Science.gov

Sample records for acid rapeseed oil

  1. Cardiac lesions in rats fed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D

    1975-01-01

    Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010

  2. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Long; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Rui-Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthesis in "green" seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related genes in such developing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyll content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Overexpression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes.

  3. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid.

  4. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  5. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  10. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  11. Rapeseed and safflower oils as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Haines, H.; Chase, C.

    1993-12-31

    During the past decade the US has become increasingly dependent upon imported oil to meet our energy demands. Nearly 50 percent of our US consumption of petroleum is imported. Research has shown that agricultural crops can be used to reduce this dependence. Vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has been under study at the Univ. of Idaho since 1979. Since then the Idaho research team has pioneered the use of rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Idaho`s interdisciplinary team includes plant breeding, plant modification, process development and scale-up, engine testing, and economics. Researchers in Montana have studied safflower oil as a potential diesel fuel replacement since 1983. This project, aimed for use of safflower oil in railroad engines, involves genetics, agronomics, economics and contract engine testing.

  12. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  13. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  14. Effect of Specific Oil Surface Area on the Thermal Stressing of Rapeseed Oil During Heating in an Electric Frying Pan.

    PubMed

    Kobyliński, Jakub P; Krygier, Krzysztof; Karlovits, György; Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra

    The effect of specific oil surface (SOS) during pan frying of rapeseed oil on its thermal stability and antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated. Rapeseed oils with different oil layer heights (OLH = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm) were heated on an electric frying pan coated with Teflon at 180 ± 10 °C until a selected end point of 25 % total polar compounds (TPC) was reached. The changes of chemical parameters of oil samples such as peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Totox value, free fatty acids, TPC and AC using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were determined. Irrespective of the applied methods, the highest changes in oil with OLH = 0.5 cm were observed. Heating in low OLH also led to the fastest time of TPC formation in rapeseed oil; the 0.5-cm layer reached 25 % TPC in a relatively short time (71.5 min) compared to the highest OLH = 2.5 cm (t = 315.1 min). The SOS and the rate of change in the heated oils decreased with increasing OLH. Crucial effects of SOS on physicochemical oil changes were observed. The present study demonstrated the protective effect of increasing the OLH on the quality of the heated rapeseed oils.

  15. Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Valsta, L M; Jauhiainen, M; Aro, A; Katan, M B; Mutanen, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of high oleic acid rapeseed oil compared with polyunsaturated fats on serum lipoprotein levels are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed 30 women and 29 men a baseline diet rich in saturated fat, which was followed by a diet rich in high oleic and low erucic acid rapeseed oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.4%; monounsaturates, 16%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 6%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 2%) and one rich in sunflower oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.7%; monounsaturates, 10%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 13%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 0%). The oils were incorporated into mixed natural diets that were dispensed in a random order for 3.5 weeks each in a blinded crossover design. The diet composition was confirmed by analysis of duplicate diets. Both test diets reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels from baseline, the monounsaturated rapeseed oil diet more than the polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet (TC: -15% versus -12%, p less than 0.01; LDL cholesterol: -23% versus -17%, p less than 0.01). Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and total, VLDL, and LDL triglyceride levels were lower during the sunflower oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil diet. Total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remained unchanged by both diets. The consumption of rapeseed oil resulted in a more favorable HDL2 to LDL cholesterol ratio (0.43 +/- 0.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.01) and an apolipoprotein A-I to B ratio (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.001) than did the sunflower oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. GLC analysis of Indian rapeseed-mustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Agnihotri, A

    2000-12-01

    Rapeseed-mustard is one of the most economically important oilseed crops in India. Speciality oils having high amounts of a specific fatty acid are of immense importance for both nutritional and industrial purposes. Oil high in oleic acid has demand in commercial food-service applications due to a long shelf-life and cholesterol-reducing properties. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; however, less than 3% linolenic acid is preferred for oil stability. High erucic acid content is beneficial for the polymer industry, whereas low erucic acid is recommended for food purposes. Therefore, it is important to undertake systematic characterization of the available gene pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes. In the present study the Indian rapeseed-mustard germplasm and some newly developed low-erucic-acid strains were analysed by GLC to study the fatty acid composition in these lines. The GLC analysis revealed that the rapeseed-mustard varieties being commonly grown in India are characterized by high erucic acid content (30-51%) in the oil with low levels of oleic acid (13-23%). However, from among the recently developed low-erucic-acid strains, several lines were identified with comparatively high oleic acid (60-70%), moderate to high linoleic acid (13-40%) and low linolenic acid (< 10%) contents. Work is in progress at TERI (New Delhi, India) to utilize these lines for development of strains with particular fatty acid compositions for specific purposes.

  17. Combined effect of water and KOH on rapeseed oil methanolysis.

    PubMed

    Kwiecien, Jirí; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    This paper deals with the effect of water and catalyst (KOH) amount on the quantity and quality of transesterification products of rapeseed oil by methanol, the methyl ester phase (i.e. yield, conversion), and the side-product, the glycerol phase (i.e. density, viscosity, the mass fraction of glycerol, esters, soaps). The dependencies were described by statistical models. The transesterification was carried out at constant reaction conditions (90 min reaction time, 400 rpm, 60 degrees Celsius). Twelve experiments with the independent factors, amount of potassium hydroxide (0.65-0.9 mg per gram of oil) and total amount of water (0.24-1.42 mg per gram of oil) naturally present in the reaction components or formed by the neutralisation reaction of free fatty acids and of added water. The data were analyzed by linear regression with respect to regression triplet (complex critical analysis of the model, data and regression method). The analysis resulted in a set of linear and/or quadratic models consisting of statistically proven terms at a statistical significance level of 0.05 and demonstrated that ester in the glycerol phase increases with increasing amount of soaps.

  18. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  19. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (p<0.001) in comparison with the Standard oil. Over the 3-week trial, Total-/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-/HDL-cholesterol were increased by 4% (p<0.05) with the Standard oil consumption whereas none of them rose with the Optimized rapeseed oil which increased the HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 plasma content (+2%, NS and +3%, p<0.05 respectively). The effects observed on the plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.059), the Total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p=0.092), and on the ApoA1 concentrations (p=0.060) suggest an improvement of the cholesterol profile with the Optimized rapeseed oil. Finally, the Optimized oil reduced the plasma content of LDLox (-6%, NS), this effect being significantly different from the Standard oil (p=0.050). In conclusion, reasonable intake of an Optimized rapeseed oil resulting from innovative refining processes and enriched in cardioprotective micronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation.

  20. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil for Biodiesel Production with tert-Butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.

  1. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  2. Protection against oxidation of fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions through addition of rapeseed oil or antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pham, Kim A; Meyer, Anne S

    2005-06-29

    The ability of rapeseed oil and/or different antioxidants (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol mixture, ascorbyl palmitate, and EDTA) to protect fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions against oxidation was investigated. Tocopherol isomers in concentrations similar to those found in natural rapeseed oil were added to rapeseed oil stripped of natural tocopherols. The rapeseed oil with added tocopherols significantly inhibited oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions. In contrast, the emulsions with only fish oil and added alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were less stable than the emulsions with fish oil alone. When added individually, the gamma-tocopherol seemed to inhibit oxidation more efficiently than alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) almost completely retarded oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions, as determined by PV, volatile oxidation products, and sensory evaluation. AP also prevented the otherwise prooxidant effect of tocopherols added to fish oil before emulsification. No interactions between AP, tocopherols, and EDTA were observed, and EDTA added alone to fish oil did not show antioxidant properties in the milk emulsions. Overall, the results showed that addition of AP or rapeseed oil containing natural tocopherols to fish oil was equally efficient in inhibiting oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions.

  3. Enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production.

    PubMed

    Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Salakkam, Apilak; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Bakir, Ufuk; Webb, Colin

    2012-05-10

    Rapeseed meal, a major byproduct of biodiesel production, has been used as a low-cost raw material for the production of a generic microbial feedstock through a consolidated bioconversion process. Various strategies were tested for the production of a novel fermentation medium, rich in free amino nitrogen (FAN): commercial enzymes (CEs) (2.7 mg g⁻¹ dry meal), liquid state fungal pre-treatment (LSF) using Aspergillus oryzae (4.6 mg g⁻¹), liquid state fungal pre-treatment followed by fungal autolysis (LSFA) (9.13 mg g⁻¹), liquid state pre-treatment using fungal enzymatic broth (EB) (2.1 mg g⁻¹), but the best strategy was a solid state fungal pre-treatment followed by fungal autolysis (34.5 mg g⁻¹). The bioavailability of the nitrogen sources in the novel medium was confirmed in fed-batch bioreactor studies, in which 82.3g dry cell L⁻¹ of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4 was obtained with a lipid content of 48%. The dry cell weight obtained was higher than that obtained using conventional yeast extract, due to a higher total nitrogen content in the novel biomedium. The fatty acids obtained from the microbial oil were similar to those derived from rapeseed oil.

  4. Effects of crude rapeseed oil on lipid composition in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, A; Pickova, J; Brännäs, E

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of crude rapeseed oil (RO) on lipid content and composition in muscle and liver of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Triplicate groups were fed diets containing fish oil (FO):RO ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 until two-fold mass increase. Total lipid content increased significantly in the liver with higher proportion of RO in the diet. Profound effects were seen in the fatty acid composition in the analysed tissues with a reduction in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and an increase in 18:2n-6 with higher RO content in the diets. A drop in cholesterol content was seen at 25% inclusion of RO in both tissues. Wild-caught fish contained a considerably higher amount of 20:4n-6 in both storage and membrane lipids of white muscle compared with the experimental fish.

  5. [Determination of lead in microemulsified rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-qing; He, Xiao-min; Du, Ping; Wang, Min; Chen, Hao; Wu, Mou-cheng

    2008-10-01

    Bio-diesel oil has attracted much attention as a substitutable energy sources for its renewable and eco-friendly property. However, problems of lead contamination in fuel are also emphasized increasingly at present. So it was of quite significance to determine the contents of lead in bio-diesel oil and its raw material rapeseed oil. An effective method was developed for the rapid determination of lead in rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after their stabilization as microemulsions. In this research work, polyethyleneglycol octyl phenyl ether and n-butanol were used for emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifying agent, respectively. For Pb, efficient thermal stabilization was obtained using NH4H2PO4 as matrix modifier. Sample stabilization was necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately after sampling. Excellent long-term sample stabilization and the influence of the microemulsion composition on the GFAAS response were observed by mixing different organic solvents. The ashing and atomization temperature and ramp rate influenced the sensitivity obtained for Ph. Take this into account, the optimum conditions of the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb in rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil samples were investigated. The results showed that the microemulsion was quite stable when the value of V(20% polyethyleneglycol octyl phenyl ether), V(n-butanol), V(oil) and V(water) was 0.1: 8.9: 0.5: 0.5, without matrix interference effect. The determination limit of the proposed method was 126.2 microg x L(-1) for Pb, comfortably below the values found in the analyzed samples. The recoveries were from 81.8% to 109.0%, which performed using the addition of different concentrations of lead to bio-diesel oil, rapeseed oil and petrochemical diesel samples. The relative standard deviation of determination was 5.84%. This work showed the great efficiency of the microemulsion

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from coconut endosperm mediates the insertion of laurate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols in lauric rapeseed oil and can increase total laurate levels

    PubMed

    Knutzon; Hayes; Wyrick; Xiong; Maelor Davies H; Voelker

    1999-07-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229-241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999-1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels.

  7. Batch (one- and two-stage) production of biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel is an alternative and renewable energy source, which may help to reduce air pollution, as well as our dependence on petroleum for energy. Several processes have already been developed for the production of biodiesel. Alkali-catalyzed transesterification with short-chain alcohols, for example, generates high yields of methyl esters in short reaction times. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of batch (one- and two-stage) transesterification of rapeseed oil in the production of rapeseed methyl ester. The conversion of rapeseed oil exhibited similar reaction patterns and yields in 30- and 1-L reaction systems. Approximately 98% of the rapeseed oil was converted at 400 rpm within 20 min, under the following conditions: 1% (w/w) KOH, 1:10 methanol molar ratio, and at 60 degrees C. In the 30-L, two-stage transesterification process, approx 98.5% of the rapeseed oil was converted at a 1:4.5 molar ratio and 1% (w/w) KOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min (first reaction condition), and at a 1:1 molar ratio and 0.2% (w/w) KOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min (second reaction condition).

  8. Batch (one- and two-stage) production of biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2006-03-01

    Biodiesel fuel is an alternative and renewable energy source, which may help to reduce air pollution, as well as our dependence on petroleum for energy. Several processes have already been developed for the production of biodiesel. Alkali-catalyzed transesterification with short-chain alcohols, for example, generates high yields of methyl esters in short reaction times. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of batch (one- and two-stage) transesterification of rapeseed oil in the production of rapeseed methyl ester. The conversion of rapeseed oil exhibited similar reaction patterns and yields in 30- and 1-L reaction systems. Approximately 98% of the rapeseed oil was converted at 400 rpm within 20 min, under the following conditions: 1% (w/w) KOH, 1ratio10 methanol molar ratio, and at 60 degrees C. In the 30-L, two-stage transesterification process, approx 98.5% of the rapeseed oil was converted at a 1ratio4.5 molar ratio and 1% (w/w) KOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min (first reaction condition), and at a 1ratio1 molar ratio and 0.2% (w/w) KOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min (second reaction condition).

  9. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P < 0.01) SID of CP and all AA except Thr, Trp, and Gly than 00-rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P < 0.05) among the 7 sources of canola meal, among the 10 sources of 00-rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00

  10. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P < 0.05]. The size of IDL, VLDL, and LDL subfractions did not differ between the diets, whereas a significantly higher number (apolipoprotein B concentration) and lipid content of the larger and medium-sized LDL subfractions were observed after the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Total HDL cholesterol concentration did not differ significantly, but HDL(2a) cholesterol was higher after olive oil and rapeseed oil compared with sunflower oil (ANOVA, P < 0.05).In conclusion, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  11. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma. 204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  12. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  13. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds.

  14. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    PubMed

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; p<0.001) and these correlations were even stronger for c-PAHs (0.990; p<0.001). Metabolic activation by the microsomal S9 fraction resulted in several fold higher genotoxicity, suggesting a major contribution of PAHs to genotoxicity. Directly acting compounds, other than c-PAHs, and not requiring S9 to exhibit DNA reactivity were also significant. Generally, DNA adduct levels were more dependent on

  15. Dilute acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for fermentable sugar generation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eulogio; Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the main pretreatment variables on fermentable sugar generation from rapeseed straw is studied using an experimental design approach. Low and high levels for pretreatment temperature (140-200 °C), process time (0-20 min) and concentration of sulfuric acid (0.5-2% w/v) were selected according to previous results. Glucose and xylose composition, as well as sugar degradation, were monitored and adjusted to a quadratic model. Non-sugar components of the hydrolysates were also determined. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields were used for assessing pretreatment performance. Optimization based on the mathematical model show that total conversion of cellulose from pretreated solids can be achieved at pretreatment conditions of 200 °C for 27 min and 0.40% free acid concentration. If optimization criteria were based on maximization of hemicellulosic sugars recovery in the hydrolysate along with cellulose preservation in the pretreated solids, milder pretreatment conditions of 144 °C, 6 min and 2% free acid concentration should be used.

  16. Nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during long term storage as influenced by the type of packaging material, exposure to light & oxygen and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Rękas, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    The effect of various conditions (storage temperature, exposure to light, access of oxygen) and different packaging material (amber glass, amber polyethylene terephthalate) on the nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during 12 months of storage was investigated. Quantified quality parameters included: acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K 232 , K 268 ), fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterols. Storage of oil at 4 °C was found to be most appropriate for maintaining the quality of cold-pressed rapeseed oil. Exposure of oil samples stored at room temperature to light in combination with the access of oxygen caused the most pronounced losses in the total tocopherols (ca. 90-91 % of α-T, and ca. 80-81 % of γ-T), total phytosterols (ca. 15-16 %) and substantial deterioration in oil qualitative properties. Although storage at room temperature is common for use in households, storage of at low temperatures (4 °C) significantly increases the possibility of prolonged shelf life of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  17. Concurrent elevation of CO2, O3 and temperature severely affects oil quality and quantity in rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Namazkar, Shahla; Stockmarr, Anders; Frenck, Georg; Egsgaard, Helge; Terkelsen, Thilde; Mikkelsen, Teis; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2016-01-01

    Plant oil is an essential dietary and bio-energy resource. Despite this, the effects of climate change on plant oil quality remain to be elucidated. The present study is the first to show changes in oil quality and quantity of four rapeseed cultivars in climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature (T) combined and as single factors. The combination of environmental factors resembled IPCC’s ‘business as usual’ emission scenario predicted for late this century. Generally, the climate scenarios reduced the average amounts of the six fatty acids (FAs) analysed, though in some treatments single FAs remained unchanged or even increased. Most reduced was the FA essential for human nutrition, C18:3-ω3, which decreased by 39% and 45% in the combined scenarios with elevated [CO2]+T+[O3] and [CO2]+T, respectively. Average oil content decreased 3–17%. When [CO2] and T were elevated concurrently, the seed biomass was reduced by half, doubling the losses in FAs and oil content. This corresponded to a 58% reduction in the oil yield per hectare, and C18:3-ω3 decreased by 77%. Furthermore, the polyunsaturated FAs were significantly decreased. The results indicate undesirable consequences for production and health benefits of rapeseed oil with future climate change. The results also showed strong interactive effects of CO2, T and O3 on oil quality, demonstrating why prediction of climate effects requires experiments with combined factors and should not be based on extrapolation from single factor experiments. PMID:27222513

  18. Concurrent elevation of CO2, O3 and temperature severely affects oil quality and quantity in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Namazkar, Shahla; Stockmarr, Anders; Frenck, Georg; Egsgaard, Helge; Terkelsen, Thilde; Mikkelsen, Teis; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2016-07-01

    Plant oil is an essential dietary and bio-energy resource. Despite this, the effects of climate change on plant oil quality remain to be elucidated. The present study is the first to show changes in oil quality and quantity of four rapeseed cultivars in climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature (T) combined and as single factors. The combination of environmental factors resembled IPCC's 'business as usual' emission scenario predicted for late this century. Generally, the climate scenarios reduced the average amounts of the six fatty acids (FAs) analysed, though in some treatments single FAs remained unchanged or even increased. Most reduced was the FA essential for human nutrition, C18:3-ω3, which decreased by 39% and 45% in the combined scenarios with elevated [CO2]+T+[O3] and [CO2]+T, respectively. Average oil content decreased 3-17%. When [CO2] and T were elevated concurrently, the seed biomass was reduced by half, doubling the losses in FAs and oil content. This corresponded to a 58% reduction in the oil yield per hectare, and C18:3-ω3 decreased by 77%. Furthermore, the polyunsaturated FAs were significantly decreased. The results indicate undesirable consequences for production and health benefits of rapeseed oil with future climate change. The results also showed strong interactive effects of CO2, T and O3 on oil quality, demonstrating why prediction of climate effects requires experiments with combined factors and should not be based on extrapolation from single factor experiments.

  19. Biochemical and histological effects of feeding thermally oxidized rapeseed oil and lard to rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, H G; Alexander, J C; Valli, V E

    1977-01-01

    Four groups of weanling rats were fed semisynthetic diets containing 15 percent by weight of dietary fats for 28 days. Two groups received thermally oxidized low-erucic acid rapeseed oil (OLE) or lard (OLA) and the other two groups received the respective fresh fats (FLE, FLA) as controls. Average daily feed consumption and feed efficiency were not affected by either OLE or OLA, however final body weights were depressed by the OLA in the diet. The relative heart weights and heart total lipids were significantly increased in both the OLE and OLA groups. A majority of the animals in both the OLE and OLA groups exhibited various gross symptoms attributable to heated fat toxicity such as seborrhea, diarrhea and polyuria. Excessive hair loss was noted in all the animals fed the heated fats. Tissue fatty acid changes due to OLA were confined largely to the polar liver lipids, whereas OLE produced dramatic changes in both the neutral heart lipids as well as in the neutral and polar liver lipids. Histological evaluation of the hearts, livers and kidneys indicated that OLA was very injurious to the kidneys, whereas OLE caused greater damage to both the hearts and livers. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:832196

  20. The effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds on the stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Ścibisz, Iwona; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Storage stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil pressed from microwave treated seeds (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10min, 800W) during long-term storage (12months) at a temperature of 20°C was discussed in the current study. The dominant phenolic compound detected in rapeseed oil was canolol, followed by minor amounts of free phenolic acids and sinapine. The most pronounced effect of seeds microwaving was noted for canolol formation - after 10-min exposure the quantity of this compound was approximately 63-fold higher than in control oil. The degradation of phenolics during storage displayed pseudo first-order kinetics. Differences in the initial degradation rate (r0) demonstrated significant impact of the period of seeds microwave exposure on the degradation rates of phenolic compounds. Results of the half-life calculation (t1/2) showed that the storage stability of phenolic compounds was higher in oils produced from microwave treated rapeseeds than in control oil.

  1. Characterization of Key Odorants Causing a Fusty/Musty Off-Flavor in Native Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The sensomics approach was used to clarify the formation of the fusty/musty off-flavor of native cold-pressed rapeseed oil. A "positive control" (PC) showing the desired sensory attributes and an oil eliciting a fusty/musty off-flavor (OF) were analyzed. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), identification experiments, quantitation by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), and aroma recombination resulted in 11 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in PC. Main differences between both oils were obtained for compounds caused by microbial influence revealing significantly higher concentrations in OF, e.g., for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methoxyphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (sotolon), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol. Comparison of the key odorants in OF with those of the rapeseeds (OFS), from which it was pressed, showed the same 18 compounds proving that the grade of the seeds and their storage conditions are important criteria for the quality of the final oil. Finally, a further 7 native cold-pressed rapeseed oils, eliciting the same sensory defect, were analyzed to confirm aroma-active marker compounds responsible for the fusty/musty off-flavor.

  2. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures.

  3. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  5. Classification of rapeseed and soybean oils by use of unsupervised pattern-recognition methods and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wesołowski, M; Suchacz, B

    2001-10-01

    Unsupervised pattern-recognition methods and Kohonen neural networks have been applied to the classification of rapeseed and soybean oil samples according to their type and quality by use of chemical and physical properties (density, refractive index, saponification value, and iodine and acid numbers) and thermal properties (thermal decomposition temperatures) as variables. A multilayer feed-forward (MLF) neural network (NN) has been used to select the most important variables for accurate classification of edible oils. To accomplish this task different neural networks architectures trained by back propagation of error method, using chemical, physical, and thermal properties as inputs, were employed. The network with the best performance and the smallest root mean squared (RMS) error was chosen. The results of MLF network sensitivity analysis enabled the identification of key properties, which were again used as variables in principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and in Kohonen self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) to prove their reliability.

  6. Dehulling and microwave pretreatment effects on the physicochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of virgin rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata; Ścibisz, Iwona; Derewiaka, Dorota; Anders, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    The effect of microwave heating (800 W) of whole and dehulled rapeseeds for 2 to 8 min was investigated in order to evaluate the impact of dehulling in conjunction with microwaving on the nutritional value, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of virgin rapeseed oil. Control oil produced from dehulled seeds (DRO) had higher amounts of bioactive compounds, such as tocochromanols and phytosterols, lower content of pigments, and higher content of primary and secondary oxidation products compared to oil pressed from whole seeds (WRO). Oils pressed from seeds that had previously undergone thermal treatment demonstrated gradual increase of oxidative stability, radical scavenging activity, moreover microwave treatment to caused darkening of oil, assessed in terms of changes in L*a*b* coordinates as well as browning index. Thermally-induced compositional changes were seen mainly in canolol, phytosterols, and carotenoids content, while only slight increase of tocopherols and phenolics was observed. The most pronounced effect of microwave pretreatment was noted for canolol formation-for 8-min MV exposure canolol quantity was approximately 7- and 23-fold higher, in comparison with control WRO and DRO samples, respectively (increase from 61.39 to 456.04 µg/g, and from 13.39 to 320.44 µg/g).

  7. Effects of rapeseed oil on the rhizodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gartler, Jorg; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Plants have the ability to promote degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil by supporting PAH degrading microorganisms in the rhizosphere (rhizodegradation). The aim of this study was to evaluate if rapeseed oil increases rhizodegradation because various studies have shown that vegetable oils are able to act as extractants for PAHs in contaminated soils and therefore might increase bioavailability of PAHs for microbial degradation. In this study different leguminous and grass species were tested. The results suggested a significant impact of vegetable oil (1 and 3% w/w) on plant growth (decrease of plant height and biomass). The results of the pot experiment showed a decrease in the PAH content of the soil without amendment of rapeseed oil after six months. In soil amended with 1% and 3% of oil, there was no decrease in PAH content within this period. Although no enhancement of PAH degradation by plants could be measured in the bulk soil of the pot experiments, a rhizobox experiment showed a significant reduction of PAH content in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Europe). Our investigations also showed significant differences in the degradation behaviour of the 16 individually analysed PAHs.

  8. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  9. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using (13)C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    PubMed

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. (13)C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  10. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of acid-pretreated rapeseed meal for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kequan; Zhang, Han; Miao, Yelian; Wei, Ping; Chen, Jieyu

    2011-04-07

    Rapeseed meal was evaluated for succinic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. Diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment and subsequent hydrolysis with pectinase was used to release sugars from rapeseed meal. The effects of culture pH, pectinase loading and yeast extract concentration on succinic acid production were investigated. When simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of diluted acid pretreated rapeseed meal with a dry matter content of 12.5% (w/v) was performed at pH 6.4 and a pectinase loading of 2% (w/w, on dry matter) without supplementation of yeast extract, a succinic acid concentration of 15.5 g/L was obtained at a yield of 12.4 g/100g dry matter. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was carried out with supplementation of concentrated pretreated rapeseed meal and pectinase at 18 and 28 h to yield a final dry matter content of 20.5% and pectinase loading of 2%, with the succinic acid concentration enhanced to 23.4 g/L at a yield of 11.5 g/100g dry matter and a productivity of 0.33 g/(Lh). This study suggests that rapeseed meal may be an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes without requiring nitrogen source supplementation.

  11. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun

    2013-07-01

    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils.

  12. Study of effects of some reaction conditions on ethanolysis of rapeseed oil with dispergation.

    PubMed

    Cernoch, Michal; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-02-01

    The alkaline-catalyzed (KOH) ethanolysis of rapeseed oil with the help of a mechanical disperser was researched in this study. The effects of chosen reaction conditions (independent variables: the reaction temperature and time, the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio ethanol to oil and the rotation frequency of the disperser) on the ethanolysis process and ways for the improvement of the transesterification and separation process were studied. The transesterification of oil, the separation of the ester phase from the glycerol phase and qualitative properties of the ester phase were monitored by many dependent variables (e.g. the yield of the ester phase, the weight concentration of glycerides, the content of potassium ions, etc.). The measured data was analyzed by multi-linear regression with the help of many statistical tests (significance of parameters, exclusion of outliers, etc.). The created mathematical models describing the relations between the independent and dependent variables were verified by several independent experiments.

  13. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased. PMID:27904396

  14. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R(2)≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  15. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Commercial Cold-Pressed Oils from Unpeeled and Peeled Rapeseeds by the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Pollner, Gwendola; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from commercial cold-pressed rapeseed oil prepared from unpeeled seeds, 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 were detected. The identification experiments showed that the earthy, pea-like-smelling 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 1-octene-3-one (FD 4096) and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal with an FD of 2048. After quantitation of the 16 key odorants showing FD factors ≥32 by stable isotope dilution assays and a determination of their odor thresholds in deodorized sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) could be calculated. The results indicated 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried, fatty), and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like) with the highest OAVs. To confirm that the key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated, a recombination experiment was performed by mixing the reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the rapeseed oil using odorless sunflower oil as the matrix. The recombinate showed a very good agreement with the overall aroma of the oil. In a commercial rapeseed oil prepared from peeled seeds, the same odorants were identified; however, in particular, the FD factor of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was clearly higher. Quantitation of DMS in 10 commercial rapeseed oils from either peeled and unpeeled seeds revealed significant differences in DMS, but no influence of the peeling process on the amounts of DMS was found. The data can serve as a basis for the quality assessment of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  16. [Detection of erucic acid and glucosinolate in intact rapeseed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Riu, Yu-kui; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Guo, Jing; Jin, Yin-hua; Luo, Yun-bo

    2006-12-01

    With the rapid development of transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market, raising great concern about transgenic food' s edible safety. To analyze the content of erucic acid and glucosinolate in transgenic rapeseed and its parents, all the seeds were scanned intact by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometry ranging from 12 000 to 4 000 cm(-1) with a resolution of 4 cm(-1) and 64 times of scanning. Bruker OPUS software package was applied for quantification, while the results were compared with the standard methods. The results showed that the method of NIRS was very precise, which proved that infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be applied to detect the toxins in transgenic food. On the other hand, the results also showed that the content of erucic acid in transgenic rapeseeds is 0. 5-1. 0 times

  17. Validation of a headspace trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds from degraded rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Due to lipid oxidation, off-flavors, characterized by a fishy odor, are emitted during the heating of rapeseed oil in a fryer and affect the flavor of rapeseed oil even at low concentrations. Thus, there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. To study the headspace composition of degraded rapeseed oil, and more specifically the compounds responsible for the fishy odor, a headspace trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Six volatile compounds formed during the degradation of rapeseed oil were quantified: 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, hexanal, nonanal, (E,E)-heptadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. Validation using accuracy profiles allowed us to determine the valid ranges of concentrations for each compound, with acceptance limits of 40% and tolerance limits of 80%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples of degraded oils.

  18. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  19. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Leping; He, Yaojia; Jiao, Liangcheng; Li, Kai; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-03-29

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 °C, and reaction time 6 h.

  20. Ethanolysis of rapeseed oil - distribution of ethyl esters, glycerides and glycerol between ester and glycerol phases.

    PubMed

    Cernoch, Michal; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-04-01

    The distribution of ethyl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and glycerol between the ester and glycerol phase was investigated after the ethanolysis of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. The determination of these substances in the ester and glycerol phases was carried out by the GC method. The amount of ethyl esters in the glycerol phase was unexpectedly high and therefore the possibility of the reduction of this amount was investigated. The distribution coefficients and the weight distributions of each investigated substance were calculated and compared mutually. The distribution coefficients between the ester and glycerol phase increase in this sequence: glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters, and triglycerides. Soaps and monoglycerides in the reaction mixture cause a worse separation of ethyl esters from the reaction mixture. The existence of a non-separable reaction mixture was observed also, and its composition was determined.

  1. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Rastian, Zahra; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Guo, Zheng; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Mortazavi, Yadollah

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through functionalization could improve the characteristics of these nanomaterials as support for enzymes. Carboxylation of MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) has been carried out in this study using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor through humidified air. The chemical method was also used for further functionalization of the MWCNT-COOH through which the amidation of the surfaces with either butylamine (MWCNT-BA) or octadecylamine (MWCNT-OA) was performed. By immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) on these nanoparticles, performance of the immobilized enzyme in catalyzing methanolysis of rapeseed oil was evaluated. The CALB loading on the MWCNT-BA and MWCNT-COOH was 20 mg protein/g, while the value for MWCNT-OA was 11 mg protein/g. The yield of biodiesel was determined as percentage of mass of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced per initial mass of the oil, and the yield value for the two of these three supports namely, MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-BA used for the CALB immobilization was similar at about 92 %, while 86 % was the yield for the reaction catalyzed by the lipase immobilized on MWCNT-OA. Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB and the catalytic ability of the enzyme in the repeated batch experiments have also been determined.

  2. Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized onto Chitin Conjugated with POSS® Compounds: Useful Tool for Rapeseed Oil Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zdarta, Jakub; Wysokowski, Marcin; Norman, Małgorzata; Kołodziejczak-Radzimska, Agnieszka; Moszyński, Dariusz; Maciejewski, Hieronim; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the production of a novel chitin-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) enzyme support. Analysis by such techniques as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the effective functionalization of the chitin surface. The resulting hybrid carriers were used in the process of immobilization of the lipase type b from Candida antarctica (CALB). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme. The tests of the catalytic activity showed that the resulting support-biocatalyst systems remain hydrolytically active (retention of the hydrolytic activity up to 87% for the chitin + Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS) + CALB after 24 h of the immobilization), as well as represents good thermal and operational stability, and retain over 80% of its activity in a wide range of temperatures (30–60 °C) and pH (6–9). Chitin-POSS-lipase systems were used in the transesterification processes of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. Produced systems allowed the total conversion of the oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol after 24 h of the process at pH 10 and a temperature 40 °C, while the Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS) was used as a chitin-modifying agent. PMID:27657054

  3. Influence of microwaves treatment of rapeseed on phenolic compounds and canolol content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Zheng, Chang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Changsheng; Li, Wenlin; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-02-26

    Rapeseeds were treated with microwaves under 800 W for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 min at a frequency of 2450 MHz, and oil was extracted with a press to investigate the influence on phenolic compounds, including sinapine, the main free phenolic acids, and canolol content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The results indicated that sinapine and sinapic acid was the main phenolic compound and free phenolic acid in the rapeseed, respectively, and canolol was the main phenolic compound in the oil from rapeseed by cold press. Microwave treatment significantly influenced phenolic compounds content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The sinapine, sinapic acid, and canolol content in rapeseed first increased and then decreased depending on the period of microwave radiation (p < 0.05). The canolol content of 7 min microwave pretreatment rapeseed increased to the maximum and was approximately six times greater than that of the unroasted rapeseed. The amount of canolol formed was significantly correlated with the content of sinapic acid and sinapine (for sinapic acid, r = -0.950, p < 0.001, for sinapine, r = -0.828, p < 0.05) and also the loss of sinapic acid and sinapine (for sinapic acid, r = 0.997, p < 0.001, for sinapine, r = 0.952, p < 0.05) during roasting. There were differences in the transfer rate of difference phenolic compounds to the oil extracted by press. Almost all of the sinapine remained in the cold-pressed cake and only 1.4-2.7% of the sinapic acid, whereas approximately 56-83% of the canolol was transferred to the oil. The transfer ratio of canolol significantly increased with microwave radiation time (p < 0.001). Microwave pretreatment of rapeseed benefited improving the oxidative stability of oil.

  4. Effect of alpha-linolenic acid-rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Henna M; Aro, Antti; Tapola, Niina S; Salminen, Irma; Uusitupa, Matti I j; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2002-10-01

    Camelina sativa-derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. The proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a parallel, double-blind setting. Sixty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 28 to 65 years were randomly assigned after a 2-week pretrial period to 1 of 3 oil groups: camelina oil, olive oil, and rapeseed oil. Subjects consumed daily 30 g (actual intake, approximately 33 mL) of test oils for 6 weeks. In the camelina group, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in fatty acids of serum lipids was significantly higher (P <.001) compared to the 2 other oil groups at the end of the study: 2.5 times higher compared to the rapeseed oil group and 4 times higher compared to the olive oil group. Respectively the proportions of 2 metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid (eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids) increased and differed significantly in the camelina group from those in other groups. During the intervention, the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration decreased significantly by 12.2% in the camelina oil group, 5.4% in the rapeseed oil group, and 7.7% in the olive oil group. In conclusion, camelina oil significantly elevated the proportions of alpha-linolenic acid and its metabolites in serum of mildly or moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Camelina oil's serum cholesterol-lowering effect was comparable to that of rapeseed and olive oils.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  6. Mechanical hulling and thermal pre-treatment effects on rapeseed oil antioxidant capacity and related lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Wroniak, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Ścibisz, Iwona; Derewiaka, Dorota; Anders, Andrzej

    2017-02-20

    In this study, the effect of rapeseed mechanical hulling and thermal pre-treatment by microwaves (from 2 to 10 min with 2-min intervals, 800 W) and roasting (from 20 to 100 min with 20-min intervals, 165 °C) on the content of phytochemicals in the oil was investigated. Results showed that both pre-treatments applied differentiated the oils in terms of the content of bioactive compounds. In general, oils pressed from hulled and thermally pre-treated seeds contained higher content of tocopherols, PC-8 and phytosterols, while oils pressed from non-hulled and pre-processed seeds had significantly higher concentration of polyphenols. Both microwaving and roasting contributed to an increase of antioxidant capacity of studied oils. The increase of radical scavenging activity of oils was seen mainly in hydrophilic fraction of oil, which was highly positively correlated with the amount of canolol formed during seeds heating.

  7. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the induction periods and pronounced reduction in microbial load of stored biodiesel investigated herein. Thus, a suitable solvent system was devised for removing the major antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  8. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Winkel, A; van Riel, J W; van Emous, R A; Aarnink, A J A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Ogink, N W M

    2016-12-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the litter of broilers could substantially reduce PM concentrations and emissions. The objective of this study was to establish dose-response effects of oil spraying in aviaries on concentrations and emission rates of PM with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), on stockmen's exposure to PM10, on egg production, exterior quality and behavior of the hens, and on the litter. An experiment was carried out with 4 treatments: 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mL/m(2) per d (oil treatments). Each treatment was applied in 2 rooms with different aviary systems (8 rooms in total). The experiment was repeated during a second period, both lasting 35 days. From d 11 to d 35, oil was applied daily using a spraying gun. Applying 15, 30, or 45 mL/m(2) per d significantly reduced emission rates of PM10 by 27, 62, and 82%, and emission rates of PM2.5 by 71, 83, and 94%, respectively. No significant effects of oil spraying were found on mortality, egg production, dust bathing behavior, scratching behavior, plumage soiling, DM content of the litter, or friability of the litter. A significant worsening of the plumage condition was found only for the body spot back/wings/tail (not for: throat/neck, chest/breast, or legs) in the 45 mL/m(2) per d treatment. Egg quality shifted significantly towards more second-class eggs in the oil treatments (1.9% versus 1.4%; P = 0.004). Remarkably, foot soiling decreased with increasing oil application. In conclusion, PM concentrations and emission rates in aviaries can be effectively reduced by spraying 15 to 30 mL/m(2) per d with minor side effects within a 25 d application period.

  9. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal genetic correlations for seven essential amino acids in rapeseed meal (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo Lin; Wu, Jian Guo; Variath, Murali-Tottekkaad; Yang, Zhong Wei; Shi, Chun Hai

    2011-04-01

    Genetic correlations of nutrient quality traits including lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine and threonine contents in rapeseed meal were analysed by the genetic model for quantitative traits of diploid plants using a diallel design with nine parents of Brassica napus L. These results indicated that the genetic correlations of embryo, cytoplasm and/or maternal plant havemade different contribution to total genetic correlations of most pairwise nutrient quality traits. The genetic correlations among the amino acids in rapeseed meal were simultaneously controlled by genetic main correlations and genotype x environment (GE) interaction correlations, especially for the maternal dominance correlations. Most components of genetic main correlations and GE interaction correlations for the pairwise traits studied were significantly positive. Some of the pairwise traits had negative genetic correlations, especially between valine and other amino acid contents. Indirect selection for improving the quality traits of rapeseed meal could be expected in rape breeding according to the magnitude and direction of genetic correlation components.

  10. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities.

  11. Rapeseed oil methyl ester pyrolysis: on-line product analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pyl, Steven P; Schietekat, Carl M; Van Geem, Kevin M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Vercammen, Joeri; Beens, Jan; Marin, Guy B

    2011-05-27

    Thermochemical conversion processes play a crucial role in all routes from fossil and renewable resources to base chemicals, fuels and energy. Hence, a fundamental understanding of these chemical processes can help to resolve the upcoming challenges of our society. A bench scale pyrolysis set-up has been used to study the thermochemical conversion of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), i.e. a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. A GC×GC, equipped with both a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), allows quantitative and qualitative characterization of the reactor feed and product. Analysis of the latter is accomplished using a dedicated high temperature on-line sampling system. Temperature programmed analysis, starting at -40°C, permits effluent characterization from methane up to lignoceric acid methyl ester (C(25)H(50)O(2)), in a single run of the GC×GC. The latter combines a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane primary column with a 50% phenyl polysilphenylene-siloxane secondary column. Modulation is started when the oven temperature reaches 40°C, thus dividing the chromatogram in a conventional 1D and a comprehensive 2D part. The proposed quantification approach allows to combine the quantitative GC×GC analysis with 2 other on-line 1D GC analyses, resulting in a complete and detailed product composition including the measurement of CO, CO(2), formaldehyde and water. The GC×GC reveals that the product stream contains a huge variety of valuable products, such as linear alpha olefins, unsaturated esters and aromatics, that could not have been identified and quantified accurately with conventional 1D GC because of peak overlap.

  12. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  13. Determination of the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oil using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Ma, Jinkui; Tuchiya, Tomohiro; Miao, Yelian

    2015-01-01

    This rapid method for determining the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oils uses Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR). PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the prediction of acid value (AV) and total polar compounds (TPC) based on raw, first, and second derivative FTIR spectra (4000-650 cm(-1)). The precise calibration model based on the second derivative FTIR spectra shows that the coefficients of determination for calibration (R (2)) and standard errors of cross validation (SECV) were 0.99 and 0.16 mg KOH/g and 0.98 and 1.17% for AV and TPC, respectively. The accuracy of the calibration model, tested using the validation set, yielded standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.16 mg KOH/g and 1.10% for AV and TPC, respectively. Therefore, the degradation of frying oils can be accurately measured using FTIR spectroscopy combined with PLS regression.

  14. Determination of the Degree of Degradation of Frying Rapeseed Oil Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-Squares Regression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Ma, Jinkui; Tuchiya, Tomohiro; Miao, Yelian

    2015-01-01

    This rapid method for determining the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oils uses Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR). PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the prediction of acid value (AV) and total polar compounds (TPC) based on raw, first, and second derivative FTIR spectra (4000–650 cm−1). The precise calibration model based on the second derivative FTIR spectra shows that the coefficients of determination for calibration (R2) and standard errors of cross validation (SECV) were 0.99 and 0.16 mg KOH/g and 0.98 and 1.17% for AV and TPC, respectively. The accuracy of the calibration model, tested using the validation set, yielded standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.16 mg KOH/g and 1.10% for AV and TPC, respectively. Therefore, the degradation of frying oils can be accurately measured using FTIR spectroscopy combined with PLS regression. PMID:25802523

  15. Beneficial effects of Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation on reduction of glucosinolates, fibre and phytic acid in rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal.

    PubMed

    Vig, A P; Walia, A

    2001-07-01

    Solid state fermentation was employed using Rhizopus oligosporus to develop a fermented product from rapeseed meal (RSM). The contents of glucosinolates, thiooxazolidones, phytic acid and crude fibre declined by 43.1%, 34%, 42.4% and 25.5%, respectively, following inoculation with R. oligosporus. Fermentation also increased nitrogen and protein contents of the meal. This study may open a new prospective for a simple and cost effective technique for reduction of toxicants in RSM.

  16. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil.

  17. The effect of ultrasound on enzymatic degumming process of rapeseed oil by the use of phospholipase A(1).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaofei; Chang, Ming; Wang, Xiaosan; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of enzymatic degumming process of rapeseed oil were carried out in mechanical-stirring and ultrasonic-assisted mechanical-stirring systems. The influences of enzyme dosage (10-50 mg/kg), pH (4.5-6), temperature (45-65 °C), water amount (1-3%), ultrasonic power (0.06-0.09 W/cm(3)) and reaction time were investigated subsequently. A suitable ultrasonic power of 0.07 W/cm(3) was determined to guarantee satisfactory degumming efficiency and enzyme activity. Compared to the mechanical-stirring system, optimum temperature of phospholipase A (PLA) in the ultrasonic-assisted mechanical-stirring system was about 5 °C higher, while the effects of pH on both of the two systems were quite similar. Less time and water were used in the ultrasonic-assisted mechanical-stirring system for enzymatic degumming. The study on the quality changes of degummed oils showed that ultrasound could accelerate the oxidation of edible oils due to the effect of cavitation, thus more attention should be paid on the oxidative stability in the further application.

  18. Effect of salts on the phase behavior and the stability of nanoemulsions with rapeseed oil and an extended surfactant.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Angelika; Tiddy, Gordon J T; Solans, Conxita; Harrar, Agnes; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2012-06-05

    For many decades, the solubilization of long-chain triglycerides in water has been a challenge. A new class of amphiphiles has been created to overcome this solubilization problem. The so-called "extended" surfactants contain a hydrophilic-lipophilic linker to reduce the contrast between the surfactant-water and surfactant-oil interfaces. In the present contribution, the effects of different anions and cations on the phase behavior of a mixture containing an extended surfactant (X-AES), a hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate, SXS), water, and rapeseed oil were determined as a function of temperature. Nanoemulsions were obtained and characterized by conductivity measurements, light scattering, and optical microscopy. All salting-out salts show a transition from a clear region (O/W nanoemulsion), to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase region, a clear phase (bicontinuous L(3)), and again to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase region with increasing temperature. For the phase diagrams with NaSCN and Na(2)SO(4), only one clear region (O/W nanoemulsion) was observed, which turns into a lamellar phase region at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the stability of the nanoemulsions was investigated by time-dependent measurements: the visual observation of phase separation, droplet size by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and optical microscopy. The mechanism of the different phase transitions is also discussed.

  19. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal.

  20. Variation of in situ rumen degradation of crude protein and amino acids and in vitro digestibility of undegraded feed protein in rapeseed meals.

    PubMed

    Steingass, H; Kneer, G; Wischer, G; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-07-01

    In this study, 10 samples of rapeseed meal (RSM) from 10 different oil plants in Germany were examined. In situ rumen degradation of CP was determined by incubation over 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 72 h in duplicate per time point using three rumen fistulated dry cows. Degradation kinetics were estimated by an exponential model and effective CP degradation was calculated. Degradation was corrected for small particle loss as the difference between washing loss and water-soluble fraction. Amino acid analysis was carried out in the samples and in the residues after 8 and 16 h of incubation in situ and degradation of individual amino acids was calculated for these incubation times. In vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestibility of CP (IPD) was determined in the samples as well as in the 8 and 16 h residues. Effective CP degradation for a rumen outflow rate of 8%/h (ED8) averaged 54.3% with a considerable variation among samples ranging from 44.3% to 62.7%. A multiple regression equation containing acid detergent insoluble N, total glucosinolates and petroleum ether extract as independent variables predicted ED8 with satisfying accuracy (R 2 = 0.74; RSD = 6.4%). Degradation of amino acids was different from that of CP for most amino acids studied, especially after 8 h of incubation. Compared with CP, degradation of essential amino acids was predominantly lower while degradation of non-essential amino acids was higher in most cases. However, for lysine and methionine no distinct difference with CP degradation was found. Degradation of individual amino acids was predicted from CP degradation with high accuracy using linear regression equations. Average IPD of RSM was 79.8 ± 2.6%. IPD was lower in the incubation residues and decreased with longer incubation time and increasing rumen degradation, respectively.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Jian, Hongju; Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS.

  2. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity.

  3. [Effect of rapeseed in beef cattle feeding on fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and oxidative stability of body fat].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Richter, G H; Wendemuth, M; Möckel, P; Graf, H; Jahreis, G; Lübbe, F

    1994-12-01

    Four groups of five fattening bulls each consumed a concentrate--wheat straw-diet (2.5:1) supplemented with either 0, 7, 14 or 21% ground rape seed for 350 days. Rape seed contained 427 g crude fat (ether extract) and 127 mg vitamin E per kg dry matter. The supplementation with rapeseed increased the fat concentrations in the rations from 25 to 50, 75 and 100 g, and of vitamin E from 11 to 19, 26 and 34 mg per kg dry matter. All bulls were slaughtered with about 560 kg body weight. Fatty acid composition of depot fat and of the fat of musc. long. dorsi were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Vitamin E concentrations in blood, depot fat and muscle were determined by HPLC. Oxidative stability of depot fat was measured as induction time by means of rancimat-test. Rape seed supplementation decreased C16-fatty acids and increased C18-fatty acids in depot and muscle fat. Muscle fat contained significantly more mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids (40.2 and 7.4%) than depot fat (33.5 and 2.0%, respectively). Rape seed supplementation enhanced significantly the vitamin E-concentrations in all body samples. In depot fat vit. E increased from 4.5 to 7.3, 8.5 and 14.9 micrograms/g. Induction time increased from 10.9 to 18.5, 16.1 and 19.5 h, when 0, 7, 14 or 21% rapeseed were added.

  4. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yong-Lu; Tian, Song-Jiang; Li, Shu-Fen; Wang, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Min-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A conventional trickle bed reactor and its modified type both packed with Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalysts were studied for biodiesel production by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol. The effects of the methanol usage and oil flow rate on the FAME yield were investigated under the normal pressure and methanol boiling state. The oil flow rate had a significant effect on the FAME yield for the both reactors. The modified trickle bed reactor kept over 94.5% FAME yield under 0.6 mL/min oil flow rate and 91 mL catalyst bed volume, showing a much higher conversion and operational stability than the conventional type. With the modified trickle bed reactor, both transesterification and methanol separation could be performed simultaneously, and glycerin and methyl esters were separated additionally by gravity separation.

  5. Phenolic extracts from Sorbus aucuparia (L.) and Malus baccata (L.) berries: antioxidant activity and performance in rapeseed oil during frying and storage.

    PubMed

    Aladedunye, Felix; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65°C, under Rancimat at 120°C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils.

  6. Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

  7. Laboratory Production of Biofuels and Biochemicals from a Rapeseed Oil through Catalytic Cracking Conversion.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siauw H; Shi, Yu; Heshka, Nicole E; Zhang, Yi; Little, Edward

    2016-09-02

    The work is based on a reported study which investigates the processability of canola oil (bio-feed) in the presence of bitumen-derived heavy gas oil (HGO) for production of transportation fuels through a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) route. Cracking experiments are performed with a fully automated reaction unit at a fixed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 8 hr(-1), 490-530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4-12 g/g. When a feed is in contact with catalyst in the fluid-bed reactor, cracking takes place generating gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The vapor produced is condensed and collected in a liquid receiver at -15 °C. The non-condensable effluent is first directed to a vessel and is sent, after homogenization, to an on-line gas chromatograph (GC) for refinery gas analysis. The coke deposited on the catalyst is determined in situ by burning the spent catalyst in air at high temperatures. Levels of CO2 are measured quantitatively via an infrared (IR) cell, and are converted to coke yield. Liquid samples in the receivers are analyzed by GC for simulated distillation to determine the amounts in different boiling ranges, i.e., IBP-221 °C (gasoline), 221-343 °C (light cycle oil), and 343 °C+ (heavy cycle oil). Cracking of a feed containing canola oil generates water, which appears at the bottom of a liquid receiver and on its inner wall. Recovery of water on the wall is achieved through washing with methanol followed by Karl Fischer titration for water content. Basic results reported include conversion (the portion of the feed converted to gas and liquid product with a boiling point below 221 °C, coke, and water, if present) and yields of dry gas (H2-C2's, CO, and CO2), liquefied petroleum gas (C3-C4), gasoline, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, coke, and water, if present.

  8. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Basavanta; Gloridoss, R. G.; Singh, K. Chandrapal; Prabhu, T. M.; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B. N.; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05) in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency. PMID:27047096

  9. Effects of calcium soaps of rapeseed fatty acids and protected methionine on milk yield and composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Pisulewski, P M; Spanghero, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing the diets of dairy cows with Ca soaps of rapeseed fatty acids (CSRFA) and rumen-protected (RP) methionine on their milk yield and composition, including milk protein fractions and fatty acids. Twelve Polish Red Lowland cows were used in a complete balanced two period changeover experiment. The four treatment diets were a control consisting of a total mixed ration of grass silage and concentrates, and the total mixed ration supplemented with RP methionine, CSRFA or RP methionine plus CSRFA. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Milk yield increased when cows were given the diet with CSRFA, but supplementation of diets with RP methionine did not affect milk yield. Milk protein content, but not milk protein yield, decreased when CSRFA was given. The addition of RP methionine to the control diet and the CSRFA diet produced similar increases in the milk protein content. Supplementation of the diet with CSRFA significantly changed the milk fatty acid profile: the proportions of 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 15:0 and 16:0 in milk fat decreased, but those of 18:0 and cis-18:1 increased. We conclude that CSRFA can be used in practical dairy diets to increase milk yield and manipulate its fatty acid composition.

  10. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  11. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  12. Introgression of genomic components from Chinese Brassica rapa contributes to widening the genetic diversity in rapeseed (B. napus L.), with emphasis on the evolution of Chinese rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Qian, W; Meng, J; Li, M; Frauen, M; Sass, O; Noack, J; Jung, C

    2006-06-01

    In spite of its short history of being an oil crop in China, the Chinese semi-winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L., 2n = 38, AACC) has been improved rapidly by intentional introgression of genomic components from Chinese B. rapa (2n = 20, AA). As a result, the Chinese semi-winter rapeseed has diversified genetically from the spring and winter rapeseed grown in the other regions such as Europe and North America. The objectives of this study were to investigate the roles of the introgression of the genomic components from the Chinese B. rapa in widening the genetic diversity of rapeseed and to verify the role of this introgression in the evolution of the Chinese rapeseed. Ten lines of the new type of rapeseed, which were produced by introgression of Chinese B. rapa to Chinese normal rapeseed, were compared for genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with three groups of 35 lines of the normal rapeseed, including 9 semi-winter rapeseed lines from China, 9 winter rapeseed lines from Europe and 17 spring rapeseed lines from Northern Europe, Canada and Australia. Analysis of 799 polymorphic fragments revealed that within the groups, the new type rapeseed had the highest genetic diversity, followed by the semi-winter normal rapeseed from China. Spring and winter rapeseed had the lowest genetic diversity. Among the groups, the new type rapeseed group had the largest average genetic distance to the other three groups. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis, however, could not separate the new type rapeseed group from Chinese normal rapeseed group. Our data suggested that the introgression of Chinese B. rapa could significantly diversify the genetic basis of the rapeseed and play an important role in the evolution of Chinese rapeseed. The use of new genetic variation for the exploitation of heterosis in Brassica hybrid breeding is discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of extruded rapeseed associated with an alfalfa protein concentrate in enhancing the bovine milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dang Van, Q C; Bejarano, L; Mignolet, E; Coulmier, D; Froidmont, E; Larondelle, Y; Focant, M

    2011-08-01

    Linseed and rapeseed, good sources of 18:3 n-3 and cis9-18:1, respectively, have been shown to improve the bovine milk fatty acid (FA) profile. However, rapeseed, unlike linseed, has little effect on the concentration of 18:3 n-3 in milk fat. Alfalfa protein concentrate (APC), besides being a valuable protein source for milk production, contains lipids rich in 18:3 n-3. Therefore, this experiment aimed at (1) evaluating the transfer efficiency of unsaturated FA (UFA), especially 18:3 n-3, of APC to bovine milk fat, and (2) evaluating whether extruded rapeseed (ER) associated with APC is as effective as extruded linseed (EL) in enhancing the bovine milk fat composition. Six lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design with 2 iso-energy, iso-nitrogen and iso-FA corn silage-based diets (EL and ER-APC) and two 21-d periods. Extruded linseed, as main UFA source, was included in the first diet, whereas ER, as main UFA source, and APC, as supplemental 18:3 n-3, were included in the second diet. Diets were distributed as a restricted total mixed ration. Compared with the EL diet, the ER-APC diet, where ER was associated with APC, increased milk concentration of 18:3 n-3 (1.18 vs. 1.31% of FA) and cis9-18:1 (18.35 vs. 20.01% of FA). The apparent transfer efficiency of 18:3 n-3 from diet to milk was almost twice as much for the ER-APC diet than for the EL diet (7.4 vs. 3.8% of intake). Extruded linseed accounted for 84% of 18:3 n-3 provided in the EL diet, whereas ER and APC accounted for 33 and 38% of 18:3 n-3 provided in the ER-APC diet, respectively. Because both EL and ER underwent extrusion in similar conditions, these results suggest that 18:3 n-3 of EL in the EL diet and ER in the ER-APC diet were subjected to more extensive ruminal biohydrogenation than 18:3 n-3 of APC in the ER-APC diet. This experiment shows that corn silage-based diets supplemented with ER as the main UFA source, associated with APC as supplemental 18:3 n-3, are as

  14. Effect of processing of rapeseed under defined conditions in a pilot plant on chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal for pigs.

    PubMed

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Schöne, F; Messerschmidt, U; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2015-06-01

    Five rapeseed meals (RSM) were produced from a single batch of rapeseed in a large-scale pilot plant under standardized conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of residence time in the desolventizer/toaster (DT) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in RSM. Four RSM, with 48, 64, 76, and 93 min residence time and using unsaturated steam in the DT, referred to as RSM48, RSM64, RSM76, and RSM93, respectively, and 1 low-glucosinolate RSM, which was subjected to sequential treatment with unsaturated steam, saturated steam, and dry heat in the DT, referred to as low-GSL RSM, were assayed. Six barrows (average initial BW = 22 ± 1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 5 × 6 row × column design with 5 diets and 5 periods. The 5 RSM were included in a cornstarch-casein-based basal diet. In addition, basal ileal endogenous losses and SID of AA originating from casein were determined at the conclusion of the experiment in 2 additional periods by means of the regression method and using 3 graded levels of casein. The SID of AA in the 5 RSM was determined in difference to SID of AA originating from casein. The glucosinolates (GSL) were efficiently reduced, whereas NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents increased and reactive Lys (rLys) and Lys:CP ratio decreased as the residence time in the DT was increased from 48 to 93 min. The SID of most AA in RSM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) as the residence time in the DT increased from 48 to 93 min. Moreover, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in SID of AA with increasing NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents in these RSM, whereas SID of AA linearly decreased (P < 0.05) with decreasing levels of GSL and rLys and a decreasing Lys:CP ratio. The decrease (P < 0.05) in SID of AA amounted from 3 up to 6 (percentage units) for most AA, except for SID of Cys and Lys, which decreased by 10 and 11%-units (P < 0.05), respectively, as the residence time

  15. Fatty haemorrhagic liver syndrome in laying hens on diets supplemented with rapeseed products.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S; Bhatnagar, M K; Scott, J R; Slinger, S J

    1975-11-01

    Livers of laying hens of Hy-Line No 934E on low erucic acid rapeseed meals and rapeseed oil were studied. Gross lesions in the livers of hens on experimental diets were moderate to severe fatty degeneration, focal necrosis and moderate to severe haemorrhage. Histological examination revealed oedematous foci and lysis of hepatocytes along with large amounts of lipid droplets in the necrotic lesions. Necrotic lesions were not always associated with large haemorrhages. Connective tissue infiltration of older degenerative and haemorrhagic lesions was not extensive. Abdominal haemorrhage from livers occurred when extensive necrosis in the form of hepatocyte lysis and some vascular changes were present, suggesting hepatocytic degeneration caused by toxic products or their metabolites present in rapeseed by-products.

  16. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose

  17. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil.

  18. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  19. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  20. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  1. The Effect of Type of Oil and Degree of Degradation on Glycidyl Esters Content During the Frying of French Fries.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oil degradation on the content of glycidyl esters (GEs) in oils used for the frying of French fries. As frying media, refined oils such as rapeseed, palm, palm olein and blend were used. French fries were fried for 40 h in oils heated to 180 °C in 30-min cycles. After every 8 h of frying, fresh oil and samples were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, color, refractive index, fatty acid composition, and content and composition of the polar fraction. GEs were determined by LC-MS. Hydrolysis and polymerization occurred most intensively in palm olein, while oxidation was reported for rapeseed oil. The degradation of oil caused increased changes in the RI of frying oils. Losses of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all samples, with the largest share in blend. The highest content of GE found in fresh oil was in palm olein (25 mg kg(-1)) and the lowest content of GE was found in rapeseed oil (0.8 mg kg(-1)). The palm oil, palm olein and blend were dominated by GEs of palmitic and oleic acids, while rapeseed oil was dominated by GE of oleic acid. With increasing frying time, the content of GEs decreased with losses from 47 % in rapeseed oil to 78 % in palm oil after finishing frying.

  2. [Evolution of tocopherols in relation of unsaturated fatty acids during maturation of seeds of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)].

    PubMed

    Sebei, Khaled; Boukhchina, Sadok; Kallel, Habib

    2007-01-01

    The oil content increases during the maturation of seeds (rise of 30%), but decreases at the end of seed maturation. Differences between SDS-PAGE total protein profiles were shown. Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents increase during middle-maturation. Contents of alpha and gamma tocopherols increase with time. This increase is explained by the fact that tocopherols participate actively in the protection of membranes whose phospholipids consist of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

  3. Tobacco Rotated with Rapeseed for Soil-Borne Phytophthora Pathogen Biocontrol: Mediated by Rapeseed Root Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuting; Zhang, Limeng; Jiao, Yongge; Liao, Jingjing; Luo, Lifen; Ji, Sigui; Li, Jiangzhou; Dai, Kuai; Zhu, Shusheng; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus) suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots. PMID:27379037

  4. Development of ultra-high erucic acid oil in the industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; van Loo, Eibertus N; Gruber, Jens; Fan, Jing; Guan, Rui; Frentzen, Margrit; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2012-09-01

    Erucic acid (22 : 1) is a major feedstock for the oleochemical industry. In this study, a gene stacking strategy was employed to develop transgenic Crambe abyssinica lines with increased 22 : 1 levels. Through integration of the LdLPAAT, BnFAE1 and CaFAD2-RNAi genes into the crambe genome, confirmed by Southern blot and qRT-PCR, the average levels of 18 : 1, 18 : 2 and 18 : 3 were markedly decreased and that of 22 : 1 was increased from 60% in the wild type to 73% in the best transgenic line of T4 generation. In single seeds of the same line, the 22 : 1 level could reach 76.9%, an increase of 28.0% over the wild type. The trierucin amount was positively correlated to 22 : 1 in the transgenic lines. Unlike high erucic rapeseed, the wild-type crambe contains 22 : 1 in the seed phosphatidylcholine and in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (5% and 8%, respectively). The transgenic line with high 22 : 1 had decreased 22 : 1 level in phosphatidylcholine, and this was negatively correlated with the 22 : 1 level at the sn-2 position of TAG. The significances of this study include (i) achieving an unprecedented level of 22 : 1 in an oil crop; (ii) disclosing mechanisms in the channelling of a triacylglycerol-specific unusual fatty acid in oil seeds; (iii) indicating potential limiting factors involved in the erucic acid biosynthesis and paving the way for further increase of this acid and (iv) development of an added value genetically modified oil crop having no risk of gene flow into feed and food crops.

  5. A unique quantitative method of acid value of edible oils and studying the impact of heating on edible oils by UV-Vis spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenle; Li, Na; Feng, Yuyan; Su, Shujun; Li, Tao; Liang, Bing

    2015-10-15

    UV-Vis spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used effectively to study the impact of heating on edible oils (corn oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil and sesame oil) and determine their acid value. Analysis of their first derivative spectra showed that the peak at 370 nm was a common indicator of the heated oils. Partial least squares regression (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) were applied to building individual quantitative models of acid value for each kind of oil, respectively. The PLS models had a better performance than PCR models, with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9904-0.9977 and root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.0230-0.0794 for the prediction sets of each kind of oil, respectively. An integrate quantitative model built by support vector regression for all the six kinds of oils was also developed and gave a satisfactory prediction with a R(2) of 0.9932 and a RMSE of 0.0656.

  6. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (p<0.001), saturated fatty acids (p<0.001) and decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p<0.001). The absolute increase in TFA content of edible oils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised.

  7. Mcl-PHAs produced by Pseudomonas sp. Gl01 using fed-batch cultivation with waste rapeseed oil as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Mozejko, Justyna; Wilke, Andreas; Przybyłek, Grzegorz; Ciesielski, Slawomir

    2012-03-01

    The present study describes medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) production by the Pseudomonas Gl01 strain isolated from mixed microbial communities utilized for PHAs synthesis. A two-step fedbatch fermentation was conducted with glucose and waste rapeseed oil as the main carbon source for obtaining cell growth and mcl-PHAs accumulation, respectively. The results show that the Pseudomonas Gl01 strain is capable of growing and accumulating mcl-PHAs using a waste oily carbon source. The biomass value reached 3.0 g/l of CDW with 20% of PHAs content within 48 h of cultivation. The polymer was purified from lyophilized cells and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The results revealed that the monomeric composition of the obtained polyesters depended on the available substrate. When glucose was used in the growth phase, 3-hydroxyundecanoate and 3- hydroxydodecanoate were found in the polymer composition, whereas in the PHAs-accumulating stage, the Pseudomonas Gl01 strain synthesized mcl-PHAs consisting mainly of 3- hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate. The transcriptional analysis using reverse-transcription real-time PCR reaction revealed that the phaC1 gene could be transcribed simultaneously to the phaZ gene.

  8. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  9. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brask, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Hellwing, A L F; Poulsen, M; Larsen, M K; Hvelplund, T

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were submitted to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 rations: 1 control with rapeseed meal (low-fat, CON) and 3 fat-supplemented rations with either rapeseed cake (RSC), whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), or rapeseed oil (RSO). Dietary fat concentrations were 3.5 in CON, 5.5 in RSC, 6.2 in WCR, and 6.5% in RSO. The amount of fat-free rapeseed was kept constant for all rations. The forage consisted of corn silage and grass silage and the forage to concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Diurnal samples of duodenal and ileal digesta and feces were compiled. The methane production was measured for 4 d in open-circuit respiration chambers. Additional fat reduced the CH4 production per kilogram of dry matter intake and as a proportion of the gross energy intake by 11 and 14%, respectively. Neither the total tract nor the rumen digestibility of organic matter (OM) or neutral detergent fiber were significantly affected by the treatment. Relating the CH4 production to the total-tract digested OM showed a tendency to decrease CH4 per kilogram of digested OM for fat-supplemented rations versus CON. The acetate to propionate ratio was not affected for RSC and WCR but was increased for RSO compared with CON. The rumen ammonia concentration was not affected by the ration. The milk and energy-corrected milk yields were unaffected by the fat supplementation. In conclusion, rapeseed is an appropriate fat source to reduce the enteric CH4 production without affecting neutral detergent fiber digestion or milk production. The physical form of fat did not influence the CH4-reducing effect of rapeseed fat. However, differences in the volatile fatty acid pattern indicate that different

  10. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-10-01

    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.

  11. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  12. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  13. Development of rapeseed with high erucic acid content by asymmetric somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y P; Sonntag, K; Rudloff, E

    2003-05-01

    PEG-induced asymmetric somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Crambe abyssinica was carried out. C. abyssinica is an annual cruciferous oil crop with a high content of erucic acid in the seed oil valuable for technical purposes. UV-irradiated mesophyll protoplasts of C. abyssinica cv 'Carmen' and cv 'Galactica' were fused with hypocotyl protoplasts of different genotypes of B. napus cv 'Maplus' and breeding line '11502'. Shoot regeneration frequency varied between 6.1% and 20.8% among the different doses of UV-irradiation, ranging from 0.05 J/cm(2) to 0.30 J/cm(2). In total, 124 shoots were regenerated, of which 20 asymmetric somatic hybrids were obtained and verified by nuclear DNA content and AFLP analysis. AFLP data showed that some of the characteristic bands from C. abyssinica were present in the hybrids. Cytological analysis of these hybrids showed that 9 out of 20 asymmetric hybrids had 38 chromosomes, the others contained 40-78 chromosomes, having additional chromosomes between 2 and 40 beyond the 38 expected for B. napus. The investigation into the fertility of asymmetric somatic hybrids indicated that the fertility increased with increasing UV-doses ranging from 0.05 J/cm(2) to 0.15 J/cm(2). All of the hybrids were cultured to full maturity, and could be fertilized and set seeds after self-pollination or backcrosses with B. napus. An analysis of fatty acid composition in the seeds was conducted and found to contain significantly greater amounts of erucic acid than B. napus. This study indicates that UV-irradiation could be used as a tool to produce asymmetric somatic hybrids and to promote the fertility of the hybrids.

  14. Understanding carbohydrate structures fermented or resistant to fermentation in broilers fed rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal to evaluate the effect of acid treatment and enzyme addition.

    PubMed

    Pustjens, Annemieke M; de Vries, Sonja; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2014-04-01

    Unprocessed and acid-extruded rapeseed meal (RSM) was fed to broiler chickens, with and without addition of commercial pectolytic enzymes. Nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fermentability and unfermented NSP structures from RSM were studied in the excreta in detail. From unprocessed RSM, 24% of the nonglucose polysaccharides could be fermented. Acid treatment did not have a significant effect, but enzyme addition did improve fermentability to 38%. Most likely, the significant increase in NSP fermentability can be ascribed to the addition of pectolytic enzymes, which decreased branchiness of the water-soluble arabinan. Mainly xyloglucan, (glucurono-)xylan, (branched) arabinan, and cellulose remained in the excreta. The proportion of unextractable carbohydrates increased in excreta from broilers fed acid-extruded RSM. Probably, acid extrusion resulted in a less accessible NSP matrix, also decreasing the accessibility for pectolytic enzymes added in the diet. During alkaline extraction of the excreta, 39 to 52% (wt/wt) of the insoluble carbohydrates was released as glucosyl- and uronyl-rich carbohydrates, probably originally present via ester linkages or hydrogen bonding within the cellulose-lignin network. These linkages are expected to hinder complete NSP fermentation and indicate that digestibility of RSM may benefit substantially from an alkaline treatment or addition of esterases.

  15. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE.

  16. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  17. Impacts of rapeseed dregs on Cd availability in contaminated acid soil and Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Zou, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed dregs (RSD, a commonly organic fertilizer in rural China) at application rates of 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 % on Cd availability in soil and its accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L., Xiangwanxian 12(#), and Weiyou 46(#)) by means of a pot experiment. The results showed that application of RSD resulted in a sharp decrease in the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content. However, the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content in amended soil gradually increased during the rice growing period. Application of RSD significantly increased Cd transport from root to shoot and the amount of Cd accumulated in the aerial part. RSD was an effective organic additive for increasing rice grain yield, but total Cd content in rice grain was also increased. At an application rate of 1.5-3.0 % RSD, the total Cd content in Weiyou 46(#) brown rice was 0.27-0.31 mg kg(-1), which exceeded the standard safe limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and was also higher than that of Xiangwanxian 12(#) (0.04-0.14 mg kg(-1)). Therefore, Weiyou 46(#) had a higher dietary risk than Xiangwanxian 12(#) with RSD application. We do not recommend planting Weiyou 46(#) and applying more than 0.75 % RSD in Cd-contaminated paddy fields.

  18. Fatty acid esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Zelinková, Z; Svejkovská, B; Velísek, J; Dolezal, M

    2006-12-01

    A series of 25 virgin and refined edible oils, obtained from retailers, was analyzed for levels of free 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 3-MCPD released from esters with higher fatty acids (bound 3-MCPD). Oils containing free 3-MCPD ranging from <3 microg kg-1 (LOD) to 24 microg kg-1. Surprisingly, bound 3-MCPD levels were much higher and varied between <100 (LOD) and 2462 microg kg-1. On average, virgin oils had relatively low levels of bound 3-MCPD, ranging from <100 (LOD) to <300 microg kg-1 (LOQ). Higher levels of bound 3-MCPD were found in oils from roasted oilseeds (337 microg kg-1) and in the majority of refined oils (<300-2462 microg kg-1), including refined olive oils. In general, it appears that the formation of bound 3-MCPD in oils is linked to preliminary heat treatment of oilseeds and to the process of oil refining. Analysis of unrefined, de-gummed, bleached, and deodorized rapeseed oil showed that the level of bound MCPD decreased during the refining process. However, additional heating of seed oils for 30 min at temperatures ranging from 100 to 280 degrees C, and heating at 230 degrees C (260 degrees C) for up to 8 h, led to an increase in bound 3-MCPD levels. On the other hand, heating of olive oil resulted in a decrease in bound 3-MCPD levels. For comparison, fat isolated from salami was analyzed for intact fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD. This fat contained bound 3-MCPD at a level of 1670 microg kg-1 and the fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD mainly consisted of 3-MCPD diesters; monoesters of 3-MCPD were present in smaller amounts. The major types of 3-MCPD diesters (about 85%) were mixed diesters of palmitic acid with C18 fatty acids (stearic, oleic, linoleic acids). These diesters were followed by 3-MCPD distearate (11%) and 3-MCPD dipalmitate (4%). Generally, very little 3-MCPD existed as the free compound (31 microg kg-1).

  19. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-06-05

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations.

  20. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  1. Synthesis of alpha-hydroxyphosphonic acids from Lesquerella oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella oil has been a substance of growing chemical interest, due to the ease with which it is produced and its similarity in structure to castor oil. The primary fatty acid in Lesquerella oil, lesquerolic acid, is very similar to the principal component of castor oil, ricinoleic acid, and may ...

  2. Reductive Etherification of Fatty Acids or Esters with Alcohols using Molecular Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Erb, Benjamin; Risto, Eugen; Wendling, Timo; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2016-06-22

    In the presence of a catalyst system consisting of a ruthenium/triphos complex and the Brønsted acid trifluoromethanesulfonimide, mixtures of fatty acids and aliphatic alcohols are converted into the corresponding ethers at 70 bar H2 . The protocol allows the sustainable one-step synthesis of valuable long-chain ether fragrances, lubricants, and surfactants from renewable sources. The reaction protocol is extended to various fatty acids and esters both in pure form and as mixtures, for example, tall oil acids or rapeseed methyl ester (RME). Even the mixed triglyceride rapeseed oil was converted in one step.

  3. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  4. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  8. Effects of Two Traditional Chinese Cooking Oils, Canola and Pork, on pH and Cholic Acid Content of Faeces and Colon Tumorigenesis in Kunming Mice.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Qiong; Duan, Jia-Li; Zhou, Jin; Song, Zhong-Yu; Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pH and cholate are two important factors that can affect colon tumorigenesis, and can be modified by diet. In this study, the effects of two Chinese traditional cooking oils (pork oil and canola/rapeseed oil) on the pH and the cholic acid content in feces, in addition to colon tumorigenesis, were studied in mice. Kunming mice were randomized into various groups; negative control group (NCG), azoxymethane control group (ACG), pork oil group (POG), and canola oil Ggroup (COG). Mice in the ACG were fed a basic rodent chow; mice in POG and COG were given 10% cooking oil rodent chow with the respective oil type. All mice were given four weekly AOM (azoxymethane) i.p. injections (10 mg/kg). The pH and cholic acid of the feces were examined every two weeks. Colon tumors, aberrant crypt foci and organ weights were examined 32 weeks following the final AOM injection. The results showed that canola oil significantly decreased faecal pH in female mice (P<0.05), but had no influence on feces pH in male mice (P>0.05). Pork oil significantly increased the feces pH in both male and female mice (P<0.05). No significant change was found in feces cholic acid content when mice were fed 10% pork oil or canola oil compared with the ACG. Although Kunming mice were not susceptible to AOM-induced tumorigenesis in terms of colon tumor incidence, pork oil significantly increased the ACF number in male mice. Canola oil showed no influence on ACF in either male or female mice. Our results indicate that cooking oil effects faecal pH, but does not affect the faecal cholic acid content and thus AOM-induced colon neoplastic ACF is modified by dietary fat.

  9. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  10. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  11. Pig feeds rich in rapeseed products and organic selenium increased omega-3 fatty acids and selenium in pork meat and backfat

    PubMed Central

    Gjerlaug-Enger, Eli; Haug, Anna; Gaarder, Mari; Ljøkjel, Kari; Stenseth, Ragna Sveipe; Sigfridson, Kerstin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Saarem, Kristin; Berg, Per

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium (Se) is generally too low in the Western diet. But as the nutrient composition of pork meat and adipose tissue is influenced by the feed given to the animals, the product can be changed to support nutrient demands. Half (297/594) the pigs were given a feed concentrate based on low-glucosinolate rapeseed products (RS), while the other half was fed a traditional concentrate (Contr): The RS feed had an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3.6:1, and the Contr feed had a ratio of 8.9:1, and both feeds were supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg (organic Se: inorganic Se, 1:1). There was a small difference in growth rate, but no differences in feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, carcass value, and margin per pig for the two groups. There were no differences in meat quality between the two groups, but there were differences in technological fat quality. The RS pigs contained about 2 times more alpha-linolenic acid in the backfat and 41% more in the meat (M. longissimus dorsi) compared to the controls. The concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA were 42% and 20% higher in backfat and meat of the RS pigs compared to the control pigs respectively. The ratio between omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 4.7 in the meat and 4.0 in the backfat in the RS pigs, and the corresponding values were 6.6 and 8.0 in the control pigs. The selenium content was 0.3 mg/kg meat in both groups. The study showed that a portion of the present pig meat (175 g) provided the daily recommended intake of Se for men and women and about 1/6 of proposed reference intake of omega-3 LCPUFA (250 mg/day) to reduce the risk of CVD thereby providing a meat that is somewhat healthier for the consumer. PMID:25838890

  12. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  13. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  14. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  15. Biobriquetting of rapeseed cake

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    2000-04-01

    One of the ways of obtaining biofuel is briquetting of biomass sources. In this study, without adding a binder the briquetting possibility of rapeseed cake obtained through cold press and Soxhlet extraction procedures has been investigated. The shatter indices, water resistivities, and calorific values of the biobriquets were established. The biobriquet prepared from the extracted cake tested under a pressure of 150 MPa and with a moisture level of 10.1% was determined as an alternative biofuel and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis in an oxidizing atmosphere of air.

  16. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic..., polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1357486-09- 9) when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a...

  17. Fractionation of rapeseed straw by hydrothermal/dilute acid pretreatment combined with alkali post-treatment for improving its enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Yang; Zhao, Bao-Cheng; Li, Ming-Fei; Liu, Qiu-Yun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of combined treatments on fermentable sugar production from rapeseed straw. An optimum condition was found to be the combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 45min and post-treatment by 2% NaOH at 100°C for 2h, which was based on the quantity of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. As compared with the raw material without treatment, the combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and alkali post-treatment resulted in a significant increase of the saccharification rate by 5.9times. This process potentially turned rapeseed straw into value added products in accordance with the biorefinery concept.

  18. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  19. Fish oil, essential fatty acids, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, R M

    1994-08-01

    A proper balance between the n-3 and n-6 series of essential fatty acids (EFAs) is essential for homeostasis and normal growth in humans. Dietary supplement with fish oil and related n-3 EFAs has been used to study their antihypertensive property in animals and humans with borderline and essential hypertension. In the animal models, chronic treatment of young animals generally only attenuated the development of hypertension. In animals with hypercholesterolemia, n-3 EFA supplement increased the incidence of atherosclerosis. In humans, chronic treatment with fish oil only produced a small reduction in blood pressure. The concerns are that the high dose of fish oil may interfere with the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients, and may cause prolonged bleeding in surgical patients. Studies on the animal models of hypertension showed that n-6 EFAs are more effective than n-3 EFAs in lowering and normalizing the blood pressure of these animals, probably through the production of tissue prostaglandins, which favour vasodilation. The antihypertensive effect of the n-6 EFAs in humans is not well known, because there are only a few studies, usually involving a very small number of patients. A possible side effects of n-6 EFAs for concern is that they might stimulate tumour development. A careful examination of these risk factors is needed before any recommendation can be made concerning the use of EFAs for the control of hypertension for humans.

  20. Purification of a Jojoba Embryo Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase and Expression of Its cDNA in High Erucic Acid Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Metz, James G.; Pollard, Michael R.; Anderson, Lana; Hayes, Thomas R.; Lassner, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes. PMID:10712526

  1. Effects of partial substitution of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils, on blood leucocyte fatty acid compositions, immune function and histology in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L).

    PubMed

    Mourente, Gabriel; Good, Joanne E; Thompson, Kim D; Bell, J Gordon

    2007-10-01

    Within a decade or so insufficient fish oil (FO) will be available to meet the requirements for aquaculture growth. Consequently, alternative sources are being investigated to reduce reliance on wild fish as a source of FO. Vegetable oils (VO) are a feasible alternative to FO. However, it is important to establish that alternative dietary lipids are not only supplied in the correct quantities and balance for optimal growth, but can maintain immune function and prevent infection, since it is known that the nutritional state of the fish can influence their immune function and disease resistance. A way of maintaining immune function, while replacing dietary FO, is by using a blend of VO rather than a single oil. In this study, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were fed diets with a 60 % substitution of FO with a blend of rapeseed, linseed and palm oils. Two oil blends were used to achieve a fatty acid composition similar to FO, in terms of energy content, and provide a similar balance of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Fish were fed the diets for 64 weeks, after which time growth and fatty acid compositions of liver and blood leucocytes were monitored. The impact of the dietary blends on selected innate immune responses and histopathology were also assessed, together with levels of plasma prostaglandin E2. The results suggest that potential exists for replacing FO with a VO blend in farmed sea bass feeds without compromising growth, non-specific immune function or histology.

  2. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  3. Novel alpha-hydroxy phosphonic acids via castor oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) have found a number of uses in today’s market, with uses ranging from materials to pharmaceuticals. Castor oil has served as a versatile HFA; its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applica...

  4. Bottlenecks in erucic acid accumulation in genetically engineered ultrahigh erucic acid Crambe abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rui; Lager, Ida; Li, Xueyuan; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Erucic acid is a valuable industrial fatty acid with many applications. The main producers of this acid are today high erucic rapeseed (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea), which have 45%–50% of erucic acid in their seed oils. Crambe abyssinica is an alternative promising producer of this acid as it has 55%–60% of erucic acid in its oil. Through genetic modification (GM) of three genes, we have previously increased the level of erucic acid to 71% (68 mol%) in Crambe seed oil. In this study, we further investigated different aspects of oil biosynthesis in the developing GM Crambe seeds in comparison with wild-type (Wt) Crambe, rapeseed and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). We show that Crambe seeds have very low phosphatidylcholine-diacylglycerol interconversion, suggesting it to be the main reason why erucic acid is limited in the membrane lipids during oil biosynthesis. We further show that GM Crambe seeds have slower seed development than Wt, accompanied by slower oil accumulation during the first 20 days after flowering (DAF). Despite low accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM seed development, nearly 86 mol% of all fatty acids accumulated between 27 and 50 DAF was erucic acid, when 40% of the total oil is laid down. Likely bottlenecks in the accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM Crambe seed development are discussed. PMID:24119222

  5. Bottlenecks in erucic acid accumulation in genetically engineered ultrahigh erucic acid Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Lager, Ida; Li, Xueyuan; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Erucic acid is a valuable industrial fatty acid with many applications. The main producers of this acid are today high erucic rapeseed (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea), which have 45%-50% of erucic acid in their seed oils. Crambe abyssinica is an alternative promising producer of this acid as it has 55%-60% of erucic acid in its oil. Through genetic modification (GM) of three genes, we have previously increased the level of erucic acid to 71% (68 mol%) in Crambe seed oil. In this study, we further investigated different aspects of oil biosynthesis in the developing GM Crambe seeds in comparison with wild-type (Wt) Crambe, rapeseed and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). We show that Crambe seeds have very low phosphatidylcholine-diacylglycerol interconversion, suggesting it to be the main reason why erucic acid is limited in the membrane lipids during oil biosynthesis. We further show that GM Crambe seeds have slower seed development than Wt, accompanied by slower oil accumulation during the first 20 days after flowering (DAF). Despite low accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM seed development, nearly 86 mol% of all fatty acids accumulated between 27 and 50 DAF was erucic acid, when 40% of the total oil is laid down. Likely bottlenecks in the accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM Crambe seed development are discussed.

  6. Influence of dietary fat source and copper supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid profile of meat and depot fat, and on cholesterol content in meat.

    PubMed

    Skrivan, M; Skrivanová, V; Marounek, M; Tůmová, E; Wolf, J

    2000-12-01

    1. Three hundred and twenty d-old chickens were fed on a wheat/maize-soyabean meal diet supplemented with (i) 50 g/kg lard, (ii) 25 g/kg lard and 25 g/kg rapeseed oil, (iii) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil, and (iv) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil and 200 mg copper per kg as copper sulphate pentahydrate. 2. Final weights at 39 d of age in chickens receiving rapeseed oil were lower by 9% than in those fed on the diet containing only lard (P<0.05). The fatty acids profiles of lipids extracted from the tissues of 10 chickens per group reflected those of the diets. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of breast muscles and abdominal fat (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) was increased and the ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was decreased by the substitution of lard by rapeseed oil (P<0.001). These changes were more pronounced for the adipose tissue than for breast muscles. 4. Copper sulphate supplementation increased the final body weight of chickens by 4.3% (P<0.05), reduced the saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion (P<0.05) in abdominal fat and increased the PUFA:SFA ratio (P<0.05). The magnitude of improvement, however, was small. 5. The substitution of rapeseed oil for lard decreased the concentration of cholesterol in breast muscles by 13%. Copper supplementation further reduced the cholesterol content by 25%. Both effects were significant (P<0.001).

  7. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  8. Apparent and standardized total tract digestibility by growing pigs of phosphorus in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe without and with microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) by growing pigs of P in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from the prepressed canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseeed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Two hundred sixteen barrows (18.0 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 36 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five samples of canola meal from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, 8 samples of 00-rapeseed meal from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe were used in the experiment. Eighteen diets were prepared by including 40% of each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, or 00-rapeseed expellers in 1 diet. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 1,500 units of microbial phytase to the diets. The only source of P in the diets was canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, or 00-rapeseed expellers. Pigs were placed in metabolism crates that allowed for total fecal collection. Pigs were fed at 2.5 times their estimated energy requirement for maintenance. Ingredients, diets, and feces were analyzed for P, and the ATTD and STTD of each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers were calculated. A value for endogenous P loss of 190 mg/kg DMI was used to calculate the STTD of P. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of P for canola meal were not different from values obtained in 00-rapeseed meal, and the ATTD and STTD of P in 00-rapeseed meal were not different from values for 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD and STTD of P increased (P < 0.001) from 44.99 and 48.82% to 64.08 and 67.97% for canola meal, from 46.77 and 50.36% to 63.53 and 67

  9. Laboratory bioassays of vegetable oils as kairomonal phagostimulants for grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Latchininsky, Alexandre V; Schell, Scott P; Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2007-10-01

    Vegetable oils have kairomonal attractant properties to grasshoppers primarily due to the presence of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. These fatty acids are dietary essentials for grasshoppers and, once volatilized, can be detected by the insects' olfactory receptors. A laboratory bioassay method has been developed to identify vegetable oils that have fatty acid profiles similar to grasshoppers and that induce grasshopper attraction and feeding. Such oils could be useful kairomonal adjuvants and/or carriers for acridicide formulations. Three sets of laboratory bioassays demonstrated that the addition of a standard aliquot of different vegetable oils resulted in varying degrees of grasshopper feeding on otherwise neutral substrates. Addition of olive oil stimulated the greatest feeding in all three sets of assays, regardless of the age of the tested insects. Furthermore, addition of canola or flax oils markedly enhanced grasshopper feeding. These three oils--i.e., olive, canola, and flax oil--proved to be the best performing grasshopper stimulants. A second group of oils included rapeseed-flax mix and rapeseed oils; however, their performance was not as consistent as oils in the first group--especially with regard to nymphal feeding. A third group of oils consisted of soybean, corn, peanut, and sunflower oil. Theoretical expectations regarding these oils varied wildly, suggesting that the results of a single bioassay should be cautiously interpreted as being negative.

  10. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  11. Various concentrations of erucic acid in mustard oil and mustard.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2014-06-15

    Erucic acid is a typical constituent of mustard or rape. Foodstuff with a high content of erucic acid is considered undesirable for human consumption because it has been linked to myocardial lipidosis and heart lesions in laboratory rats. As a result, several countries have restricted its presence in oils and fats. In this study, the erucic acid content in several mustard oils and prepared mustard samples from Germany and Australia was determined. Seven of nine mustard oil samples exceeded the permitted maximum levels established for erucic acid (range: 0.3-50.8%, limit: 5%). The erucic acid content in mustard samples (n=15) varied from 14% to 33% in the lipids. Two servings (i.e. 20 g) of the mustards with the highest erucic acid content already surpassed the tolerable daily intake established by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. However, a careful selection of mustard cultivars could lower the nutritional intake of erucic acid.

  12. Incorporated Fish Oil Fatty Acids Prevent Action Potential Shortening Induced by Circulating Fish Oil Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, Hester M. Den; Verkerk, Arie O.; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:21423389

  13. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyacids from palm acid oil and sunflower oil via addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Nor, Hussin Mohd; Kamarul, Tunku; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2013-12-15

    In this study aliphatic polyacids were synthesized using palm acid oil (PAO) and sunflower oil (SFO) via addition reaction technique. The synthesized materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mixing formic acid and hydrogen peroxide with PAO or SFO at the ratio 3:10:1 produced the lowest iodine value of 10.57 and 9.24 respectively, indicating the increase in epoxidization of both oils. Adding adipic acid to the epoxidized oils at a ratio of 1:10 increases the acid values of SFO and PAO to 11.22 and 6.73 respectively. The existence of multi-acid groups present in synthesized polyacid was confirmed by MALD-ToF-MS. This feature indicates a possible value to the biomaterials development.

  17. Effect of substitution of high stearic low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Lemke, Shawna L; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2008-05-01

    High stearic, low alpha-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on fatty acid intake in the United States if HSLL were substituted for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in several food categories, including baked goods, shortenings, fried foods, and margarines. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (1999-2002), baseline intakes of five fatty acids and trans fatty acids (TFA) were determined at the mean and 90th percentile of fat consumption. Then intakes of these fatty acids were determined after HSLL was substituted for 100% of the partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in these four food categories. The results show that baseline intake of stearic acid is 3.0% energy at the mean and 3.3% energy at the 90th percentile. Use of HSLL could increase stearic acid intake to about 4-5% energy. Mean intakes of TFA could decrease from 2.5 to 0.9% energy, and intake of palmitic acid would remain unchanged. Use of HSLL as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils would result in changes in the fatty acid composition of the US diet consistent with current dietary recommendations.

  18. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal.

    PubMed

    Pustjens, Annemieke M; Schols, Henk A; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-11-06

    To enable structural characteristics of individual cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal (RSM) to be studied, polysaccharide fractions were sequentially extracted. Fractions were analysed for their carbohydrate (linkage) composition and polysaccharide structures were also studied by enzymatic fingerprinting. The RSM fractions analysed contained pectic polysaccharides: homogalacturonan in which 60% of the galacturonic acid residues are methyl-esterified, arabinan branched at the O-2 position and arabinogalactan mainly type II. This differs from characteristics previously reported for Brassica campestris meal, another rapeseed cultivar. Also, in the alkali extracts hemicelluloses were analysed as xyloglucan both of the XXGG- and XXXG-type decorated with galactosyl, fucosyl and arabinosyl residues, and as xylan with O-methyl-uronic acid attached. The final residue after extraction still contained xyloglucan and remaining (pectic) polysaccharides next to cellulose, showing that the cell wall matrix of RSM is very strongly interconnected.

  19. Tall oil fatty acid anhydrides as corrosion inhibitor intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, E.R.; Parker, J.E. III

    1995-12-01

    Electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel tubulars in producing oil wells causes lost production and necessitates costly repairs. Corrosive environments exists where hydrocarbons and an aqueous phase are being extracted from producing wells. Tubing life has been extended four fold with the development of organic corrosion inhibitors and concentric configuration treatment. Anhydrides derived from tall oil fatty acids offer enhanced corrosion inhibition properties as compared to traditional dimer/trimer acids. The chemistry of this intermediate and its use in corrosion inhibition for down hole applications, as well as the synthesis of novel oil and water-soluble derivatives will be discussed.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  1. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  2. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  3. Tuning Lipase Reaction for Production of Fatty Acids from Oil.

    PubMed

    Odaneth, Annamma A; Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Bhat, Anuradha D; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-10-01

    Fats or oils are split partially or completely to obtain fatty acids that find wide applications in oleo-chemical industries. Lipase-mediated complete splitting (hydrolysis) of oils is a green process having great potential to replace the traditional methods of oil splitting. However, cost of lipases, mechanistic kinetic equilibrium and associated operational limitations prove to be deterrents for scale up of the enzymatic oil splitting process. In the present study, we demonstrate the use of immobilised 1,3-regioselective lipase (HyLIP) for complete hydrolysis of oil in monophasic reaction medium. Incorporation of a polar organic solvent (tert-butanol, 1:5, v/v) homogenises the oil-water mixture and contributes positively towards complete hydrolysis. The monophasic oil hydrolysis reaction with optimised water concentration (0.05 %, v/v) gave Free Fatty Acid (FFA) yield of 88 % (HyLIP and Novozym-435) and 66 % (TLIM and RMIM). Smart reaction engineering and modification of the reaction intermediates to favourable substrate lead to ∼99 % degree of hydrolysis of triglycerides with ∼90 % FFA yield using 1,3-regioselective lipase. The present work becomes basic platform for developing technologies for synthesis of fatty acids, monoglycerides, diglycerides and glycerol.

  4. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  5. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  6. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  7. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  8. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  9. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Astwood, James D; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods. We assessed the dietary impact of substitution of LLSO for hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO) used in several food categories. All substitutions were done using an assumption of 100% market penetration. The impact of this substitution on the intake of five FA and trans FA was assessed. Substitution of LLSO for current versions of HSBO resulted in a 45% decrease in intake of trans FA. Impacts on other FA intakes were within the realm of typical dietary intakes. No decrease in intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with the use of LLSO in place of HSBO because LLSO substitutes for HSBO that are already low in alpha-linolenic acid.

  10. Comparison of a silver nanoparticle-based method and the modified spectrophotometric methods for assessing antioxidant capacity of rapeseed varieties.

    PubMed

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Tułodziecka, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant capacity of 15 rapeseed varieties was determined by the proposed silver nanoparticle-based (AgNP) method and three modified assays: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FC). The average antioxidant capacities of the studied rapeseed cultivars ranged between 5261-9462, 3708-7112, 18864-31245 and 5816-9937 μmol sinapic acid (SA)/100g for AgNP, FRAP, DPPH and FC methods, respectively. There are significant, positive correlations between antioxidant capacities of the studied rapeseed cultivars determined by four analytical methods (r=0.5971-0.9149, p<0.05). The comparable precision for the proposed AgNP method (RSD=1.4-4.4%) and the modified FRAP, DPPH and FC methods (RSD=1.0-4.4%, 0.7-2.1% and 0.8-3.6%, respectively), demonstrate the benefit of the AgNP method in the routine analysis of antioxidant capacity of rapeseed cultivars. The principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used for discrimination the quality of the studied rapeseed varieties based on their antioxidant potential determined by different analytical methods. Three main groups were identified by HCA, while the classification and characterisation of rapeseed varieties within each of these groups were obtained from PCA. The chemometric analyses demonstrated that, rapeseed variety S13 had the highest antioxidant capacity, thus this cultivar should be considered as the richest source of natural antioxidants.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less. (2) The..., iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The ingredient is used... specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used as an emulsifier as...

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide-Resistant CotA and YjqC of Bacillus altitudinis Spores Are a Promising Biocatalyst for Catalyzing Reduction of Sinapic Acid and Sinapine in Rapeseed Meal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanzhou; Li, Xunhang; Hao, Zhikui; Xi, Ruchun; Cai, Yujie; Liao, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    For the more efficient detoxification of phenolic compounds, a promising avenue would be to develop a multi-enzyme biocatalyst comprising peroxidase, laccase and other oxidases. However, the development of this multi-enzyme biocatalyst is limited by the vulnerability of fungal laccases and peroxidases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inactivation. Therefore, H2O2-resistant peroxidase and laccase should be exploited. In this study, H2O2-stable CotA and YjqC were isolated from the outer coat of Bacillus altitudinis SYBC hb4 spores. In addition to the thermal and alkali stability of catalytic activity, CotA also exhibited a much higher H2O2 tolerance than fungal laccases from Trametes versicolor and Trametes trogii. YjqC is a sporulation-related manganese (Mn) catalase with striking peroxidase activity for sinapic acid (SA) and sinapine (SNP). In contrast to the typical heme-containing peroxidases, the peroxidase activity of YjqC was also highly resistant to inhibition by H2O2 and heat. CotA could also catalyze the oxidation of SA and SNP. CotA had a much higher affinity for SA than B. subtilis CotA. CotA and YjqC rendered from B. altitudinis spores had promising laccase and peroxidase activities for SA and SNP. Specifically, the B. altitudinis spores could be regarded as a multi-enzyme biocatalyst composed of CotA and YjqC. The B. altitudinis spores were efficient for catalyzing the degradation of SA and SNP in rapeseed meal. Moreover, efficiency of the spore-catalyzed degradation of SA and SNP was greatly improved by the presence of 15 mM H2O2. This effect was largely attributed to synergistic biocatalysis of the H2O2-resistant CotA and YjqC toward SA and SNP. PMID:27362423

  13. Preparative separation of cis- and trans-isomers of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters contained in edible oils by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Wakako; Ushida, Kaori

    2009-04-01

    In order to measure exactly the trans-fatty acids content in food materials, a preparative group separation of cis- and trans-isomers of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was achieved by an isocratic reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method. The trans-isomers of 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 18:3, 20:1 and 22:1 FAMEs were readily separated from the corresponding cis-isomers by a COSMOSIL Cholester C18 column (4.6 mm I.D. x 250 mm, Nacalai Tesque) or a TSKgel ODS-100Z column (4.6 mm I.D. x 250 mm, TOSOH), using acetonitrile as the mobile phase. This method was applied for determining the trans-18:1 fatty acid content in partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil. The methyl esters of cis- and trans-18:1 isomers of the oil were collected as two separate fractions by the developed RP-HPLC method. Each fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) for both qualitative and quantitative information on its positional isomers. By a combination of RP-HPLC and GC methods, a nearly complete separation of cis- and trans-18:1 positional isomers was achieved and the trans-18:1 fatty acid content was able to be evaluated more precisely than is possible by the direct GC method. The reproducibility of cis- and trans-18:1 isomers fractionated by the RP-HPLC method was better than 98%. These results suggested that the preparative RP-HPLC method developed in this study could be a powerful tool for trans-fatty acid analysis in edible oils and food products as an alternative to silver-ion chromatography.

  14. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2014-08-06

    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  15. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  16. Influence of deep-frying using various commercial oils on acrylamide formation in French fries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Lilin; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different types of commercial oils (rice bran oil, shortening oil, high-oleic rapeseed oil, low-erucic acid rapeseed oil, blend oil A and blend oil B) and frying cycles on acrylamide formation during the preparation of French fries by deep-frying. Frying was carried out in intermittent mode (two batches each for 12 min without any time lag) and repeated for 600 frying cycles. Results indicated that the French fries that were fried in oils having lower heat transfer coefficients contained lower acrylamide concentrations (913 µg kg(-1)), whereas those fried with oils having higher heat transfer coefficients contained higher acrylamide concentrations (1219 µg kg(-1)). Unlike the peroxide value, acrylamide levels in French fries did not change significantly with an increase in the number of frying cycles when tested for 600 frying cycles for every type of oil. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of frying oils to the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected due to their different heat transfer coefficients. On the other hand, continuous use of frying oil does not lead to a higher acrylamide concentration in French fries.

  17. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  18. Rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with two rapeseed varieties and petroleum degraders reveals different responses of the plant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Zukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Ciszewska, Liliana; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lisiecki, Piotr; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Voss, Ingo; Scheibe, Renate; Tomaszewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Plant-assisted bioremediation (rhizoremediation) stands out as a potential tool to inactivate or completely remove xenobiotics from the polluted environment. Therefore, it is of key importance to find an adequate combination of plant species and microorganisms that together enhance the clean-up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil. The oxidative stress was enhanced in LEAR being exposed to sole diesel oil, in comparison with HEAR. However, when LEAR plants were additionally inoculated with bacteria, suppression of total catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. Interestingly, glutathione transferase (GST) activity was found in these plants at a much higher level than in HEAR, which correlated with a more efficient diesel removal performed by LEAR in the polluted soil and upon bioaugmentation. A distinct profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was detected in leaves of these plants. Neither LEAR nor HEAR experienced any changes in the photosynthetic capacity upon diesel pollution and presence of petroleum degraders, which supports the usefulness of rhizoremediation with rapeseed.

  19. Vegetable oil blends with α-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2012-12-15

    Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with α-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  5. Production of Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Flavobacterium sp. Strain DS5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium sp. strain DS5 (NRRL B-14859) was used to convert two vegetable oils, olive oil and soybean oil, directly to oxygenated fatty acids such as 10-ketostearic acid (10-KSA) and 10-hydroxystearic acid (10-HSA). Lipase addition to the culture was required because strain DS5 did not induce ...

  6. 77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated... residues of fatty ] acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated propoxylated on food or feed commodities. DATES:...

  7. Potential oil yield, fatty acid composition, and oxidation stability of the hempseed oil from four Cannabis sativa L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Decorti, Deborah; Natolino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The cultivation of four industrial hemp cultivars (Felina 32, Chamaeleon, Uso31, and Finola) was investigated for oil production in the north-east of Italy along two years. The oils of all cultivars resulted in rich amount of linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3). Felina 32 and Chamaeleon oils exhibited the highest amount of linoleic acid (59%) and α-linolenic acid (18%). Finola and Uso31 oils resulted in the richest of γ-linolenic acid (5-6%). All hempseed oils presented high oxidation stability and an acceptable initial quality. It is suggested that these oils can be used to produce EFA dietary supplements high in ω-6 and ω-3 of vegetal origin.

  8. Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of natural epoxy oil (Euphorbia oil) in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an attempt to build up useful application of plant oil based polymers, natural epoxy oil (euphorbia oil-EuO) was polymerized in liquid carbon dioxide in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst [Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2)]. The resulting polymers (RPEuO) were characterized by FTIR ...

  9. G-lignin and hemicellulosic monosaccharides distinctively affect biomass digestibility in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanjie; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Youbing; Yu, Changbing; Fu, Tingdong; Zou, Jun; Tu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Liangcai; Chen, Peng

    2016-03-01

    In this study, total 19 straw samples from four Brassica species were determined with a diverse cell wall composition and varied biomass enzymatic digestibility under sulfuric acid or lime pretreatment. Correlation analysis was then performed to detect effects of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity, hemicellulosic monosaccharides and lignin monomers) on rapeseeds biomass digestibility. As a result, coniferyl alcohol (G-lignin) showed a strongly negative effect on biomass saccharification, whereas hemicellulosic monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose) were positive factors on lignocellulose digestions. Notably, chemical analyses of four typical pairs of samples indicated that hemicellulosic monosaccharides and G-lignin may coordinately influence biomass digestibility in rapeseeds. In addition, Brassica napus with lower lignin content exhibited more efficiency on both biomass enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production, compared with Brassica junjea. Hence, this study has at first time provided a genetic strategy on cell wall modification towards bioenergy rapeseed breeding.

  10. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primrose oil. During olive oil treatment the serum concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid decreased and those of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased slightly. The decrease in serum eicosapentaenoic acid and the increase in arachidonic acid concentrations induced by evening primrose oil may not be favourable effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the light of the roles of these fatty acids as precursors of eicosanoids. PMID:2649022

  11. Influence of the dietary protein:lipid ratio and fish oil substitution on fatty acid composition and metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared at high water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Karalazos, Vasileios; Bendiksen, Eldar Å; Dick, James R; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2011-04-01

    A factorial, two-way, experimental design was used for this 10-week nutritional trial, aiming to elucidate the interactive effects of decreasing dietary protein:lipid level and substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO) on tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at high water temperatures (sub-optimal, summer temperatures: 11·6°C). The six experimental diets were isoenergetic and formulated to include either FO or RO (60 % of the added oil) at three dietary protein:lipid levels, specifically (1) 350 g/kg protein and 350 g/kg lipid, (2) 330 g/kg protein and 360 g/kg lipid, (3) 290 g/kg protein and 380 g/kg lipid. Final weight, specific growth rate and thermal growth coefficient were positively affected by the dietary RO inclusion at the expense of FO, while no significant effects were seen on growth due to the decreasing protein level. The oil source had a significant effect on muscle and liver FA composition. However, the changes in muscle and liver FA indicate selective utilisation or retention of individual FA and moderate reductions in tissue EPA and DHA. Pyloric caeca phospholipid FA composition was significantly affected by the two factors and, in some cases, significant interactions were also revealed. Liver and red muscle β-oxidation capacities were significantly increased due to RO inclusion, while an interactive effect of protein level and oil source was shown for white muscle β-oxidation capacity. The results could explain, at least partially, the better performance that was shown for the RO groups and the enhanced protein-sparing effect.

  12. Antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Izumi, Erika; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; da Veiga-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease. According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 1.5-two million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year worldwide. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, which were developed more than a century ago. The goals of this study were to investigate the antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil, as well as some possible targets of their action against Leishmania amazonensis. Methyl copalate and agathic, hydroxycopalic, kaurenoic, pinifolic and polyaltic acids isolated from Copaifera officinales oleoresins were utilised. Ultrastructural changes and the specific organelle targets of diterpenes were investigated with electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. All compounds had some level of activity against L. amazonensis. Hydroxycopalic acid and methyl copalate demonstrated the most activity against promastigotes and had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.5 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, pinifolic and kaurenoic acid demonstrated the most activity against axenic amastigote and had IC50 values of 3.5 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Agathic, kaurenoic and pinifolic acid caused significant increases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation of the protozoan. In conclusion, copaiba oil and its diterpene acids should be explored for the development of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:23440116

  13. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    PubMed

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained.

  14. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-01-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution. PMID:27087008

  15. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-04-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  16. Ultrasonic free fatty acids esterification in tobacco and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Boffito, D C; Galli, F; Pirola, C; Bianchi, C L; Patience, G S

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound accelerates the free fatty acids esterification rate by reducing the mass transfer resistance between methanol in the liquid phase and absorbed organic species on Amberlyst®46 catalyst. The reaction rates of canola oil is three times greater than for tobacco seed oil but half the reaction rate of pure oleic acid as measured in a batch reactor. The beneficial effects of ultrasound vs. the conventional approach are more pronounced at lower temperatures (20°C and 40°C vs. 63°C): at 20°C, the free fatty acids conversion reaches 68% vs. 23% with conventional mechanical stirring. The increased conversion is attributed to acoustic cavitation that increases mass transfer in the vicinity of the active sites. The Eley-Rideal kinetic model in which the concentration of the reacting species is expressed taking into account the mass transfer between the phases is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Ultrasound increases the mass transfer coefficient in the tobacco oil 6 and 4.1 fold at 20°C and 40°C, respectively.

  17. Screening and comparing tocopherols in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Seker, Murat; Gül, Muhammet Kemal; Ipek, Meryem; Toplu, Celil; Kaleci, Nilüfer

    2008-09-01

    Rapeseed and virgin olive oils are a good source of tocopherols. Tocopherols are the most important compounds having antioxidant activity in both crops. Little is known about the tocopherol contents of rapeseed and olive oil grown in Turkey. The aims of this research were to investigate some new rapeseed varieties and olive genotypes grown in northwest Turkey and to compare the tocopherol fractions and contents of both crops. For rapeseed, the data were collected in two growing seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006) from a field experiment with 19 new rapeseed varieties. For olives, virgin olive oils produced from 21 different varieties were examined in the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 growing seasons. The separation and identification of tocopherols and the analysis of their contents were successfully achieved using the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. According to the obtained results, gamma-tocopherol (44.200-118.900 mg/kg) was the major fraction of total tocopherol, followed by alpha-tocopherol (19.300-68.500 mg/kg) and delta-tocopherol (0.00-2.600 mg/kg) for rapeseeds. Regarding olive varieties, the alpha-tocopherol content changed between 52.000 and 194.750 mg/kg, followed by gamma-tocopherol ranging from 0.00 to 39.750 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged between 83.900 and 173.800 mg/kg for rapeseed and between 52.100 and 213.075 mg/kg for olives. This study revealed that an important variability exists for tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed and olive varieties.

  18. Biodiesel Derived from a Source Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel commonly produced from commodity vegetable oils such as palm, rapeseeed (canola) and soybean. These oils generally have fatty acid profiles that vary within the range of C16 and C18 fatty acids. Thus, the biodiesel fuels derived from these oils possess the c...

  19. Processes of recovering fatty acids and sterols from tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. E.

    1985-06-18

    An improved process of enhancing the recovery of fatty acids from tall oil pitch is disclosed. The process includes a hydrolysis step for increasing the free fatty acid available for recovery from tall oil pitch during the distillation process. The hydrolysis step also enables the recovery of sterols where the tall oil pitch is of the type which is rich in sterol esters.

  20. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Laboratory studies on acid-oil microemulsion for use in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yasong; Chen Yuezhu; Sun Yuehua

    1996-12-31

    Two serious of anionic-nonionic surfactants, alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether phosphates (OPP-n) and sodium salts of carboxymethyl alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (OPC-n), where n denotes the average EO number in the molecular, are synthesized to prepare the acid/oil Microemulsions for acidizing. Through components screening tests a work formulation of acidizing microemulsion is established: 13.0% OPP-10, 3.0% OPC-25, 30% n-Hexanol, 36.7% Kerosine and 18.3%(15.0%-concentrated) Hydrochloric Acid. This microemulsion reacts with marble at 30{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure with the lowest acid consuming rate as compared with other retarded acid fluids. Calcium ion accelerates the acid/marble reaction and the suggested microemulsion can tolerate up to 0.69%(W) Calcium ion. No aqueous phase would be separated from the microemulsion until all acid exhausted. The acid/oil microemulsions can be recommended for both matrix and fracture acidizing in depth. The transmission of hydrogen ion in the microemulsion is investigated by using a liquid film supported by solid (SLMS) technique. The mechanism {open_quotes}transmission by exchanging{close_quotes} is suggested. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  3. Lipidomic Analysis of Oxidized Fatty Acids in Plant and Algae Oils.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Christine E; Hennebelle, Marie; Otoki, Yurika; Zamora, Daisy; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-03-08

    Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in plant or algae oils are precursors to oxidized fatty acid metabolites known as oxylipins. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxylipins in soybean, corn, olive, canola, and four high-oleic acid algae oils at room temperature or after heating for 10 min at 100 °C. Flaxseed oil oxylipin concentrations were determined in a follow-up experiment that compared it to soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil. Published consumption data for soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil were used to estimate daily oxylipin intake. The LA and ALA fatty acid composition of the oils was generally related to their respective oxylipin metabolites, except for olive and flaxseed oil, which had higher LA derived monohydroxy and ketone oxylipins than other oils, despite their low LA content. Algae oils had the least amount of oxylipins. The change in oxylipin concentrations was not significantly different among the oils after short-term heating. The estimated oxylipin intake from nonheated soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil was 1.1 mg per person per day. These findings suggest that oils represent a dietary source of LA and ALA derived oxylipins and that the response of oils to short-term heating does not differ among the various oils.

  4. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry.

  5. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel.

  6. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P < 0.001) or linseed oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P < 0.001). On the fish oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P < 0.001). At 1% in the maternal diet, echium oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and

  7. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  8. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  9. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  10. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  11. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation in edible oils by photoisomerization: a review.

    PubMed

    Gangidi, Rahul Reddy; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) that is commonly found in dairy and ruminant fats, is geometrical and positional isomer of linoleic acid (LA). Edible oils are not good sources of CLA. Attempts have been made to generate CLA in edible oils through photoisomerization procedures. CLA isomers have several proven health benefits. This article reviews procedures for producing CLA containing edible oils by photoisomerization approach and applications of photoisomerized oils for food uses. The article reviews (1) the photoisomerized production of CLA containing oils on lab scale, with customized equipment, at pilot plant scale; (2) the effects of iodine content, photoisomerization time, refining, interference from minor components of oils, efficacy of different edible oils containing LA, interference from antioxidants; (3) the chemical kinetics, oxidative stability; and (4) photoisomerized oils for frying oils and as drying oils.The review also briefly covers methods of measurement of CLA.

  13. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied.

  14. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of oleic acid in the infraspinatus and LM, and increased linoleic acid (P < 0.01). Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of various isomers of CLA in muscle, with the greatest change in the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. Supplementation of sheep diets with safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty

  15. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise F; Rybicka, Iga; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-11-01

    The composition of grass/clover silage varies depending on time of harvest time. In particular silage from late regrowths is expected to contain lower fibre and higher linolenic acid concentrations compared to spring growth, thereby autumn silage is expected to increase linolenic acid content of milk fat. Rapeseed supplementation is expected to increase milk production and to increase all C18 fatty acids in milk fat. An interaction between rapeseed and silage type is expected, as hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed is expected to be less when low fibre silage is fed. Thirty-six Jersey cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, for 4 periods of 3 weeks and with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: spring grass/clover silage from primary growth or autumn grass/clover silage which was an equal mixture of 3rd regrowth and 4th regrowth, with or without rapeseed supplementation. Dry matter intake and milk production was higher for autumn than for spring silage. Rapeseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake, but increased milk production. The concentrations of C18 : 1cis9, C18 : 2n6 and β-carotene and C18 : 3n3 in milk were increased whereas the concentrations of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6 and reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 3n3. Apparent recovery of C18 : 2n6 was reduced with rapeseed. Minor interaction effects of silage type and rapeseed addition were observed for some milk fatty acids. Feeding silage from late regrowth increased linolenic acid concentration in milk fat. Rapeseed inclusion increased milk production, and increased C18 : 0 as well as C18 : 1 fatty acids, but not C18 : 2 and C18 : 3 in milk fat. Interactions between silage type

  16. Determination of the asphaltene and carboxylic acid content of a heavy oil using a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen A; Wilson, Rab; Parnell, John; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2009-03-21

    Heavy oil utilisation is set to increase over the coming decades as reserves of conventional oil decline. Heavy oil differs from conventional oil in containing relatively large quantities of asphaltene and carboxylic acids. The proportions of these compounds greatly influence how oil behaves during production and its utilisation as a fuel or feedstock. We report the development of a microfluidic technique, based on a H-cell, that can extract the carboxylic acid components of an oil and assess its asphaltene content. Ultimately this technology could yield a field-deployable device capable of performing measurements that facilitate improved resource management at the point of resource-extraction.

  17. Fish oil prevents essential fatty acid deficiency and enhances growth: clinical and biochemical implications.

    PubMed

    Strijbosch, Robert A M; Lee, Sang; Arsenault, Danielle A; Andersson, Charlotte; Gura, Kathleen M; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, has never been used as the sole source of lipid in clinical practice for fear of development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as it lacks the believed requisite levels of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. The objectives of this study were to establish biochemical standards for fish oil as the sole fat and to test the hypothesis that fish oil contains adequate amounts of omega-6 fatty acids to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. Forty mice were divided into 2 groups that were either pair fed or allowed to eat ad libitum. In each group, 4 subgroups of 5 mice were fed 1%, 5%, and 10% fish oil diets by weight or a control soybean diet for 9 weeks. Blood was collected at 4 time points, and fatty acid analysis was performed. Food intake and weight status were monitored. All groups but the pair-fed 1% fish oil group gained weight, and the 5% fish oil group showed the highest caloric efficiency in both pair-fed and ad libitum groups. Fatty acid profiles for the 1% fish oil group displayed clear essential fatty acid deficiency, 5% fish oil appeared marginal, and 10% and soybean oil diets were found to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. Fish oil enhances growth through higher caloric efficiency. We established a total omega-6 fatty acid requirement of between 0.30% and 0.56% of dietary energy, approximately half of the conventionally believed 1% as linoleic acid. This can presumably be attributed to the fact that fish oil contains not only a small amount of linoleic acid, but also arachidonic acid, which has greater efficiency to meet omega-6 fatty acid requirements.

  18. Effect of replacing dietary menhaden oil with pollock or soybean oil on muscle fatty acid composition and growth performance of juvenile pacific threadfin (polyactylus sexfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the nutritional values of menhaden fish oil and pollock oil; and studied the potential of replacing dietary pollock oil by soybean oil based on the effect of pollock oil on growth performance, body composition, and muscle fatty acid profiles of juvenile Pacific threadfin. All te...

  19. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  20. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry of lithium addicts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycer...

  1. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    14. ABSTRACT: See next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer; Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0296 TITLE: Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid ...SUBTITLE Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Randomized

  2. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  3. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  4. Monola oil versus canola oil as a fish oil replacer in rainbow trout feeds: effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality.

    PubMed

    Turchini, G M; Moretti, V M; Hermon, K; Caprino, F; Busetto, M L; Bellagamba, F; Rankin, T; Keast, R S J; Francis, D S

    2013-11-15

    Monola oil, a high oleic acid canola cultivar, and canola oil were evaluated as replacers of fish oil at three levels of inclusion (60%, 75% and 90%) in rainbow trout diets. After a 27-week grow-out cycle, the diet-induced effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality were assessed. Overall, no effects were noted for growth, feed utilisation or fish biometry, and the fatty acid composition of fish fillets mirrored that of the diets. Dietary treatments affected fillet lipid oxidation (free malondialdehyde), pigmentation and flavour volatile compounds, but only minor effects on sensorial attributes were detected. Ultimately, both oils were demonstrated to possess, to differing extents, suitable qualities to adequately replace fish oil from the perspective of fish performance and final product quality. However, further research is required to alleviate on-going issues associated with the loss of health promoting attributes (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) of final farmed products.

  5. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  6. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  7. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration.

  8. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  9. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  10. Preparation and antioxidative properties of a rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) protein hydrolysate and three peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaohui; Yu, Wancong; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Moucheng; Kou, Xiaohong; Wang, Jiehua

    2009-06-24

    This study investigated the possibility of converting the insoluble rapeseed meal protein into functionally active ingredients for food applications. The rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) meal protein isolates were first digested by Alcalase and Flavourzyme, and the resultant rapeseed crude hydrolysate (RSCH) exhibited a dose-dependent reducing antioxidant power and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. RSCH could also inhibit the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) generation by 50% in blood serum at 150 mg/mL. RSCH was further separated into three fractions (RSP1, RSP2, and RSP3) by Sephadex gel filtration according to their different molecular weights. The amino acid compositions and antioxidant potentials were assessed for RSP1-3 fractions. All three fractions showed inhibiting effects on superoxide anion generation to various extents. They could also inhibit the autohemolysis of rat red blood cells and MDA formation in rat liver tissue homogenate. The results suggested that rapeseed peptide hydrolysate may be useful as a human food addition as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant properties.

  11. Antioxidant effects of pH-regulating agents on the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasushi; Yamadera, Yuki; Tsukui, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    pH-Regulating agents, such as sodium tartrate, disodium succinate, and trisodium citrate, were investigated for their antioxidant activities during the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils. Refined rapeseed and rice bran oils, supplemented with pH-regulating agents and α-tocopherol (0.1%) were heated at 180℃. After heating, acid values (AVs), carbonyl values (CVs), polar material contents, and color (absorbance at 420 nm) of each sample were measured. All pH-regulating agents gave rise to reduced AVs, CVs, and polar material contents of vegetable oils during heating relative to samples not containing a pHregulating agent. Rapeseed and rice bran oils supplemented with sodium tartrate showed the lowest AVs, CVs, polar material contents and absorbances at 420 nm after heating. Sodium tartrate not only retarded the hydrolysis, thermal oxidation, polymerization, and coloration of both oils while heating at high temperatures, but it also showed antioxidant activity at the supplementation level of 0.01%. The antioxidant activity of sodium tartrate was higher than that of α-tocopherol during the deterioration of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate was particularly effective retarding hydrolysis while heating at high temperatures, resulting in increase of AVs of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate is therefore expected to be an effective antioxidant for the thermal deterioration of fats and oils during deep-fat frying.

  12. The effects of dietary oils on the fatty acid composition and osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, M; Stangl, G I; Reichlmayr-Lais, A M; Eder, K

    1994-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different dietary oils representing special fatty acids which varied in chain length, position and number of double bonds on fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and on the osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes after incubation in NaCl solutions of different concentrations. For this purpose all animals were initially fed a control diet (CO) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.4% safflower oil for 28 days. After that 10 groups of 10 animals each were switched to test diets for another 20 days in which 50% or 100% of the coconut oil was exchanged for one of the following oils: olive oil (OO 5, OO 10), safflower oil (SFO 5, SFO 10), evening primrose oil (EPO 5, EPO 10), linseed oil (LO 5, LO 10) or salmon oil (SLO 5, SLO 10). The results show that the fatty acid composition of rat erythrocyte membranes was affected by the fatty acid composition of the dietary fats. Rats fed OO 10, EPO 10, LO 5 and LO 10 had a slightly lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in erythrocyte membranes than control rats. Groups fed olive oil showed the highest level of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the erythrocyte membrane. This increase in MUFA at the expense of SFA and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was most pronounced with respect to 18:1 and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Rats fed SFO, EPO or LO had higher linoleic acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane than control rats. This increase in 18:2 (n-6) was mainly at the expense of 18:1 and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. The proportion of 20:4 (n-6) did not remarkably change feeding diets with (n-6) PUFA-rich oils. The (n-3) PUFA concentration in the erythrocyte membranes considerably increased, whereas (n-6) PUFA decreased feeding linseed oil or salmon oil rich in (n-3) PUFA. Linseed oil and salmon oil caused similar changes in the membrane, which were more pronounced in rats fed salmon oil than in rats fed linseed oil. The

  13. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Ricinoleate and Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  14. Analysis of acylglycerols containing mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by HPLC and MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  15. Polymerization of euphorbia oil with Lewis acid in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3-OEt2) Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of euphorbia oil (EO), a natural epoxy oil, in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful vegetable oil based polymers. The resulting polymers (RPEO) were characterized by FTIR, 1H-...

  16. Rapeseed and sunflower meal: a review on biotechnology status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Fine, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Rapeseed and sunflower are two of the world's major oilseeds. Rapeseed and sunflower meal (RSM and SFM), the by-products of oil extraction, are produced in large quantities. They are mainly composed of proteins, lignocellulosic fibres and minerals. They were initially used as a protein complement in animal feed rations and sometimes as fertilizer or as combustible source. More recently, new alternatives to these traditional uses have been developed that draw on the structure and physicochemical properties of RSM and SFM, which are plentiful sources of nitrogen and carbon nutrients. This feature, together with their cheapness and ready availability, supports the cultivation of various microorganisms in both submerged cultures and solid-state fermentation. Recent studies have thus emphasized the potential utilisation of RSM and SFM in fermentative processes, including saccharification and production of enzymes, antibiotics, antioxidants and other bio-products, opening new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  17. Tackling correlated responses during process optimisation of rapeseed meal protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Dutta, Ganesh; Barthakur, Anasuya; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-01

    Setting of process variables to meet the required specifications of quality characteristics is a crucial task in the extraction technology or process quality control. Simultaneous optimisation of several conflicting characteristics poses a problem, especially when correlation exists. To remedy this shortfall, we present multi-response optimisation based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM)-Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-desirability function approach, combined with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Experimental manifestation of the proposed methodology was executed using a multi-responses-based protein extraction process from an industrial waste, rapeseed press-cake. The proposed optimal factor combination reflects a compromise between the partially conflicting natures of the original responses. Prediction accuracy of this new hybrid method was found to be better than RSM alone, verifying the adequacy and superiority of the said approach. Furthermore, this study suggests the feasibility of the exploitation of the waste rapeseed oil-cake for extraction of valuable protein, with improved colour properties using simple, viable process.

  18. Effect of growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid composition of Pistacia lentiscus edible oil.

    PubMed

    Mezni, F; Khouja, M L; Gregoire, S; Martine, L; Khaldi, A; Berdeaux, O

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we aim to study, for the first time, the effect of the growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of Pistacia lentiscus fixed oil. Fruits were harvested from eight different sites located in the north and the centre of Tunisia. Tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of the fixed oils were determined. The highest carotenoid content was exhibited by Feija oil (10.57 mg/kg of oil). Oueslatia and Tabarka oils displayed the highest α-tocopherol content (96.79 and 92.79 mg/kg of oil, respectively). Three major fatty acids were determined: oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid presenting more than 50% of the total fatty acid content. Kebouche oil presented the highest oleic acid content (55.66%). All these results highlight the richness of carotenoids, tocopherols and unsaturated fatty acids in P. lentiscus seed oil and underscore the nutritional value of this natural product.

  19. Stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of Camellia (Camellia japonica L.) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Noh, Siwon; Yoon, Suk Hoo

    2012-10-01

    The stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of camellia seed oil (also called camellia oil) was determined. The camellia oil was mainly composed of neutral lipids (88.2%), and the oleic acid (86.3%) was found to be a major fatty acid of neutral lipids. In the glycolipids and phospholipids, the oleic acid was also found to be a major fatty acid at 62.5% and 54.2%, respectively. The oleic acid was distributed abundantly in all sn-1, 2, and 3 positions. It was found that the oleic acid was present more at sn-2 (93.6%) and 3 positions (94.7%), than at sn-1 position (66.0%). Practical Application:  The information of stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids in the camellia oil can be used for the development of the structured lipids for food, pharmaceutical, and medical purposes.

  20. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  1. [Acidity and temperature effect on the fluorescence characteristics of hydraulic oils and lubricants].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hu; Zhou, Xun; Shang, Li-ping; Zhang, Ze-lin; Wang, Shun-li

    2014-12-01

    By analyzing HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil environmental impacts (oil, etc.) and confounding factors (pH, temperature, etc.), the feasibility was studied for the fluorescence detection of aircraft hydraulic oil leaks. By using the fluorescence spectrophotometer at various acidities and temperatures, the fluorescence properties of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant were gained. The experimental results are shown as following: The fluorescence peaks of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant are at 362, 405 and 456 nm, respectively. The impact of temperature on HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil is less effective; Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing temperature. When acidity increases, the fluorescence peak of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil gradient shifts from 370 to 362 nm, and the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of Jet Oil II lubricant is always 405 nm, while the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of 2197 lubricant at 456 nm red shifts to 523 nm, and double fluorescence peaks appeare. The results are shown as following: under the influence of the environment and interference factors, the fluorescence characteristics of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil remain unchanged, and distinguish from Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant. Therefore, the experiments indicate that the detection of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil leak is feasible by using fluorescence method.

  2. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  3. Partition coefficients for acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in a crude oil/water system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.A.; Borkowski, J.J.; Sears, J.T. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic acid concentration on the partition coefficients for short-chain organic acids were measured in a crude oil/water system. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, as probable substrates for microbial souring of oil reservoirs, were used in conjunction with two types of crude oil. Temperatures of 35--75 C, pH values of 4.0--7.0, and acid concentrations of 10--1,000 mg/L were studied. Initial naturally occurring levels of organic acids in the crude oils were also determined. pH had by far the largest effect on the partition coefficient for all three organic acids for both types oil. At conditions normally seen in an oil reservoir (pH 5--7), the great percentage (85+%) of these acids were dissolved in the aqueous phase. The log of the partition coefficient K increased approximately linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the acid. It was seen that organic acids are readily available carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at normal reservoir conditions, and that crude oil may provide a source of organic acids in a low-pH, water-flooded reservoir.

  4. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  5. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  6. Technical note: Tall oil fatty acid anhydrides as corrosion inhibitor intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, E.R.; Parker, J.E. III

    1997-01-01

    Anhydrides derived from tall oil fatty acids offer enhanced corrosion inhibition properties compared to traditional dimer/trimer acids. The chemistry of this intermediate, its use in corrosion inhibition for downhole applications, and the synthesis of novel oil- and water-soluble derivatives were studied.

  7. Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxyfatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxyfatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, r...

  8. Amended safety assessment of tall oil acid, sodium tallate, potassium tallate, and ammonium tallate.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Valerie; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    Tall oil acid is a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids (fatty acids) and rosin acids derived from tall oil, a by-product of pulp from resinous woods, used in cosmetic products as a surfactant at concentrations up to 8%. Ammonium, potassium, and sodium salts also are listed as cosmetic ingredients. In addition to the studies summarized in this report, extensive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity studies in animals are available for oleic, lauric, palmitic, myristic, and stearic fatty acids as published earlier by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR). These data may be extrapolated to tall oil acid and its salts. There are no reports of current uses or use concentration data for ammonium tallate, nor are use concentration data available for the other salts. The CIR Expert Panel found tall oil acid, ammonium tallate, potassium tallate, and sodium tallate to be safe cosmetic ingredients in the given practices of use and concentration.

  9. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on channel catfish performance, body composition,...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish consumption is a common method of obtaining beneficial n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), but increased use of vegetable oils in fish diets to reduce dependence on fish oil dilutes these HUFAs. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are also considered beneficial for human health. Therefore,...

  10. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  11. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  12. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  13. Discrimination of pulp oil and kernel oil from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by fatty acid methyl esters fingerprinting, using GC-FID and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Faria-Machado, Adelia F; Tres, Alba; van Ruth, Saskia M; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Lopes, Paulo Sergio N; Bizzo, Humberto R

    2015-11-18

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scientific literature concerning the differences between the compositions of pequi kernel and pulp oils. Therefore, in this study, different pequi genotypes were evaluated to determine the fatty acid composition of pulp and kernel oils. PCA and PLS-DA were applied to develop a model to distinguish these oils. For all evaluated genotypes, the major fatty acids of both pulp and kernel oils were oleic and palmitic acids. Despite the apparent similarity between the analyzed samples, it was possible to discriminate pulp and kernel oils by means of their fatty acid composition using chemometrics, as well as the unique pequi genotype without endocarp spines (CPAC-PQ-SE-06).

  14. Rapeseed polysaccharides as prebiotics on growth and acidifying activity of probiotics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Meiying; Yang, Fan; Sun, Hanju; Zhou, Xianxuan; Guo, Ying; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Manli

    2015-07-10

    In vitro digestibility, prebiotic activity and chemical composition of polysaccharides from rapeseed were deliberately studied in this paper. After preliminary treatments, two fractions of polysaccharides (RP1 and RP2) were obtained after purification by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100. Their primary structural feature and molecule weights were characterized. Furthermore, their digestibility was also evaluated by artificial gastric juice and α-amylase. Finally, their proliferative effect on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and acid production of the resulting probiotics in vitro were investigated. The results showed that RP1 and RP2 were homogeneously protein-bound polysaccharides with molecular weights of 28.51 and 6.55 kDa, respectively. They were resistant to hydrolysis by artificial gastric juice and α-amylase. Moreover, they could also significantly stimulate the tested probiotics to proliferate and produce organic acids. These findings clearly suggest the polysaccharides from rapeseed are potential to be exploited as novel prebiotics.

  15. Effect of a single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils on plasma phospholipid fatty acids over 48 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer an advantage in digestion and absorption thereby increasing the bioavailability of fatty acids. We evaluated the effect of three oil-in-water emulsified fish oils (Emulsion B, Emulsion ...

  16. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Results Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Conclusions Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and

  17. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Succinic acid is one of the key platform chemicals which can be produced via biotechnology process instead of petrochemical process. Biomass derived bio-oil have been investigated intensively as an alternative of diesel and gasoline fuels. Bio-oil could be fractionized into organic phase and aqueous phase parts. The organic phase bio-oil can be easily upgraded to transport fuel. The aqueous phase bio-oil (AP-bio-oil) is of low value. There is no report for its usage or upgrading via biological methods. In this paper, the use of AP-bio-oil for the production of succinic acid was investigated. Results The transgenic E. coli strain could grow in modified M9 medium containing 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil with an increase in OD from 0.25 to 1.09. And 0.38 g/L succinic acid was produced. With the presence of 4 g/L glucose in the medium, succinic acid concentration increased from 1.4 to 2.4 g/L by addition of 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil. When enzymatic hydrolysate of corn stover was used as carbon source, 10.3 g/L succinic acid was produced. The obtained succinic acid concentration increased to 11.5 g/L when 12.5 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. However, it decreased to 8 g/L when 50 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. GC-MS analysis revealed that some low molecular carbon compounds in the AP-bio-oil were utilized by E. coli. Conclusions The results indicate that AP-bio-oil can be used by E. coli for cell growth and succinic acid production. PMID:23657107

  18. On rapeseed meals. Part XXVI. Some remarks on the biological value of rapeseed meal proteins after silage.

    PubMed

    Borowska, J; Cichon, R; Kozłowska, H; Rutkowski

    1978-01-01

    The influence of propionic bacteria on the biological value of potato-rapeseed meal protein ensilage was investigated. The inoculation of the ensilage with Propionibacterium Petersoni T 112 led to the reduction of the content of goitrogenous compounds (isothiocyanates and oxazolidinethiones) and to an increase of the nutritive value (NPU, PER) of the rapeseed protein. The increase of the protein value is greater by the application of propionic bacteria than by toasting of rapeseed meal.

  19. Modulation of human lipids and lipoproteins by dietary palm oil and palm olein: a review.

    PubMed

    Sundram, K

    1997-03-01

    Several human clinical trials have now evaluated palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. These studies suggest that palm oil and palm olein diets do not raise plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. With maximum substitution of palm oil in a Western type diet some coronary heart disease risk factors were beneficially modulated: HDL2-cholesterol was significantly increased while the apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio was beneficially lowered by palm oil. Comparison of palm olein with a variety of monounsaturated edible oils including rapeseed, canola, and olive oils has shown that plasma and LDL-cholesterol were not elevated by palm olein. To focus these findings, specific fatty acid effects have been evaluated. Myristic acid may be the most potent cholesterol raising saturated fatty acid. Palmitic acid effects were largely comparable to the monounsaturated oleic acid in normolipidaemic subjects while trans fatty acids detrimentally increased plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein Lp(a) and lowered the beneficial HDL-cholesterol. Apart from these fatty acids there is evidence that the tocotrienols in palm oil products may have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. This is mediated by the ability of the tocotrienols to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. These new findings on palm oil merit a scientific reexamination of the classical saturated fat-lipid hypothesis and its role in lipoprotein regulation.

  20. Formation of degradation products from the pyrolysis of tall oil fatty acids with kraft lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Traitler, H.; Kratzl, K.

    1980-01-01

    Pyrolysis of tall oil fatty acids containing kraft lignin at 160-280 degrees with or without exclusion of O resulted in formation of alkylbenzenes, carboxylic acids, and hydrocarbons, as determined by gas chomatography. In the pyrolysis, ring cleavage of dehydroabietic acids could not be observed, and no cyclic fatty acids could be detected.

  1. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  2. Physicochemical characterization, fatty acid composition, and thermal analysis of Bertholletia excelsa HBK oil.

    PubMed

    Pena Muniz, Marcos Antônio; Ferreira Dos Santos, Marina Nídia; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira; Morais, Luiz; Lamarão, Maria Louze Nobre; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane Maria; Silva-Júnior, José Otávio Carréra

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the oil extracted from Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. almond, a native species from the Amazon region. Analytical methods used for oils and fats were employed through pharmacopoeia assays, AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society) standard methods as well as those recommended by ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) such as acidity, peroxide value, saponification index, iodine value and refractive index, pH and relative density, and also thermoanalytical analyses (thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis) as well as chromatographic analysis (gas chromatography). The characterization assessments of B. excelsa oil showed results indicating that the oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids in large proportion. The termoanalytical tests indicated that B.excelsa oil showed thermal stability up to 220 °C, These results showed that the oil extracted from B. excelsa has acceptable characteristics and is of good quality.

  3. Physicochemical characterization, fatty acid composition, and thermal analysis of Bertholletia excelsa HBK oil

    PubMed Central

    Pena Muniz, Marcos Antônio; Ferreira dos Santos, Marina Nídia; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira; Morais, Luiz; Lamarão, Maria Louze Nobre; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane Maria; Silva-Júnior, José Otávio Carréra

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the oil extracted from Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. almond, a native species from the Amazon region. Analytical methods used for oils and fats were employed through pharmacopoeia assays, AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society) standard methods as well as those recommended by ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) such as acidity, peroxide value, saponification index, iodine value and refractive index, pH and relative density, and also thermoanalytical analyses (thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis) as well as chromatographic analysis (gas chromatography). The characterization assessments of B. excelsa oil showed results indicating that the oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids in large proportion. The termoanalytical tests indicated that B.excelsa oil showed thermal stability up to 220 °C, These results showed that the oil extracted from B. excelsa has acceptable characteristics and is of good quality. PMID:25709225

  4. Determination of naphthenic acids in crude oils using nonaqueous ion exchange solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jones, D M; Watson, J S; Meredith, W; Chen, M; Bennett, B

    2001-02-01

    A method is presented for the routine, rapid, and quantitative analysis of aliphatic and naphthenic acids in crude oils, based on their isolation using nonaqueous ion exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges. The isolated acid fractions are methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method is effective on both light and heavy oils and is capable of providing mechanistic information of geochemical significance on the origin of the acids in the oils. Analysis of oils that were solvent extracted from laboratory and field mesocosm marine sediment oil degradation studies indicate that this new method of analyzing the products of hydrocarbon biodegradation may be a useful tool for monitoring the progress of bioremediation of oil spills in the environment.

  5. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  6. A Candidate Gene-Based Association Study of Tocopherol Content and Composition in Rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche, Steffi; Wang, Xingxing; Li, Jinquan; Stich, Benjamin; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J.; Endrigkeit, Jessica; Leckband, Gunhild; Dreyer, Felix; Friedt, Wolfgang; Meng, Jinling; Jung, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K) as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM + Q and the PK-mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c) were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93% of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48% for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the second panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality. PMID:22740840

  7. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Steffi; Wang, Xingxing; Li, Jinquan; Stich, Benjamin; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; Endrigkeit, Jessica; Leckband, Gunhild; Dreyer, Felix; Friedt, Wolfgang; Meng, Jinling; Jung, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K) as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM + Q and the PK-mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c) were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93% of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48% for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the second panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  8. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  9. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  10. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  20. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  1. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  2. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-05

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  3. The effects of evening primrose oil, safflower oil and paraffin on plasma fatty acid levels in humans: choice of an appropriate placebo for clinical studies on primrose oil.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, D F; Ells, K M; Morse-Fisher, N; Manku, M S

    1991-04-01

    In a number of diseases, plasma levels of linoleic acid are normal or elevated while those of gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6, GLA) and further metabolites are below normal. Evening primrose oil (EPO), similar to safflower oil (SFO) except that it contains 8-9% of 18:3n-6, has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in these diseases, such as atopic eczema. There is argument as to whether an appropriate placebo for clinical studies on EPO should be an inert material such as paraffin, or a linoleic acid--containing oil such as SFO. We have therefore compared in normal humans the effects on plasma fatty acids of administering EPO, SFO and paraffin for 10 days. Paraffin had no effect on any fatty acid in any fraction. EPO raised the level of 20:3n-6 (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, DGLA) the immediate metabolite of GLA but had no significant effect on arachidonic acid. In surprising contrast, SFO raised the levels of linoleic and of arachidonic acids, without raising those of DGLA. This suggests that linoleic acid may be rapidly converted to arachidonic acid by a tightly linked enzyme sequence: GLA, in contrast, may be rapidly converted to DGLA but then only slowly on to arachidonic acid. These results are consistent with recent in vitro observations by others on rat hepatocytes and human fibroblasts.

  4. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  5. Degradation of tocopherols during rapeseed storage in simulated conditions of industrial silos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawrysiak-Witulska, Marzena; Siger, Aleksander; Rusinek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The investigations consisted in laboratory simulation of conditions prevailing in the real ecosystem in an industrial rapeseed storage facility. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of temperature, moisture, and static pressure on degradation of tocopherols contained in rapeseed. Rapeseed varieties with high oil content were analysed in the investigations. Samples of seeds with 7, 10, 13, and 16% moisture levels were stored at a temperature of 25, 30, and 35°C in specially designed airtight pressure silos for storage in controlled conditions. During the storage, the seeds were subjected to overpressure in the range of 20-60 kPa. The seeds were stored in these conditions for 28 days. It was demonstrated that primarily moisture induced the greatest loss of the total content of tocopherol and its α-T and γ-T homologues, followed by temperature and, to a lesser extent, pressure. In addition, the results obtained showed that, in the case of seeds characterised by higher moisture levels (13 and 16%), an increase in the storage temperature in the range of 25-30°C rather than 30-35°C intensified tocopherol loss more efficiently.

  6. QTL for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in Brassica napus L. collocate with the two erucic acid genes.

    PubMed

    Amar, Samija; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil and lowering sinapate ester content of meal could increase the value of the oilseed rape crop. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in a winter rapeseed population of 148 doubled haploid lines, previously found to have a large variation for these two traits. This population also segregated for the two erucic acid genes. A close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and phytosterol content (Spearman's rank correlation, r(s) = -0.80**). For total phytosterol content, three QTL were detected, explaining 60% of the genetic variance. The two QTL with the strongest additive effects were mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. For sinapate ester content four QTL were detected, explaining 53% of the genetic variance. Again, a close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and sinapate ester content (r(s) = -0.66**) and the QTL with the strongest additive effects mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. The results suggests, that there is a pleiotropic effect of the two erucic acid genes on phytosterol and sinapate ester content; the effect of the alleles for low erucic acid content is to increase phytosterol and sinapate ester content. Possible reasons for this are discussed based on known biosynthetic pathways.

  7. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  8. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  9. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-12-02

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12+/-1 g day(-1)) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils.

  10. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs.

  11. Authentication of vegetable oils on the basis of their physico-chemical properties with the aid of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowen; Ni, Yongnian; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

    2006-09-15

    In food production, reliable analytical methods for confirmation of purity or degree of spoilage are required by growers, food quality assessors, processors, and consumers. Seven parameters of physico-chemical properties, such as acid number, colority, density, refractive index, moisture and volatility, saponification value and peroxide value, were measured for quality and adulterated soybean, as well as quality and rancid rapeseed oils. Chemometrics methods were then applied for qualitative and quantitative discrimination and prediction of the oils by methods such exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), radial basis function-artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN), and multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA. In general, the soybean and rapeseed oils were discriminated by PCA, and the two spoilt oils behaved differently with the rancid rapeseed samples exhibiting more object scatter on the PC-scores plot, than the adulterated soybean oil. For the PLS and RBF-ANN prediction methods, suitable training models were devised, which were able to predict satisfactorily the category of the four different oil samples in the verification set. Rank ordering with the use of MCDM models indicated that the oil types can be discriminated on the PROMETHEE II scale. For the first time, it was demonstrated how ranking of oil objects with the use of PROMETHEE and GAIA could be utilized as a versatile indicator of quality performance of products on the basis of a standard selected by the stakeholder. In principle, this approach provides a very flexible method for assessment of product quality directly from the measured data.

  12. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  13. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.

  14. Classification and adulteration detection of vegetable oils based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Xuefang; Xu, Baocheng; Wang, Xiupin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-08-27

    The detection of adulteration of high priced oils is a particular concern in food quality and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop authenticity detection method for protecting the health of customers. In this study, fatty acid profiles of five edible oils were established by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode. Using mass spectral characteristics of selected ions and equivalent chain length (ECL), 28 fatty acids were identified and employed to classify five kinds of edible oils by using unsupervised (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis), supervised (random forests) multivariate statistical methods. The results indicated that fatty acid profiles of these edible oils could classify five kinds of edible vegetable oils into five groups and are therefore employed to authenticity assessment. Moreover, adulterated oils were simulated by Monte Carlo method to establish simultaneous adulteration detection model for five kinds of edible oils by random forests. As a result, this model could identify five kinds of edible oils and sensitively detect adulteration of edible oil with other vegetable oils about the level of 10%.

  15. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. . Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G

    2000-12-05

    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  17. Use of Raman spectroscopy for determining erucic acid content in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Temiz, Havva Tumay; Ercioglu, Elif; Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-04-15

    This study presents a novel method to determine erucic acid in canola oil samples by using Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The oil mixtures were prepared at various concentrations of erucic acid ranging from 0% to 33.56% (w/w) through binary combinations of different oils. In order to predict erucic acid content, Raman spectroscopy and GC results were correlated by means of partial least squares analysis. High coefficient of determination values was obtained for both calibration and validation data sets, which are 0.990 and 0.982, respectively. The results of the present study reveal the potential of Raman spectroscopy for rapid determination (45s) of erucic acid in canola oil. Further research would be useful to improve the method to put it forward as an alternative to GC in the erucic acid analysis.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  19. Generation of aliphatic acid anions and carbon dioxide by hydrous pyrolysis of crude oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Lundegard, P.D.; Ambats, G.; Evans, William C.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Two crude oils with relatively high (0.60 wt%) and low (0.18 wt%) oxygen contents were heated in the presence of water in gold-plated reactors at 300??C for 2348 h. The high-oxygen oil was also heated at 200??C for 5711 h. The compositions of aqueous organic acid anions of the oils and of the headspace gases were monitored inn order to investigate the distribution of organic acids that can be generated from liquid petroleum. The oil with higher oxygen content generated about five times as much organic anions as the other oil. The dominant organic anions produced were acetate, propionate and butyrate. Small amounts of formate, succinate, methyl succinate and oxalate were also produced. The dominant oxygen-containing product was CO2, as has been observed in similar studies on the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen. These results indicate that a significant portion (10-30%) of organic acid anions reported i be generated by thermal alteration of oils in reservoir rocks. The bulk of organic acid anions present in formation waters, however, is most likely generated by thermal alteration of kerogen in source rocks. Kerogen is more abundant than oil in sedimentary basins and the relative yields of organic acid anions reported from the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen are much higher than the yields obtained for the two oils. ?? 1993.

  20. Comparative study of tissue deposition of omega-3 fatty acids from polar-lipid rich oil of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata with krill oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Michael L; Levy, Aharon; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert health benefits which are dependent upon their incorporation into blood, cells and tissues. Plasma and tissue deposition of LC n-3 PUFA from oils extracted from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata and from krill were compared in rats. The algal oil provides eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) partly conjugated (15%) to phospholipids and glycolipids but no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas krill oil provides both EPA and DHA conjugated in part (40%) to phospholipids. Rats fed a standard diet received either krill oil or polar-lipid rich algal oil by gavage daily for 7 days (5 ml oil per kg body weight each day). Fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in plasma, brain and liver, and two adipose depots since these represent transport, functional and storage pools of fatty acids, respectively. When measuring total LC n-3 PUFA (sum of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA), there was no statistically significant difference between the algal oil and krill oil for plasma, brain, liver and gonadal adipose tissue. Concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA were higher in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue from the algal oil group. Tissue uptake of LC n-3 PUFA from an algal oil containing 15% polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) was found to be equivalent to krill oil containing 40% phospholipids. This may be due to glycolipids forming smaller micelles during ingestive hydrolysis than phospholipids. Ingestion of fatty acids with glycolipids may improve bioavailability, but this needs to be further explored.

  1. Production of aviation fuel via catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation of fatty acids in microalgae oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiyue; Nie, Renfeng; Fu, Jie; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2013-10-01

    A series of fatty acids in microalgae oil, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid, were selected as the raw materials to produce aviation fuel via hydrothermal decarboxylation over a multi-wall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst (Pt/MWCNTs). It was found that Pt/MWCNTs catalysts exhibited higher activity for the hydrothermal decarboxylation of stearic acid with a 97% selectivity toward heptadecane compared to Pt/C and Ru/C under the same conditions. And Pt/MWCNTs is also capable for the decarboxylation of different fatty acids in microalgae oil. The reaction conditions, such as Pt/MWCNTs loading amount, reaction temperature and time were optimized. The activation energy of stearic acid decarboxylation over Pt/MWCNTs was calculated (114 kJ/mol).

  2. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  3. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-01-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  4. Fatty acid composition and tocopherol profiles of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed oils.

    PubMed

    Matthaus, B; Özcan, M M; Al Juhaimi, F Y

    2015-01-01

    The oil contents of safflower seeds ranged from 23.08% to 36.51%. The major fatty acid of safflower oil is linoleic acid, which accounted for 55.1-77.0% in oils, with a mean value of 70.66%. Three types of tocopherols were found in safflower oil in various amount α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, ranged from 46.05 to 70.93 mg/100 g, 0.85 to 2.16 mg/100 g and trace amount to 0.45 mg/100 g oils, respectively. This research shows that both fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the safflowers.

  5. [Volatile oil of Anethum Graveolens L. as an inhibitor of yeast and lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Shcherbanovsky, L R; Kapelev, I G

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 25 volatile oils from aerial parts and seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) of different geographical origin towards yeast Saccharomyces vini and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacterium buchneri was measured by serial dilutions. Volatile oils from mature seeds and green parts of the plants harvested at late vegetation phases showed the highest activity. The geographical origin of plants influenced insignificantly the antimicrobial activity of volatile oil.

  6. Ammonium salts of polymaleic acids and use as corrosion inhibitors in water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenlaender, K.; Barthold, K.; Stork, K.

    1984-03-13

    The subject invention relates to salts of polymaleic acids having a molecular weight between 200 and 1500 and to their use in preventing the corrosion of metal caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in water-in-oil emulsions such as crude oil.

  7. Physical properties and fatty acid profiles of oils from black, kidney, Great Northern, and pinto beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four common beans (black bean, kidney bean, great northern, and pinto) were extracted with hexane and found to contain about 2% triglyceride oils. The fatty acids found in these bean oils were mainly linolenic (41.7-46 wt %), linoleic (24.1-33.4 wt %), palmitic (10.7-12.7 wt %) and oleic (5.2-9.5 wt...

  8. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  9. Preparation of Interesterified Plastic Fats from Fats and Oils Free of Trans Fatty Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interesterified plastic fats were produced with trans-free substrates of fully hydrogenated soybean oil, extra virgin olive oil, and palm stearin in a weight ratio of 10:20:70, 10:40:50, and 10:50:40, respectively, by lipase catalysis. The major fatty acids of the products were palmitic (32.2-47.4%)...

  10. Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

    2014-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment.

  11. Ruthenium oxide ion selective thin-film electrodes for engine oil acidity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, D. K.; Sardarinejad, A.; Alameh, K.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the concept of a low-cost, rugged, miniaturized ion selective electrode (ISE) comprising a thin film RuO2 on platinum sensing electrode deposited using RF magnetron sputtered in conjunction with an integrated Ag/AgCl and Ag reference electrodes for engine oil acidity monitoring. Model oil samples are produced by adding nitric acid into fresh fully synthetic engine oil and used for sensor evaluation. Experimental results show a linear potential-versus-acid-concentration response for nitric acid concentration between 0 (fresh oil) to 400 ppm, which demonstrate the accuracy of the RuO2 sensor in real-time operation, making it attractive for use in cars and industrial engines.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  14. Fatty acid composition of seed oils from sixAdansonia species with particular reference to cyclopropane and cyclopropene acids.

    PubMed

    Ralaimanarivo, A; Gaydou, E M; Bianchini, J P

    1982-01-01

    The oil content of sixAdansonia species (Bombacaceae family) of Madagascar (Adansonia grandidieri, A. za, A. digitata, A. fony, A. madagascariensis andA. suarenzensis) and Africa (A. digitata) ranges from 8 to 46%. All the oils give a positive response to the Halphen test. Malvalic, sterculic and dihydrosterculic acids were detected using gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Epoxy or hydroxy fatty acids were not found in these oils. Fatty acid composition was determined by GLC using glass capillary columns coated with BDS and Carbowax 20 M. Results obtained for cyclopropenic fatty acids (CPEFA) were compared to those given by glass capillary GLC after derivatization with silver nitrate in methanol, by hydrogen bromide titration and by proton magnetic resonance (PMR). Good agreement was observed for the results given by the various methods. Malvalic acid content ranges from 3 to 28%, sterculic acid from 1 to 8% and dihydrosterculic acid from 1.5 to 5.1%. Odd-numbered fatty acids (Pentadecanoic and hepatadecanoic) were also observed in minute amounts (0.1-1.1%). Among the normal fatty acids, we observed mainly palmitic (21-46%), oleic (15-40%) and linoleic (12-32%). The relationship between fatty acid composition andAdansonia species is discussed.

  15. The influence of dietary fish oil vs. sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl-esters in healthy, adult cats.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, E A; Beynen, A C

    2003-12-01

    The question addressed was whether the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) in cats reflects the intake of fatty acids. Diets containing either fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to six healthy, adult cats in a cross-over trial. The dry cat foods contained approximately 18.5% crude fat, of which two-third was in the form of the variable oil. Blood samples were collected at the end of each 4-week feeding period, and the fatty acid composition of plasma CEs and plasma concentrations of lipoproteins were determined. Consumption of the diet with fish oil was associated with significantly greater proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and myristic acid in plasma CEs. The intake of fish oil instead of sunflower oil reduced the percentage of linoleic acid in CEs. The plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides were not affected by fish oil vs. sunflower oil feeding.

  16. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  17. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Higa, R; Kurtz, M; Mazzucco, M B; Musikant, D; White, V; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-05-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo malformations. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementations have been shown to reduce embryo malformations in experimental models of diabetes. In this study we here tested whether folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact to prevent embryo malformations in diabetic rats, and analyzed whether they act through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. From Day 0.5 of pregnancy, rats did or did not receive folic acid (15 mg/kg) and/or a 6% safflower oil-supplemented diet. Embryos and decidua were explanted on Day 10.5 of gestation for further analysis of embryo resorptions and malformations, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Maternal diabetes induced resorptions and malformations that were prevented by folic acid and safflower oil supplementation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were increased in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats and decreased with safflower oil and folic acid supplementations. In diabetic animals, the embryonic and decidual TIMPs were increased mainly with safflower oil supplementation in decidua and with folic acid in embryos. NO overproduction was decreased in decidua from diabetic rats treated with folic acid alone and in combination with safflower oil. These treatments also prevented increases in embryonic and decidual lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact and protect the embryos from diabetes-induced damage through several pathways related to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators.

  18. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr; Nicholas S. Dusek; Kristofer L. Schiele; James A. Bahr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources of EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.

  19. Cholesterol and triglyceride reduction in rats fed Matthiola incana seed oil rich in (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Z; Schafferman, D; Shamir, I; Madar, Z

    1999-02-01

    Seeds of Matthiola incana contain oil rich (55-65%) in (n-3) linolenic acid. Selected lines were developed and evaluated for their agronomic and chemical parameters. Extracted oil was fed for 6 weeks to rats, which were compared with rats fed a diet containing coconut oil or sunflower oil. Cholesterol levels were significantly lowest in rats fed diets rich in M. incana oil (27% reduction), and triglycerides were significantly lower in rats receiving either M. incana or sunflower oil (36% reduction). The contents of arachidonic acid and other (n-6) fatty acids were significantly the lowest in the liver and plasma of rats that had received M. incana oil. The levels of (n-3) fatty acids were significantly greater in both the liver and plasma of rats fed M. incana oil. The ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) long-chain fatty acids in the plasma was 7 times higher in rats fed with M. incana oil than in those fed with sunflower oil and 6 times higher than in those fed coconut oil. The results demonstrate for the first time a beneficial effect of dietary M. incana oil in reducing cholesterol levels and increasing (n-3) fatty acid levels in the plasma. This new, terrestrial plant source of (n-3) fatty acids could replace marine oils and thereby contribute beneficially to the human diet.

  20. Effects of replacing extracted soybean meal with rapeseed cake in corn grass silage-based diet for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Białek, Małgorzata; Bagnicka, Emilia; Jarczak, Justyna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Strzałkowska, Nina; Jóźwik, Artur; Krzyżewski, Józef; Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with a protein-equivalent amount of rapeseed cake in the diet on milking parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of milk in dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein-Friesian cows, 8 each, consisting of randomised blocks were studied: a control group (C) was given a traditional high-protein supplement (extracted soybean meal) and the experimental group (E), had part of extracted soybean meal replaced with rapeseed cake. Dry matter intake and milk yield in both groups were not affected by the diet but milk fat percentage and yield were decreased in both groups. Rapeseed cake had no effect on milk acidity or on protein (including casein) and lactose contents. A lower concentration of urea in milk in E group indicated a proper ratio of protein to energy in the fodder. Health condition of mammary gland and indicators of metabolic profile were not affected by rapeseed cake supplementation. In E group, the share of atherogenic saturated fatty acids (FA) was reduced after 11 weeks: palmitic, by 26% and myristic, by 22%; moreover, as compared with control cows, the content of monounsaturated FA in milk increased by 44% after 3 weeks and by 68% after 11 weeks, t-18:1 and c-9 t-11 isomer of CLA increased about 2.5-fold after 11 weeks. In E group, the atherogenic index (AI) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in C (by 54% on average) and the decrease with time was considerable (by 29%, P < 0.001). Contents of odd- and branched- chain FA in milk were not significantly affected thus reflecting proper rumen function. Partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed cake in the diet of cows may improve both milking indices and FA profile of milk.

  1. On the nature and origin of acidic species in petroleum. 1. Detailed acid type distribution in a California crude oil.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, N. A.; Winans, R. E.; Shinn, J. H.; Robinson, R. C.; Chemistry; Chevron Research and Technology Co.

    2001-11-21

    Acidity in crude oils has long been a problem for refining. Knowledge of the detailed chemical composition of the acids responsible for corrosion can facilitate identification of problem crude oils and potentially lead to improved processing options for corrosive oils. A highly aerobically biodegraded crude from the San Joaquin Valley, which has a long history of causing corrosion problems during refining, was the subject of this study. The oil was first extracted with base, then acidified and extracted with petroleum ether. A portion of the resulting acid fraction was methylated. The unmethylated extract was analyzed by FTIR, NMR, and the methylated sample was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Over 96% of the ions observed in HRMS have been assigned reliable formulas. Considerably greater functionality is seen in this sample than would be presumed from the 'naphthenic acid' title typically assigned to these species. Although over 60% of the compounds contained two or more oxygens, compounds containing only oxygen heteroatoms accounted for less than 10% of the acidic compounds identified. Approximately one-half of the species contained nitrogen and about one-fourth contained sulfur. It is believed that microbial degradation is a major source of these acidic components. It was also observed that acid species with higher degrees of heteroatom substitution generally also had a higher degree of saturation than those species having less heteroatoms, possibly due to impeded migration of highly substituted, less-saturated species.

  2. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride triesters. 721.9400 Section 721.9400... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... esters and oils, and glyceride triesters (PMNs P-91-1231, -1232, -1233, -1234, and -1235) are subject...

  3. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  4. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  5. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  6. A single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils has equivalent effects on chylomicron fatty acids over 8 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are important in nutrition and disease management. Flavored emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil in water emulsions may offer an advantage in bio-availability of the fatty acids. Chylomicrons transport triglyceride from...

  7. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9-14-octadecadienoic acids in castor oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fa...

  8. Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane.

  9. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract.

  10. [Antioxidant activity of vegetable oils with various omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio].

    PubMed

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.

  11. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  12. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  14. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  15. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  16. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg.

  17. Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...

  18. Quality of Rapeseed Bio-Fuel Waste: Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujak, Agnieszka; Muszyñski, Siemowit; Kachel-Jakubowska, Magdalena

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the presented work was to examine the optical properties of selected bio-fuel waste. Three independent optical methods: UV-Vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and chromametric measurements were applied to establish the possible quality control test for the obtained substances. The following by-products were tested: distilled glycerine, technical glycerine and matter organic non glycerine fraction from rapeseed oil bio-fuel production. The results show that analysis of UV-Vis spectra can give rapid information about the purity of distilled glycerine, while no direct information can be obtained concerning the concentration and kind of impurities. Transmission mode is more useful as compared to absorption, concerning the detection abilities of average UV-Vis spectrometers. Infrared spectroscopy can be used as a complementary method for determining impurities/admixtures in samples. Measurements of chroma give the quickest data to compare the colour of biofuel by-products obtained by different producers. The condition is, however, that the products are received through the same or similar chemical processes. The other important factor is application of well defined measuring background. All the discussed analyses are quick, cheap and non-destructive, and can help to compare the quality of products.

  19. Fate of Phosphorus During Co-Combustion of Rapeseed Cake with Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Hupa, M.; Davidsson, K.; Åmand, L. E.; Zabetta, E. C.; Barišić, V.

    Recent studies show that deposit formation and agglomeration in fluidized bed boilers may be aggravated by a high phosphorus content besides alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in a fuel. This paper presents the fate of phosphorus during co-combustion of wood chips and wood pellets with rapeseed cake pellets, a high phosphorus fuel in a 12MW CFB boiler. 12 hour tests with 12% and 18% (energy basis) of rapeseed cake with wood were performed with and without limestone addition. All fuels were characterised by means of standard fuel analyses combined with chemical fractionation. Retrieved ash samples were analysed using wet chemical analysis complemented with SEMlEDXA. Gaseous alkali metal chlorides as well as HCI and SO2 were measured upstream of the convective pass at a flue gas temperature of 800°C where also the deposit samples were collected with a deposit probe. The composition of deposits was studied with SEMlEDXA. Analyses of bed material particle cross-sections showed phosphorus compounds present within a K-silicates matrix between the agglomerated sand particles, indicating direct attack of gaseous potassium compounds on the bed surface followed by adhesion of rich in phosphorus ash particles. Build-up of the deposits took place mainly on the windward side of the probe; where up to 9 wt-% of phosphorus was present. SEMlEDXA shows that rapeseed cake addition caused an increase of K, Na besides P indicating presence of low melting phosphate salts in the deposits. During limestone addition in the deposit samples the increase of CI could be noticed however no significant change in P content was observed. This paper shows that agglomeration and fouling when co-firing rapeseed cake may be linked to its high content of organically bonded phosphorus — phytic acid salts; together with high content of water soluble fraction of alkali metals chlorides and sulphates in the fuel mixture.

  20. A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils

    PubMed Central

    Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

  1. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries.

  2. Chemical and physical properties of butterfat-vegetable oil blend spread prepared with enzymatically transesterified canola oil and caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2005-06-15

    Structured Lipid was synthesized from canola oil and caprylic acid with sn-1,3 specific lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Cold spreadable butter was made by blending butterfat with the SL at a weight ratio of 80:20. Its chemical and physical properties were compared with pure butter and butterfat-canola oil 80:20 blend spread. The butterfat-SL blend had lower contents of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (FAs) and the lowest atherogenic index (AI) as compared to the others. Melting and crystallization behaviors of butterfat-SL blend were similar to those of butterfat-canola oil blend above 0 degrees C. It showed solid fat contents (SFCs) similar to butterfat-canola oil blend but lower than pure butterfat. The butterfat-SL blend was shown to crystallize in the beta' form. There were no differences between the hardness of butterfat-SL blend spread and butterfat-canola oil blend spread. Rheological analysis showed that butterfat-SL blend spread lost its elastic behavior at 5 degrees C, a lower temperature than pure butter.

  3. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis.

  4. Relation of acidity and sensory quality with sterol content of olive oil from stored fruit.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, F; Varona, I; Albi, M A

    2000-04-01

    Composition of the sterol fraction, fatty acid, acidity, and the sensorial evaluation of virgin olive oils were studied in two eastern Spanish varieties grown and processed under the same conditions. Fruits were stored at 5 degrees C and ambient temperature for different times. During fruit storage, there was no significant variation (P = 0.05) in fatty acid composition. However, the sterol composition of the oil varied markedly (in particular, there was an increase in stigmasterol), acidity increased, and there was a very significant decrease in sensorial quality. The stigmasterol content presented a high correlation with the acidity and sensory evaluation (P < 10(-)(6)). The total sterol content increased gradually with olive storage time. Oils with stigmasterol greater than campesterol are graded to a low level (lampant). It is of interest that sensorial quality is revealed by stigmasterol content, a fact unknown until now.

  5. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical fluid and nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jinhyun; Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Youngbae; Seol, Jeunggun; Ryu, Jaebong; Park, Kwangheon

    2011-07-01

    The waste oil used in nuclear fuel processing is contaminated with uranium because of its contact with materials or environments containing uranium. Under current law, waste oil that has been contaminated with uranium is very difficult to dispose of at a radioactive waste disposal site. To dispose of the uranium-contaminated waste oil, the uranium was separated from the contaminated waste oil. Supercritical R-22 is an excellent solvent for extracting clean oil from uranium-contaminated waste oil. The critical temperature of R-22 is 96.15 °C and the critical pressure is 49.9 bar. In this study, a process to remove uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 was developed. The waste oil has a small amount of additives containing N, S or P, such as amines, dithiocarbamates and dialkyldithiophosphates. It seems that these organic additives form uranium-combined compounds. For this reason, dissolution of uranium from the uranium-combined compounds using nitric acid was needed. The efficiency of the removal of uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 extraction and nitric acid treatment was determined.

  6. Developmental and reproductive toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-Rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-Rich oil.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Zheng, Xiaohui; Chen, Dieling; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Zeshen; Lewis, Kara D

    2017-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of dietary exposure to DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina. In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant Wistar rats were untreated (control) or administered corn oil (vehicle control), 1,000, 2,500, or 5000 mg/kg bw/day of DHA-rich oil or ARA-rich oil via gavage from gestation days 6 through day 20. In the reproductive toxicity study, male and female Wistar rats were administered vehicle control (corn oil), or 1,000, 2,500, or 5000 mg/kg bw/day of DHA- or ARA-rich oil via gavage throughout the mating period, pregnancy, and the nursing and lactation period. Differences in the number of fetuses, fetal skeletal malformations, and external and visceral anomalies in the developmental study and mortality, clinical signs, fertility indices, physical observations, gross necropsy findings, and gestation period length in the reproductive toxicity study were not dose-related or significantly different from control groups, and were not considered to be treatment related. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development and for paternal or maternal treatment-related reproductive toxicity for the DHA-rich oil and ARA-rich oil administered by gavage, was 5000 mg/kg bw/day.

  7. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  8. [Effect of rapeseed from different distributors on the rat liver].

    PubMed

    Alvizouri, M

    1993-01-01

    In previous papers it was reported that rapeseed could prevent the development of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and at the same time can induce liver regeneration in the rat. In such experiments rapeseed was always obtained from the same distributor "Semillas Berentsen". When reseed of different distributors was used, neither cirrhosis prevention or liver regeneration was observed. The difference among the rapeseed used was that "Semillas Berentsen" utilizes a fungicide to preserve the seed and the other distributors do not use any preservative. This circumstance made think that the active principle responsible for the effects observed is probably the fungicide.

  9. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  10. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude palm oil after molecular distillation (HFFA-CPOAM) showed admirably physicochemical properties.

  11. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P < 0.05) and those of HTGL were lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed docosahexaenoic acid, a major component of fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  12. Fatty acid clearance by isolated perfused hindquarters of rats fed fish oil

    SciTech Connect

    Herzberg, G.R.; MacCharles, G.; Rogerson, M. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that, compared to the dietary fatty acid composition, n-3 fatty acids are underrepresented in the adipose tissue of rats consuming fish oil diets. They have also shown that in rats fed fish oil diets, lipoprotein lipase is elevated in skeletal muscle and heart but not in adipose tissue. These two observations led us to hypothesize that n-3 enriched lipoproteins and n-3 fatty acids are preferentially utilized by muscle. Rats were fed diets containing 10% by weight corn oil (CO) or 2% CO + 8% fish oil (MaxEPA) for two weeks. Skinned hindquarters were perfused using a Krebs-Henselheit buffer containing 3% albumin, 5.5 mM glucose and 0.5 mM fatty acid. Muscle ATP was unaffected by previous diet or fatty acid perfused and was approximately 6 {mu}mol/g wet weight in each group. The rate of fatty acid removal was linear for 60 minutes by which time between 30 and 50% of the fatty acid in the perfusate had been removed. They determined the removal of either {sup 14}C EPA and {sup 14}C oleate. There was a significant effect of both the type of fatty acid and the previous diet of the rats from which the hindquarters were obtained. EPA was removed more rapidly by hindquarters from MaxEPA-fed rats than corn oil fed rats. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced utilization of fatty acids by muscle contributes to the hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also suggest that n-3 fatty acids are more rapidly utilized by skeletal muscle.

  13. Characterization of bile acids and fatty acids from ox bile in oil paintings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Casas-Catalán, M J; Doménech-Carbó, M T; Mateo-Castro, R; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Bosch-Reig, F

    2004-02-06

    Characterization of ox bile, traditionally used in painting, is of interest in the fields of archaeometry and conservation and restoration of works of art. Bile acids, fatty acids (F), and cholesterol found in ox bile have been identified using a derivatization method that combines the formation of ethyl esters from the carboxylic groups and the trimethylsilyl ethers from hydroxyl groups. This method of analysis is consistent with these others proposed by the authors to analyze drying oils, proteins, and diterpenic resins usually used as binders and varnishes by the painters. Bile acids from binary samples such as animal glue/ox bile, casein/ox bile and Arabic gum/ox bile have been successfully analyzed using the proposed method. Finally, a method of analysis of mixtures of drying oil and ox bile has been also proposed attempting to quantitatively characterize samples in which ox bile was added to the drying oil for increasing the surfactant properties.

  14. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  15. Characterization of the esterification reaction in high free fatty acid oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altic, Lucas Eli Porter

    Energy and vegetable oil prices have caused many biodiesel producers to turn to waste cooking oils as feedstocks. These oils contain high levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) which make them difficult or impossible to convert to biodiesel by conventional production methods. Esterification is required for ultra-high FFA feedstocks such as Brown Grease. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation has the potential to improve the kinetics of the esterification reaction. 2-level, multi-factor DOE experiments were conducted to characterize the esterification reaction in ultra-high FFA oils as well as determine whether ultrasonic irradiation gives any benefit besides energy input. The study determined that sulfuric acid content had the greatest effect followed by temperature and water content (inhibited reaction). Methanol content had no effect in the range studied. A small interaction term existed between sulfuric acid and temperature. The study also concluded that sonication did not give any additional benefit over energy input.

  16. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  17. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid in castor oil, has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The Ci8 HPLC fractions of casto...

  18. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-11-30

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

  19. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  20. Effects of roasting on oil and fatty acid composition of Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Pelvan, Ebru; Topal, Bahar

    2010-09-01

    A total of 18 natural and roasted hazelnut varieties (namely, Aci, Cavcava, Cakildak, Foşa, Ham, Incekara, Kalinkara, Kan, Karafindik, Kargalak, Kuş, Mincane, Palaz, Sivri, Tombul, Uzunmusa, Yassi Badem, and Yuvarlak Badem), grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, were compared for their differences in oil content and fatty acid profiles. The oil content in natural and roasted hazelnut varieties ranged from 57.85% for Kargalak to 68.31% for Incekara and from 61.37% for Kargalak to 71.72% for Incekara, respectively. A total of 20 fatty acids were identified in oils extracted from different varieties of natural and roasted hazelnuts. Among the identified fatty acids in natural hazelnut oils, 18:1omega9 was the dominant fatty acid (ranging from 77.77 to 86.91%). Roasting had minor influence on the fatty acid profiles. These results suggest that semi-commercial hazelnut varieties are as good source of oils and possess valuable fatty acid profiles as commercial varieties (Tombul, Cakildak, Foşa, Karafindik, Mincane, Palaz, and Sivri).

  1. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  2. Margarine and spread products with oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid – organogel approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels have drawn increasing interest as alternatives to trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids-containing hardstocks used in structured food products such as margarine, spread and shortening. In this research, organogels formed by plant wax and vegetable oil were evaluated in an actual mar...

  3. Application of hydrated and anhydrous fluroantimonic acids in the polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerizations of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were catalyzed by the superacids, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6•6H2O) and anhydrous fluroantimonic acid (HSbF6) using ethyl acetate solvent. This work was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers from renewable resources...

  4. Catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil by hydrated and anhydrous fluoroantimonic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by the super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), and the anhydrous form (HSbF6) in ethyl acetate was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (SA-RPESO and SAA-...

  5. Thermosets of epoxy monomer from Tung oil fatty acids cured in two synergistic ways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new epoxy monomer from tung oil fatty acids, glycidyl ester of eleostearic acid (GEEA), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and FT-IR were utilized to investigate the curing process of GEEA cured by both dienophiles...

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  7. Preparation of human milk fat substitutes from palm stearin with arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid: combination of enzymatic and physical methods.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Qiang; Huang, Jian-Hua; Jin, Qing-Zhe; Liu, Yuan-Fa; Tao, Guan-Jun; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Wang, Xing-Guo

    2012-09-19

    Human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs) were prepared by a two-step process, namely, Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of interesterified high-melting palm stearin with fatty acids from rapeseed oil and blending of the enzymatic product with the selected oils on the basis of the calculation model. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were a mole ratio of palm stearin/fatty acids 1:10, 60 °C, 8% enzyme load (wt % of substrates), 4 h, and 3.5% water content (wt % of enzyme); the enzymatic product contained 39.6% palmitic acid (PA), 83.7% of the fatty acids at sn-2 position were PA (sn-2 PA), and the distribution probability of PA at the sn-2 position among total PA (% sn-2 PA) was 70.5%. With the fatty acid profiles of human milk fat (HMF) as a preferable goal, a physical blending model was established for the second step to guarantee the maximum addition of selected oils. Based on the model prediction, a desirable formula constituted enzymatic product/rapeseed oil/sunflower oil/palm kernel oil/algal oil/microbial oil at a mole ratio of 1:0.28:0.40:0.36:0.015:0.017, and the final product had PA content, sn-2 PA, and %sn-2 PA at 23.5, 43.1, and 61.1%, respectively. The contents of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were 0.4 and 0.3%, respectively. Relying on the total and sn-2 fatty acid compositions of HMF and "deducting score" principle, the score for the similarity between the final product and HMF was scaled as 89.2, indicating the potential as a fat substitute in infant formulas.

  8. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

    2013-04-15

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale.

  9. Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Mandal, Guru Prasad; Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and concentrations of beneficial cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-11 C18:1 fatty acid (FA) in the rumen fluid in an in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: Six vegetable oils including sunflower, soybean, sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were used at three dose levels (0%, 3% and 4% of substrate dry matter [DM] basis) in three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design using 6 × 3 factorial arrangement. Rumen fluid for microbial culture was collected from four goats fed on a diet of concentrate mixture and berseem hay at a ratio of 60:40 on DM basis. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100 ml conical flakes containing 50 ml of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 0%, 3% and 4% vegetable oils. Results: Oils supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) in vitro DM digestibility, and concentrations of total volatile FAs and ammonia-N. Sunflower oil and soybean oil decreased (p<0.05) protozoal numbers with increasing levels of oils. Other oils had less pronounced effect (p>0.05) on protozoal numbers. Both trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations were increased (p<0.05) by sunflower and soybean oil supplementation at 4% level with the highest concentration observed for sunflower oil. The addition of other oils did not significantly (p>0.05) increase the trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations as compared to the control. The concentrations of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were not altered (p>0.05) due to the addition of any vegetable oils. Conclusion: Supplementation of sunflower and soybean oils enhanced beneficial trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations in rumen fluid, while sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were ineffective in this study. PMID:28246442

  10. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  11. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses. Trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spe...

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  13. A reconfigured Kennedy pathway which promotes efficient accumulation of medium chain fatty acids in leaf oils.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kyle B; Taylor, Matthew C; Cullerne, Darren P; Blanchard, Christopher L; Wood, Craig C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2017-03-16

    Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C6-14 fatty acids) are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and broader oleochemicals. In recent decades, several studies have used transgenic engineering to produce MCFA in seeds oils, though these modifications result in unbalance membrane lipid profiles that impair oil yields and agronomic performance. Given the ability to engineer non-seed organs to produce oils, we have previously demonstrated that MCFA profiles can be produced in leaves, but this also results in unbalanced membrane lipid profiles and undesirable chlorosis and cell death. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase from oil palm, EgDGAT1, was necessary to channel nascent MCFA directly into leaf oils and therefore bypassing MCFA residing in membrane lipids. This pathway resulted in increased flux towards MCFA rich leaf oils, reduced MCFA in leaf membrane lipids and, crucially, the alleviation of chlorosis. Deep sequencing of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) generated candidate genes of interest, which were then tested for their ability to improve oil accumulation. Thioesterases were explored for the production of lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic (C14:0). The thioesterases from Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora produced a total of 52% C12:0 and 40% C14:0, respectively, in transient leaf assays. This study demonstrated that the introduction of a complete acyl-CoA dependent pathway for the synthesis of MFCA-rich oils avoided disturbing membrane homeostasis and cell death phenotypes. This study outlines a transgenic strategy for the engineering of biomass crops with high levels of MCFA rich leaf oils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  15. Thermochemistry of C-O, (CO)-O, and (CO)-C bond breaking in fatty acid methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Osmont, Antoine; Yahyaoui, Mohammed; Catoire, Laurent; Goekalp, Iskender; Swihart, Mark T.

    2008-10-15

    Density functional theory quantum chemical calculations corrected with empirical atomic increments have been used to examine C-O, (CO)-O, and (CO)-C bond scission enthalpies in gas-phase fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) present in biodiesel derived from rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester. Mechanistic information, currently not available elsewhere for these large species, is obtained based on thermochemical considerations and compared to thermochemical considerations reported for methyl butanoate, a small methyl ester sometimes used as a model for FAMEs. These results are compared to previously reported C-C and C-H bond scissions in these FAMEs, derived using this same protocol. (author)

  16. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil.

  17. Light enables a very high efficiency of carbon storage in developing embryos of rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Fernando D; Alonso, Ana P; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Ohlrogge, John B

    2005-08-01

    The conversion of photosynthate to seed storage reserves is crucial to plant fitness and agricultural production, yet quantitative information about the efficiency of this process is lacking. To measure metabolic efficiency in developing seeds, rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos were cultured in media in which all carbon sources were [U-14C]-labeled and their conversion into CO2, oil, protein, and other biomass was determined. The conversion efficiency of the supplied carbon into seed storage reserves was very high. When provided with 0, 50, or 150 micromol m(-2) s(-1) light, the proportion of carbon taken up by embryos that was recovered in biomass was 60% to 64%, 77% to 86%, and 85% to 95%, respectively. Light not only improved the efficiency of carbon storage, but also increased the growth rate, the proportion of 14C recovered in oil relative to protein, and the fixation of external 14CO2 into biomass. Embryos grown at 50 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the presence of 5 microM 1,1-dimethyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea (an inhibitor of photosystem II) were reduced in total biomass and oil synthesis by 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, to the levels observed in the dark. To explore if the reduced growth and carbon conversion efficiency in dark were related to oxygen supplied by photosystem II, embryos and siliques were cultured with increased oxygen. The carbon conversion efficiency of embryos remained unchanged when oxygen levels were increased 3-fold. Increasing the O2 levels surrounding siliques from 21% to 60% did not increase oil synthesis rates either at 1,000 micromol m(-2) s(-1) or in the dark. We conclude that light increases the growth, efficiency of carbon storage, and oil synthesis in developing rapeseed embryos primarily by providing reductant and/or ATP.

  18. Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E L

    2002-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels were chemically, physically and morphologically characterized. Crude oil (49.0%) and crude protein (32.4%) were the two major constituents of the kernels. Phytic acid content was relatively high compared to other legumes. In contrast, antitryptic activities of the kernel flours were very low. Sapogenin contents of the full fat, defatted and testa flours were 1.5, 2.7 and 3.0%, respectively. The hardness of the kernel was found to be about 10.4 x 10(5) N/m2, which was somewhat high. The morphological structure of the kernel using a scanning electron microscope revealed that the protein matrix was embedded in a lake of oil droplets. Oil recovery, as a function of pressing time, pressure, temperature and particle size was investigated. With increasing temperature up to 70 degrees C at 400 bar, for 120 min, an oil recovery of 79.4% was obtained. Using an expeller at 115 degrees C, about 85% of the kernel oil was recovered. The reduction of particle size had a negative effect on oil recovery under the same conditions. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the pressing temperature up to 115 degrees C. The total amount of the unsaturated fatty acids was found to be up to 74.8% (50 degrees C) and 75.1% (115 degrees C) of the total fatty acids content.

  19. Lymphatic absorption of α-linolenic acid in rats fed flaxseed oil-based emulsion.

    PubMed

    Couëdelo, Leslie; Boué-Vaysse, Carole; Fonseca, Laurence; Montesinos, Emeline; Djoukitch, Sandrine; Combe, Nicole; Cansell, Maud

    2011-04-01

    The bioavailability of α-linolenic acid (ALA) from flaxseed oil in an emulsified form v. a non-emulsified form was investigated by using two complementary approaches: the first one dealt with the characterisation of the flaxseed oil emulsion in in vitro gastrointestinal-like conditions; the second one compared the intestinal absorption of ALA in rats fed the two forms of the oil. The in vitro study on emulsified flaxseed oil showed that decreasing the pH from 7·3 to 1·5 at the physiological temperature (37°C) induced instantaneous oil globule coalescence. Some phase separation was observed under acidic conditions that vanished after further neutralisation. The lecithin used to stabilise the emulsions inhibited TAG hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase. In contrast, lipid solubilisation by bile salts (after lipase and phospholipase hydrolysis) was favoured by preliminary oil emulsification. The in vivo absorption of ALA in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats fed flaxseed oil, emulsified or non-emulsified, was quantified. Oil emulsification significantly favoured the rate and extent of ALA recovery as measured by the maximum ALA concentration in the lymph (Cmax = 14 mg/ml at 3 h in the emulsion group v. 9 mg/ml at 5 h in the oil group; P < 0·05). Likewise, the area under the curve of the kinetics was significantly higher in the emulsion group (48 mg × h/ml for rats fed emulsion v. 26 mg × h/ml for rats fed oil; P < 0·05). On the whole, ALA bioavailability was improved with flaxseed oil ingested in an emulsified state. Data obtained from the in vitro studies helped to partly interpret the physiological results.

  20. Epoxidation of cottonseed oil by aqueous hydrogen peroxide catalysed by liquid inorganic acids.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Srikanta; Patwardhan, Anand V; Goud, Vaibhav V; Pradhan, Narayan C

    2008-06-01

    The kinetics of epoxidation of cottonseed oil by peroxyacetic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid in the presence of liquid inorganic acid catalysts were studied. It was possible to obtain up to 78% relative conversion to oxirane with very less oxirane cleavage by in situ technique. The rate constants for sulphuric acid catalysed epoxidation of cottonseed oil were in the range 0.39-5.4 x 10(-6)L mol(-1)s(-1) and the activation energy was found to be 11.7 kcal mol(-1). Some thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of activation were determined to be of 11.0 kcal mol(-1), -51.4 cal mol(-1)K(-1) and 28.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The order of effectiveness of catalysts was found to be sulphuric acid>phosphoric acid>nitric acid>hydrochloric acid. Acetic acid was found to be superior to formic acid for the in situ cottonseed oil epoxidation.

  1. Fatty acid and stable carbon isotope characterization of Camelina sativa oil: implications for authentication.

    PubMed

    Hrastar, Robert; Petrisic, Marinka G; Ogrinc, Nives; Kosir, Iztok Joze

    2009-01-28

    The importance of authenticity characterization is an increasing and pressing requirement for all foods. Vegetable oil is one of the most studied foods because of its nutritional and medicinal properties in a correct diet. In this study, a total of 53 Camelina sativa samples, from all known growing areas, were chemically and isotopically characterized. The fatty acid content of camelina oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC), and the ratios of stable carbon isotopes ((13)C/(12)C) of individual fatty acids and seed/bulk oil were determined by gas chromatography-combustion-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and elemental analysis-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). A total of 17 different fatty acids were detected by GC, with omega3 R-linolenic acid (C(18:3n3)) being the most abundant (29.7-40.0 wt %). Oleic acid (C(18:1n9)), linoleic acid (C(18:2n6)) and eicosenoic acid (C(20:1n9)) all belong to the second group of major fatty acids. The stable carbon isotopic values (delta(13)C) fell into a range typical for C(3) plants. The use of delta(13)C(18:2n6) vs delta(13)C(18:3n3) correlation could show cases where impurity or adulteration is suspected, whereas principal component analysis clearly separates oil samples from different continents. Preliminary results on the camelina oil authentication procedure provide a basis for the investigation of geographical origin and the further distinction between camelina and camelina refined or other, less expensive oils.

  2. Induction of apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells by jacaranda seed oil derived fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Motonaga, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Marino; Ikezaki, Aya; Kakihara, Tomoka; Hayasegawa, Rintaro; Yamasaki, Kaede; Sakono, Masanobu; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Various fatty acids are attracting considerable interest for their anticancer effects. Among them, fatty acids containing conjugated double bonds show one of the most potent cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Here, we focused on the cancer cell killing activity of jacaranda seed oil. The seed oil of jacaranda harvested from Miyazaki in Japan contained 30.9% cis-8, trans-10, cis-12 octadecatrienoic acid, called jacaric acid (JA). Fatty acid prepared from this oil (JFA) and JA strongly induced cell death in human leukemia HL-60 cells. On the other hand, linoleic acid and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (<10 μM) did not affect cell proliferation and viability. An increase in the sub-G₁ population and internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA was observed in JA- and JFA-treated cells, indicating induction of apoptotic cell death. Finally, the cytotoxic effects of JA and JFA were completely abolished by α-tocopherol. Taken together, these data suggest that jacaranda seed oil has potent apoptotic activity in HL-60 cells through induction of oxidative stress.

  3. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  4. Olive oils modulate fatty acid content and signaling protein expression in apolipoprotein E knockout mice brain.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Regina; Navarro, María A; Vögler, Oliver; Perona, Javier S; Osada, Jesús; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis contributes to disruption of neuronal signaling pathways by producing lipid-dependent modifications of brain plasma membranes, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether long-term (11 weeks) consumption of refined- (ROO) and pomace- (POO) olive oil modulated the fatty acid composition and the levels of membrane signaling proteins in the brain of apolipoprotein E (apoE) knockout (KO) mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis. Both of these oils are rich in bioactive molecules with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. ROO and POO long-term consumption increased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), particularly of oleic acid, while reducing the level of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic and stearic acid. As a result, the MUFA:SFA ratio was higher in apoE KO mice brain fed with ROO and POO. Furthermore, both oils reduced the level of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid, suggesting a decrease in the generation of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. Finally, ROO and POO induced an increase in the density of membrane proteins implicated in both the Galphas/PKA and Galphaq/PLCbeta1/PKCalpha signaling pathways. The combined effects of long-term ROO and POO consumption on fatty acid composition and the level of signaling proteins involved in PKA and PKC activation, suggest positive effects on neuroinflammation and brain function in apoE KO mice brain, and convert these oils into promising functional foods in diseases involving apoE deficiency.

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Acid Oil via a Two-Step Enzymatic Transesterification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nakyung; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Kwak, Jieun; Lee, Junsoo; Kim, In-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock. The acid oil consisted of 53.7 wt% fatty acids, 2.4 wt% monoacylglycerols, 9.1 wt% diacylglycerols, 28.8 wt% triacylglycerols, and 6.0 wt% others. Three immobilized lipases were evaluated as potential biocatalysts, including Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus. The effects of molar ratio of acid oil to ethanol, temperature, and enzyme loading were investigated to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification with the three immobilized lipases. The optimum conditions of the three immobilized lipases were a molar ratio of 1:5 (acid oil to ethanol), the temperature range of 30-40°C, and the enzyme loading range of 5-10%. The two-step transesterification was then conducted under the optimum conditions of each lipase. The stepwise use of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM or Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM resulted in similar or higher levels of yield to the individual lipases. The maximum yields obtained in both stepwise uses were ca. 92%.

  6. Measurement of naphthenic acids in the receiving waters around an offshore oil platform by passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Harman, Christopher; Langford, Katherine; Sundt, Rolf C; Brooks, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the vicinity of an offshore oil installation and analyzed for naphthenic acids (NAs). The POCIS accumulated a range of mono- to tetracyclic NAs, with different degrees of alkylation, with monocyclic acids being the most abundant. Currently, POCIS or similar polar samplers may be the only way to measure exposure to NAs from offshore discharges in situ. In addition, they may be a valuable tool for monitoring similar organic acids in general.

  7. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  8. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  9. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  10. Fatty acid alkyl esters presence in olive oil vs. organoleptic assessment.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, R B; Moreda, W; Pérez-Camino, M C

    2012-12-01

    The scientific work on the authenticity and quality of olive oil is an ever-growing area. Olive oil genuineness is not only valuable for the producers, but also for the consumers who expect an actual correspondence between the products they purchase and the information on the packaging labels. Sometimes oil's rejection by consumers is just a matter of taste, sometimes is a more objective question. Low quality olive oils with weak organoleptic defects are the targets of illegal blends that can be detected by determining the content of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs). In this line we have established a relationship between the FAAEs concentration of olive oils and their sensory classification. Besides, a connection between the presence of large quantities of FAAEs and fermentative organoleptic defects has been proven.

  11. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  12. Effect of replacement of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil on growth, lipid class and fatty acid composition of farmed juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2013-12-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) oil was tested as a replacement for fish oil in diets for farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Camelina differs from other plant oilseeds previously used in aquaculture with high lipid (40 %), α-linolenic acid (40 %), antioxidants and low proportions of saturated fats. Dietary treatments were fed to cod (19 g fish⁻¹ initial weight) for 9 weeks and included a fish oil control (FO), 40 % (CO40) and 80 % (CO80) replacement of fish oil with camelina oil. There was no effect of replacing fish oil with camelina oil included at levels up to 80 % on the growth performance. Cod fed CO80 stored more lipid in the liver (p < 0.01), including more neutral lipid (p < 0.05) and triacylglycerol (p < 0.05). Cod fed CO80 decreased in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in muscle compared to CO40 and FO (p < 0.05), increased in monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), decreased in total ω3 fatty acids (FO > CO40 > CO80; p < 0.01) and increased in total ω6 fatty acids (FO < CO40 < CO80; p < 0.01). In the liver, long-chain (LC) PUFA such as 20:4ω6, 20:5ω3, 22:5ω3 and 22:6ω3 decreased when fish oil was removed from the diet (p < 0.05), and increased in 18-carbon fatty acids (p < 0.01). Camelina oil can reduce the amount of fish oil needed to meet lipid requirements, although replacing 80 % of fish oil reduced LC PUFAs in both tissues. A comparison of BF₃ and H₂SO₄ as catalysts to transmethylate cod liver and muscle lipids revealed small but significant differences in some fatty acid proportions.

  13. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Arcinas, Arthur; Harden, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C(18) HPLC fractions of castor oil were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of lithium adducts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids and the dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1. Eight triacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:0, diOH18:2-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:0-OH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1-OH18:1. The locations of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone were not determined. The structures of these three newly identified dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid and 11,12-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. These individual acylglycerols were at the levels of about 0.5% or less in castor oil and can be isolated from castor oil or overproduced in a transgenic oil seed plant for future industrial uses.

  14. Differential Molecular Responses of Rapeseed Cotyledons to Light and Dark Reveal Metabolic Adaptations toward Autotrophy Establishment

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongli; Damaris, Rebecca N.; Fu, Jinlei; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Xi, Chen; Yi, Bin; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis competent autotrophy is established during the postgerminative stage of plant growth. Among the multiple factors, light plays a decisive role in the switch from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. Under dark conditions, the rapeseed hypocotyl extends quickly with an apical hook, and the cotyledon is yellow and folded, and maintains high levels of the isocitrate lyase (ICL). By contrast, in the light, the hypocotyl extends slowly, the cotyledon unfolds and turns green, the ICL content changes in parallel with cotyledon greening. To reveal metabolic adaptations during the establishment of postgerminative autotrophy in rapeseed, we conducted comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses of the cotyledons of seedlings grown under light versus dark conditions. Under both conditions, the increase in proteases, fatty acid β-oxidation and glyoxylate-cycle related proteins was accompanied by rapid degradation of the stored proteins and lipids with an accumulation of the amino acids. While light condition partially retarded these conversions. Light significantly induced the expression of chlorophyll-binding and photorespiration related proteins, resulting in an increase in reducing-sugars. However, the levels of some chlorophyllide conversion, Calvin-cycle and photorespiration related proteins also accumulated in dark grown cotyledons, implying that the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy is programmed in the seed rather than induced by light. Various anti-stress systems, e.g., redox related proteins, salicylic acid, proline and chaperones, were employed to decrease oxidative stress, which was mainly derived from lipid oxidation or photorespiration, under both conditions. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the differential molecular responses of rapeseed cotyledons to light and dark conditions, which will facilitate further study on the complex mechanism underlying the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy. PMID:27471506

  15. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity.

  16. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  17. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  18. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  19. Enhanced phyto-extraction of cadmium and zinc using rapeseed

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.; Slycken, S.V.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Naz, F.; Ali, S.

    2013-07-01

    In a green house pot experiment, the effects of three amendments, sulphur (S), ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn by rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Elemental sulphur was applied as 20.00, 60.00, and 120.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. EDTA was tested at a dose of 585.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at a rate of 0.23 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. All treatments received a base fertilization (Hogland) before sowing. Plants were harvested after 51 days of growth and shoot dry matter and soil samples were analysed for metal contents. All amendments caused a significant increase in Cd and Zn contents in plant shoots of all treatments than control treatment. Further, EDTA was most effective for extraction metals concentrations in shoot biomass but the plants showed significant signs of toxicity and yield were severely depressed. The addition of sulfur favorably influenced plant biomass production. The fertilized ammonium sulfate treatment resulted in the highest phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn and the amounts of these metals accumulated in plant shoot exceeded by a factor of 4 and 3 respectively. Finally, Brassica napus could be used for soil remediation keeping its other uses which will make the contaminated site income generating source for the farmers. (authors)

  20. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-03-09

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure.

  1. Determination of free fatty acids in olive oils by UPHLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wabaidur, Saikh M; AlAmmari, Ahmad; Aqel, Ahmad; Al-Tamrah, Saad A; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Ahmed, A Y Badjah Hadj

    2016-09-15

    A simple, fast, highly efficient and direct method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been established for the simultaneous separation, identification and quantitation of a few saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in olive oils from various countries. No sample pretreatment techniques were employed such as extraction or derivatization for the analysis of target acids from oil samples, as the oil samples were just diluted, filtered and then directly injected to the instrument. The chromatographic separations of all target fatty acids were achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 column of particle size 1.9μm, 50×2.1mm I.D, while the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase mixture of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.5ml/min was adopted for achieving optimum separations. The identification and quantitation of target compounds was accomplished using selected ion reaction monitoring mode. The recoveries of the fatty acids were obtained higher than 89% with good validation parameters; linearity (r(2)>0.992), detection limit between 0.09 and 0.24μg/ml, run to run and day to day precisions with percent relative standard deviation lower than 2.4% at both low (1μg/ml) and medium (10μg/ml) concentration levels. The total content of fatty acids in each individual oils was found in the range of 472.63-7751.20μg/ml of olive oil, while oleic acid was found to be the major fatty acid among all analyzed oils with the amount 3785.94μg/ml (maximum) in Syrian olive oil. The obtained validation parameters confirm that the proposed analytical method is rapid, sensitive, reproducible and simple and it could be applied for the successful evaluation of fatty acids in various oils and other matrices. All the fatty acids were efficiently eluted in a time of less than 8min with well resolved peaks by employing the proposed method.

  2. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia.

  3. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  4. Palm oil and palmitic acid: a review on cardiovascular effects and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Fanelli, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    We reviewed the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil and adverse effects on human health. Few studies have investigated the effects of palm oil per se, and the main reason why it has been associated with negative health effects is the relatively high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), particularly palmitic acid, which in turn have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and some tumours. However, more recent investigations on the topic seem to have reconsidered the negative role of the dietary SFAs as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and show that not only the type of fat, but also that the triglyceride structure plays a role in cholesterolaemia. As regards to a role in cancer, specific studies on dietary palmitic acid or palm oil and the risk of cancer development are scanty, and the evidence is not convincing.

  5. Hypocholesterolemic effect of gamma-linolenic acid as evening primrose oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugano, M; Ide, T; Ishida, T; Yoshida, K

    1986-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids was compared in male rats given high-cholesterol diets containing either evening primrose oil (EPO, linoleic plus gamma-linolenic), safflower oil (SFO, linoleic) or olive oil (OLO, low linoleic) at the 10% level. EPO with a phytosterol content of 1.47% was found to be more hypocholesterolemic than SFO (phytosterols 0.34%), and rats given EPO excreted more neutral (cholesterol and its metabolites) but not acidic steroids during the first 2 weeks of the feeding. Even when the phytosterol content of EPO and SFO was adjusted to be the same (0.67%), EPO was still more hypocholesterolemic than SFO but to a lesser extent, although fecal neutral steroid excretion was comparable in these two dietary fat regimens. The results indicate a significant hypocholesterolemic efficacy of gamma-linolenic acid.

  6. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. Objective: The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil–containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. Results: The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P < 0.001). Significantly lower (36–38%) blood glucose concentrations were evident in the FOH and COH mice relative to C mice (P < 0.01). Hepatic EPA concentrations were higher in all EPA groups relative to the C group (P < 0.001), with concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 2.9, 0.2, and 3.6 g/100 g liver total lipids in the C, COL, COH, FOL, and FOH groups, respectively. Comparable dose-independent enrichments of liver DHA were observed in mice fed CO and FO diets (P < 0.001). Relative to the C group, lower fatty acid desaturase 1 (Fads1) expression (P < 0.005) was observed in the COH and FOH groups. Higher fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P < 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor

  7. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  8. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  9. Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Torstensen, B E; Lie, O; Frøyland, L

    2000-06-01

    Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed four diets containing different oils as the sole lipid source, i.e., capelin oil, oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of capelin oil and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, and palm oil (PO). The beta-oxidation capacity, protein utilization, digestibility of dietary fatty acids and fatty acid composition of lipoproteins, plasma, liver, belly flap, red and white muscle were measured. Further, the lipid class and protein levels in the lipoproteins were analyzed. The different dietary fatty acid compositions did not significantly affect protein utilization or beta-oxidation capacity in red muscle. The levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and protein in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and plasma were not significantly affected by the dietary fatty acids. VLDL, LDL, and HDL fatty acid compositions were decreasingly affected by dietary fatty acid composition. Dietary fatty acid composition significantly affected both the relative fatty acid composition and the amount of fatty acids (mg fatty acid per g tissue, wet weight) in belly flap, liver, red and white muscle. Apparent digestibility of the fatty acids, measured by adding yttrium oxide as inert marker, was significantly lower in fish fed the PO diet compared to the other three diets.

  10. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  11. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Partida, J A; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Campo, M M

    2007-07-01

    This study measured the effect of replacing dietary fat from an animal source with palm oil supplements on the intramuscular fatty acid profile and sensory quality traits of the meat from young bulls. Thirty-six entire male Friesian calves (mean age=6.8±1.1 months, mean live weight=162.5±28.6kg) were assigned to one of four isoenergetic (1.03 MFU/kg DM) and isoproteinic (15.5% CP) diets, that differed in their fat additives: (D1) lard-tallow mix (control); (D2) hydrogenated palm oil fatty acids (PFA); (D3) calcium salt of partially hydrogenated PFA, and (D4) calcium salt of the fatty acid distillate from palm oil. Bulls (mean live weight=391.3±30.3kg) were slaughtered under commercial conditions and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the four diets and ageing time (1, 10, and 21d). Only the proportions of C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly affected by the palm oil dietary supplement. Ageing time affected grass odour, tenderness, juiciness, fibrosity, liver flavour, and acid flavour. Nevertheless, palm oil supplements did not negatively alter the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  12. [Absorption of Uranium with Tea Oil Tree Sawdust Modified by Succinic Acid].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-feng; Chen, Di-yun; Peng, Yan; Liu, Yong-sheng; Xiong, Xue-ying

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore how the modification of succinic acid improves the adsorption of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium, the tea oil tree sawdust was modified by succinic acid, after the pretreatments of crushing, screening, alkalization and acidification. Infrared analysis indicated carboxylic acid groups and ester groups were added to the sawdust after modification, and scanning electron microscope demonstrated after modification the appearance of tea oil tree sawdust was transferred from the structure like compact and straight stripped into the structure like loose and wrinkled leaves, which meant modification increased its inner pores. By the static experiments, effects of reaction time between adsorbent and solvent, dosage of adsorbent, temperature, pH value and initial concentration of uranium were investigated. The results showed that after the modification by succinic acid, the absorption rate of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium increased significantly by about 20% in 12.5 mg · L(-1) initial concentration uranium solution. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 180 min, and the kinetic data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the maximum adsorption amounts of tea oil tree sawdust after modification calculated from Langmuir equation raised from 21.413 3 to 31.545 7 mg · g(-1) at 35°C and pH 4.0.

  13. Composition of fatty acids triacylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter in Calophyllum calaba L. oil from Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Crane, Sylvie; Aurore, Guylène; Joseph, Henry; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Bourgeois, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The composition of the kernel oils of two Calophyllum species (Calophyllum calaba L. and Calophyllum inophyllum L.) was investigated. The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the kernel oils were examined. In two species, oleic acid C18:1 (39.1-50%) is the dominating fatty acid followed by linoleic acid C18:2 (21.7-31.1%) as the second major fatty acid. Stearic C18:0 (13.4-14.3%) and palmitic C16:0 (11-13.7%) acids are the major saturates. The oils contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (70.8-73.10%). Most of the fatty acids are present as triacylglycerol (76.7-84%), twenty one triacylglycerols are detected with predominantly unsaturated triacylglycerols. The total unsaponifiable content, its general composition and the identity of the components of the sterol and tocopherol fractions are presented. In both species, analysis of the unsaponifiable fractions revealed the preponderance of phytosterols, mainly stigmasterol (35.8-45.1%) and beta-sitosterol (41.1-43.1%). Among the eight tocopherols and tocotrienols present in two species, variations exist; alpha-tocopherol (183 mg/kg) is the main tocopherol in Calophyllum calaba L. and Delta-tocotrienol (236 mg/kg) is the dominant tocotrienol in Calophyllum inophyllum L.

  14. Dietary Fish Oil Can Change Sperm Parameters and Fatty Acid Profiles of Ram Sperm during Oil Consumption Period and after Removal of Oil Source

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, AliReza; Esmaeili, Vahid; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Rashidi, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The effects of dietary fish oil on semen quality and sperm fatty acid profiles during consumption of n-3 fatty acids as well as the persistency of fatty acids in ram’s sperm after removing dietary oil from the diet were investigated. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we randomly assigned 9 Zandi rams to two groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets): control (CTR; n=5) and fish oil (FO; n=4) for 70 days with a constant level of vitamin E in both groups. Semen was collected at the first week and at the last week of the feeding period (phase 1). After the feeding period, all rams were fed a conventional diet and semen samples were collected one and two months after removal of FO (phase 2). The sperm parameters and fatty acid profiles were measured by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The completely randomized design was used and data were analyzed with SPSS version 16. Results Dietary FO had significant positive effects on all sperm quality and quantity parameters compared with the CTR during the feeding period (p<0.05). The positive effects of FO on sperm concentration and total sperm output were observed at one and two months after removal of FO (p<0.05), whereas other sperm parameters were unaffected. Before feeding, C14 (myristic acid), C16 (palmitic acid), C18 (stearic acid), C18:1 (oleic acid) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid: DHA) were the primary sperm FA. FO in the diet increased sperm DHA, C14:0 and C18:0 during the feeding period (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study showed not only manipulation of ram sperm fatty acid profiles by dietary FO and sperm parameters during the feeding period, but also the persistency of unique effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids up to two months following its removal from the diet. Also, we recommend that sperm fatty acid profiles should be comprehensively analyzed and monitored. PMID:24611147

  15. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (∼23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ∼30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus.

  16. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on occurrence, formation, analysis, and elimination methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the groups of oil-processing contaminants, are mainly formed during the deodorization step of the oil refining process and, thus, found in almost all refined edible oils. GEs have been considered to be potentially carcinogenic because, in the gastrointestinal...

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Gang, G O; Sawyer, J E; Johnson, B J; Kim, K H; Choi, C W; Smith, S B

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers, and that soybean oil supplementation would depress adipocyte differentiation. Twenty-eight Angus steers were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 9 or 10 steers and fed a basal diet without additional fat (control), with 3% palm oil (rich in palmitic acid), or with 3% soybean oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), for 10 wk, top-dressed daily. Palm oil had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG, food intake, or G:F, whereas soybean oil depressed ADG (P = 0.02), food intake (P = 0.04), and G:F (P = 0.05). Marbling scores tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in palm oil-fed steers (Modest(09)) than in soybean oil-fed steers (Small(55)). Subcutaneous adipocyte mean volume was greater in palm oil-fed steers (515.9 pL) than in soybean-supplemented cattle (395.6 pL; P = 0.01). Similarly, glucose and acetate incorporation into total lipids in vitro was greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers (119.9 and 242.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively) than adipose tissue of soybean oil-fed steers in (48.9 and 95.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in adipose tissue of control steers. Palm oil did not increase palmitic acid or decrease oleic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue or LM, but decreased (P ≤ 0.05) myristoleic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acid in adipose tissue, indicating a depression in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. Soybean oil increased the proportion of α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue and muscle and increased linoleic acid and 18:1trans-10 in muscle. We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef.

  18. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  19. Esterification Reaction of Glycerol and Palm Oil Oleic Acid Using Methyl Ester Sulfonate Acid Catalyst as Drilling Fluid Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, V. I.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-02-01

    Esterification reaction between glycerol with palm oil oleic acid to produce glycerol ester and one of the utilization of glycerol esters is as ingredients of drilling fluids formula for oil drilling needs. The purpose of this research is to get the best conditions of the esterification process. The esterification reaction does with the reactants is glycerol with purity of 97.6%, palm oil oleic acid with the molar ratio is 1:1, Methyl Ester Sulfonate Acid (MESA) catalyst 0.5%, and stirring speed 400 rpm. The temperature range of 180°C to 240°C and the processing time between 120 to 180 minutes. The results showed that the best conditions of the esterification reaction at the temperature 240°C and time process are 180 minute. The increasing temperature resulted that the acid number decreases and causing the conversion increased. The maximum conversion is 99.24%, density 0.93 g/cm3, flash point 241°C, pour point -3°C, the boiling point of 244 °C, the acid value of 1.90 mg KOH/g sample, kinematic viscosity 31.51 cSt (40°C), surface tension 37.0526 dyne/cm and GCMS identification, glycerol ester at 22,256 retention time (minutes) and wide area 73.75 (%). From the research results obtained glycerol ester with characteristics suitable for drilling fluid formulations.

  20. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat.

  1. Activity of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid or monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tangwatcharin, Pussadee; Khopaibool, Prapaporn

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activities of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid and monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC 25923 and an isolate from a pig carcass, by determination of Fractional Bactericidal Concentration Index (FBCI), time-kill method, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of lauric acid, monolaurin and lactic acid were 3.2 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 0.4% (v/v), respectively. The effects of lauric acid + lactic acid and monolaurin + lactic acid combinations were synergistic against both strains, exhibiting FBCIs of 0.25 and 0.63, respectively. In time-kill studies, lauric acid and monolaurin + lactic acid combinations added at their minimum inhibitory concentrations produced a bactericidal effect. The induction of stress in non-stressed cells was dependent on the type and concentration of antimicrobial. This resulted in a loss and change of the cytoplasm and membrane in cells of the bacterium. In contrast, virgin coconut oil (10%) was not active against S. aureus. The bacterial counts found in pork loin treated with lauric acid and monolaurin alone were significantly higher (p <0.05) than those treated with both lipids in combination with lactic acid at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The color, odor and overall acceptability of the pork loins were adversely affected by treatment with the three lipids and lactic acid alone but when combinations of the agents were used the sensory quality was acceptable.

  2. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  5. Role of naphthenic acids in stabilizing water-in-diluted model oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Moran, Kevin; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2010-06-17

    The need for alkaline conditions in oil sands processing is, in part, to produce natural surfactants from bitumen. Previous studies have shown that the produced surfactants are primarily carboxylic salts of naphthenic acids with the possibility of sulfonic salts as well. The role of these natural surfactants, particularly those in the naphthenate class, is to provide a physicochemical basis for several subprocesses in bitumen extraction. In this study, it was found that the content of indigenous naphthenic acids in bitumen can destabilize, to some extent, the water-in-oil emulsion by lowering the interfacial tension, reducing the rigidity and promoting the coalescence of water droplets.

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  7. Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.

    PubMed

    Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

    2014-04-01

    The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil.

  8. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step.

  9. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  10. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of oil fractions separated from food waste leachate over nanoporous acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Heo, Hyeon Su; Kim, Sang Guk; Ryoo, Ryong; Kim, Jeongnam; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-07-01

    Oil fractions, separated from food waste leachate, can be used as an energy source. Especially, high quality oil can be obtained by catalytic cracking. In this study, nanoporous catalysts such as Al-MCM-41 and mesoporous MFI type zeolite were applied to the catalytic cracking of oil fractions using the pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mesoporous MFI type zeolite showed better textural porosity than Al-MCM-41. In addition, mesoporous MFI type zeolite had strong Brönsted acidity while Al-MCM-41 had weak acidity. Significant amount of acid components in the food waste oil fractions were converted to mainly oxygenates and aromatics. As a result of its well-defined nanopores and strong acidity, the use of a mesoporous MFI type zeolite produced large amounts of gaseous and aromatic compounds. High yields of hydrocarbons within the gasoline range were also obtained in the case of mesoporous MFI type zeolite, whereas the use of Al-MCM-41, which exhibits relatively weak acidity, resulted in high yields of oxygenates and diesel range hydrocarbons.

  12. Diversity of Δ12 Fatty Acid Desaturases in Santalaceae and Their Role in Production of Seed Oil Acetylenic Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal Δ12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with Δ12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was Δ12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. Δ15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-Δ12 and trans-Δ11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable Δ12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-Δ13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  13. Enhanced Seed Oil Production in Canola by Conditional Expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in Developing Seeds1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-01-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production. PMID:21562329

  14. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  15. In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of tocopherol and fatty acids from sunflower seed oil bodies.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel A; Fisk, Ian D; Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Gray, David A

    2009-07-08

    The in vitro digestibility (proteolytic and lipolytic) and bioaccessibility of nutritionally important compounds (alpha-tocopherol and fatty acids) have been studied for natural sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) oil body suspensions in comparison to artificial emulsions emulsified with polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan-monolaurate (Tween 20) or whey protein isolate. Proteolytic digestion of emulsions with pepsin (pH 2) promoted significant increases in mean particle size of the whey protein isolate stabilized emulsion (1.8-2.9 mum) and oil bodies (2.3-22.5 mum) but not the Tween 20 stabilized emulsions. SDS-PAGE of proteolytic digestion products suggested degradation of the stabilizing oleosin protein (ca. 18-21 kDa) in oil bodies. The rate of oil body hydrolysis with lipase was significantly slower than the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the artificial emulsions and exhibited a prolonged lag phase. Results from simulated human digestion in vitro suggested that the mean bioaccessibility of alpha-tocopherol and total fatty acids from oil bodies (0.6 and 8.4%, respectively) was significantly lower than that from the Tween 20 stabilized emulsion (35 and 52%, respectively) and the whey protein isolate stabilized emulsion (17 and 33%, respectively). These in vitro results suggest that oil bodies could provide a natural emulsion in food that is digested at a relatively slow rate, the physiological consequence of which may be increased satiety.

  16. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  17. Coping with sub-optimal water temperature: modifications in fatty acid profile of barramundi as influenced by dietary lipid.

    PubMed

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic responses to sub-optimal temperature deplete lipid depots, remodel membrane lipid and alter the fatty acid profile in the whole body and tissues of ectothermic vertebrates including fish. The magnitude of these changes may depend on dietary history including oil sources with different fatty acid compositions. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes, Latidae), a tropical ectothermic fish, was fed on diets either rich in dietary long-chain (≥C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil, rich in stearidonic and γ-linolenic acid (SDA and GLA, respectively) from Echium plantagineum, or rapeseed oil deficient in LC-PUFA. Following 5 weeks at the optimum temperature of 30 °C when growth rates were comparable amongst dietary treatments, water temperature was dropped to 20 °C for 1 week for half of the animals and maintained at 30 °C for the other half. Decreased temperature increased the liver and skeletal muscle content of LC-PUFA in fish fed on echium oil compared with rapeseed oil, while dietary LC-PUFA depots in fish oil fed-fish depleted rapidly in the week of sub-optimal temperature. The lipid unsaturation index of cellular membrane in the liver and muscle increased under low temperature at the same rate regardless of dietary oil. Therefore, rapid exposure of an ectothermic vertebrate to a lower and sub-optimal temperature caused significant modulation in fatty acid composition. We propose that the tolerance of barramundi, a representative of tropical farmed fish, to sub-optimal temperature will be enhanced when fatty acid substrates closer to the LC-PUFA are available in their diet.

  18. Fatty acid profiles of Garuga floribunda, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Melanolepis multiglandulosa and Premna odorata seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of four species from four plant families for which no or only sparse information on the fatty acid profiles is available are reported. The five seed oils are Garuga floribunda of the Burseraceae family, Ipomoea pes-caprae of the Convolvulaceae family, Melanol...

  19. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  20. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  1. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  2. Formulation of oil-in-water β-carotene microemulsions: effect of oil type and fatty acid chain length.

    PubMed

    Roohinejad, Shahin; Oey, Indrawati; Wen, Jingyuan; Lee, Sung Je; Everett, David W; Burritt, David J

    2015-05-01

    The impact of oil type and fatty acid chain length on the development of food-grade microemulsions for the entrapment of β-carotene was investigated. The microemulsion region of a ternary phase diagram containing short chain monoglycerides was larger than for di- and triglycerides when Tween 80 was used as surfactant. The cytotoxicity of microemulsions composed of a 30% monoglyceride oil, 20% Tween 80 and 50% aqueous buffer were evaluated using an in vitro cell culture model (human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma, Caco-2). The cytotoxicity test showed that the viability of Caco-2 cells against β-carotene microemulsions at concentrations of 0.03125% (v/v) was higher than 90%. This study suggests that short chain monoglycerides could be used with Tween 80 to prepare transparent β-carotene-encapsulated O/W microemulsions in the particle size range of 12-100 nm.

  3. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin N; Satué-Gracia, Teresa; Meyer, Anne S; German, J Bruce

    2002-03-27

    The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants, and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils from algae are unusually stable to oxidation. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.

  4. Kinetics of Non-Catalytic Esterification of Free Fatty Acids Present in Jatropha Oil.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Rani, Karna Narayana; Ramana Neeharika, Tulasi Sri Venkata; Kumar, Thella Prathap; Satyavathi, Bankupalli; Sailu, Chintha

    2016-05-01

    Non-catalytic esterfication of free fatty acids (FFA) present in vegetable oils is an alternative pretreatment process for the biodiesel production. Biodiesel, consists of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fat. This study presents kinetics of thermal esterification of free fatty acids present in jatropha oil with methanol. The effect of process parameters like reaction time (1-5 h), temperature (170-190°C) and oil to methanol ratio (1:3-1:5) at constant pressure was investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be oil to methanol ratio of 1:4, 190°C, at 27.1 bar and 5 h which gave a maximum conversion of 95.1%. A second order kinetic model for both forward and backward reactions was proposed to study the reaction system. A good agreement was observed between the experimental data and the model values. The activation energy for forward reaction and the heat of reaction were found to be 36.364 Kcal/mol and 1.74 Kcal/mol respectively.

  5. Molecular dynamic simulation of asphaltene co-aggregation with humic acid during oil spill.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinzhe; Chen, Daoyi; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-11-01

    Humic acid in water and sediment plays a key role in the fate and transport of the spilled oil, but little is known about its influence on the aggregation of heavy oil asphaltenes which is adverse for remediation. Molecular dynamic simulation was performed to characterize the co-aggregation of asphaltenes (continental model and Violanthrone-79 model) with Leonardite humic acid (LHA) at the toluene-water interface and in bulk water, respectively, to simulate the transport of asphaltenes from oil to water. At the toluene-water interface, a LHA layer tended to form and bind to the water by hydrogen bonding which provided a surface for the accumulation of asphaltenes by parallel or T-shape stacking. After entering the bulk water, asphaltene aggregates stacked in parallel were tightly sequestrated inside the inner cavity of LHA aggregates following surface adsorption and structure deformation. Asphaltene aggregation in water was 2-fold higher than at the toluene-water interface. The presence of LHA increased the intensity of asphaltene aggregation by up to 83% in bulk water while relatively less influence was observed at the toluene-water interface. Overall results suggested that the co-aggregation of asphaltene with humic acid should be incorporated to the current oil spill models for better interpreting the overall environmental risks of oil spill.

  6. Effect of dietary Lorenzo's oil and docosahexaenoic acid treatment for Zellweger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Yohei; Hayashi, Masaharu; Oshida, Kyoichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of decreasing plasma levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26:0) with a synthetic oil containing trioleate and trielucate (Lorenzo's oil) as well as increasing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in red blood cells (RBC) with DHA ethyl ester in four patients with Zellweger syndrome. We investigated serial changes of plasma C26:0 levels and DHA levels in RBC membranes by gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). After death, the fatty acid composition of each patient's cerebrum and liver was studied. Dietary administration of Lorenzo's oil diminished plasma C26:0 levels. Earlier administration of Lorenzo's oil was more effective and the response did not depend on the duration of administration. DHA was incorporated into RBC membrane lipids when administrated orally, and its level increased for several months. The final DHA level was correlated with the duration of administration and was not related to the timing of initiation of treatment. DHA levels in the brains and livers of treated patients were higher than in untreated patients. Early initiation of Lorenzo's oil and the long-term administration of DHA may be useful for patients with Zellweger syndrome.

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae to organic acids and essential oil components

    PubMed Central

    VANDE MAELE, Lien; HEYNDRICKX, Marc; MAES, Dominiek; DE PAUW, Nele; MAHU, Maxime; VERLINDEN, Marc; HAESEBROUCK, Freddy; MARTEL, An; PASMANS, Frank; BOYEN, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of organic acids and essential oil components against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative pathogen of swine dysentery, was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15 compounds were determined at pH 7.2 and pH 6.0, using a broth microdilution assay. In addition, possible synergism was determined. MIC values for the three tested strains were similar. For organic acids, MIC values at pH 6.0 were lower than at pH 7.2. B. hyodysenteriae was most sensitive to cinnamaldehyde and lauric acid, with MIC values <1.5 mM. Most antibacterial effects of binary combinations were additive, however, for thymol and carvacrol, synergism could be observed. In vitro results demonstrate the antibacterial action of certain essential oil components and organic acids against B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:26369432

  8. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  9. In vitro susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae to organic acids and essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Vande Maele, Lien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Dominiek; De Pauw, Nele; Mahu, Maxime; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Boyen, Filip

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial potential of organic acids and essential oil components against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative pathogen of swine dysentery, was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15 compounds were determined at pH 7.2 and pH 6.0, using a broth microdilution assay. In addition, possible synergism was determined. MIC values for the three tested strains were similar. For organic acids, MIC values at pH 6.0 were lower than at pH 7.2. B. hyodysenteriae was most sensitive to cinnamaldehyde and lauric acid, with MIC values <1.5 mM. Most antibacterial effects of binary combinations were additive, however, for thymol and carvacrol, synergism could be observed. In vitro results demonstrate the antibacterial action of certain essential oil components and organic acids against B. hyodysenteriae.

  10. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  11. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.

  12. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals.

  13. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  14. New conjugated hydroxydienoic fatty acids and acetotriacylglycerols from Securidaca longipedunculata seed oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Madrigal, R V; Plattner, R D

    1979-02-26

    Like other members of the plant family Polygalaceae, Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., is a source of fatty acids and triacylglycerols with unusual structures. Its seed oil contains at least seven chromatographically distinct groups of triacylglycerols divided into two series: One series represents monoacetotriacylglycerols, and the other 'normal' triacylglycerols having only long-chain fatty acids. Each series has groups containing zero, one or two conjugated hydroxydienoic acids. In addition, there is a small amount of triacylglycerol incorporating three hydroxy acids. In addition to coriolic (13-hydroxyoctadeca-cis-9,trans-11-dienoic) acid (27%), two of its previously unknown homologs are present: 11-hydroxyhexadeca-cis-7,trans-9-dienoic acid (15%) and 9-hydroxytetradeca-cis-5,trans-7-dienoic acid (2%).

  15. Oil components modulate the skin delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its ester prodrug from oil-in-water and water-in-oil nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Jia-You

    2011-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential of nanoemulsions for the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl ALA (mALA). The drugs were incorporated in oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) formulations obtained by using soybean oil or squalene as the oil phase. The droplet size, zeta potential, and environmental polarity of the nanocarriers were assessed as physicochemical properties. The O/W and W/O emulsions showed diameters of 216–256 and 18–125 nm, which, respectively, were within the range of submicron- and nano-sized dispersions. In vitro diffusion experiments using Franz-type cells and porcine skin were performed. Nude mice were used, and skin fluorescence derived from protoporphyrin IX was documented by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The loading of ALA or mALA into the emulsions resulted in slower release across cellulose membranes. The release rate and skin flux of topical drug application were adjusted by changing the type of nanocarrier, the soybean oil O/W systems showing the highest skin permeation. This formulation increased ALA flux via porcine skin to 180 nmol/cm2/h, which was 2.6-fold that of the aqueous control. The CLSM results showed that soybean oil systems promoted mALA permeation to deeper layers of the skin from ∼100 μm to ∼140 μm, which would be beneficial for treating subepidermal and subcutaneous lesions. Drug permeation from W/O systems did not surpass that from the aqueous solution. An in vivo dermal irritation test indicated that the emulsions were safe for topical administration of ALA and mALA. PMID:21556344

  16. Acid-catalyzed esterification of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil with high free fatty acids for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Jiang, Lifeng

    2008-12-01

    A technique to produce biodiesel from crude Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZSO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) was developed. The acid value of ZSO was reduced to 1.16mg KOH/g from 45.51mg KOH/g by only one-step acid-catalyzed esterification with methanol-to-oil molar ratio 24:1, H(2)SO(4) 2%, temperature 60 degrees C and reaction time 80min, which was selected as optimum for the acid-catalyzed esterification. During the acid-catalyzed esterification, FFA was converted into fatty acid methyl esters, which was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectrum. Compared with the other two-step pretreatment procedure, this one-step pretreatment can reduce the production cost of ZSO biodiesel. Alkaline-catalyzed transesterification converted the pretreated ZSO into ZSO biodiesel. The yield of ZSO biodiesel was above 98% determined by (1)H NMR spectrum. This study supports the use of crude ZSO as a viable and valuable raw feedstock for biodiesel production.

  17. Porosity-Acidity Interplay in Hierarchical ZSM-5 Zeolites for Pyrolysis Oil Valorization to Aromatics.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Begoña; Veses, Alberto; Callén, Maria Soledad; Mitchell, Sharon; García, Tomás; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-10-12

    The properties of crude bio-oils attained by the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass can be greatly enhanced by means of catalytic upgrading. Here, we demonstrate an efficient process concept coupling the production of pyrolysis oil from pine wood with a consecutive catalytic upgrading step over hierarchically structured ZSM-5 zeolites to attain aromatic-rich bio-oils. The selective upgrading of these complex mixtures is shown to be tightly connected to the extent of mesopore development and the density of Brønsted acid sites at the mesopore surface. A full product analysis enables elucidation of the impact of mesopore introduction and the acidic properties on the complex reaction network. The preferential occurrence of decarbonylation reactions in hierarchical zeolites versus dehydration transformations in the bulk counterparts is believed to be decisive in promoting increased aromatics formation.

  18. Ferric sulphate catalysed esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Ooi, Chun Weng; Motala, Nafisa Osman; Ismail, Mohd Anas Farhan

    2010-10-01

    In this work, the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in waste cooking oil catalysed by ferric sulphate was studied as a pre-treatment step for biodiesel production. The effects of reaction time, methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and temperature on the conversion of FFA were investigated on a laboratory scale. The results showed that the conversion of FFA reached equilibrium after an hour, and was positively dependent on the methanol to oil molar ratio and temperature. An optimum catalyst concentration of 2 wt.% gave maximum FFA conversion of 59.2%. For catalyst loadings of 2 wt.% and below, this catalysed esterification was proposed to follow a pseudo-homogeneous pathway akin to mineral acid-catalysed esterification, driven by the H(+) ions produced through the hydrolysis of metal complex [Fe(H(2)O)(6)](3+) (aq).

  19. Biodiesel production from algae oil high in free fatty acids by two-step catalytic conversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianzhong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Junfeng

    2012-05-01

    The effect of storage temperature and time on lipid composition of Scenedesmus sp. was studied. When stored at 4°C or higher, the free fatty acid content in the wet biomass increased from a trace to 62.0% by day 4. Using two-step catalytic conversion, algae oil with a high free fatty acid content was converted to biodiesel by pre-esterification and transesterification. The conversion rate of triacylglycerols reached 100% under the methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 during catalysis with 2% potassium hydroxide at 65°C for 30 min. This process was scaled up to produce biodiesel from Scenedesmus sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. oil. The crude biodiesel was purified using bleaching earth. Except for moisture content, the biodiesel conformed to Chinese National Standards.

  20. Measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and patchouli alcohol of patchouli oil produced in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito

    2017-03-01

    Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.

  1. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2015-01-15

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1-C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems.

  2. Extraction, separation, and intramolecular carbon isotope characterization of athabasca oil sands acids in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Jason M E; Pakdel, Hooshang; Savard, Martine M; Simard, Marie-Christine; Smirnoff, Anna

    2012-12-04

    Here we report a novel approach to extract, isolate, and characterize high molecular weight organic acids found in the Athabasca oil sands region using preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) followed by thermal conversion/elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TC/EA-IRMS). A number of different "naphthenic acids" surrogate standards were analyzed as were samples from the bitumen-rich unprocessed McMurray Formation, oil sands process water, groundwater from monitoring wells, and surface water from the Athabasca River. The intramolecular carbon isotope signature generated by online pyrolysis (δ(13)C(pyr)) showed little variation (±0.6‰) within any given sample across a large range of mass fractions separated by PCGC. Oil sand, tailings ponds, and deep McMurray Formation groundwater were significantly heavier (up to ∼9‰) compared to surface water and shallow groundwater samples, demonstrating the potential use of this technique in source apportionment studies.

  3. Influence of vegetable oils fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Mata-Granados, J M; Lopez-Gimenez, F J; Luque de Castro, M D; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines produced through transesterification of oleaginous feedstocks. To analyze the influence of the fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization, transesterification of several vegetable oils has been studied. Reactions were carried out in flasks filled with vegetable oils, heated to the reaction temperature and stirred at 1100 rpm. The reactions started when the methanol and potassium hydroxide solutions were added to the flasks. Concentration of catalyst, amount of methanol, reaction temperature and time were optimized using a factorial design and a surface response design. Also, a kinetics study was carried out to optimize the reaction time. Results showed that reaction parameters optimal values depend on the oil chemical and physical properties. It can be concluded from this field trial that the effect of both catalyst concentration and reaction time over the transesterification yield is greatly influenced by the saturation degree and fatty-acid chain length.

  4. Gamma-linolenic acid in borage oil reverses epidermal hyperproliferation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chung, S; Kong, S; Seong, K; Cho, Y

    2002-10-01

    As dietary sources of gamma-linolenic acid [GLA; 18:3(n-6)], borage oil (BO; 24-25 g/100 g GLA) and evening primrose oil (PO; 8-10 g/100 g GLA) are efficacious in treating skin disorders. The triglycerol stereospecificity of these oils is distinct, with GLA being concentrated in the sn-2 position of BO and in the sn-3 position of PO. To determine whether the absolute level and/or the triglycerol stereospecificity of GLA in oils affect biological efficacy, epidermal hyperproliferation was induced in guinea pigs by a hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) diet for 8 wk. Subsequently, guinea pigs were fed diets of PO, BO or a mixture of BO and safflower oil (SO) for 2 wk. The mixture of BO and SO (BS) diet had a similar level of GLA as PO but with sn-2 stereospecificity. As controls, two groups were fed SO and HCO for 10 wk. Epidermal hyperproliferation was reversed by all three oils in the order of BO > BS > PO. However, proliferation scores of group PO were higher than of the normal control group, SO. The accumulations of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [DGLA; 20:3(n-6)], an elongase product of GLA, into phospholipids and ceramides, of 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE), the potent antiproliferative metabolite of DGLA, and of ceramides, the major lipid maintaining epidermal barrier, in the epidermis of group BO were greater than of groups BS and PO. Group BS had higher levels of DGLA, 15-HETrE and ceramides than group PO. With primary dependence on absolute levels, our data demonstrate that the antiproliferative efficacy of GLA in the epidermis is preferably exerted from sn-2 stereospecificity of GLA in BO.

  5. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-03-30

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  6. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  7. Histidine Regulates Seed Oil Deposition through Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and β-Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huimin; Wang, Shui

    2016-10-01

    The storage compounds are deposited into plant seeds during maturation. As the model oilseed species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has long been studied for seed oil deposition. However, the regulation of this process remains unclear. Through genetic screen with a seed oil body-specific reporter, we isolated low oil1 (loo1) mutant. LOO1 was mapped to HISTIDINE BIOSYNTHESIS NUMBER 1A (HISN1A). HISN1A catalyzes the first step of His biosynthesis. Oil significantly decreased, and conversely proteins markedly increased in hisn1a mutants, indicating that HISN1A regulates both oil accumulation and the oil-protein balance. HISN1A was predominantly expressed in embryos and root tips. Accordingly, the hisn1a mutants exhibited developmental phenotype especially of seeds and roots. Transcriptional profiling displayed that β-oxidation was the major metabolic pathway downstream of HISN1A β-Oxidation was induced in hisn1a mutants, whereas it was reduced in 35S:HISN1A-transgenic plants. In plants, seed storage oil is broken-down by β-oxidation, which is controlled by abscisic acid (ABA). We found that His activated genes of ABA biosynthesis and correspondingly advanced ABA accumulation. Exogenous ABA rescued the defects of hisn1a mutants, whereas mutation of ABA DEFICIENT2, a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, blocked the effect of His on β-oxidation, indicating that ABA mediates His regulation in β-oxidation. Intriguingly, structural analysis showed that a potential His-binding domain was present in the general amino acid sensors GENERAL CONTROL NON-DEREPRESSIBLE2 and PII, suggesting that His may serve as a signal molecule. Taken together, our study reveals that His promotes plant seed oil deposition through ABA biosynthesis and β-oxidation.

  8. Fatty acid profile of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil and properties of the methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent literature, seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos; also known previously as Kosteletzkya virginica) seed oil was reported as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel. In the present work, the fatty acid profile of K. pentacarpos is shown to correspond to that of other plants in ...

  9. Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. ); Frank, Richard A.

    2011-03-10

    Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

  10. Desmodium genetic resources for improving flavonoid concentrations, oil, and fatty acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed from several Desmodium species adapted to the Griffin, GA environment have potential as nutraceutical supplements for livestock. Flavonoids, oil, and fatty acid profiles identified from 25 accessions representing 5 species (D. discolor, D. incanum, D. intortum, D. sandwicense, and D. tortuosum)...

  11. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  12. Enrichment of erucic acid from pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is a winter annual that has a wide geographic distribution and a growth habitat that makes it suitable for an off-season rotation between corn and soybeans in much of the Midwestern United States. Pennycress seed contains 36% oil with 36.6% erucic acid content. There are...

  13. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  14. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  15. Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones altered by potassium fertilizer rates in the midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the effect of potassium fertilizer on soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of potassium application on seed p...

  16. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterc...

  17. Dietary borage oil alters plasma, hepatic and vascular tissue fatty acid composition in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Engler, M M; Engler, M B

    1998-07-01

    Dietary borage oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has been shown to lower blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A potential mechanism for this effect may be attributed to changes in metabolism of GLA to dihomogamma-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic acids (AA). We investigated the effects of dietary borage oil on fatty acid composition in the plasma, liver and vascular tissue in WKY and SHR. The diet significantly increased the levels of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. GLA and DGLA levels in the plasma, liver, aorta and renal artery tissues increased in SHR (P < 0.001) and WKY (P < 0.001). AA levels were also increased in both plasma and liver of SHR (P < 0.05) and WKY (P < 0.05) fed the borage oil enriched diet. The results demonstrate that dietary borage oil produces marked changes in the metabolism of GLA which may contribute to its blood pressure lowering effect in WKY and SHR.

  18. Phosphorus fertilization differentially influences fatty acids, protein and oil in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is limited about phosphorus (P) fertilization effects on soybean seed composition. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of P application rates on the concentrations of various fatty acids, protein, and oil in soybean under no-tillage on low and high testing P soils...

  19. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  20. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements?

    PubMed

    Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-12-01

    Eating fish or taking n-3 fatty acid supplements can decrease the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease. Such supplements also provide symptomatic relief for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Recent research suggests that asthma, another highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease, may also respond to fish oil supplements.

  1. Identification of the unsaturated heptadecyl fatty acids in the seed oils of Thespesia populnea and Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition of the seed oils of Thespesia populnea and cotton variety SG-747 (Gossypium hirsutum) were studied to identity their 17-carbon fatty acids. With a combination of chemical derivatization, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry, 8-heptadecenoic acid, 9-heptadecenoic acid...

  2. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  3. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  4. Characterization and authentication of a novel vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Natalie E; Hatta-Sakoda, Beatriz; Pascual-Chagman, Gloria; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-09-15

    Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3's), whether from fish oils, flax or supplements, can protect against cardiovascular disease. Finding plant-based sources of the essential ω-3's could provide a sustainable, renewable and inexpensive source of ω-3's, compared to fish oils. Our objective was to develop a rapid test to characterize and detect adulteration in sacha inchi oils, a Peruvian seed containing higher levels of ω-3's in comparison to other oleaginous seeds. A temperature-controlled ZnSe ATR mid-infrared benchtop and diamond ATR mid-infrared portable handheld spectrometers were used to characterize sacha inchi oil and evaluate its oxidative stability compared to commercial oils. A soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyzed the spectral data. Fatty acid profiles showed that sacha inchi oil (44% linolenic acid) had levels of PUFA similar to those of flax oils. PLSR showed good correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.9) between reference tests and spectra from infrared devices, allowing for rapid determination of fatty acid composition and prediction of oxidative stability. Oils formed distinct clusters, allowing the evaluation of commercial sacha inchi oils from Peruvian markets and showed some prevalence of adulteration. Determining oil adulteration and quality parameters, by using the ATR-MIR portable handheld spectrometer, allowed for portability and ease-of-use, making it a great alternative to traditional testing methods.

  5. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  6. Recovery of algal oil from marine green macro-algae Enteromorpha intestinalis by acidic-hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyung-Ho; Kong, In-Soo; Kim, Joong Kyun; Park, Nam Gyu; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 °C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased.

  7. Acid-induced structural modifications of unsaturated Fatty acids and phenolic olive oil constituents by nitrite ions: a chemical assessment.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Alessandra; Panzella, Lucia; Savarese, Maria; Sacchi, Raffaele; Giudicianni, Italo; Paolillo, Livio; d'Ischia, Marco

    2004-10-01

    The structural modifications of the unsaturated fatty acid components of triglycerides in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) following exposure to nitrite ions in acidic media were determined by two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy, aided by (15)N labeling and GC analysis, allowing investigation of the matrix without fractionation steps. In the presence of excess nitrite ions in a 1% sulfuric acid/oil biphasic system, extensive double bond isomerization of the oleic/linoleic acid components of triglycerides was observed associated with nitration/oxidation processes. Structurally modified species were identified as E/Z-nitroalkene, 1,2-nitrohydroxy, and 3-nitro-1-alkene(1,5-diene) derivatives based on (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N 2D NMR analysis in comparison with model compounds. Minor constituents of EVOO, including phenolic compounds and tocopherols, were also substantially modified by nitrite-derived nitrating species, even under milder reaction conditions relevant to those occurring in the gastric compartments. Novel nitrated derivatives of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein (6-8) were identified by LC/MS analysis of the polar fraction of EVOO and by comparison with synthetic samples. Overall, these results provide the first systematic description at the chemical level of the consequences of exposing EVOO to nitrite ions at acidic pH and offer an improved basis for further investigations in the field of toxic nitrosation/nitration reactions and dietary antinitrosating agents.

  8. Acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process for methyl ester production from crude rubber seed oil.

    PubMed

    Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Pianthong, Kulachate; Worapun, Ittipon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for producing methyl ester from crude rubber seed oil. An acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process is proposed. In the experiment, the 20% FFA of crude rubber seed oil could be reduced to 3% FFA by acid esterification. The product after esterified was then tranesterified by alkaline transesterification process. By this method, the maximum yield of methyl ester was 90% by mass. The overall consumption of methanol was 10.5:1 by molar ratio. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its fuel properties and met required standards. The major fatty acid methyl ester compositions were analyzed and constituted of methyl linoleate 41.57%, methyl oleate 24.87%, and methyl lonolenate 15.16%. Therefore, the cetane number of methyl ester could be estimated as 47.85, while the tested result of motor cetane number was 51.20.

  9. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  10. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Assessing the bioremediation potential of algal species indigenous to oil sands process-affected waters on mixtures of oil sands acid extractable organics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Sarah E; Frank, Richard A; Woodworth, Adam P; Bragg, Leslie M; Bauer, Anthony E; Deeth, Lorna E; Müller, Kirsten M; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George; Servos, Mark R; McConkey, Brendan J

    2016-11-01

    Surface mining extraction of bitumen from oil sand in Alberta, Canada results in the accumulation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). In attempts to maximize water recycling, and because its constituents are recognized as being toxic, OSPW is retained in settling basins. Consequently, research efforts are currently focused on developing remediation strategies capable of detoxifying OSPW to allow for eventual release. One potential bioremediation strategy proposes to utilize phytoplankton native to the Alberta oil sand region to sequester, break down, or modify the complex oil sands acid extractable organic (AEO) mixtures in OSPW. Preliminary attempts to quantify changes in total oil sands AEO concentration in test solutions by ESI-MS following a 14-day algal remediation period revealed the presence of unknown organic acids in control samples, likely released by the phytoplankton strains and often of the same atomic mass range as the oil sands AEO under investigation. To address the presence of these "biogenic" organic acids in test samples, ESI-MS in MRM mode was utilized to identify oil sands AEO "marker ions" that were a) present within the tested oil sands AEO extract and b) unique to the oil sands AEO extract only (e.g. atomic masses different from biogenic organic acids). Using this approach, one of the 21 tested algal strains, Stichococcus sp. 1, proved capable of significantly reducing the AEO marker ion concentration at test concentrations of 10, 30, and 100mgL(-1). This result, along with the accelerated growth rate and recalcitrance of this algal strain with exposure to oil sands AEO, suggests the strong potential for the use of the isolated Stichococcus sp. 1 as a candidate for bioremediation strategies.

  12. Effectiveness of rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil to enhance the α-linolenic acid content in milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pi, Y; Gao, S T; Ma, L; Zhu, Y X; Wang, J Q; Zhang, J M; Xu, J C; Bu, D P

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of rubber seed oil compared with flaxseed oil when fed alone or in combination on milk yield, milk composition, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in milk of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized design. Cows were fed a basal diet (control; CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 4% rubber seed oil (RO), 4% flaxseed oil (FO), or 2% rubber seed oil plus 2% flaxseed oil (RFO) on a dry matter basis for 9 wk. Feed intake, milk protein percentage, and milk fat levels did not differ between the treatments. Cows fed the RO, FO, or RFO treatments had a higher milk yield than the CON group (up to 10.5% more), whereas milk fat percentages decreased. Compared with the CON, milk concentration of ALA was substantially higher in cows receiving RO or RFO, and was doubled in cows receiving FO. The ALA yield (g/d) increased by 31.0, 70.3, and 33.4% in milk from cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. Both C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid) and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (conjugated linoleic acid; CLA) levels were higher in cows fed added flaxseed or rubber seed oil. The CLA yield (g/d) increased by 336, 492, and 484% in cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. The increase in vaccenic acid, ALA, and CLA was greater in cows fed RFO than in cows fed RO alone. Compared with the CON, the milk fat from cows fed any of the dietary supplements had a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; conversely, the saturated fatty acids levels in milk fat were 30.5% lower. Insulin and growth hormones were not affected by dietary treatments; however, we noted an increase in both cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids levels in the RO, FO, or RFO treatments. These results indicate that rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil will increase milk

  13. Development of stable flaxseed oil emulsions as a potential delivery system of ω-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Sabikhi, Latha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a stable flaxseed oil emulsion for the delivery of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids through food fortification. Oil-in-water emulsions containing 12.5 % flaxseed oil, 10 % lactose and whey protein concentrate (WPC)-80 ranging from 5 to 12.5 % were prepared at 1,500, 3,000 and 4,500 psi homogenization pressure. Flaxseed oil emulsions were studied for its physical stability, oxidative stability (peroxide value), particle size distribution, zeta (ζ)-potential and rheological properties. Emulsions homogenized at 1,500 and 4,500 psi pressure showed oil separation and curdling of WPC, respectively, during preparation or storage. All the combinations of emulsions (homogenized at 3,000 psi) were physically stable for 28 days at 4-7 ºC temperature and did not show separation of phases. Emulsion with 7.5 % WPC showed the narrowest particle size distribution (190 to 615 nm) and maximum zeta (ζ)-potential (-33.5 mV). There was a slight increase in peroxide value (~20.98 %) of all the emulsions (except 5 % WPC emulsion), as compared to that of free flaxseed oil (~44.26 %) after 4 weeks of storage. Emulsions showed flow behavior index (n) in the range of 0.206 to 0.591, indicating higher shear thinning behavior, which is a characteristic of food emulsions. Results indicated that the most stable emulsion of flaxseed oil (12.5 %) can be formulated with 7.5 % WPC-80 and 10 % lactose (filler), homogenized at 3,000 psi pressure. The formulated emulsion can be used as potential omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids delivery system in developing functional foods such as pastry, ice-creams, curd, milk, yogurt, cakes, etc.

  14. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C₂₂:₆, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C₂₀:₅, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C₁₆:₄) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10⁻⁶ M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties.

  15. Brazilian oils and butters: the effect of different fatty acid chain composition on human hair physiochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, Adriana; Scanavez, Carla; Santos, Leandra; De Oliveira, Amanda; Roesler, Roberta; Escudeiro, Cassiano; Moncayo, Priscila; De Sanctis, Daisy; Gesztesi, Jean Luc

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of five oils and three butters extracted from Brazilian plants with different fatty chain composition on hair mechanical properties, split end formation, combing analysis and gloss measurements. Oil treatment reduced the combing force percentage for wet conditions. However, the hair treated with butters showed poor combing. Except for ucuúba butter, oils and butters used in this work had generally no influence on hair tensile properties. In general, hair treated with oils showed a significant gloss increase and a decrease for split end formation. The fatty acid composition of the oils and butters tested showed an effect on the physicochemical properties of hair.

  16. Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Julia; Demmelmair, Hans; Hornstra, Gerard; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-02-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9 % v. +2.1 %, means), DGLA (+13.8 % v. +0.7 %) and DHA (+59.6 % v. +5.5 %), while there was no significant difference for ARA ( - 2.2 % v. - 5.9 %). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development.

  17. Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Michael; Matt, Laurie; Rubin, Evelyn; Visitacion, Mark Paul; Haller, Nairmeen A; Grey, Scott F; Woolverton, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide; in addition, the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile is becoming a significant problem. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown previously to have the antimicrobial activity. This study evaluates the lipid components of VCO for the control of C. difficile. VCO and its most active individual fatty acids were tested to evaluate their antimicrobial effect on C. difficile in vitro. The data indicate that exposure to lauric acid (C12) was the most inhibitory to growth (P<.001), as determined by a reduction in colony-forming units per milliliter. Capric acid (C10) and caprylic acid (C8) were inhibitory to growth, but to a lesser degree. VCO did not inhibit the growth of C. difficile; however, growth was inhibited when bacterial cells were exposed to 0.15-1.2% lipolyzed coconut oil. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the disruption of both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of cells exposed to 2 mg/mL of lauric acid. Changes in bacterial cell membrane integrity were additionally confirmed for VCO and select fatty acids using Live/Dead staining. This study demonstrates the growth inhibition of C. difficile mediated by medium-chain fatty acids derived from VCO.

  18. Characterisation of a highly saturated Irvingia gabonensis seed kernel oil with unusual linolenic acid content.

    PubMed

    Zoué, Lessoy T; Bédikou, Micaël E; Faulet, Betty M; Gonnety, Jean T; Niamké, Sébastien L

    2013-02-01

    The search for new sources of oil with improved characteristics has focused our attention on the characterisation of Irvingia gabonensis seed kernel oil. Physicochemical analysis have revealed the following assets: refractive index (1.42 ± 0.00), free fatty acids (2.3 ± 0.8%), peroxide value (3.33 ± 0.57 meq O(2)/kg), iodine value (32.43 ± 1.22 g I(2)/100 g), saponification value (233.75 ± 2.60 mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (1.5 ± 0.02%), carotenoids (63 ± 0.01 mg β-carotene/100 g) and phospholipids (2.1 ± 0.01%). Absorbance of this oil decreased abruptly in the range of UV-B and UV-A wavelengths. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the major fatty acids were saturated, being mainly composed of lauric (C12:0, 39.35 ± 0.01%) and myristic acids (C14:0, 20.54 ± 0.01%). Nevertheless, an unusually high amount (6.44 ± 0.02%) of linolenic acid