIS.

  17. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 4: The effects on Canada`s forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the state of acid rain assessment related to Canadian forests as it has progressed since the last assessment carried out in 1990. The assessment also highlights key policy issues and the uncertainties associated with addressing them. Sections of the report cover the following: Acid rain and current forest decline in coastal birch, sugar maple, and high elevation forests; the effects of acid rain on tree physiology and soil chemistry; results of forest health monitoring in national, North American, Ontario, and Quebec networks; the critical loads or levels of acid deposition, with reference to case studies; and international involvement in acid rain research and abatement. Finally, research and information needs are identified.

  18. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acid-rain induced changes in streamwater quality during storms on Catoctin Mountain, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, O.P.

    1992-01-01

    Catoctin Mountain receives some of the most acidic (lowest pH) rain in the United States. In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR), began a study of the effects of acid rain on the quality of streamwater on the part of Catoctin Mountain within Cunningham Falls State Park, Maryland (fig. 1). Samples of precipitation collected on the mountain by the USGS since 1982 have been analyzed for acidity and concentration of chemical constituents. During 1982-91, the volume-weighted average pH of precipitation was 4.2. (Volume weighting corrects for the effect of acids being washed out of the atmosphere at the beginning of rainfall). The pH value is measured on a logarithmic scale, which means that for each whole number change, the acidity changes by a factor of 10. Thus rain with a pH of 4.2 is more than 10 times as acidic as uncontaminated rain, which has a pH of about 5.6. The acidity of rain during several rainstorms on Catoctin Mountain was more than 100 times more acidic than uncontaminated rain.

  20. [Spatiotemporal trends and the impact factors of acid rain in Anhui Province].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun-E; Qiu, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Ai-Min; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Su; Wang, Zi-Fa

    2010-06-01

    The observational data of acid rain at seven stations in Anhui province operated by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), as well as the coal consumptions in Anhui and some surrounding provinces along with satellite measured tropospheric NO2 columns, were used to analyze the spatiotemporal trends of acid rain in Anhui and the potential reasons of the increasing occurrence frequency of acid rain. In addition, the technique of back-trajectory-cluster analysis was used to examine the impacts of transport patterns on the precipitation acidity in Anhui. The occurrence frequency shows the lowest in summer and the highest in autumn, with 3-year average pH < 5.6 during 2006-2008 at all stations, hereinto, pH values are between 5.0 and 4.5 in Hefei, Anqing, Maanshan and Bengbu. In spatial, acid rain were the most severe in southern to middle Anhui and mitigated to north. The distributions of pH were concentrative at Fuyang, Tongling and Huangshan, with more than 75% occurred between 6.00-7.50 (Fuyang), 5.00-6.00 (Tongling) and 5.00-6.50 (Huangshan); quite dispersive at other stations, with the maximum at 4.00-4.50 (Hefei and Anqing), 5.00-5.50 (Maanshan) and 5.50-6.00 (Bengbu). The occurrence frequencies of acid rain increased evidently at all stations comparing with those in the end of 1990s. The results of back-trajectories-cluster analysis show that the acid rain is closely related with the regional-range transport of acid rain precursors at each station. The air-masses from southeast and northeast, especially those passing through Jiangsu and Zhejiang, associated with the highest frequencies of acid rain with pH < 5.0, indicating that the industrial emissions in the economy developed areas of Yangtze Delta play key roles in acid rain in Anhui province. In addition, statistics shows that the occurrence frequency of acid rain in Hefei was highly correlated with the trends of the provincial coal consumptions in Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, also tropospheric NO2 column

  1. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  2. Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, David C.; Yoder, Claude H.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental significance of acid rain on water systems of different buffer capacities is discussed. The most prevalent natural buffer system is created by the equilibrium between carbonate ions and carbon dioxide.

  3. Supporting document for the Canada-wide acid rain strategy for post-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    This report presents background and other information on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, which puts in place a framework for addressing the remaining acid rain problem in eastern Canada, for ensuring that new acid rain problems do not occur elsewhere in Canada, and for ensuring that Canada meets its international commitments on acid rain. Background information is included on the first and second Sulphur Protocols of 1985 and 1994, the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, and progress to date in meeting emission targets. Key features of the strategy are then presented with respect to such matters as sulphur dioxide emission reductions, pollution prevention, and research. Finally, the positions of members of the multi-stakeholder task group who developed the supporting documentation for the strategy are outlined.

  4. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  5. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  6. Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, David C.; Yoder, Claude H.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental significance of acid rain on water systems of different buffer capacities is discussed. The most prevalent natural buffer system is created by the equilibrium between carbonate ions and carbon dioxide.

  7. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  8. Curbing Acid Rain: Allocating Sulfur Dioxide Control Costs Under an Emissions Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    deliberations over the Clean Air Act concerns the design of a program to control "acid rain.11 Most proponents of acid rain legislation are calling for...control equipment, and not fuel-switching. For more information on coal markets, see Congressional Budget Office, The Clean Air Act , the Electric...thermaj unit (Btu), except for those plants built under the most recent standards promulgated under the Clean Air Act , the New Source Performance

  9. Report of the Acid Rain Peer Review Panel. Final report, July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The panel was chartered to perform three tasks: (1) a peer review of the scientific basis relating to acid deposition in Eastern North America performed by three US-Canadian work groups; (2) provide further research and monitoring recommendations to reduce uncertainties in the scientific and technical knowledge regarding acid deposition; and (3) assess uncertainties in scientific and technical information on which the work groups recommendations were based. The panel views the acid rain problem as follows. Acid deposition belongs to a socially very important class of problems that only appear to be precisely soluble by a straightforward sum of existing technological and legislative fixes. This is deceptive. Rather, this class of problems is not permanently solved in a closed fashion, but must be treated progressively. As knowledge steadily increases, actions are taken which appear most effective and economical in the light of increasing understanding. There exist large uncertainties in every aspect of acid deposition - emission, transport, transformation, and eventual deposition, interaction with the biosphere, and economic consequences. Nevertheless, when all the converging partial indicators are considered, it becomes clear that acid deposition is a problem for which solutions should be sought now, and further remedial steps taken.

  10. Integrated Title V/acid rain permits: Transitioning through initial permit issuance and reopenings

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, C.

    1995-12-31

    Titles IV and V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Act or CAA) created two new stationary source permitting programs, one specific to acid rain (Title IV), and a second for operating permits in general (Title V). The Phase 2 portion of the acid rain program was designed to be implemented through the Title V operating permit program, thereby subjecting all Phase 2 acid rain sources to the requirements of Title V. Permits issued pursuant to Phase 2 of the acid rain program will be viewed as a self-contained portion of the Title V operating permit and will be governed by regulations promulgated under both Title IV and Title V. The requirements imposed by Title IV may not always be consistent with the broader operating permit program requirements of Title V, and when inconsistency occurs, the acid rain requirements will take precedence. This nonalignment will perhaps be most apparent during two stages of initial permitting: (1) the transition period following Title V program approval when permit application, issuance, and effective dates differ between the two programs, and (2) at the point when acid rain permits must be reopened to incorporate Phase 2 NO{sub x} requirements. This paper explores strategies for streamlining implementation of the two programs with particular focus on these two coordination issues.

  11. RAINS-ASIA: An assessment model for acid deposition in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.J.; Ramankutty, R.; Shah, J.J.

    1997-08-31

    Asia`s rapid economic growth has fueled a growing appetite for commercial energy, which is satisfied by fossil fuels that emit pollutants. These pollutants are oxidized and transported into the atmosphere, creating acidic depositions known as acid rain that can damage foliage, soils, and surface waters. At current energy consumption growth rates, by the year 2000 sulfur dioxide emissions from Asia will surpass the emissions of North America and Europe combined. RAINS-ASIA is an assessment tool developed by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and donors to study the implications of alternative energy development strategies for air pollution and acid rain and to help identify cost-effective abatement methods. This report provides an overview of the model and some results of analyses that have been conducted as part of the RAINS-ASIA program.

  12. Simulated acid-rain effects on yield response of two corn cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Hasset, J.J.; Walker, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Acid rain is a documented phenomenon over much of the eastern and midwestern United States, including major portions of the Corn Belt. However, few studies report the effect of acid rain on yield of corn (Zea mays L.). Field experiments were conducted in 1983 and 1984 on a Flanagan silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Aquic Argiudoll) soil at Urbana, IL. Two corn cultivars (Pioneer 3377 and B73 X Mo17) were protected from ambient rain by two automated movable rain exclusion shelters and were exposed to one of six simulated rain acidities ranging from pH 5.6 to 3.0. Analysis of the effect of rainfall pH on grain yield showed no significant linear or quadratic trend (alpha = 0.10) for either cultivar in individual years or with both years combined. Comparisons among treatments for both cultivars showed rain simulants with no added acid (pH 5.6) resulted in grain yields that were not significantly different from the average grain yields of the other five pH treatments. These results imply that under normal environmental conditions and agronomic practices, rainfall at its present levels of acidity has little if any effect on corn yields.

  13. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P < 0.05) higher than that in neutral (pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  14. [Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf photosynthate, growth, and yield of wheat].

    PubMed

    Mai, Bo-Rui; Zheng, You-Fei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Xia; Li, Lu; Zhong, Yan-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    With winter wheat variety Yamgmai 12 as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the stress of simulated acid rain on its growth and development. The results showed that simulated acid rain had considerable effect on wheat growth and yield. When the pH of acid rain was < or = 3.5, the growth of leaf area as well as the mass of fresh leaf per unit area declined greatly, and the yield was significantly lower than CK. When pH was < or = 2.5, the plant height was obviously lowered, and the visible injury on leaf surface was observed. Under acid rain stress, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid, especially chlorophyll a, decreased obviously. Acid rain also suppressed the synthesis of soluble sugar and reduced sugar, and the suppression was stronger at pH < or = 3.5, and became much stronger with increasing acidity. The total free amino acid and soluble protein contents in leaves decreased with increasing acidity, and were significantly lower than CK when the pH was < or = 3.5 and < or = 4.5, respectively.

  15. Carbon fluxes in an acid rain impacted boreal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Anne; Hintze, Simone; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon export via inland aquatic systems is a key process in the budget of the global carbon cycle. This includes loss of carbon to the atmosphere via gas evasion from rivers or reservoirs as well as carbon fixation in freshwater sediments. Headwater streams are the first endmembers of the transition of carbon between soils, groundwater and surface waters and the atmosphere. In order to quantify these processes the experimental catchment Uhlirska (1.78 km2) located in the northern Czech Republic was studied. Dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, POC) concentrations and isotopes were analyzed in ground-, soil -and stream waters between 2014 and 2015. In addition, carbon dioxide degassing was quantified via a stable isotope modelling approach. Results show a discharge-weighted total carbon export of 31.99 g C m-2 yr-1 of which CO2 degassing accounts 79 %. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of DIC, DOC, and POC (in ‰ VPDB) ranged from -26.6 to -12.4 ‰ from -29.4 to -22.7 ‰ and from -30.6 to -26.6 ‰ respectively. The mean values for DIC are -21.8 ±3.8 ‰ -23.6 ±0.9 ‰ and -19.5 ±3.0 ‰ for soil, shallow ground and surface water compartments. For DOC, these compartments have mean values of -27.1 ±0.3 ‰ -27.0 ±0.8 ‰ and -27.4 ±0.7 ‰Ṁean POC value of shallow groundwaters and surface waters are -28.8 ±0.8 ‰ and -29.3 ±0.5 ‰ respectively. These isotope ranges indicate little turnover of organic material and predominant silicate weathering. The degassing of CO2 caused an enrichment of the δ13C-DIC values of up to 6.8 ‰ between a catchment gauge and the catchment outlet over a distance of 866 m. In addition, the Uhlirska catchment has only negligible natural sources of sulphate, yet SO42- accounts for 21 % of major stream water ions. This is most likely a remainder from acid rain impacts in the area.

  16. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  17. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  18. [Effects of simulated acid rain on Quercus glauca seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Jiang, Fu-wei; Yin, Xiu-min; Lu, Mei-juan

    2009-09-01

    Taking the seedlings of Quercus glauca, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in subtropical area, as test materials, this paper studied their photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content under effects of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.6 (CK). After 2-year acid rain stress, the net photosynthetic rate of Q. glauca increased significantly with decreasing pH of acid rain. The acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0 increased the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the effect was more significant under pH 2.5. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0. The maximum photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, light saturation point, and dark respiration rate were significantly higher under pH 2.5 and 4.0 than under pH 5.6, while the apparent quantum yield was not sensitive to acid rain stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II and the potential activity of PS II under pH 2.5 and 4.0 were significantly higher than those under pH 5.6. The relative chlorophyll content was in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0, and there was a significant difference between pH 2.5 and 4.0. All the results suggested that the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of Q. glauca increased under the effects of acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0, and the acid rain with pH 2.5 had more obvious effects.

  19. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  20. Continued studies of acid rain and its effects on the Baton Rouge area

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.W.; Ghane, H.

    1983-01-01

    The acidity of rain water was measured in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana area from June 1981 to September 1982. Coordinated measurements were taken of the dissolved oxygen concentration in two local lakes before and after each rainfall. About 50% of the rainfall observed was quite acidic, with about 25% of the rain having a pH of 4 or less. Rain was more acidic during warm summers than in the winter weather. Rainfall during 1982 was, on a month to month comparison, more acidic than in 1981. Attempts were also made to discover any possible correlation of pH values with wind direction. The acidity of each of the two lakes increased over the time of the study. The dissolved oxygen content in each lake increased after periods of rain, probably due to a high concentration of oxygen in the rainwater. The buffering capacities of the lakes was measurable. However, it is noted that the larger lake was undergoing dredging at the time of the study and showed considerably less buffer capacity than the smaller lake. The smaller lake was far more affected by surface drainage and thus should have been more influenced by the acid rain. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  1. EFFECT OF AN ACID RAIN ENVIRONMENT ON LIMESTONE SURFACES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Lindsay, James R.; Hochella, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    Salem limestone samples were exposed to weathering for 1 y in several urban and one rural environments. Samples exposed in the rural location were chemically indistinguishable from the freshly quarried limestone, whereas all samples collected from urban exposure sites developed gypsum stains on the ground-facing surfaces where the stones were not washed by precipitation. The gas-solid reaction of SO//2 with calcite was selected for detailed consideration. It appears from the model that under arid conditions, the quantity of stain deposited on an unwashed surface is independent of atmospheric SO//2 concentration once the surface has been saturated with gypsum. Under wet conditions, surface sulfation and weight loss are probably dominated by mechanisms involving wet stone. However, if the rain events are frequent and delimited by periods of dryness, the quantity of gypsum produced by a gas-solid reaction mechanism should correlate with both the frequency of rain events and the atmospheric SO//2 level.

  2. Acid rain phenomenon in niger delta region of Nigeria: economic, biodiversity, and public health concern.

    PubMed

    Nduka, J K C; Orisakwe, O E; Ezenweke, L O; Ezenwa, T E; Chendo, M N; Ezeabasili, N G

    2008-08-28

    Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a "non-oil" city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pH meter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The pH values for the 2 years under study show that the rainfall in Warri was more acidic than that of Port Harcourt. Oil exploration and other anthropogenic sources may be responsible for the acid rain in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  3. Effects and mechanisms of the combined pollution of lanthanum and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2013-09-01

    Rare earth pollution and acid rain pollution are both important environmental issues worldwide. In regions which simultaneously occur, the combined pollution of rare earth and acid rain becomes a new environmental issue, and the relevant research is rarely reported. Accordingly, we investigated the combined effects and mechanisms of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings. The combined pollution of low-concentration La(3+) and acid rain exerted deleterious effects on the phenotype and growth of roots, which were aggravated by the combined pollution of high-concentration La(3+) and acid rain. The deleterious effects of the combined pollution were stronger than those of single La(3+) or acid rain pollution. These stronger deleterious effects on the root phenotype and growth of roots were due to the increased disturbance of absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients in roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum mechanical study of atmospheric nitrogen oxides and nitric acid: Implications on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.D.; Davey, C.A.; Evanseck, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The energetics of the nonhydrated and monohydrated reaction NO2 + OH {r_arrow} HNO3 were studied using computational methods. Energetic and structural data were obtained using high level ab initio calculations (up to MP4 for energetics). The activation energy was calculated to be around 8 kcal/mol for the nonhydrated system, but the presence of a single water molecule completely eliminated the barrier to nitric acid formation. The hydration of this atmospheric reaction significantly stabilizes the transition structure, leading to an activation energy of about -1 kcal/mol for the reaction. This suggests that enthalpically the reactants may spontaneously form nitric acid in the lower atmosphere where water is available for catalysis, resulting in further production of acid rain.

  5. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  6. Federal-provincial agreements for the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program: Annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report on the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program compares the previous year`s emissions of sulphur dioxide in the 7 easternmost provinces to the emission targets in the program. The objective is to cap sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions until the year 2000. Coupled with the US Acid Rain Program it is intended to protect sensitive ecosystems from acid deposition. This report discusses emissions for the latest year, concerns, and steps to be taken. Statistical tables give emissions by province and industry, with information for some major air pollution sources in mineral extraction or electric power generation.

  7. A field test of the effect of acidic rain on ion balance in a woodland salamander

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, M.P.; Wyman, R.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Earlier laboratory studies demonstrated that red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, are susceptible to osmotic disruption by low pH substrates. In natural systems, however, acidic input from precipitation may be mediated by soils before it impacts salamanders. We tested the effect of acidic rain on sodium balance in salamanders by confining individuals in enclosure in two forest types (hemlock, beech) for 34 d. Enclosures received artificial rain of either pH 3 or 5 every 3-4 d. Soils inside enclosures in the hemlock forest were more acidic than those in the beech forest at the outset. At termination, [H[sup +

  8. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on agriculture: an annotated bibliography. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Barse, J.R.; Ferguson, W.; Whetzel, V.

    1985-10-01

    Ozone and sulfur dioxide-gaseous air pollutants--can reduce the yields of key agricultural crops such as soybeans, corn, wheat, citrus fruit, cotton, and peanuts by interfering with plant photosynthesis. In general, the greater the pollutant concentration, the greater the yield reduction. Based on this biological evidence, economists are now estimating dollar impacts of ozone pollution on agriculture. By contrast, evidence on the biological impacts of acid rain on crops, soils, and forests is much less clear, often ambiguous. Some acid rain impacts can be favorable, because rainfall acids contain nitrogen and sulfur--major plant nutrients.

  9. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B.; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-09-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO42- deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO42- consistent with the range of deposition in Asia were reduced by 24% during the grain filling and ripening stage of the rice season which accounts for 50% of the overall CH4 that is normally emitted in a rice season. A single application of SO42- at a comparable level reduced CH4 emission by 43%. We hypothesize that the reduction in CH4 emission may be due to a combination of effects. The first mechanism is that the low rates of SO42- may be sufficient to boost yields of rice and, in so doing, may cause a reduction in root exudates to the rhizosphere, a key substrate source for methanogenesis. Decreasing a major substrate source for methanogens is also likely to intensify competition with sulfate-reducing microorganisms for whom prior SO42- limitation had been lifted by the simulated acid rain S deposition.

  11. Effects of acid rain, alone and in combination with gaseous pollutants, on growth and yield of crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field experiments were conducted to determine the response of crop plants to levels of acidity in simulated rain. The major objectives were: to determine the levels of acidity in rain that alter crop productivity; to evaluate varietal differences in crop response; and to determine the response of crop plants to the combined stress of acid rain and gaseous pollutants, primarily ozone. Results showed additive effects rather than synergistic ones.

  12. Is There Scientific Consensus on Acid Rain? -- Excerpts from Six Governmental Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Compiles a series of direct quotations from six governmental reports that reflect a scientific consensus on major aspects of acid deposition. Presents the statements in a question and answer format. Also reviews the sources, extent, and effects of acid rain. (ML)

  13. Is There Scientific Consensus on Acid Rain? -- Excerpts from Six Governmental Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Compiles a series of direct quotations from six governmental reports that reflect a scientific consensus on major aspects of acid deposition. Presents the statements in a question and answer format. Also reviews the sources, extent, and effects of acid rain. (ML)

  14. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain and lake acidification is described. In this demonstration, SO2 gas is generated in a large graduated cylinder and then dissolved in water droplets from a simple spray bottle. The droplets carry the acid into simulated lakes, one of which includes solid CaCO3 to mimic limestone's natural buffering capacity.

  15. Comparative uptake of sulfur in sulfur dioxide and acid rain by corn (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This study has compared and evaluated the absorption and accumulation of sulfur from the two major forms of sulfur pollution (sulfur dioxide and sulfur containing acid rain), by seedlings of corn (Zea mays L.). Plants were exposed to matched treatments containing equivalent ..mu..moles S/treatment in sulfur dioxide or simulated acid rain containing sulfuric acid. Pollution levels were chosen to represent low, medium and high ambient pollutant concentrations (0.13, 1.3 and 130.0 ..mu..moles S/treatment). The uptake and distribution of sulfur by plants was followed by using radioactively labelled sulfur (35-S) in both pollutants. Plants were exposed to the pollutants via a single injection of sulfur dioxide or by rainfall simulators with acid rain treatments. From the sulfur dioxide concentrations evaluated (0.67; 1.00; 2.60; 6.70; and 16 ppm), maximum absorption occurred at the highest concentration while sulfur was more efficiently absorbed at lower concentrations. Absorption of sulfur by plants exposed to acid rain (pH 5.4; 4.4; 3.4; and 2.6) was higher with high sulfur/low pH treatments. pH per se, was not responsible for increased sulfur absorption at low pH treatments. Of the total sulfur associated with the plant following exposure to sulfur dioxide and acid rain, 55% and 97%, respectively was not absorbed, and could be released after one minute of a foliar wash. At each equivalent concentration of sulfur, corn seedlings absorbed significantly greater amounts of sulfur from sulfur dioxide than from acid rain.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid accumulation in 'Chardonnay' grape berries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Nan; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-07-29

    Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Fifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages. The rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Arabidopsis leaf necrosis caused by simulated acid rain is related to the salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Park, Jongbum; Im, Kyunghoan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Kyungyeoll; Park, Jung-An; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Dae-Sup; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sukchan

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis leaves treated with simulated acid rain (SiAR) showed phenotypes similar to necrotic lesions caused by biotic stresses like Pseudomonad infiltration. Exposure of Arabidopsis to SiAR resulted in the up-regulation of genes known to be induced by the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogen resistance response. The expression of enhanced disease susceptibility (EDS), nonexpressor of PR (NPR) and pathogen-related 1 (PR1), all of which are involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, were increased after SiAR exposure. However, vegetative storage protein (VSP), a member of the jasmonic acid pathway did not show a significant change in transcript level. SiAR treatment of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase (Nah-G), which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, underwent more extensive necrosis than wild-type plants, indicating that the signaling pathway activated by SiAR may overlap with the SA-dependent, systemic acquired resistance pathway. Both Col-0 and Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to SiAR and sulfuric SiAR (S-SiAR) by developing necrotic lesions. Neither Col-0 plants nor Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to nitric SiAR (N-SiAR). These results suggest that SiAR activates at least the salicylic acid pathway and activation of this pathway is sensitive to sulfuric acid.

  20. Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on yield, growth, and foliar injury of several crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Neely, G.E.; Perrigan, S.C.; Grothaus, L.C.

    1980-10-01

    This study was designed to reveal patterns of response of major United States crops to sulfuric acid rain. Potted plants were grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.6). At harvest, the weights of the marketable portion, total aboveground portion and roots were determined for 28 crops. Of these, marketable yield production was inhibited for 5 crops (radish, beet, carrot, mustard greens, broccoli), stimulated for 6 crops (tomato, green pepper, strawberry, alfalfa, orchardgrass, timothy), and ambiguously affected for 1 crop (potato). In addition, stem and leaf production of sweet corn was stimulated. Visible injury of tomatoes might have decreased their marketability. No statistically significant effects on yield were observed for the other 15 crops. The results suggest that the likelihood of yield being affected by acid rain depends on the part of the plant utilized, as well as on species. Effects on the aboveground portions of crops and on roots are also presented. Plants were regularly examined for foliar injury associated with acid rain. Of the 35 cultivars examined, the foliage of 31 was injured at pH 3.0, 28 at pH 3.5, and 5 at pH 4.0. Foliar injury was not generally related to effects on yield. However, foilar injury of swiss chard, mustard greens and spinach was severe enough to adversely affect marketability.

  1. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  2. The influence of an endomycorrhizal symbiosis on nitrogen movement through soil columns under regimes of artificial throughfall and artificial acid rain

    Treesearch

    Bruce Haines; George Ronnie Best

    1976-01-01

    The effect of artificial acid rain on nitrogen uptake by a fungus [Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. ) Gerd. & Trappe] endomycorrhizal with roots of sweetgum tree seedlings (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) was investigated by applying 3 kinds of test solutions to the surfaces of soil profiles planted with five combinations of...

  3. Acid rain program: CEMS submission instructions for monitoring plans, certification test notifications, and quarterly reports

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-12

    The Acid Rain Program regulations require all affected utility units to continuously measure, record and report SO2, NOx, volumetric flow data and CO2 emissions. All affected units also must continuously measure and record opacity, and must report opacity exceedances to the appropriate State or Local Agency. To ensure that your CEMS and fuel flowmeters are performing at an acceptable level, and providing quality assured data, you are required under 40 CFR 75.53, 75.62 (a) to submit a monitoring plan and certification test data for acid rain CEM certificaton. The purpose of this handbook is to help you fulfill your requirements under the Acid Rain Program. This handbook will walk you through the necessary steps for gaining CEMS certification, including filling out and mailing the proper forms, administering the required tests, and applying for certification and sending in electronic data to EPA.

  4. Long-term suppression of wetland methane flux following a pulse of simulated acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Blake, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Wetlands are a potent source of the radiatively important gas methane (CH4). Recent findings have demonstrated that sulfate (SO42-) deposition via acid rain suppresses CH4 emissions by stimulating competitive exclusion of methanogens by sulfate-reducing microbial populations. Here we report data from a field experiment showing that a finite pulse of simulated acid rain SO42- deposition, as would be expected from a large Icelandic volcanic eruption, continues to suppress CH4 emissions from wetlands long after the pollution event has ceased. Our analysis of the stoichiometries suggests that 5 years is a minimum CH4 emission recovery period, with 10 years being a reasonable upper limit. Our findings highlight the long-term impact of acid rain on biospheric output of CH4 which, for discrete polluting events such as volcanic eruptions, outlives the relatively short-term SO42- aerosol radiative cooling effect.

  5. [Combined injured effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling].

    PubMed

    Liang, Chan-juan; Pan, Dan-yun; Xu, Qiu-rong; Zhou, Qing

    2010-07-01

    Combined effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling (Glycine max) and its inherent mechanism were studied in this paper. Compared with treatments by simulated acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5) or rare earth La(III) (60, 100 and 300 mg x L(-1)), the decrease degree of growth parameters in combined treatments was higher, indicating that there were a synergistic effects between acid rain and La. Moreover,the inhibition effects of acid rain and La(III) were more obvious when pH value of acid rain was lower or the concentration of La(III) was higher. The changes of photosynthetic parameters were similar to those of growth, but the decrease degree of each parameter was not same in the same treatment group. The decrease degree of optimal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content (Chl) were 9.35%-22.75% and 9.14%-24.53%, respectively, lower than that of photosynthetic rate Pn (22.78%-84.7%), Hill reaction rate (15.52%-73.38%) and Mg2+ -ATPase activity (14.51%-71.54%), showing that the sensitivity of photosynthetic parameters to the combined factors was different. Furthermore, relative analysis showed that the change of Pn were mainly affected by Hill reaction rate and Mg2+ -ATPase activity, and was less influenced by Chl and Fv/Fm. It indicates that the effect of acid rain and La on each reaction in photosynthesis was different, and the inhibition of combined treatments on photosynthesis in plants was one of the main factors affecting growth of plant.

  6. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    PubMed

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 μg L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media.

  8. The major role of dust in explaining 1954--1993 acid rain trends

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Calcium and other base cation levels in air and precipitation from the 1950`s to the 1990`s can be as important as sulfate and other acidic species in understanding acid rain trends (or basic rain trends). Precipitation quality data, air quality data, and estimates of sources of dust emissions are used to address the issue of calcium trends in the atmosphere. The apparent downward trend for calcium in precipitation from the 1950`s to the 1970`s is suggested to be due mainly to a change in sample collection methods while the decrease since the mid-1970`s is due to a real decrease in atmospheric calcium dust levels in the atmosphere.

  9. Acid rain and emissions trading. Implementing a market approach to pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Raufer, R.K.; Feldman, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    A key policy proposal in the current debate over the control of acid rain and other pollutants is permitting companies to buy, sell, or lease emissions rights or ''credits.'' This book is a study of the theoretical and practical difficulties involved in the creation of a national emissions trading program, a survey of the positions of the utilities and public regulatory commissions toward such a program, and estimates of the potential environmental and economic impact of emissions trading. The authors demonstrate the advantages of controlling acid rain through a market approach rather than through a regulatory approach.

  10. A bivariate pseudo Gamma distribution with application to acid rain data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, J.; Mohsin, M.; Gebhardt, A.

    2012-04-01

    Univariate and bivariate Gamma distributions are extensively used for statistical modeling in climatology. In this paper, a bivariate pseudo Gamma distribution is used to model the proportion of acidity and major ions in rain. The model parameters of the bivariate pseudo Gamma distribution are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The plots of the distribution of the proportions are compared to the histograms of the observed data of the proportions of acidity and major ions in rain. The fitted pdf appears to follow the general pattern in the histograms closely.

  11. Combined effects of simulated acid rain and lanthanum chloride on chloroplast structure and functional elements in rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-05-01

    Acid rain and rare earth element (REE) pollution exist simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, how REE pollution and acid rain affect plant growth in combination remains largely unknown. In this study, the combined effects of simulated acid rain and lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on chloroplast morphology, chloroplast ultrastructure, functional element contents, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate (P n) in rice (Oryza sativa) were investigated by simulating acid rain and rare earth pollution. Under the combined treatment of simulated acid rain at pH 4.5 and 0.08 mM LaCl3, the chloroplast membrane was smooth, proteins on this membrane were uniform, chloroplast structure was integrated, and the thylakoids were orderly arranged, and simulated acid rain and LaCl3 exhibited a mild antagonistic effect; the Mg, Ca, Mn contents, the chlorophyll content, and the P n increased under this combined treatment, with a synergistic effect of simulated acid rain and LaCl3. Under other combined treatments of simulated acid rain and LaCl3, the chloroplast membrane surface was uneven, a clear "hole" was observed on the surface of chloroplasts, and the thylakoids were dissolved and loose; and the P n and contents of functional elements (P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo) and chlorophyll decreased. Under these combined treatments, simulated acid rain and LaCl3 exhibited a synergistic effect. Based on the above results, a model of the combined effects of simulated acid rain and LaCl3 on plant photosynthesis was established in order to reveal the combined effects on plant photosynthesis, especially on the photosynthetic organelle-chloroplast. Our results would provide some references for further understanding the mechanism of the combined effects of simulated acid rain and LaCl3 on plant photosynthesis.

  12. LIMESTONE AND MARBLE DISSOLUTION BY ACID RAIN: AN ONSITE WEATHERING EXPERIMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, B.R.; ,

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe an experimental research program, conducted in conjunction with the National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), to quantify acid-rain damage to commercial and cultural carbonate-rock resources. Initial results of this experiment show that carbonate-rock dissolution and associated surface recession increase with increasing acid deposition to the rock surface. A statistically significant linear relation has been found between carbonate-rock surface-recession rate and hydrogen ion loading to the rock surface.

  13. Elution of lead from lead zirconate titanate ceramics to acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Takezawa, Shuhei; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    The amount of lead that eluted from lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics to artificial acid rain was evaluated. Four kinds of PZT ceramics, namely, pure PZT at MPB composition, CuO-added PZT, PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, and CuO-added PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, were used as samples of the elution test. These PZT ceramics of 8 mm2 and 1.1–1.2 mm thickness were suspended in 300 ml of H2SO4 solution of pH 4.0. The concentration of lead eluted from PZT was in the range from 0.2 to 0.8 ppm. It was found that both liquid phase formation by the addition of CuO and the substitution of Ba for Pb were effective to reduce the amount of lead that eluted. By fitting the leaching out curve with a classical equation, a master curve assuming no sampling effect was obtained. The lead concentration evaluated from the amount of lead that eluted from a commercial PZT plate to H2SO4 solution of pH 5.3 was almost the same as the limit in city water. It is concluded that PZT is not harmful to health and the environment and the amount of lead that eluted from PZT can be controlled by modifying PZT composition.

  14. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  15. Impact of simulated acid rain on trace metals and aluminum leaching in latosol from Guangdong Province, China

    Treesearch

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang; Huaqin. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the most serious ecological and environmental problems worldwide. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon leaching of trace metals and aluminum (Al) from a soil. Soil pot leaching experiments were performed to investigate the impacts of SAR at five different pH levels (or treatments) over a 34-day period upon the...

  16. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  17. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning about Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide for Grades 6 through 8. EPA 430-F-08-002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a complex environmental problem which affects the United States and many other countries around the world. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 to address environmental issues, such as acid rain. Through its programs, EPA works to protect human health and the environment in the United States…

  19. Acid Rain Advisory Committee meeting. Held on March 20-22, 1991. Permits and technology issue papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    Index: (Permits and Technology Subcommittee Papers): Permits and Technologies Conference Call Minutes January 22, 1991; Subcommittee Meeting Minutes; January 28, 1991; Principles for Acid Rain Permits; Fact Sheet: Reduced Utilization; Topics Covered in Acid Rain Permit Regulations; and Primer on the Clean Water Act Permit Program.

  20. Proceedings inter-regional transport of air pollutants: hydrocarbons, ozone, and precursors of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The seven papers of this semiannual technical conference included in these proceedings were abstracted and indexed separately for the Energy Data Base (EDB). Information on a paper, Identification of Sources of Acid Rain Precursor, by R. Hussain, that is not included here may be obtained at the New York State Health Department, Environmental Sciences, Empire State Plaza, Corning Tower Building, Albany, NY 12201.

  1. The Fugitive Literature of Acid Rain: Making Use of Nonconventional Information Sources in a Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan L.; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of vertical file collections for nonconventional literature, and describes the classification scheme used for fugitive literature by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse at the Center for Environmental Information. An annotated list of organizations and examples of titles they offer is provided. (8 notes with…

  2. A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to th...

  3. Effects of simulated acid rain on the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Wedelia trilobata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acid rain continues to pose a major threat to natural ecosystems in rapidly-developing industrialized regions such as southern China. Despite the significant environmental impact of this phenomenon, relatively little is known concerning its effects on important aspects of ecosystem dynamics such as ...

  4. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  5. The Influence of a Collaborative Learning Environment on Primary Students' Conceptions about Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stavridou, Heleni

    2002-01-01

    Investigates primary students' conceptions of acid rain formation and its consequences to people and the environment before and after a 10-hour constructivist teaching intervention. Reports improvement in conceptions of physical and chemical phenomena among the experimental group participants. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.

    1997-12-31

    Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

  7. Chemistry For Kids: Pre-Chemistry Acid Rain Activities for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two activities on acid rain for students in intermediate grades. Materials needed and procedures used are included. Also describes "chemical magic" shows performed by high school students for sixth-grade students in seven elementary schools in Altus, Oklahoma. (JN)

  8. Environmental Policy-Making and Their Impacts in the Case of Acid Rain Abatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer-Christiansen, Sonja

    1992-01-01

    Great Britain and Germany accepted European Community acid rain reduction directives. Discusses the differences in the amount of reduction required from each country, the strategies adopted to attain those reductions, and the levels of emission reductions already achieved.(52 references) (MDH)

  9. The effects of acid rain on nitrogen fixation in Western Washington coniferous forests

    Treesearch

    Robert Denison; Bruce Caldwell; Bernard Bormann; Lindell Eldred; Cynthia Swanberg; Steven Anderson

    1976-01-01

    We investigated both the current status of nitrogen fixation in Western Washington forests, and the potential effects of acid rain on this vital process. Even the low concentrations of sulfur dioxide presently found in the Northwest are thought to have an adverse effect on nitrogen fixation by limiting the distribution of the epiphytic nitrogen-fixing lichen, ...

  10. The Influence of a Collaborative Learning Environment on Primary Students' Conceptions about Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stavridou, Heleni

    2002-01-01

    Investigates primary students' conceptions of acid rain formation and its consequences to people and the environment before and after a 10-hour constructivist teaching intervention. Reports improvement in conceptions of physical and chemical phenomena among the experimental group participants. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  12. Environmental Policy-Making and Their Impacts in the Case of Acid Rain Abatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer-Christiansen, Sonja

    1992-01-01

    Great Britain and Germany accepted European Community acid rain reduction directives. Discusses the differences in the amount of reduction required from each country, the strategies adopted to attain those reductions, and the levels of emission reductions already achieved.(52 references) (MDH)

  13. A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to th...

  14. Chemistry For Kids: Pre-Chemistry Acid Rain Activities for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two activities on acid rain for students in intermediate grades. Materials needed and procedures used are included. Also describes "chemical magic" shows performed by high school students for sixth-grade students in seven elementary schools in Altus, Oklahoma. (JN)

  15. The Fugitive Literature of Acid Rain: Making Use of Nonconventional Information Sources in a Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan L.; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of vertical file collections for nonconventional literature, and describes the classification scheme used for fugitive literature by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse at the Center for Environmental Information. An annotated list of organizations and examples of titles they offer is provided. (8 notes with…

  16. Relative contributions of sulfuric and nitric acids in acid rain to the acidification of the ecosystem: implications for control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.A.N.

    1981-11-01

    Much of northeastern North America has been receiving precipitation of pH 4.6 or less, i.e. more than ten times more acid than normal rain (pH = 5.6) for at least the past 20 to 30 years. Originally, this acidity was almost totally due to sulfuric acid. These inputs of sulfuric acid in the very acid sensitive Adirondacks may have removed much of the neutralizing and nitrate-utilizing ability of the soils and water. Thus, this area may now be more sensitive to atmospheric inputs of nitric acid. Further work is required on the impact of acid nitrate deposition on the ecosystem but with equal certainty it can be stated that sulfur deposition remains the princpial long term threat to acid sensitive ecosystems. It can be concluded that: much of the nitric acid in acid rain is decomposed in the soils and waterway, and is not a significant contributor to long-term acidification of soils and waters; although in the long term, nitric acid in atmospheric deposition is not likely to be contributing to the overall acidification of the environment, during the spring thaw, in areas which have been heavily impacted by acid rain for a number of years, nitric acid which has concentrated in the snow pack over the winter may cause ecological damage, especially to fish populations; though there is little doubt that tighter control strategies are necessary to diminish the effects of acid rain on remote ecosystems the existing control strategies, which have put more emphasis on the control of emissions of sulfur oxides than nitrogen oxides, have a reasonable scientific basis given our present limited knowledge of their effects on the ecosystem.

  17. Monitoring responses of Mason Pine to acid rain in China based on remote sensing vegetation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Hou, Chunliang; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1970s, acid rain has remained in the public spotlight in both Europe and the United States and recently has emerged as an important problem in other regions such as Southeast Asia. To reveal responses of Masson Pine to acid rain during a long time series in central China, we used the interpolation dataset of acid rain and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to derive the monthly pH and NDVI trajectories based on acidity gradients from 1992 to 2006. Then we analyzed inter-annual and seasonal variation of vegetation growth by improved sinusoidal fitting and regression analysis. In the environment of strong acidity and moderate acidity, the growth of Masson Pine was inhibited during the study period, while the slight acidity promoted growth of Masson Pine to some extent. For the multi-year monthly changing trend of NDVI, late spring to mid autumn, the NDVI showed a decreasing trend, especially in June, while from late autumn to the following spring, the NDVI showed a rising tendency, specifically in December and March.

  18. The missing piece in the acid-rain puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Powicki, C.R.

    1989-09-01

    This article discusses the role of geology in acid precipitation research and water quality. Knowledge of the composition and reactivity of the soil and bedrock through which acid precipitation flows is necessary to predict its effects on a body of water. Acidification not only has direct impacts, through water quality changes in water bodies, but also indirect long-term effects attributable to weathering rates. Once the capacity of the soil to buffer acidic loading is exceeded, sudden changes in soil chemistry may occur with dramatic effects on dependent biota.

  19. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  20. [Effects of simulated acid rain on physiological and biochemical characters of eggplant, the host plant of Tetranychus cinnabarinus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Jinjun; Zhao, Zhimo; Chen, Yang; Dou, Wei

    2005-03-01

    In a series of laboratory trials, this paper studied the responses of eggplant (Solanum melongena), the host plant of carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus, to different pH values simulated acid rain. The results showed that with the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the CAT activity and the contents of P and soluble protein in egg plant leaves increased significantly first, reaching the highest at pH 4.0 or 3.0, and then decreased; while the POD activity and soluble sugar content were in adverse. The reduced sugar content and SOD activity of eggplant leaves increased, but the pH value decreased with increasing acidity of acid rain. Acid rain had no effect on leaf water content. Among the test indices, leaf POD was most insensitive to the acid rain, followed by leaf pH, SOD and CAT, while the others were very sensitive. Weak acid rain (pH > 4.0) promoted the protective ability of eggplant leaf and its growth, and the growth of T. cinnabarinus was also promoted because of the changed contents of soluble sugar, P and soluble protein in eggplant leaves being more favorable to its eating; while strong acid rain (pH < 3.0) inhibited the growth of both host plant and mite.

  1. Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Cole, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    In five forest sites (three in eastern Tennessee and two in western Washington) the effect of natural carbonic acid production on soil leaching was equaled or exceeded by that of atmospheric acid inputs. In a nitrogen-fixing red alder site in Washington, however, internal leaching by nitrification and nitric acid formation far exceeded atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs at any site. All other sites retained NO/sub 3//sup -/, and soil SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ adsorption reduced the effectiveness of atmospheric H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ inputs on soil leaching in two of the Tennessee sites and in the Washington red alder site. Atmospheric sulfur inputs exceeded the forest sulfur requirement in all five sites. Decomposer invertebrates appeared to be affected negatively by unrealistically large applications of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, either as KHSO/sub 4/ or K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Forest floor buffering prevented large changes in pH with acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ treatments. Results indicate that effects of acid deposition on decomposer invertebrates are unlikely except at input levels much higher than ambient.

  2. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Marshall, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    The lake acidification in Northern Ontario was investigated using LANDSAT TM to sense lake volume reflectance and also to provide important vegetation and terrain characteristics. The purpose of this project was to determine the ability of LANDSAT to assess water quality characteristics associated with lake acidification. Results demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis is that seasonal and multi-year changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon present. Seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes can potentially provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  3. Analysis of acid rain effects on vegetation in eco-regions in China based on AVHRR/NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Xiaobin

    2010-09-01

    The vegetation, as the main component of the ecosystems, is the main receptor of acid rain pollution. Because of the discrepancy of the vegetation characteristics and environment, the responses of the different types of vegetation to acid rain in different regions are different. In this paper, we chose 9 eco-regions in southern China as study area, based on the acid rain and NOAA/NDVI data from 1992 to 2006, and revealed the impact of acid rain on the vegetation by using spatial interpolation, cluster analysis and curve fitting. The result shows that the most tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests were positively correlated with the acidity of precipitation and the growth was inhibited obviously. On the contrary, the growth of temperate coniferous forests was promoted by acid rain to some extent. In generally, the vegetation in the condition of the weak acid rain grew better, especially the Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests and the Changjiang Plain evergreen forests. For South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forest, Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests and Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests, the significant difference of NDVI between the different gradients of acid rain lasted almost the whole year, while that of the other eco-regions only appeared most obviously in Winter.

  4. Effect of acid rain on pine needles as food for capercaillie in winter.

    PubMed

    Spidsø, T K; Korsmo, H

    1993-07-01

    The effects of long-range air pollution on the chemical composition of needles of Scots pinePinus sylvestris and consequences for capercaillieTetrao urogallus feeding on the needles were studied. Samples of pine needles from localities receiving different amounts of acid rain were taken in early March. Concentrations of N and P were highest in needles from the most acidified areas, and N concentration was 35% higher in the most heavily polluted area than in the least polluted. Secondary chemicals decreased significantly with increasing acidification. Concentrations of Cd in pine needles were closely correlated with the acid deposition levels, with highest concentrations in the most polluted area. Al concentration also increased with increasing acidification. These results provide evidence that acid rain increases the nutritive value of pine needles through a fertilizing effect. Enhanced levels of certain metals are considered too low to be directly toxic to capercaillie. However, behavioural anomalies cannot be excluded.

  5. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  6. Enhancing tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) to simulated acid rain by exogenous abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Liang, Chanjuan

    2017-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates much important plant physiological and biochemical processes and induces tolerance to different stresses. Here, we studied the regulation of exogenous ABA on adaptation of rice seedlings to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress by measuring biomass dry weight, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, nutrient elements, and endogenous hormones. The application of 10 μM ABA alleviated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and decreases in contents of nutrient (K, Mg, N, and P) and hormone (auxin, gibberellins, and zeatin). Moreover, 10 μM ABA could stimulate the Ca content as signaling molecules under SAR stress. Contrarily, the application of 100 μM ABA aggravated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and contents of nutrient and hormone. The results got after a 5-day recovery (without SAR) show that exogenous 10 μM ABA can promote self-restoration process in rice whereas 100 μM ABA hindered the restoration by increasing deficiency of nutrients and disturbing the balance of hormones. These results confirmed that exogenous ABA at proper concentration could enhance the tolerance of rice to SAR stress.

  7. [Effect of acid rain on seed germination of rice, wheat and rape].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-ling; Huang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Qing

    2005-01-01

    Rice, wheat and rape seeds were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0 levels for 7 days in order to understand the effects of acid rain on seed germination of various acid-fast plant. The germination test showed that seed germination was absolutely inhibited at pH 2.0 for three species. Rice and wheat seeds germinated abnormally at pH 2.5. WhenpH values above 3.0, percentage germination, germination energy, germination index, vigor index of rice, wheat and rape seeds increased in relation with decreased acidity levels. In contrast, the percentage of abnormal germination of rice and wheat decreased. The experiment data about physiological aspect demonstrated that water absorption rate, respiratory rate and storage reserve transformation rate of rice, wheat and rape seeds also increased with increased pH values. The storage loss of rice and wheat increased with increased pH values but that of rape decreased. Inhibition index of shoot and root length of three kinds of seeds decreased in relation with increased pH values. The amplitude difference of index of rice was lower than that of wheat, and wheat was lower than that of rape. The experiment data showed that rice had stronger fastness than wheat and rape, wheat had stronger fastness than rape under acid rain stress.

  8. Contributions of acid rain research to the forest science-policy interface: learning from the national acid precipitation assessment program.

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Peterson; David S. Shriner

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970s, there was growing concern by scientists, policy officials and the general public in the USA over the possible effects of acid rain on human health and the environment (crops, forests, water, etc.). The lack of science-based information needed for policy and regulatory decisions led Congress to create an interagency task force in 1980 called the...

  9. Acid rain: commentary on controversial issues and observations on the role of fuel burning

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, M.F.; Esposito, M.P.; Spaite, P.W.

    1982-03-01

    Even though much information has been accumulated on the subject of acid precipitation, lack of knowledge in certain technical areas precludes an adequate understanding of (1) how serious the acid precipitation problem really is and (2) what effect controlling sources of acid precipitation precursors would have in reducing acidification. It is nevertheless possible to draw some broad conclusions regarding the problem and to ascertain the direction that the required further work should take. This report presents the results of an investigation of various issues associated with acid rain. The following topics are addressed: occurrence of acid precipitation; effects of acid precipitation; sources of acid precipitation; transport, transformation, and deposition of acid pollutants; and fuel trend analysis. Recommendations for further research are included. (DMC)

  10. Combined effects of lanthanum ion and acid rain on growth, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kejia; Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Lihong; Hu, Gang; Zhou, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been accumulated in the agricultural environment. Acid rain is a serious environmental issue. In the present work, the effects of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the growth, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in soybean seedlings were investigated using the gas exchange measurements system, chlorophyll fluorometer, transmission electron microscopy and some biochemical techniques. It was found that although the growth and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings treated with the low concentration of La(3+) was improved, the growth and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings were obviously inhibited in the combined treatment with the low concentration of La(3+) and acid rain. At the same time, the chloroplast ultrastructure in the cell of soybean seedlings was destroyed. Under the combined treatment with the high concentration of La(3+) and acid rain, the chloroplast ultrastructure in the cell of soybean seedlings was seriously destroyed, and the growth and of photosynthesis were greatly decreased compared with those of the control, the single treatment with the high concentration of La(3+) and the single treatment with acid rain, respectively. The degree of decrease and destruction on chloroplast ultrastructure depended on the increases in the concentration of La(3+) and acid rain (H(+)). In conclusion, the combined pollution of La(3+) and acid rain obviously destroyed the chloroplast ultrastructure of cell and aggravated the harmful effect of the single La(3+) and acid rain on soybean seedlings. As a new combined pollutant, the harmful effect of REEs ions and acid rain on plant should be paid attention to. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  13. Rhizosphere pH responses to simulated acid rain as measured with glass microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a useful experimental system for studying the rhizosphere of growing roots, and to investigate the effects of bulk soil pH and foliar acid rain application on the rhizosphere pH of alfalfa, corn and soybeans. First, a study was done to compare soil pH measurements made with a standard glass pH electrode with those made using an antimony (Sb) microelectrode. Because of uncertainty with the Sb microelectrodes' response, glass pH-sensitive microelectrodes were made and tested for rhizosphere pH measurements. The influence of soil water pressure gradients in the range of {minus}10 to {minus}1500 kPa in the proximity of the pH and reference electrodes on pH measurements made with microelectrodes was studied. The effect of foliar acid rain application on the rhizosphere pH of alfalfa, corn, and soybean as a function of soil pH were studied. Alfalfa, corn, and soybean were grown into minirhizotrons containing reformed samples of both Seymour A and Bt soil horizons, and the rhizosphere pH measured. The measured in situ bulk soil pH ranged from 4.9 to 6.2 in the A horizon and from 4.0 to 5.7 in the Bt horizon. Plants received acid or non-acid foliar rain applications. Rhizosphere pH was measured using a glass pH-sensitive microelectrode. Acid rain applications caused foliar damage, but had little effect on the rhizosphere pH. The general trend was for the lateral root pH values to be slightly higher than the main root values.

  14. Growth responses of 53 open-pollinated loblolly pine families to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Edwards, N.T.; Hanson, P.J.

    1994-03-01

    Field exposures of 9950 containerized 12-wk-old loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) seedlings representing 53 commercially important, open-pollinated families were conducted to evaluate individual and interactive effects of acid rain and O{sub 3} on growth response. A 36-plot field research facility comprised of 33 open-top chambers and three open plots was used to test effects of five O{sub 3} levels that included ambient (A) and seasonally integrated levels that were 0.53, 1.10, 1.58, or 2.15 times ambient. Individual effects of three levels of simulated acid rain (pH 3.3, 4.5, and 5.2) as well as their interaction with O{sub 3} at 0.53A, 1.58A, and 2.15A levels were also included. Exposure to ambient air reduced average growth in height (26%), diameter (5%), and volume (14%) compared with growth of seedlings exposed to a 47% lower dose in charcoal filtered (CF) air. Responses to increasing O{sub 3} above ambient levels varied widely between families, became increasingly inhibitory at the highest O{sub 3} levels, but did not significantly exceed growth reductions found in ambient air. Diameter growth was reduced in most families by all levels of O{sub 3} addition. Acid rain caused a general stimulation of height growth at ambient levels (pH 4.5), while both height and diameter growth were reduced at a mean pH of 3.3. Significant antagonism between rainfall acidity and O{sub 3} effects on height and biomass increment was detected with increasing pollutant concentrations. Ozone reduced root/shoot biomass in most families, while acid rain did not. 51 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  16. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  17. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Cation deficiency in the atmosphere as a probable cause of acid rains in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, G. S.

    In North America, where almost every shower is acidic (pH < 5.65), the proper causes have been studied. It was observed that the main cause behind the acidic rains is the alkali deficient environment which fails to neutralize the acid traces formed in the atmosphere by anthropogenic, biogenic and agricultural activity and not the increase in anions in the atmosphere as was speculated earlier by many workers. The data of 12 BAPMoN stations of America from the period 1974-1980 have revealed that, at most of the stations, the trends of cations are declining and in most cases the concentration of anions have also decreased. Thus the environment in the U.S. is becoming cleaner day by day. The pH values have been correlated with both the 'cations' and 'anions' separately (Fig. 1) for all 12 the BAPMoN stations and strong positive correlations have been observed between pH and cations ( rc) while poor correlations were found for anions ( ra) which reveals that pH of rain is more influenced by cation's activity in the atmosphere which are decreasing rapidly as a result of which the rains in North America are found to be acidic. It is not due to an increase in anions caused by industrialization and automobile emissions.

  19. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  20. Acid rain: a review of the phenomenon in the EEC and Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The environmental damage that may be attributable to acid rain is examined in detail. Its effect on trees, crops and other terrestrial flora and fauna, fish and other aquatic flora and fauna, buildings, and health are discussed. The sources of acid pollutant emissions, as well as how they are thought to affect environmental change are described. Likely future trends in emissions and types of acid pollutants and their derivatives are also discussed. The need for further research into the problem is stressed and the costs and benefits of alternative emission control strategies are evaluated.

  1. The Quality Assurance Manual and EPA`s acid rain data quality

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, B.J.; Winkler, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    November 15, 1990 saw the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Within this law was the requirements for all electric utility units greater than 25 megawatts of generated electrical capacity to monitor SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, opacity, and volumetric flow of the stack gases. This paper summarizes the Acid Rain Program`s approach to Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) Quality Control and Quality Assurance requirements and their use in the market based pollution control program of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper attempts to present the perspective of the authors as to what is important for excellent monitoring system availability and ensuring accurate data acquisition. Emphasis is placed upon the Quality Assurance Manual required by the Acid Rain Regulations for affected unit`s to maintain and follow.

  2. Regulatory impact analysis of the proposed acid-rain implementation regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    This regulatory impact analysis (RIA) was developed in response to Executive Order (EO) 12291, which requires Federal Agencies to assess the costs, benefits, and impacts of all 'major' regulations. In compliance with EO 12291, this RIA assesses costs, benefits and impacts for the important provisions of Title IV. EPA divided its analysis of the Acid Rain Program into two parts. First, EPA analyzed the effects of the statute in the absence of any implementation regulations. In the second part of the analysis, EPA examined a 'regulatory' case that included both the SO2 reductions and the implementation regulations. By comparing costs under the regulatory case to those under the absent regulations case, EPA was able to isolate the incremental savings provided by the regulations. At the same time, by combining the two parts of the analysis, EPA was able to show the total costs imposed by the Acid Rain Program (the statute and the regulations) as a whole.

  3. Micro - ring resonator with variety of gap width for acid rain sensing application: preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyanti, B.; Ramza, H.; Pawinanto, R. E.; Rahman, J. A.; Ab-Rahman, M. S.; Putro, W. S.; Hasanah, L.; Pantjawati, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    The acid rain is an environmental disaster that it will be intimidates human life. The development micro-ring resonator sensor created from SOI (Silicon on insulator) and it used to detect acid rain index. In this study, the LUMERICAL software was used to simulate SOI material micro-ring resonator. The result shows the optimum values of fixed parameters from ring resonator have dependent variable in gap width. The layers under ring resonator with silicone (Si) and wafer layer of silicone material (Si) were added to seen three conditions of capability model. Model - 3 is an additional of bottom layer that gives the significant effect on the factor of quality. The optimum value is a peak value that given by the FSR calculation. FSR = 0, it means that is not shows the light propagation in the ring resonator and none of the light coming out on the bus - line.

  4. Performance of Vicia faba plants in relation to simulated acid rain and/or endosulphan treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. )

    1992-02-01

    The increasing human population in India is necessitating the optimum use of cultivable land for increased food production. Eradication and control of pests and pathogens is an essential component of any strategy for increased agricultural production. In this context, the use of pesticides to control the incidence of disease in crops becomes inevitable. Most of the pesticides used for foliar spraying invariably contain surfactants in their formulation, which not only increase the surface wettability but also enhance permeability of the cuticle for more cation infusion/effusion and hence they may make the leaf more susceptible to direct effects of acid rain. To evaluate the validity of this assumption, an experiment using endosulphan, the most commonly used insecticide in India, and acid rain of different pH was conducted on Vicia faba.

  5. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduction decreased in SAR-treated white pine seedlings inoculated with VPSt-1. SAR-treated Austrian pine seedlings were resistant to VPSt-1, but SAR-treated Scots pine seedlings lost tolerance to VPSt-1 and wilted 50-60 days after inoculation. PMID:19290259

  6. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil

    Treesearch

    Hua-qin Xu; Jia-en Zhang; Ying Ouyang; Ling Lin; Guo-ming Quan; Ben-liang Zhao; Jia-yu Yu

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control...

  7. Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

  8. Acid rain and particulate matter dynamics in a mid-sized Andean city: The effect of rain intensity on ion scavenging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C. M.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Acid rain phenomenon (average WVM pH = 4.9) and a strong association of sulfate scavenging and rain intensity (R2 = 0.8118) were observed over a seven-month period (October 2010-April 2011) at a densely populated mid-sized Andean city (pop 380,000) that occupies mountain ridge topography (2150 m.a.s.l.). Rain chemistry and PM10 were fairly consistent over four sampling sites representing various scenarios of urban density and topography. All stations exhibited differences in the sulfate content in PM10 between dry and wet periods, further illustrating the sulfate scavenging dynamic. Concentration of major ions evaluated in rain were in order of sulfates (35.2-53.5 μeq L-1) > calcium (14.6-17.3 μeq L-1) > chlorides (3.5-5.1 μeq L-1) > nitrates (2.1-3.1 μeq L-1). Major chemical constituents of PM10 were related with ionic composition of rainwater through scavenging ratios (SRs). High sulfate SRs associated with increased rain intensity reflected higher sulfate ion solubility. Significant contribution of sulfates to total ionic content, higher than 50% at all monitoring stations, suggests important contributions of SO2 emissions, which could come from three principal sources: vehicular emissions due to Colombian fuels with elevated sulfur content, industrial emissions at southeast of the city, and sulfur gas emissions from a nearby active volcano, Nevado del Ruiz, located 27 km southeast of the city.

  9. Acid rain, air pollution, and tree growth in southeastern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, L.J.

    1982-07-01

    Whether dendroecological analyses could be used to detect changes in the relationship of tree growth to climate that might have resulted from chronic exposure to components of the acid rain-air pollution complex was determined. Tree-ring indices of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.), and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) were regressed against orthogonally transformed values of temperature and precipitation in order to derive a response-function relationship. Results of the regression analyses for three time periods, 1901-1920, 1926-1945, and 1954-1973 suggest that the relationship of tree growth to climate has been altered. Statistical tests of the temperature and precipitation data suggest that this change was nonclimatic. Temporally, the shift in growth response appears to correspond with the suspected increase in acid rain and air pollution in the Shawangunk Mountain area of southeastern New York in the early 1950's. This change could be the result of physiological stress induced by components of the acid rain-air pollution complex, causing climatic conditions to be more limiting to tree growth.

  10. Acid rain, air pollution, and tree growth in southeastern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    Whether dendroecological analyses could be used to detect changes in the relationship of tree growth to climate that might have resulted from chronic exposure to components of the acid rain-air pollution complex was determined. Tree-ring indices of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Cart.), pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.), and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) were regressed against orthogonally transformed values of temperature and precipitation in order to derive a response-function relationship. Results of the regression analyses for three time periods, 1901–1920, 1926–1945, and 1954–1973 suggest that the relationship of tree growth to climate has been altered. Statistical tests of the temperature and precipitation data suggest that this change was nonclimatic. Temporally, the shift in growth response appears to correspond with the suspected increase in acid rain and air pollution in the Shawangunk Mountain area of southeastern New York in the early 1950's. This change could be the result of physiological stress induced by components of the acid rain-air pollution complex, causing climatic conditions to be more limiting to tree growth.

  11. Global impacts of sulfate deposition from acid rain on methane emissions from natural wetlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, V.

    2003-04-01

    Natural wetlands form the largest methane (CH_4) source to the atmosphere. A collection of recent field and laboratory studies point to an anthropogenic control on CH_4 emissions from these systems: acid rain sulfate (SO_42-) deposition. These studies ranging from the UK, USA, Canada, Sweden and Czech Republic demonstrate that low rates of SO_42- deposition, within the range commonly experienced in acid rain impacted regions, can suppress CH_4 emissions by as much as 40% and that the response of CH_4 emissions to increasing rates of SO_42- deposition closely mirrors changes in sulfate reduction rates with SO_42- deposition. This indicates that the suppression in CH_4 flux is the result of acid rain stimulating a competitive exclusion of methanogenesis by sulfate reducing bacteria, resulting in reduced methane production. These findings were extrapolated to the global scale by combining modelled, spatially explicit data sets of CH_4 emission from wetlands across the globe with modelled S deposition. Results indicate that this interaction may be important at the global scale, suppressing CH_4 emissions from wetlands in 2030 by as much as 20--28Tg, and, in the process, offsetting predicted climate induced growth in the wetland CH_4 source.

  12. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  13. Impacts of simulated acid rain on soil enzyme activities in a latosol.

    PubMed

    Ling, Da-Jiong; Huang, Qian-Chun; Ouyang, Ying

    2010-11-01

    Acid rain pollution is a serious environmental problem in the world. This study investigated impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon four types of soil enzymes, namely the catalase, acid phosphatase, urease, and amylase, in a latosol. Latosol is an acidic red soil and forms in the tropical rainforest biome. Laboratory experiments were performed by spraying the soil columns with the SAR at pH levels of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5., 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 7.0 (control) over a 20-day period. Mixed results were obtained in enzyme activities for different kinds of enzymes under the influences of the SAR. The catalase activities increased rapidly from day 0 to 5, then decreased slightly from day 5 to 15, and finally decreased sharply to the end of the experiments, whereas the acid phosphatase activities decreased rapidly from day 0 to 5, then increased slightly from day 5 to 15, and finally decreased dramatically to the end of the experiments. A decrease in urease activities was observed at all of the SAR pH levels for the entire experimental period, while an increase from day 0 to 5 and then a decrease from day 5 to 20 in amylase activities were observed at all of the SAR pH levels. In general, the catalase, acid phosphatase, and urease activities increased with the SAR pH levels. However, the maximum amylase activity was found at pH 4.0 and decreased as the SAR pH increased from 4.0 to 5.0 or decreased from 4.0 to 2.5. It is apparent that acid rain had adverse environmental impacts on soil enzyme activities in the latosol. Our study further revealed that impacts of the SAR upon soil enzyme activities were in the following order: amylase>catalase>acid phosphatase>urease. These findings provide useful information on better understanding and managing soil biological processes in the nature under the influence of acid rains. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Hiroaki; Ueda, Hiromasa; Wang, Zifa

    Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from the previous ones for Sahara and Australian deserts, this new one includes three major predictors, i.e., the friction velocity, the surface humidity and the predominant weather system, while this module was linked to the AQPMS. For model validation, the predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with the measured values at atmospheric monitoring stations, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Firstly, the trend of the acid rain in East Asia due to the rapid increase of Chinese pollutants emission was investigated, and a remarkably rapid increase of acid rain area was predicted in the period from 1985 to 1995, the monthly mean pH values showing the decrease of 0.3-0.8 in the area from the center to northeast in China, and 0.1-0.2 even in Japan and Korea. Secondly, the simulation results of April 1995 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow sand. The monthly mean pH values in the northern China showed a remarkable increase of 0.6-1.8 by neutralization effect of the yellow sand, while the increases in the southern China were less than 0.1. Even in Korea and Japan the yellow sand caused the increase of the pH value of rain by 0.1-0.2.

  15. Interactive effects of acid rain and gaseous air pollutants on natural terrestrial vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Baes, C.F. III; Taylor, G.E.; Walker, R.F.; Sigal, L.L.; McConathy, R.K.; Norby, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This research is designed to identify concentration thresholds for individual and combined effects of acid rain and O/sub 3/ on growth and growth processes of both forest tree seedlings and lichens and to document the significance of changing patterns of deposition and/or mobilization of trace metals and nutrients in tree rings. Greenhouse studies have focused on effects of varying levels of rainfall acidity on growth (amount and distribution) and nutrient uptake efficiency of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings of white oak and loblolly pine from soil nutrient pools. Results to date show significant diameter preduction in mycorrhizal infected white oak seedlings at pH 4.2, compared to pH 4.8. Combined effects of rainfall acidity (pH 4.0 and 5.0), mist acidity (pH 3.5 and 5.0), and ozone (0 and 0.12 ppM) and soil type on growth and physiology of red spruce in two soil types have also been examined. Preliminary results indicate no adverse effects of acid rain, acid mist, or ozone on seedling growth but significant differences in response of seedlings on different soil types. Studies of the uptake and distribution of trace metals in tree rings of shortleaf pine have documented increases in aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in recent decades which appear to reflect changing regional and/or local availability of those elements. 8 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Effects of silicon on Oryza sativa L. seedling roots under simulated acid rain stress.

    PubMed

    Ju, Shuming; Yin, Ningning; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Cuiying; Wang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR. The combined or single effects of a low or moderate concentration of Si (1.0 or 2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of rice roots, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatment. A high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) or severe SAR (pH 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR with pH 3.0 or 2.0 promoted the rice root growth, decreased the H2O2 content, increased the Si concentration and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, maintained the balance of mineral element (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu) concentrations in the roots of rice seedlings compared with SAR alone. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with a low or high concentration of Si (1.0 or 4.0 mM). The observed effects were due to disruptions in the absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients and impacts on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots, and this conclusion suggests that the degree of rice root damage caused by acid rain might be attributed to not only acid rain but also the level of Si in the soil.

  17. Effects of silicon on Oryza sativa L. seedling roots under simulated acid rain stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Cuiying; Wang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR. The combined or single effects of a low or moderate concentration of Si (1.0 or 2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of rice roots, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatment. A high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) or severe SAR (pH 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR with pH 3.0 or 2.0 promoted the rice root growth, decreased the H2O2 content, increased the Si concentration and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, maintained the balance of mineral element (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu) concentrations in the roots of rice seedlings compared with SAR alone. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with a low or high concentration of Si (1.0 or 4.0 mM). The observed effects were due to disruptions in the absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients and impacts on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots, and this conclusion suggests that the degree of rice root damage caused by acid rain might be attributed to not only acid rain but also the level of Si in the soil. PMID:28291806

  18. Impacts of simulated acid rain on recalcitrance of two different soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) on recalcitrance in a Plinthudult and a Paleudalfs soil in south China, which were a variable and a permanent charge soil, respectively. Simulated acid rains were prepared at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.0, by additions of different volumes of H2SO4 plus HNO3 at a ratio of 6 to 1. The leaching period was designed to represent 5 years of local annual rainfall (1,200 mm) with a 33 % surface runoff loss. Both soils underwent both acidification stages of (1) cation exchange and (2) mineral weathering at SAR pH 2.0, whereas only cation exchange occurred above SAR pH 3.5, i.e., weathering did not commence. The cation exchange stage was more easily changed into that of mineral weathering in the Plinthudult than in the Paleudalfs soil, and there were some K(+) and Mg(2+) ions released on the stages of mineral weathering in the Paleudalfs soil. During the leaching, the release of exchangeable base cations followed the order Ca(2+) >K(+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) for the Plinthudult and Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) >K(+) for the Paleudalfs soil. The SARs above pH 3.5 did not decrease soil pH or pH buffering capacity, while the SAR at pH 2.0 decreased soil pH and the buffering capacity significantly. We conclude that acid rain, which always has a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, only makes a small contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils of south China in the short term of 5 years. Also, Paleudalfs soils are more resistant to acid rain than Plinthudult soils. The different abilities to prevent leaching by acid rain depend upon the parent materials, types of clay minerals, and soil development degrees.

  19. Combined acid rain and lanthanum pollution and its potential ecological risk for nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Mengzhu; Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-08-22

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in various fields, resulting in their accumulation in the environment. This accumulation has affected the survival and distribution of crops in various ways. Acid rain is a serious global environmental problem. The combined effects on crops from these two types of pollution have been reported, but the effects on crop root nitrogen assimilation are rarely known. To explore the impact of combined contamination from these two pollutants on crop nitrogen assimilation, the soybean seedlings were treated with simulated environmental pollution from acid rain and a representative rare earth ion, lanthanum ion (La(3+)), then the indexes related to plant nitrogen assimilation process in roots were determined. The results showed that combined treatment with pH 4.5 acid rain and 0.08 mM La(3+) promoted nitrogen assimilation synergistically, while the other combined treatments all showed inhibitory effects. Moreover, acid rain aggravated the inhibitory effect of 1.20 or 0.40 mM La(3+) on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedling roots. Thus, the effects of acid rain and La(3+) on crops depended on the combination levels of acid rain intensity and La(3+) concentration. Acid rain increases the bioavailability of La(3+), and the combined effects of these two pollutants were more serious than that of either pollutant alone. These results provide new evidence in favor of limiting overuse of REEs in agriculture. This work also provides a new framework for ecological risk assessment of combined acid rain and REEs pollution on soybean crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Judicial recourse against foreign air polluters: a case study of acid rain in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Pallemaerts, M.

    1985-01-01

    Many European nations suffering acid damage caused primarily by pollution originating outside of their borders have had little success in persuading polluters to voluntarily reduce emissions. The author explores the opportunities for private litigation by victims against foreign sources of long-range transboundary air pollution. Such private actions would establish the illegality of transboundary air pollution and draw public attention to the magnitude of the damage as well as generate compensation. Recent actions in Norway and Britain suggest that is is procrastination to insist upon more research into the cause and effects of acid rain.

  1. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 5: The effects on human health

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this report is to provide a broad framework from the latest available data, mostly since 1990, in an attempt to estimate the specific agents within the air pollution mixture of acid rain that are related to adverse effects on human health. Direct and indirect health effects of sulphur dioxide and its derivatives, sulfate, particulate matter, and acid aerosols are reviewed separately. Information is included on the distribution of sulphur oxides across Canada and on epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies related to the direct health effects. In addition, indirect health effects such as changes in visibility and climate, and leaching of metals into water supplies, are also reviewed.

  2. [Seasonality and contribution to acid rain of the carbon abundance in rainwater].

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Song, Zhi-guang; Liu, Jun-feng; Wang, Cui-ping

    2008-02-01

    This paper reports the results from a study of the carbon abundance in rainwater of Guangzhou city, China. The determination of TOC, DOC, POC and PEC helps to study the seasonality of carbon abundance and its contribution to the acid rain. The results display the fact that the average contents of TOC, DOC, POC and PEC are 7.10 mg/L, 3.58 mg/L, 3.60 mg/L and 0.72 mg/L, respectively. These results confirm the deep effect of the organic pollutant to the rain. The seasonality exists in the carbon abundance of rainwater. The contents of TOC and DOC are up to the maximum in spring and the minimum in summer; the contribution of POC to TOC in summer is obviously higher than that in other seasons; and the relative content of POC is clearly higher in dry season than that in wet season. The seasonality reflects the more emission of the total pollutant in spring and the solid particle pollutant in summer than those in other seasons. Moreover, the emission of the organic pollutant from the mobile vehicles is more obvious in dry season than that in wet season. The contents of TOC and DOC have the negative correlation to the pH values, which confirms the contribution effect of the organic pollutant, such as vehicle emission, to the acid rain.

  3. Air pollution and acid rain in Chongqing City: The source and formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xu

    1996-12-31

    Chongqing, the biggest city of Southwestern China, is suffered from air pollution and acid rain for a long time. Studies have shown that coal-burning results in pollution of sulfur dioxide and causes acid rain on a wide range in the area. Emission of sulfur dioxide has met by 0.8 million tons in Chongqing a year. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide in ambient air are above 0.20 mg/m{sup 3} during the recent thirty years. Results of precipitation monitoring show annual precipitation-weighted mean pH ranged from 3.91 to 4.70 and sulfate concentrations ranged from 8.71 mg/1 to 26.29 mg/1 in Chongqing for the past decades. The equivalent ratio of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} / NO{sup -}{sub 3} in Chongqing (also in China) is higher than those in other countries. It is found that fog water is also acidified in Chongqing City and the concentrations of pollutants in fog water are much higher than those in rain.

  4. Yield Responses of Field-Grown Soybeans Exposed to Simulated Acid Rain

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L. S.; Conway, C. A.; Lewin, K. F.

    1980-03-01

    An important area of interest is to determine the effects of acid precipitation on the yield of agronomic crops under field conditions. Experiments described herein were performed with field-grown soybeans at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the summer of 1979. A preliminary experiment was performed the preceding year at the same site to estimate the most appropriate plot design and statistical analyses. Soybeans were seeded to provide six Latin Squares. Five treatments (no rain, simulated rainfalls of pH levels of 4.0, 3.1, 2.7, and 2.3) replicated five times in each Latin Square were used to produce a total of 30 plots per treatment. These results show that additions of small amounts of simulated acid rain to soybeans decreased the number of pods per plant. This decrease in the number of pods per plant produced a small but significant decrease in seed mass. The decreases (3, 5 and 8% at simulated rain pH levels of 4.0, 3.1, and 2.7) were present in soybeans already exposed to rainfalls at Brookhaven National Laboratory with an average H+ concentration of about pH 4.0 over the period of this experiment.

  5. Effect of organic/inorganic compounds on the enzymes in soil under acid rain stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-shen; Xu, Dong-mei; Wang, Li-ming; Li, Ke-bin; Liu, Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    The main effects of pollutions including acid rain, Cu2+, atrazine and their combined products on the activities of urease, invertin, acid phosphatase and catalase were studied by means of orthogonal test. The results showed that H+ and Cu2+ had significant influence on the activities of four enzymes and the ability of their inhibiting followed the order: H+ > Cu2+. Al3+ and atrazine only had litter effects on the activity of urease and phosphatase, respectively. Furthermore, interaction analysis revealed that Cu2+ -H+ affected on the activity of acid phosphatase significantly and antagonism on invertin and urease, Cu2+ -atrazine only exhibited the synergism on the activity of acid phosphatase. But atrazine-H+ had non-interaction within the investigated concentration range. Among four enzymes, acid phosphatase was the most sensitive one to the contaminations.

  6. Model for a surface film of fatty acids on rain water and aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Winfried

    Organic compounds with polar groups can form films on the water surface which lower the surface tension and may hinder the transport of water vapor and trace gases through the interface. A model is presented which describes in detail surface films formed by fatty acids. The model has been applied to measured concentrations of fatty acids on rain water and atmospheric aerosol particles. In most cases only a diluted film has been calculated which does not affect their physical and chemical properties. The exception was a clean region in the western USA, where the fatty acid concentrations are sufficiently high to form a dense film on atmospheric aerosol particles. An algorithm for the identification of the sources of fatty acids was developed. It showed leaf abrasion or biomass burning as a major source of fatty acids in the western USA.

  7. Technologies and Innovative Solutions for Harvesting and Nonpotable Use of Rain and Stormwater in Urban Settings; Meeting Summary Report:

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop on Technologies and Innovative Solutions for Harvesting and Nonpotable Use of Rain and Stormwater in Urban Settings was held on April 24–25, 2013, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this workshop was to identify: (1) innovative strategies currently being employed fo...

  8. Technologies and Innovative Solutions for Harvesting and Nonpotable Use of Rain and Stormwater in Urban Settings; Meeting Summary Report:

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop on Technologies and Innovative Solutions for Harvesting and Nonpotable Use of Rain and Stormwater in Urban Settings was held on April 24–25, 2013, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this workshop was to identify: (1) innovative strategies currently being employed fo...

  9. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  10. Acid Rain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Markets Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) Surface Water Monitoring National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Exit Interstate Air Pollution Transport Contact Us to ask a question, provide ...

  11. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  12. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings.

  13. Review of acid rain potential in India: Future threats and remedial measures

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, M.; Kumar, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acid rain is a necessary fall out of rapid development process in India. Any increase in Gross Domestic Product has direct influence on the rate of energy consumption and its pattern. Thermal Power plants are the major source of wet and dry deposition of sulfur while transportation sector has a larger share in the increase of NO{sub x}. The process is complex and the effect can be felt hundreds of kilometers away. Redistribution of both the plant nutrients and toxic substances within the biosphere results from such deposition and biogeochemically important trace species are threatened. These have a destabilising effect on several ecosystems. However, tropical climatic conditions and alkaline rich soil has hitherto not allowed any such destabilising effect in India. The sea and the soil derived aerosols are responsible for neutralizing process and maintaining the pH in the alkaline range in the most part of India. The higher temperature and sunlight, increases the efficiency of atmospheric chemical reactions, particularly those transforming SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to acidic sulfates and nitrates. The major contribution to acid rain is reported to be due to sulfur component (70%). Therefore, the emission of sulfur requires more attention. It has been observed that pH has a declining trend due to population growth, changing agricultural practices and a very rapid economic development. An estimated 2500 tonnes of sulfur are released in the atmosphere due to the thermal power plants alone as per data available for 1993-94 thermal power generation which is 50 times more than that released in 1950-51 due to thermal power generation. This paper is an overview of the present trends, their likely effects, factors contributing to acid rain and possible remedial action.

  14. [Reponses of sugar metabolism in seed germination of three various acid-fast plants to acid rain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hong; Zhou, Qing; Zeng, Qing-Ling

    2008-03-01

    Responses of sugar metabolism during germination of rice (O. sativa ), wheat (T. aestivum) and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) seeds to simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 2.5, pH 3.0, pH 3.5, pH 4.0, pH 4.5, pH 5.0) were investigated. The purpose was to clarify the mechanism of acid rain affecting seed germination. The results show that the alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of the rice, wheat and rape seeds decrease with increased stress level (pH 5.0 - 2.0), and are lower than CK. The response order of three indexes to stress level of acid rain is that rice (pH 3.5 - 4.0/53.88% - 77.7%) is smaller than wheat (pH 3.5 - 4.5/58.60% - 89.41%), and rape (pH 4.0 - 5.0/60.14% - 100%) is the smallest, alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of rice increase with prolonged stress time, but the three indexes of wheat and rape increase at first, and then decrease. In the same stress time (3 - 7 d), the three indexes of the three species for all treatment groups are lower than CK, and decrease with increased stress level. The stress time when the maximum damage of a-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar appeared is that rice (7 d, 7 d, 7 d) > wheat (7 d, 6 d, 5 d) > rape (3 d, 7 d, 5 d). Responses of three indexes to stress level and stress time of acid rain show that the ability of sugar metabolism resisting acid rain is that rice is stronger than wheat and rape is the worst, and the difference in sugar metabolism of 3 species is one of the internal reasons why the germination indexes behave differently.

  15. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Gu, Bao-jing; Ge, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, De-an; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Jie

    2009-08-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hangchowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on P(n), soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  16. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose.

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, S C; Sheppard, M I

    1988-01-01

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the "background" radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable. PMID:3203639

  17. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Gu, Bao-jing; Ge, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, De-an; Chang, Scott X.; Chang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hangchowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (P n), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on P n, soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis. PMID:19650194

  18. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  19. Toward integrating environmental and economic education: lessons from the US acid rain program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Ellerbrock; Ann M. Regn

    2004-04-15

    This field report presents an actual case study which illustrates that the natural and social sciences, in this case ecology and economics, can and should be integrated in environmental education and the formulation of public policy. After outlining basic economic approaches for addressing environmental problems, it focuses on the process and principles involved in the marketable permit system established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for preventing acid rain by reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrous oxides in the United States. The system has generated significant reductions in emissions and projected costs of compliance.

  20. Acid rain program offers free-market incentives, portends future regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cozza, A.; Faulkner, K.F. )

    1993-05-01

    The burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, results in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Such emissions and their by-products damage ecosystems and man-made materials, and threaten human health. In 1985, 23 million tons of SO[sub 2] and 19 million tons of NOx were emitted from US sources. Nearly 70% of the SO[sub 2] and almost 40% of the NOx emissions originated from electric utilities. Title IV of the CAA Amendments requires EPA to establish an acid rain program designed to reduce SO[sub 2] and NOx emissions from electric utility plants.

  1. Acid rain and tree physiology: some hypotheses for observed changes in forest productivity

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental evidence for several principal physiological pathways of influence of acid rain and associated pollutants on forest growth processes was examined. This was accomplished by examining experimental evidence from a variety of sources which suggest likely mechanisms of response. The following mechanisms were examined: (1) altered plant-water relations, (2) altered availability of nutrients, (3) direct effects on growth and physiological processes, and (4) indirect effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Some characteristics of recent forest declines were examined to evaluate consistencies of response patterns with physiological mechanisms. 8 references, 4 figures, 8 tables. (MF)

  2. [Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of Indocalamus barbatus under simulated acid rain stress].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yin-Feng; Yang, Wan-Hong; Lu, Mei-Rong; Cai, Xian-Lei; Zhou, Jian

    2008-06-01

    With Indocalamus barbatus as test material, the effects of silicon on the relative content of chlorophyll, diurnal variations of photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were examined under simulated acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. The results showed that under acid rain stress, 20 and 500 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 could prohibit the decrease of the relative content of chlorophyll to some extent; 100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 could get best effect, with the relative chlorophyll content being 22.7% higher than the control; while 500 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 didn't have any effect. Under the stress, the midday depression of photosynthesis became more serious. The average daily net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal limitation value (Ls), and stomata conductance (Gs) were all decreased significantly, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased. After treated with 20-100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3, the Pn, Ls, and Gs increased to some extent while Ci decreased, and 100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 was most effective, with the average daily Pn increased by 39.2%. The maximum fluorescence of dark adaptation (Fm), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), potential activity (Fv/Fo), effective photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fm'), maximum fluorescence of light adaptation (Fm') of PSII, photochemical quenching (qp), non-photochemical quenching (qN), and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (PhiPSII) were all decreased obviously under simulated acid rain stress, but the minimum fluorescence of dark adaptation (Fo) and the minimum fluorescence of light adaptation (Fo') increased. 100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 could restrain the changes of fluorescence parameters obviously, with the Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, Fv'/Fm' and PhiPSII increased by 35.2%, 146.2%, 55.0% and 24.3%, respectively, compared with the control. It was suggested that applying appropriate concentration of exogenous silicon to I. barbatus could efficiently relieve the decrease of its photosynthetic activity and the damage of its

  3. An evaluation of the effects of acid rain on low conductivity headwater streams in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of water collected at 32 sites on headwater streams in Pennsylvania during low-flow conditions in 1970-80 were compared to pre-1971 data to evaluate whether acid rain had changed the chemistry of the streams in the previous decade. Most pH, alkalinity, and sulfate values of the samples collected in 1970-80 fell within the ranges of values for samples collected before 1971. The limited data indicate, however, that pH may have increased and alkalinity and sulfate may have decreased with time.

  4. The bifunctional catalytic role of water clusters in the formation of acid rain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Montalvo, Eduardo; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel; Vallejo Narváez, Wilmer Esteban; Costales, Aurora; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Hernández-Rodríguez, Marcos; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás

    2017-03-23

    State-of-the-art chemical bonding analyses show that water clusters have a bifunctional catalytic role in the formation of H2SO4 in acid rain. The embedded H2O monomers mitigate the change in the chemical bonding scenario of the rate-limiting step, reducing thereby the corresponding activation energy in accordance with Hammond's postulate. We expect that the insights given herein will prove useful in the elucidation of the catalytic mechanisms of water in inorganic and organic aqueous chemistry.

  5. Acid rain hourly emissions data (raw data only) (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This CD-ROM product contains data on emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants, which was collected by the EPA Acid Rain Program under 40 CFR 75. Pollutants monitored include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. The pollutants are generally monitored using continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) on an hourly basis. Also included is general operating data, including operating time, heat input, and gross unit load. There is also information on the unit`s monitoring plan, and the results of tests required to be performed by the source to insure that its monitoring equipment is functioning properly.

  6. Acid rain in China. Rapid industrialization has put citizens and ecosystems at risk

    SciTech Connect

    Thorjoern Larssen; Espen Lydersen; Dagang Tang

    2006-01-15

    Acid rain emerged as an important environmental problem in China in the late 1970s. Many years of record economic growth have been accompanied by increased energy demand, greater coal combustion, and larger emissions of pollutants. As a result of significant emissions and subsequent deposition of sulfur, widespread acid rain is observed in southern and southwestern China. In fact, the deposition of sulfur is in some places higher than what was reported from the 'black triangle' in central Europe in the early 1980s. In addition, nitrogen is emitted from agriculture, power production, and a rapidly increasing number of cars. As a result, considerable deposition of pollutants occurs in forested areas previously thought to be pristine. Little is known about the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in China. This article presents the current situation and what to expect in the future, largely on the basis of results from a five-year Chinese-Norwegian cooperative project. In the years ahead, new environmental challenges must be expected if proper countermeasures are not put into place. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Seasonal changes in dominant bacterial taxa from acidic peatlands of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Etto, Rafael Mazer; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Galvão, Franklin; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Reynaud Steffens, Maria Berenice

    2014-09-01

    The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are essential for maintenance of the Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. While these ecosystems are closely linked to conservation issues, their microbial community ecology and composition remain unknown. In this work, histosol samples were collected from three acidic peatland regions during dry and rainy seasons and their chemical and microbial characteristics were evaluated. Culturing and culture-independent approaches based on SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing were used to survey the bacterial community and to identify environmental factors affecting the biodiversity and microbial metabolic potential of the Brazilian peatlands. All acidic peatlands were dominated by the Acidobacteria phylum (56-22%) followed by Proteobacteria (28-12%). The OTU richness of these phyla and the abundance of their Gp1, Gp2, Gp3, Gp13, Rhodospirillales and Caulobacteriales members varied according to the period of collection and significantly correlated with the rainy season. However, despite changes in acidobacterial and proteobacterial communities, rainfall did not affect the microbial metabolic potential of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest peatlands, as judged by the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence linking large reductions in acid rain to sulfur emissions cuts in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Concentrations of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and free acidity (H{sup +}) in precipitation decreased by 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern US in 1995. These decreases were extraordinary in magnitude and spatial extent, compared to the 1983--1994 record of observations from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). In contrast, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium concentrations generally increased in 1995. What`s more, the H+ and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} declines were highly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.72), indicating a reduction of acid rain. The largest concentration decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley. This is the same area where the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set limits on SO{sub 2} emissions from 110 affected sources, 63 in states bordering the Ohio River Valley. Phase 1 of the CAAA required these limits be met by January 1, 1995. Indeed, sulfur dioxide emissions from Phase 1 sources dropped 40% in 1995 compared to 1994. This was a nearly 19% reduction in overall emissions in the 21 states with Phase 1 sources. Based on their analysis of emissions and NADP/NTN precipitation chemistry data, they infer that the substantial declines in acid rain in the eastern US in 1995 occurred because of large reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions in the same region.

  9. Acid rain, promoting the accumulation of CO{sub 2} in surface waters?!

    SciTech Connect

    Shuping Bi

    1996-12-31

    Acid rain and increase of CO{sub 2} concentration in atmosphere are the important problems to the global changes. In the past, people studied them separately. Someone found that lakes are sources of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, but the mechanism is not clear. In this paper, we present our investigation on this question by using chemical equilibrium model. Theoretical calculation indicates that: in the acidic range of pH < 5, P{sub CO2} may change from 1 {times} 10{sup -4} to 0.1 atm without altering pH value of waters due to the buffering actions of Al{sup n+} and H{sup +}; Oppositely, the pH is very sensitive to the P{sub CO2} in the neutral (pH > 5) surface waters. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that acidified surface waters way hold much more CO{sub 2} than neutral waters. Acid rain, also promotes the accumulation of CO{sub 2} in surface waters.

  10. [Combined effects of copper and simulated acid rain on copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa].

    PubMed

    He, Shan-Ying; Gao, Yong-Jie; Shentu, Jia-Li; Chen, Kun-Bai

    2011-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of Cu (0-1500 mg x kg(-1)) and simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.6) on the copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa. With the increasing concentration of soil Cu, the Cu accumulation in R. acetosa increased, being higher in root than in stem and leaf. The exposure to low pH acid rain promoted the Cu uptake by R. acetosa. With the increase of soil Cu concentration and/or of acid rain acidity, the biomass of R. acetosa decreased, leaf and root MDA contents increased and had good correlation with soil Cu concentration, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf and root displayed a decreasing trend after an initial increase. This study showed that R. acetosa had a strong adaptive ability to Cu and acid rain stress, exhibiting a high application potential in the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil in acid rain areas.

  11. Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-han; Liu, Hong-yu; Zeng, Qing-ru; Yu, Ping-zhong; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-08-01

    Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were studied in a pot experiment by measurement of fresh weights of the plants, determination of surperoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the plant organs, and observation of injury symptoms. The experimental results demonstrated that all treatments of Cd2+, Zn2+, and/or acid rain significantly decreased fresh weights of kidney bean and caused toxic effects on growth of the plants, especially higher amounts of Cd2+ and Zn2+ and higher acidity of acid rain. Combination of these three pollutant factors resulted in more serious toxic effects than any single pollutant and than combinations of any two pollutants. SOD, POD, and MDA in the plant organs changed with different pollution levels, but MDA content in the leaves showed the best relationship between the pollution levels and toxic effects.

  12. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    PubMed

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection system of acid rain pollution using light-induced delayed fluorescence of plant leaf in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2006-09-01

    Photosynthetic apparatus is susceptible to environmental stress. Light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) in plant is an intrinsic label of the efficiency of charge separation at P680 in photosystem II (PS II). In this investigation, we have developed a biosensor that can accurately inspect acid rain pollution by means of DF in vivo. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed technique can continuously monitor environmental changes, making fast, real-time and noninvasive inspection possible. The biosensor is an all-weather measuring instrument; it has its own illumination power and utilizes intrinsic DF as the measurement marker. With soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedling as a testing model, which is sensitive to acid rain pollution, the relationship that delayed fluorescence properties and capability of photosynthetic apparatus after being affected by simulated acid rain with different pH value was studied. The current investigation has revealed that the changes of delayed fluorescence (equation available in paper) can probably characterize the pollution degree of simulated acid rain, Inspecting the changes in DF characteristics (φ i) of plant leaf in vivo may be a new approach for the detection of acid rain pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  14. The Acid Rain Program`s 1995 annual reconciliation: Design and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Schary, C.; Shellabarger, M.; Smith, K.

    1997-12-31

    The completion of the first year of compliance under the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Acid Rain Program provides an excellent opportunity to analyze its results for early indications on the effectiveness of the program`s design. Established under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the implementation of the program`s two-phased approach to reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities proved to be more complex and more costly than its supporters anticipated. An unanticipated complication was the difficult task of accounting for shifts in electric generation from Phase I sources to those not affected until Phase II. This paper examines the results of the 1995 reconciliation process and analyzes the value of the two-phased approach in accomplishing the stated goals of the Acid Rain Program: to achieve significant emissions reductions at the lowest possible cost to the affected sources, and to society in general. The paper concludes that Phase I implementation costs were disproportionately large, imposed sizeable costs on Phase II sources as well, who had to install monitors early but did not receive any of its benefits - additional allowances. A better design might have been to include all sources in both phases while maintaining the two-step reduction schedule.

  15. Runoff changes in Czech headwater regions after deforestation induced by acid rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchtele, J.; Buchtelova, M.; Hrkal, Z.; Koskova, R.

    2003-04-01

    Tendencies in water regime resulting from land-use change represent an important subject for research and in the region of so called Black Triangle at the borders of Czech Republic, Germany and Poland urgent practical problem. Namely extensive deforestation in Czech hilly basins induced by acid rains, which appeared in seventies and eighties, requires attention. Discussions among professionals and public, sometimes having emotional character, took place after large floods on the rivers Odra and Morava in 1997 and in Vltava and Elbe river basins in August 2002. The influence of deforestation induced by acid rains in the Central Europe has been considered as important contribution to disastrous character of floods. Simulations of rainfall-runoff process in several catchments and experimental basins in two distinct headwater regions along German borders, with different extent of deforestation have been carried out using daily time series up to 40 years long. The outputs of two hydrological models of different structure have been compared in these investigations: - the conceptual model SAC-SMA - Sacramento soil moisture accounting - physically based 1- D model BROOK´90 The differences between observed and simulated discharge, which could show the tendencies in the runoff have been followed. They indicate increase of runoff after deforestation.

  16. Acid rain, ozone depletion, and the climate response to pulsed Siberian Traps magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B. A.; Lamarque, J.; Shields, C. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Siberian Traps flood basalts have been invoked as a trigger for the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction. Widespread aberrant plant remains across the Permian-Triassic boundary provide evidence that atmospheric stress contributed to the collapse in terrestrial diversity. Here, we use recent detailed estimates of magmatic degassing from the Siberian Traps to complete the first 3-D global modeling of atmospheric chemistry during eruption of a large igneous province. We also explore the effects of volcanic gases on climate. Our results show that both strongly acidic rain and global ozone collapse are possible transient consequences of episodic pyroclastic volcanism and heating of volatile-rich Siberian country rocks. We suggest that in conjunction with abrupt warming from greenhouse gas emissions, these repeated, rapidly applied atmospheric stresses directly linked Siberian magmatism to end-Permian ecological failure on land. Our comprehensive modeling describes the global distribution and severity of acid rain and ozone depletion, providing testable predictions for the geography of end-Permian environmental proxies.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of 35CrMn and Q235 Steel in Simulated Acid Rain Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xiu-li; Xiang, Bin; Li, Xing; Wei, Zi-dong

    2012-04-01

    Effects of pH value, chloride ion concentration and alternation of wetting and drying time in acid rain on the corrosion of 35CrMn and Q235 steel were investigated through the measurement of polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and quantum mechanical calculations. The corrosion rate of 35CrMn and Q235 steel increased with decreasing pH values of the simulated acid rain, whereas the corrosion potential of 35CrMn and Q235 steel became more negative. The impedance became higher and the corrosion rate decreased with increasing test time. The dissolution rate of samples increased with chloride ion concentration. Results suggested that the corrosion rate of 35CrMn steel was obviously lower than that of Q235 steel for a more compact rust, α-FeOOH. Quantum chemical calculations further revealed that the increase in corrosion rate of the steel resulted from pitting corrosion caused by the corrosive chloride ion.

  18. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, B.J.; Rico, R.

    1995-12-31

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions).

  19. Acid-rain publications by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Villella, R.F.

    1989-08-01

    This report is an annotated bibliography of acid-rain and related air-quality publications authored or co-authored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employees or that have been supported by Service funding. The bibliography covers 10 years of research from 1979 to 1989. Research projects have covered the effects of acidity on water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Specific projects have addressed important fish species such as rainbow trout, brook trout, Atlantic salmon, and striped bass. In addition to lake and stream studies, wetland and some terrestrial habitat work has also been conducted. Also included in the report is research on the ecological effects of liming surface waters and surrounding watersheds.

  20. Acid rain publications by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villella, Rita F.

    1989-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems has been a concern to society since the burning of fossil fuels began in the industrial revolution. In the past decade or so, this concern has been heightened by evidence that chemical transformation in the atmosphere of combustion by-products and subsequent long-range transport can cause environmental damage in remote areas. The extent of this damage and the rates of ecological recovery were largely unknown. "Acid rain" became the environmental issue of the 1980's. To address the increasing concerns of the public, in 1980 the Federal government initiated a 10-year interagency research program to develop information that could be used by the President and the Congress in making decisions for emission controls. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been an active participant in acid precipitation research. The Service provided support to a number of scientific conferences and forums, including the Action Seminar on Acid Precipitation held in Toronto, Canada, in 1979, an international symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Fishery Impacts in Northeastern North America in 1981, and a symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Atmospheric Deposition: A Western Perspective in 1982. These meetings as well as the growing involvement with the government's National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program placed the Service in the lead in research on the biological effects of acidic deposition. Research projects have encompassed water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Water quality surveys have been conducted to help determine the extent of acid precipitation effects in the northeast, Middle Atlantic, and Rocky Mountain regions. In addition to lake and stream studies, research in wetland and some terrestrial habitats has also been conducted. Specific projects have addressed important sport species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and striped bass (Morone