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Sample records for acid receptor gpr40

  1. GPR40, a free fatty acid receptor, differentially impacts osteoblast behavior depending on differentiation stage and environment.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Claire; Wauquier, Fabien; Lyan, Bernard; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2016-01-01

    GPR40 is a free fatty acid receptor that has been recently shown to impact bone remodeling. This receptor protects skeleton by inhibiting bone resorbing osteoclast differentiation. Consistent with GPR40 expression on bone forming cells, we assumed that this receptor may also influence osteoblast activity. To further investigate this hypothesis, biological effects of GW9508, a synthetic agonist for GPR40, was first tested on osteoblast differentiation parameters. Assays were performed in two different cell models: the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line and primary bone marrow cultures extracted from wild-type and GPR40 knock-out mice. Both models showed a dual role of GPR40 on osteoblasts. Although receptor stimulation induced early stimulation of differentiation marker expression, it finally led to inhibition of mineralization process during late differentiation stages. To further elucidate this discrepancy, mice were ovariectomized to induce bone loss and received GPR40 agonist by gavage. Data revealed a weak influence of GPR40 agonist on osteoblast markers expression. Nevertheless, a significant increase in OPG expression was observed upon GW9508 treatment that contribute to explain the GPR40-related osteoporosis prevention. To conclude, our results confirm the relevance of this new opportunity in the management of bone loss.

  2. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Celia P; Tadayyon, Mohammad; Andrews, John L; Benson, William G; Chambers, Jon K; Eilert, Michelle M; Ellis, Catherine; Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Goetz, Aaron S; Minnick, Dana T; Murdock, Paul R; Sauls, Howard R; Shabon, Usman; Spinage, Lisa D; Strum, Jay C; Szekeres, Philip G; Tan, Kong B; Way, James M; Ignar, Diane M; Wilson, Shelagh; Muir, Alison I

    2003-03-28

    GPR40 is a member of a subfamily of homologous G protein-coupled receptors that include GPR41 and GPR43 and that have no current function or ligand ascribed. Ligand fishing experiments in HEK293 cells expressing human GPR40 revealed that a range of saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths greater than six were able to induce an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i), measured using a fluorometric imaging plate reader. 5,8,11-Eicosatriynoic acid was the most potent fatty acid tested, with a pEC(50) of 5.7. G protein coupling of GPR40 was examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the G alpha(q/i)-responsive Gal4-Elk1 reporter system. Expression of human GPR40 led to a constitutive induction of luciferase activity, which was further increased by exposure of the cells to eicosatriynoic acid. Neither the constitutive nor ligand-mediated luciferase induction was inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment, suggesting that GPR40 was coupled to G alpha(q/11.) Expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that GPR40 was specifically expressed in brain and pancreas, with expression in rodent pancreas being localized to insulin-producing beta-cells. These data suggest that some of the physiological effects of fatty acids in pancreatic islets and brain may be mediated through a cell-surface receptor.

  3. A New Pain Regulatory System via the Brain Long Chain Fatty Acid Receptor GPR40/FFA1 Signal.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

     An increasingly large number of pharmacological and physiological works on fatty acids have shown that the functional properties of fatty acids are regulated by the amount of individual fatty acid intake and the distribution of fatty acids among organs. Recently, it has been determined that G-protein-coupled receptor 40/free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFA1) is activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR40/FFA1 is mainly expressed in the β cell of the pancreas, spinal cord and brain. It is reported that this receptor has a functional role in controlling blood glucose levels via the modulation of insulin secretion. However, its physiological function in the brain remains unknown. Our previous studies have shown that GPR40/FFA1 is expressed in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-positive neurons of the arcuate nucleus, serotonergic neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus, and in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Furthermore, the intracerebroventricular injection of DHA or GW9508, which is a selective GPR40/FFA1 agonist, attenuates formalin-induced inflammatory pain behavior through increasing β-endorphin release in the hypothalamus. It also suppresses complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest that brain free long-chain fatty acids-GPR40/FFA1 signaling might have an important role in the modulation of endogenous pain control systems. In this review, I discuss the current status and our recent study regarding a new pain regulatory system via the brain long chain fatty acid receptor GPR40/FFA1 signal.

  4. Mercaptoacetate blocks fatty acid-induced GLP-1 secretion in male rats by directly antagonizing GPR40 fatty acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Simasko, Steve M; Ritter, Sue

    2016-04-15

    Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an orexigenic agent reported to block fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Recently, however, we reported evidence from isolated nodose ganglion neurons that MA antagonizes the G protein-coupled long- and medium-chain FA receptor GPR40. GPR40 mediates FA-induced secretion of the satietogenic incretin peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), by enteroendocrine L cells, as well as FA-induced enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our results in cultured nodose neurons suggest that MA would also block GPR40 in enteroendocrine cells controlling GLP-1 secretion. If so, this would suggest an alternative mechanism by which MA increases food intake. We tested the hypothesis that MA blocks FA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro using cultured STC-1 cells (a murine enteroendocrine cell line) and in vivo in adult male rats. In vitro, MA blocked the increase in both cytosolic Ca(2+)and GLP-1 release stimulated by FAs and also reduced (but less effectively) the response of STC-1 cells to grifolic acid, a partial agonist of the GPR120 FA receptor. In vivo, MA reduced GLP-1 secretion following olive oil gavage while also increasing glucose and decreasing insulin levels. The carnitine palmatoyltransferase 1 antagonist etomoxir did not alter these responses. Results indicate that MA's actions, including its orexigenic effect, are mediated by GPR40 (and possibly GPR120) receptor antagonism and not by blockade of fat oxidation, as previously believed. Analysis of MA's interaction with GPR40 may facilitate understanding of the multiple functions of this receptor and the manner in which FAs participate in the control of hunger and satiety.

  5. Differential free fatty acid receptor-1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signalling is associated with gene expression or gelatinase granule release in bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Mena, Sandra J; Manosalva, Carolina; Carretta, Maria D; Teuber, Stefanie; Olmo, Iván; Burgos, Rafael A; Hidalgo, Maria A

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids have been recognized as regulators of immune function in addition to their known metabolic role. Long-chain fatty acids bind free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)-1/GPR40, which is expressed on bovine neutrophils, and increase responses such as granule release and gene expression. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms governing the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-8, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 granule release in FFAR1/GPR40 agonist-stimulated neutrophils. Our results showed that natural (oleic and linoleic acid) and synthetic (GW9508) FFAR1/GPR40 agonists increased ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, and that the FFAR1/GPR40 antagonist GW1100 reduced these responses. We evaluated the levels of IκBα, a component of the classical activation pathway of the transcription factor NF-κB, and we observed IκBα reduction after stimulation with FFAR1/GPR40 agonists, an effect that was inhibited by GW1100 or the inhibitors UO126, SB203580 or LY294002. FFAR1/GPR40 agonists increased COX-2 and IL-8 expression, which was inhibited by GW1100 and an NF-κB inhibitor. Finally, the FFAR1/GPR40 agonist-induced MMP-9 granule release was reduced by GW1100 and UO126. In conclusion, FFAR1/GPR40 agonists differentially stimulate neutrophil functions; COX-2 and IL-8 are expressed after FFAR1/GPR40 activation via NF-κB, IκBα reduction is FFAR1/GPR40- and PI3K/MAPK-dependent, and MMP-9 granule release is FFAR1/GPR40- and ERK1/2-dependent.

  6. The Free Fatty Acid Receptor G Protein-coupled Receptor 40 (GPR40) Protects from Bone Loss through Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Wauquier, Fabien; Philippe, Claire; Léotoing, Laurent; Mercier, Sylvie; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Guicheux, Jérôme; Pilet, Paul; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms linking fat intake to bone loss remain unclear. By demonstrating the expression of the free fatty acid receptor G-coupled protein receptor 40 (GPR40) in bone cells, we hypothesized that this receptor may play a role in mediating the effects of fatty acids on bone remodeling. Using micro-CT analysis, we showed that GPR40−/− mice exhibit osteoporotic features suggesting a positive role of GPR40 on bone density. In primary cultures of bone marrow, we showed that GW9508, a GRP40 agonist, abolished bone-resorbing cell differentiation. This alteration of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation occurred via the inhibition of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway as demonstrated by decrease in gene reporter activity, inhibitor of κB kinase (IKKα/β) activation, inhibitor of κB (IkBα) phosphorylation, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) expression. The GPR40-dependent effect of GW9508 was confirmed using shRNA interference in osteoclast precursors and GPR40−/− primary cell cultures. In addition, in vivo administration of GW9508 counteracted ovariectomy-induced bone loss in wild-type but not GPR40−/− mice, enlightening the obligatory role of the GPR40 receptor. Then, in a context of growing prevalence of metabolic and age-related bone disorders, our results demonstrate for the first time in translational approaches that GPR40 is a relevant target for the design of new nutritional and therapeutic strategies to counter bone complications. PMID:23335512

  7. Pharmacological regulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells through the fatty acid receptor GPR40: identification of agonist and antagonist small molecules.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Celia P; Peat, Andrew J; McKeown, Stephen C; Corbett, David F; Goetz, Aaron S; Littleton, Thomas R; McCoy, David C; Kenakin, Terry P; Andrews, John L; Ammala, Carina; Fornwald, James A; Ignar, Diane M; Jenkinson, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    1. Long chain fatty acids have recently been identified as agonists for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR40 and GPR120. Here, we present the first description of GW9508, a small-molecule agonist of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR120. In addition, we also describe the pharmacology of GW1100, a selective GPR40 antagonist. These molecules were used to further investigate the role of GPR40 in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the MIN6 mouse pancreatic beta-cell line. 2. GW9508 and linoleic acid both stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells expressing GPR40 (pEC50 values of 7.32+/-0.03 and 5.65+/-0.06, respectively) or GPR120 (pEC50 values of 5.46+/-0.09 and 5.89+/-0.04, respectively), but not in the parent HEK-293 cell line. 3. GW1100 dose dependently inhibited GPR40-mediated Ca2+ elevations stimulated by GW9508 and linoleic acid (pIC50 values of 5.99+/-0.03 and 5.99+/-0.06, respectively). GW1100 had no effect on the GPR120-mediated stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ release produced by either GW9508 or linoleic acid. 4. GW9508 dose dependently potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells, but not in primary rat or mouse islets. Furthermore, GW9508 was able to potentiate the KCl-mediated increase in insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. The effects of GW9508 on insulin secretion were reversed by GW1100, while linoleic acid-stimulated insulin secretion was partially attenuated by GW1100. 5. These results add further evidence to a link between GPR40 and the ability of fatty acids to acutely potentiate insulin secretion and demonstrate that small-molecule GPR40 agonists are glucose-sensitive insulin secretagogues.

  8. Discovery of TUG-770: A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing. PMID:23687558

  9. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Valle, Maíra Mello; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of palmitic acid on superoxide production and insulin secretion by INS-1E cells and the possible involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in these processes were examined in this study. Cells were incubated during 1 h with palmitic acid in low and high glucose concentrations, a GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI) and PKC (calphostin C). GW9508 induced superoxide production at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and stimulated insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose concentration involving both PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Palmitic acid induced superoxide production through NADPH oxidase and GPR40-dependent pathways and the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of a high glucose concentration was reduced by knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA. Our results suggest that palmitic acid induces superoxide production and potentiates GSIS through NADPH oxidase and GPR40 pathways in pancreatic ? cells.

  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Mediate Insulin Release through Islet G Protein-coupled Receptor FFA1/GPR40*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Johannes; Liebscher, Kathrin; Merten, Nicole; Grundmann, Manuel; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E.; Ulven, Trond; Ullrich, Susanne; Gomeza, Jesús; Drewke, Christel; Kostenis, Evi

    2011-01-01

    Among dietary components, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have attracted considerable attention as weight loss supplements in the Western world because they reduce fat stores and increase muscle mass. However, a number of adverse effects are also ascribed to the intake of CLAs such as aggravation of insulin resistance and the risk of developing diabetes. However, the mechanisms accounting for the effects of CLAs on glucose homeostasis are incompletely understood. Herein we provide evidence that CLAs specifically activate the cell surface receptor FFA1, an emerging therapeutic target to treat type 2 diabetes. Using different recombinant cellular systems engineered to stably express FFA1 and a set of diverse functional assays including the novel, label-free non-invasive dynamic mass redistribution technology (Corning® Epic® biosensor), both CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-10, cis-12-CLA were found to activate FFA1 in vitro at concentrations sufficient to also account for FFA1 activation in vivo. Each CLA isomer markedly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in insulin-producing INS-1E cells that endogenously express FFA1 and in primary pancreatic β-cells of wild type but not FFA1−/− knock-out mice. Our findings establish a clear mechanistic link between CLAs and insulin production and identify the cell surface receptor FFA1 as a molecular target for CLAs, explaining their acute stimulatory effects on insulin secretion in vivo. CLAs are also revealed as insulinotropic components in widely used nutraceuticals, a finding with significant implication for development of FFA1 modulators to treat type 2 diabetes. PMID:21339298

  11. Different effects of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 on cell motile activity of highly migratory osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Kaori; Onishi, Yuka; Node, Yusuke; Inui, Karin; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2017-03-11

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 are members of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors and mediate a variety of biological responses through binding of medium- and long-chain FFAs. Recently, it has been reported that GPR120 and GPR40 regulated cellular functions of cancer cells. In the present study, to assess whether GPR120 and GPR40 are involved in the enhancement of cell motile activity of osteosarcoma cells, we established highly migratory (MG63-R7) cells from osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. The expression level of GPR120 gene was significantly higher in MG63-R7 cells than in MG-63 cells, while no change of GPR40 expression was observed. In cell motility assay, the cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells was approximately 200 times higher than that of MG-63 cells. The cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells was stimulated by GW9508, which is an agonist of GPR120 and GPR40. Moreover, a GPR40 antagonist GW1100 elevated the cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells in the presence of GW9508. To confirm the effects of GPR120 and GPR40 on the cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells, GPR120 knockdown cells were generated from MG63-R7 cells. The cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells was markedly suppressed by GPR120 knockdown. These results indicated that GPR120 enhanced and GPR40 inhibited the cell motile activity of highly migratory osteosarcoma cells.

  12. Phenoxymethyl 1,3-oxazoles and 1,2,4-oxadiazoles as potent and selective agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40).

    PubMed

    Zahanich, Ihor; Kondratov, Ivan; Naumchyk, Vasyl; Kheylik, Yuri; Platonov, Maxim; Zozulya, Sergey; Krasavin, Mikhail

    2015-08-15

    A screening hit that showed a weak (EC50 = 18 μM), partial agonistic effect on GPR40 was used a prototype for expedited hit expansion effort using a set of advanced building blocks. The latter yielded several 1,3-oxazoles and 1,2,4-oxadiazoles with significantly improved potency (best EC50 = 0.058 μM). The lead compounds in each chemotype showed a very good ADME profile (aqueous solubility, plasma protein binding, microsomal stability and membrane permeability) and no appreciable inhibition of key cytochromes P450. The compounds reported are significant new starting points for further preclinical development of future diabetic agents with a mechanism of action for which a first-in-class agent is yet to be approved.

  13. A Gut Microbial Metabolite of Linoleic Acid, 10-Hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic Acid, Ameliorates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Impairment Partially via GPR40-MEK-ERK Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Junki; Mizukure, Taichi; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Kimura, Ikuo; Hirano, Kanako; Bergamo, Paolo; Rossi, Mauro; Suzuki, Takuya; Arita, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Tanabe, Soichi

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbial metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids have attracted much attention because of their various physiological properties. Dysfunction of tight junction (TJ) in the intestine contributes to the pathogenesis of many disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. We evaluated the effects of five novel gut microbial metabolites on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced barrier impairment in Caco-2 cells and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. 10-Hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), a gut microbial metabolite of linoleic acid, suppressed TNF-α and dextran sulfate sodium-induced changes in the expression of TJ-related molecules, occludin, zonula occludens-1, and myosin light chain kinase. HYA also suppressed the expression of TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) mRNA and protein expression in Caco-2 cells and colonic tissue. In addition, HYA suppressed the protein expression of TNFR2 in murine intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, HYA significantly up-regulated G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40 expression in Caco-2 cells. It also induced [Ca2+]i responses in HEK293 cells expressing human GPR40 with higher sensitivity than linoleic acid, its metabolic precursor. The barrier-recovering effects of HYA were abrogated by a GPR40 antagonist and MEK inhibitor in Caco-2 cells. Conversely, 10-hydroxyoctadacanoic acid, which is a gut microbial metabolite of oleic acid and lacks a carbon-carbon double bond at Δ12 position, did not show these TJ-restoring activities and down-regulated GPR40 expression. Therefore, HYA modulates TNFR2 expression, at least partially, via the GPR40-MEK-ERK pathway and may be useful in the treatment of TJ-related disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25505251

  14. Structure−Activity Study of Dihydrocinnamic Acids and Discovery of the Potent FFA1 (GPR40) Agonist TUG-469

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFA1 or GPR40), which is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells and amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several FFA1 agonists containing the para-substituted dihydrocinnamic acid moiety are known. We here present a structure−activity relationship study of this compound family suggesting that the central methyleneoxy linker is preferable for the smaller compounds, whereas the central methyleneamine linker gives higher potency to the larger compounds. The study resulted in the discovery of the potent and selective full FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (29). PMID:24900217

  15. Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Carlos; Cisterna, Bruno A; Salas, Daniela P; Delgado-López, Fernando; Lampe, Paul D; Sáez, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC activity of similar intensity and additive with LA-induced change. Treatment with a CD36 blocker or transfection with siRNA-GPR120 maintains the LA-induced Cx HC activity. However, cells transfected with siRNA-GPR40 did not show LA-induced Cx HC activity but activity was increased upon exposure to DCFS, confirming the presence of activatable Cx HCs in the cell membrane. Treatment with AKTi (Akt inhibitor) abrogated the LA-induced Cx HC activity. In HeLa cells transfected with Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43), LA induced phosphorylation of surface Cx43 at serine 373 (S373), site for Akt phosphorylation. HeLa-Cx43 but not HeLa-Cx43 cells with a S373A mutation showed a LA-induced Cx HC activity directly related to an increase in cell surface Cx43 levels. Thus, the increase in membrane permeability induced by LA is mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway activated by GPR40 that leads to an increase in membrane levels of Cx43 phosphorylated at serine 373 via Akt.

  16. Synthesis and activity of small molecule GPR40 agonists.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Dulce M; Corbett, David F; Dwornik, Kate A; Goetz, Aaron S; Littleton, Thomas R; McKeown, Steve C; Mills, Wendy Y; Smalley, Terrence L; Briscoe, Celia P; Peat, Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    The first report on the identification and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of GPR40 agonists based on a 3-(4-{[N-alkyl]amino}phenyl)propanoic acid template is described. Structural modifications to the original screening hit yielded compounds with a 100-fold increase in potency at the human GPR40 receptor and pEC(50)s in the low nanomolar range. The carboxylic acid moiety is not critical for activity but typically elicits an agonistic response higher than those observed with carboxamide replacements. These compounds may prove useful in unraveling the therapeutic potential of this receptor for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

  17. Discovery of DS-1558: A Potent and Orally Bioavailable GPR40 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. GPR40 agonists stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of high glucose concentration. On the basis of this mechanism, GPR40 agonists are possible novel insulin secretagogues with reduced or no risk of hypoglycemia. The improvement of in vitro activity and metabolic stability of compound 1 led to the discovery of 13, (3S)-3-ethoxy-3-(4-{[(1R)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl]oxy}phenyl)propanoic acid, as a potent and orally available GPR40 agonist. Compound 13 (DS-1558) was found to have potent glucose lowering effects during an oral glucose tolerance test in ZDF rats. PMID:25815144

  18. Yhhu4488, a novel GPR40 agonist, promotes GLP-1 secretion and exerts anti-diabetic effect in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-yang; Li, De-wen; Ning, Meng-meng; Dang, Xiang-yu; Zhang, Li-na; Zeng, Li-min; Hu, You-hong; Leng, Ying

    2015-10-30

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells and activated by long-chain fatty acids. GPR40 has drawn considerable interest as a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to its important role in enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Encouragingly, GPR40 is also proven to be highly expressed in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing enteroendocrine cells afterwards, which opens a potential role of GPR40 in enhancing GLP-1 secretion to exert additional anti-diabetic efficacy. In the present study, we discovered a novel GPR40 agonist, yhhu4488, which is structurally different from other reported GPR40 agonists. Yhhu4488 showed potent agonist activity with EC50 of 49.96 nM, 70.83 nM and 58.68 nM in HEK293 cells stably expressing human, rat and mouse GPR40, respectively. Yhhu4488 stimulated GLP-1 secretion from fetal rat intestinal cells (FRIC) via triggering endogenous calcium store mobilization and extracellular calcium influx. The effect of yhhu4488 on GLP-1 secretion was further confirmed in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Yhhu4488 exhibited satisfactory potency in in vivo studies. Single administration of yhhu4488 improved glucose tolerance in SD rats. Chronic administration of yhhu4488 effectively decreased fasting blood glucose level, improved β-cell function and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice. Taken together, yhhu4488 is a novel GPR40 agonist that enhances GLP-1 secretion, improves metabolic control and β-cell function, suggesting its promising potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Regulation of prohormone convertase 2 protein expression via GPR40/FFA1 in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-09-05

    Previous studies have shown that the administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or GW9508, a GPR40/FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor) agonist, facilitates β-endorphin release in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice. However, the mechanisms mediating β-endorphin release induced by GPR40/FFA1 agonists remain unknown. In this study, we focused on the changes in expression of hypothalamic prohormone convertase (PC) 2, which is a calcium-dependent subtilisin-related proteolytic enzyme. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA or GW9508 significantly increased PC2 protein expression in the hypothalamus. This increase in PC2 expression was inhibited by pretreatment with GW1100, a GPR40/FFA1 antagonist. Furthermore, PC2 protein expression gradually increased over time after complete Freund's adjuvant. These increase in PC2 expression were inhibited by pretreatment with GW1100. However, GW1100 by itself had no effect on PC2 levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that activation of the hypothalamic GPR40/FFA1 signaling pathway may regulate β-endorphin release via PC2, and regulate the endogenous pain control system.

  20. Diverse effects of G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptors on the regulation of cellular functions in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tsubasa; Kadochi, Yui; Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Kaori; Yamasaki, Eri; Uemoto, Taiki; Hirane, Miku; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2016-03-15

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are dietary nutrients which mediate a variety of biological effects through binding to G-protein-coupled FFA receptors (FFARs). G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 are identified as FFARs for long- and medium-chain fatty acids. Here we investigated whether GPR120 and GPR40 are involved in the acquisition of malignant properties in lung cancer cells. Three lung cancer RLCNR, LL/2 and A549 cells used in this study expressed GPR120 and GPR40 genes. The cell motile activities of all cells were significantly suppressed by a GPR40 antagonist GW1100. In addition, GPR40 knockdown inhibited the cell motile activity of A549 cells. In gelatin zymography, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in GPR40 knockdown was significantly lower than that in control cells. Next, to evaluate effects of GPR120 and GPR40 on cellular functions induced by anti-cancer drug, the long-term cisplatin (CDDP) treated (A549-CDDP) cells were generated. The expression levels of GPR120 and GPR40 were significantly decreased in A549-CDDP cells. While A549-CDDP cells showed the high cell motile activity, GW1100 suppressed the cell motile activity of A549-CDDP cells. These results demonstrate that GPR120 negatively and GPR40 positively regulate cellular functions during tumor progression in lung cancer cells.

  1. GPR40 reduces food intake and body weight through GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Judith N; Pachanski, Michele J; Mane, Joel; Plummer, Christopher W; Souza, Sarah; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande S; Ogawa, Aimie M; Weinglass, Adam B; Di Salvo, Jerry; Cheewatrakoolpong, Boonlert; Howard, Andrew D; Colletti, Steven L; Trujillo, Maria E

    2017-03-14

    GPR40 partial agonists lower glucose through the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which is believed to provide significant glucose lowering without the weight gain or hypoglycemic risk associated with exogenous insulin or glucose independent insulin secretagogues. The class of small molecule GPR40 modulators, known as AgoPAMs (agonist also capable of acting as positive allosteric modulators), differentiate from partial agonists, binding to a distinct site and functioning as full agonists to stimulate the secretion of both insulin and GLP-1 (17). Here we show that GPR40 AgoPAM's significantly increase active GLP-1 levels and reduce acute and chronic food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. These effects of AgoPAM treatment on food intake are novel and required both GPR40 and GLP-1 receptor signaling pathways, as demonstrated in GPR40 and GLP1 receptor-null mice. Further, weight loss associated with GPR40 AgoPAMs was accompanied by a significant reduction in gastric motility in these DIO mice. Chronic treatment with a GPR40 AgoPAM, in combination with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, synergistically decreased food intake and body weight in the mouse. The effect of GPR40 AgoPAMs on GLP-1 secretion was recapitulated in lean, healthy Rhesus macaque demonstrating the putative mechanism mediating weight loss translates to higher species. Together, our data indicate effects of AgoPAMs that go beyond glucose lowering previously observed with GPR40 partial agonist treatment with additional potential for weight loss.

  2. GPR40/FFA1 and Neutral Sphingomyelinase Are Involved in Palmitate-Boosted Inflammatory Response of Microvascular Endothelial Cells to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongyang; Li, Yanchun; Jin, Junfei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increased levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with type 2 diabetes. However, it remains largely unknown how SFAs interact with LPS to regulate inflammatory responses in microvascular endothelial cells (MIC ECs) that are critically involved in atherosclerosis as a diabetic complication. In this study, we compared the effects of LPS, palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated fatty acid, or the combination of LPS and PA on interleukin (IL)-6 expression by MIC ECs and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods Human cardiac MIC ECs were treated with LPS, PA and LPS plus PA and the regulatory pathways including receptors, signal transduction, transcription and post-transcription, and sphingolipid metabolism for IL-6 expression were investigated. Results G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 or free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1), but not toll-like receptor 4, was involved in PA-stimulated IL-6 expression. PA not only stimulated IL-6 expression by itself, but also remarkably enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-6 expression via a cooperative stimulation on mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, and both transcriptional and post-transcriptional activation. Furthermore, PA induced a robust neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase)-mediated sphingomyelin hydrolysis that was involved in PA-augmented IL-6 upregulation. Conclusion PA boosted inflammatory response of microvascular endothelial cells to LPS via GPR40 and nSMase. PMID:25795558

  3. Delphinidin Reduces Glucose Uptake in Mice Jejunal Tissue and Human Intestinal Cells Lines through FFA1/GPR40.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Teuber, Stefanie; Morera, Francisco J; Ojeda, Camila; Flores, Carlos A; Hidalgo, María A; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos; Burgos, Rafael A

    2017-04-05

    Anthocyanins are pigments with antihyperglycemic properties, and they are potential candidates for developing functional foods for the therapy or prevention of Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). The mechanism of these beneficial effects of anthocyanins are, however, hard to explain, given their very low bioavailability due to poor intestinal absorption. We propose that free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1, also named GPR40), is involved in an inhibitory effect of the anthocyanidin delphinidin over intestinal glucose absorption. We show the direct effects of delphinidin on the intestine using jejunum samples from RF/J mice, and the human intestinal cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, and NCM460. By the use of specific pharmacological antagonists, we determined that delphinidin inhibits glucose absorption in both mouse jejunum and a human enterocytic cell line in a FFA1-dependent manner. Delphinidin also affects the function of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). Intracellular signaling after FFA1 activation involved cAMP increase and cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations originated from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and were followed by store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Taken together, our results suggest a new GPR-40 mediated local mechanism of action for delphinidin over intestinal cells that may in part explain its antidiabetic effect. These findings are promising for the search for new prevention and pharmacological treatment strategies for DM2 management.

  4. Discovery of new dual PPARγ-GPR40 agonists with robust antidiabetic activity: Design, synthesis and in combo drug evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Figueroa, Sergio; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; Giles-Rivas, Diana; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; León-Rivera, Ismael; Giacoman-Martínez, Abraham; Miranda Pérez, Elizabeth; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C

    2017-03-22

    The design of compounds 1 and 2 was based on the similar scaffold of pharmacophoric groups for PPARγ and GPR40 agonists. In order to find new compounds with improved biological activity, the current manuscript describes a new dual PPARγ-GPR40 agonist. We synthesized two compounds, which were prepared following a multistep synthetic route, and the relative mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, GLUT4, and GPR40 were quantified in cell culture, as well as insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)] intracellular levels. Compound 1 showed a 7-times increase in the mRNA expression of PPARγ, which in turn enhanced the expression levels of GLUT4 respect to control and pioglitazone. It also showed an increase of 2-fold in the [Ca(2+)]i level allowing an increment on insulin release, being as active as the positive control (glibenclamide), causing also an increase of 2-fold in mRNA expression of GPR40. Furthermore, the compound 2 showed lower activity than the compound 1. The ester of 1 showed antidiabetic activity at a 50mg/kg single dose in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice model. In addition, we achieved a molecular docking study of compound 1 on PPARγ and GPR40 receptors, showing a great affinity for both targets. We observed important polar interactions between the carboxylic group and main residues into the binding pocket. Therefore, the compound 1 has a potential for the development of antidiabetic agents with newfangled dual action.

  5. Multiple mechanisms of GW-9508, a selective G protein-coupled receptor 40 agonist, in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Hung-Tsung; Hung, Hao-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2013-03-15

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) by agonists increases insulin release in isolated islets, whereas it is inconclusive whether GPR40 antagonists decrease blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity. Although some clinical trials indicated that administration of a GPR40 agonist shows benefits in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis, the pharmacological mechanisms of this receptor in the improvement of glycemic control remain unclear. Therefore, we used a selective GPR40 agonist, GW-9508, to clarify the role of GPR40 in the regulation of blood glucose. Bolus intraperitoneal injection of GW-9508 in mice showed a slight decrease in blood glucose, with an increase in plasma insulin levels under glucose stimuli. However, long-term treatment with low doses of GW-9508 in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) diabetic mice decreased blood glucose with decreased plasma insulin significantly and improved glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Using small interfering ribonucleic acid to delete GPR40 in HepG2 cells, we demonstrated that GW-9508 reversed palmitate-induced insulin signaling impairment through a GPR40-dependent pathway. We also found that GW-9508 activates the Akt/GSK-3β pathway to increase glycogen levels in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, administration of GW-9508 decreased the hepatic expression of fetuin-A in HFD mice significantly and regulated high-glucose- or palmitate-induced fetuin-A expression to increase insulin sensitivity through a GPR40/PLC/PKC pathway in HepG2 cells. Taken together, GW-9508 exerts a partial agonist effect to regulate blood glucose through multiple mechanisms. Investigation of chemicals that act on GPR40 might be a new strategy for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Free fatty acids-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in drug targeting and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomo; Kurata, Riho; Yoshida, Kaori; Murayama, Masanori A; Cui, Xiaofeng; Hasegawa, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) (also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptor) superfamily represents the largest protein family in the human genome. These receptors respond to various physiological ligands such as photons, odors, pheromones, hormones, ions, and small molecules including amines, amino acids to large peptides and steroids. Thus, GPCRs are involved in many diseases and the target of around half of all conventional drugs. The physiological roles of free fatty acids (FFAs), in particular, long-chain FFAs, are important for the development of many metabolic disease including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In the past half decade, deorphanization of several GPCRs has revealed that GPR40, GPR41, GPR43, GPR84 and GPR120 sense concentration of extracellular FFAs with various carbon chain lengths. GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium- and long-chain FFAs. GPR84 is activated by medium- chain, but not long-chain, FFAs. GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short-chain FFAs. GPR40 is highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells and plays a crucial role in FFAs-induced insulin secretion. GPR120 is mainly expressed in enteroendocrine cells and plays an important role for FFAs-induced glucagon-like peptide-1. GPR43 is abundant in leukocytes and adipose tissue, whilst GPR41 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, the pancreas and leukocytes. GPR84 is expressed in leukocytes and monocyte/macrophage. This review aims to shed light on the physiological roles and development of drugs targeting these receptors.

  7. Nutritional Signaling via Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Junki; Hasegawa, Sae; Kasubuchi, Mayu; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Nakajima, Akira; Kimura, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when demand for energy arises. Dysfunction of energy balance by excess food intake leads to metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) provided by dietary fat are not only important nutrients, but also contribute key physiological functions via FFA receptor (FFAR)-mediated signaling molecules, which depend on FFAs’ carbon chain length and the ligand specificity of the receptors. Functional analyses have revealed that FFARs are critical for metabolic functions, such as peptide hormone secretion and inflammation, and contribute to energy homeostasis. In particular, recent studies have shown that the administration of selective agonists of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40 and GPR120 improved glucose metabolism and systemic metabolic disorders. Furthermore, the anti-inflammation and energy metabolism effects of short chain FAs have been linked to the activation of GPR41 and GPR43. In this review, we summarize recent progress in research on FFAs and their physiological roles in the regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:27023530

  8. Potentiation of insulin secretion and improvement of glucose intolerance by combining a novel G protein-coupled receptor 40 agonist DS-1558 with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryutaro; Yano, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Junko; Tanaka, Naomi; Toda, Narihiro; Yoshida, Masao; Takano, Rieko; Inoue, Masahiro; Honda, Takeshi; Kume, Shoen; Matsumoto, Koji

    2014-08-15

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is a Gq-coupled receptor for free fatty acids predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. In recent years, GPR40 agonists have been investigated for use as novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We discovered a novel small molecule GPR40 agonist, (3S)-3-ethoxy-3-(4-{[(1R)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl]oxy}phenyl)propanoic acid (DS-1558). The GPR40-mediated effects of DS-1558 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were evaluated in isolated islets from GPR40 knock-out and wild-type (littermate) mice. The GPR40-mediated effects on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were also confirmed by an oral glucose tolerance test in these mice. Furthermore, oral administration of DS-1558 (0.03, 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently improved hyperglycemia and increased insulin secretion during the oral glucose tolerance test in Zucker fatty rats, the model of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Next, we examined the combination effects of DS-1558 with glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). DS-1558 not only increased the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by GLP-1 but also potentiated the maximum insulinogenic effects of GLP-1 after an intravenous glucose injection in normal Sprague Dawley rats. Furthermore, the glucose lowering effects of exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, were markedly potentiated by the DS-1558 (3mg/kg) add-on in diabetic db/db mice during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, our results indicate that add-on GPR40 agonists to GLP-1 related agents might be a potential treatment compared to single administration of these compounds. Therefore the combinations of these agents are a novel therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Vascular, but not luminal, activation of FFAR1 (GPR40) stimulates GLP-1 secretion from isolated perfused rat small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Louise W; Kuhre, Rune E; Janus, Charlotte; Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens J

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays a central role in modern treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the form of GLP-1 enhancers and GLP-1 mimetics. An alternative treatment strategy is to stimulate endogenous GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells using a targeted approach. The G-protein-coupled receptor, FFAR1 (previously GPR40), expressed on L cells and activated by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) is a potential target. A link between FFAR1 activation and GLP-1 secretion has been demonstrated in cellular models and small-molecule FFAR1 agonists have been developed. In this study, we examined the effect of FFAR1 activation on GLP-1 secretion using isolated, perfused small intestines from rats, a physiologically relevant model allowing distinction between direct and indirect effects of FFAR1 activation. The endogenous FFAR1 ligand, linoleic acid (LA), and four synthetic FFAR1 agonists (TAK-875, AMG 837, AM-1638, and AM-5262) were administered through intraluminal and intra-arterial routes, respectively, and dynamic changes in GLP-1 secretion were evaluated. Vascular administration of 10 μmol/L TAK-875, 10 μmol/L AMG 837, 1 μmol/L and 0.1 μmol/L AM-1638, 1 μmol/L AM-6252, and 1 mmol/L LA, all significantly increased GLP-1 secretion compared to basal levels (P < 0.05), whereas luminal administration of LA and FFAR1 agonists was ineffective. Thus, both natural and small-molecule agonists of the FFAR1 receptor appear to require absorption prior to stimulating GLP-1 secretion, indicating that therapies based on activation of nutrient sensing may be more complex than hitherto expected. PMID:26381015

  10. Eicosopentaneoic Acid and Other Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists Inhibit Lysophosphatidic Acid- and Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Mandi M.; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ze; Meier, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Many key actions of ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids have recently been shown to be mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120). n-3 Fatty acids inhibit proliferation of human breast cancer cells in culture and in animals. In the current study, the roles of FFA1 and FFA4 were investigated. In addition, the role of cross-talk between GPCRs activated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the tyrosine kinase receptor activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), was examined. In MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines, both LPA and EGF stimulated proliferation, Erk activation, Akt activation, and CCN1 induction. LPA antagonists blocked effects of LPA and EGF on proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and on cell migration in MCF-7. The n-3 fatty acid eicosopentaneoic acid inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation in both cell lines. Two synthetic FFAR agonists, GW9508 and TUG-891, likewise inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation. The data suggest a major role for FFA1, which was expressed by both cell lines. The results indicate that n-3 fatty acids inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation via FFARs, and suggest a mechanism involving negative cross-talk between FFARS, LPA receptors, and EGF receptor. PMID:26821052

  11. Eicosopentaneoic Acid and Other Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists Inhibit Lysophosphatidic Acid- and Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Mandi M; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ze; Meier, Kathryn E

    2016-01-26

    Many key actions of ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids have recently been shown to be mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120). n-3 Fatty acids inhibit proliferation of human breast cancer cells in culture and in animals. In the current study, the roles of FFA1 and FFA4 were investigated. In addition, the role of cross-talk between GPCRs activated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the tyrosine kinase receptor activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), was examined. In MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines, both LPA and EGF stimulated proliferation, Erk activation, Akt activation, and CCN1 induction. LPA antagonists blocked effects of LPA and EGF on proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and on cell migration in MCF-7. The n-3 fatty acid eicosopentaneoic acid inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation in both cell lines. Two synthetic FFAR agonists, GW9508 and TUG-891, likewise inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation. The data suggest a major role for FFA1, which was expressed by both cell lines. The results indicate that n-3 fatty acids inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation via FFARs, and suggest a mechanism involving negative cross-talk between FFARS, LPA receptors, and EGF receptor.

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids promote proliferation via ERK1/2 and Akt pathway in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Tomo Haga, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2008-03-21

    GPR40 has recently been identified as a G protein-coupled cell-surface receptor for long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). The mRNA of the bovine ortholog of GPR40 (bGPR40) was detected by RT-PCR in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and in the bovine mammary gland at various stages of lactation. Oleate and linoleate caused an increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in these cells, and significantly reduced forskolin-induced cAMP concentrations. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and Akt kinase, which regulates cell proliferation and survival, was rapidly increased by oleate. Incubation with oleate and linoleate for 24 h significantly promoted cell proliferation. Moreover, in serum-free medium, oleate significantly stimulated cell proliferation during a 7-day culture. These results suggest that bGPR40 mediates LCFA signaling in mammary epithelial cells and thereby plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and prevent behavior deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Chao, Honglu; Li, Zheng; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Yinlong; Bao, Zhongyuan; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation. GW1100, a GPR40 inhibitor, eliminated the anti-inflammatory effect of ω-3 FAs after TBI. β-Arrestin-2 (ARRB2), a downstream scaffold protein of GPR40, was activated to inhibit inflammation via directly binding with NLRP3 in the ω-3 FAs treatment group. Interestingly, we also observed that ω-3 FAs prevented NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, which was reversed by GW1100. Furthermore, ω-3 FAs markedly ameliorated neuronal death and behavioral deficits after TBI, while GW1100 significantly suppressed this effect. Collectively, these data indicate that the GPR40-mediated pathway is involved in the inhibitory effects of ω-3 FAs on TBI-induced inflammation and ARRB2 is activated to interact with NLRP3.

  14. Differential requirements of arrestin-3 and clathrin for ligand-dependent and -independent internalization of human G protein-coupled receptor 40.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Wu, Chun; Chen, Xiaopan; Li, Xiangmei; Ying, Guoyuan; Jin, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Li, Guo; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Guozheng; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is believed to be an attractive target to enhance insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. GPR40 has been found to couple to Gq protein, leading to the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the internalization and desensitization of GPR40 remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a construct of GPR40 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its C-terminus was constructed for direct imaging of the localization and internalization of GPR40 by confocal microscopy. In stably transfected HEK-293 cells, GPR40 receptors underwent rapid agonist-induced internalization and constitutive ligand-independent internalization. Our data demonstrated that the agonist-mediated internalization of GPR40 was significantly blocked by hypertonic sucrose treatment and by siRNA mediated depletion of the heavy chain of clathrin. In contrast, constitutive GPR40 internalization was not affected by hypertonic sucrose or by knock-down of clathrin expression, but it was affected by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin. Furthermore, our results using an arrestin-3-EGFP redistribution assay and siRNA-mediated knock-down of arrestin-3 and GRK2 expression revealed that arrestin-3 and GRK2 play an essential role in the regulation of agonist-mediated GPR40 internalization, but are not involved in the regulation of constitutive GPR40 internalization. Additionally, our observation showed that upon activation by agonist, the internalized GPR40 receptors were rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane via Rab4/Rab5 positive endosomes, whereas the constitutively internalized GPR40 receptors were recycled back to the cell surface through Rab5 positive endosomes. Because FFA receptors exhibit a high level of homology, our observations could be applicable to other members of this family.

  15. Reevaluation of Fatty Acid Receptor 1 as a Drug Target for the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E.; Grundmann, Manuel; Machicao, Fausto; Peter, Andreas; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are undergoing investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1 agonist, TUG-469, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The proapoptotic effect of chronic exposure of β-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, whereas inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the proapoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo cross-sectional observations demonstrated a negative association between fasting free fatty acids (NEFAs) and insulin secretion. Because NEFAs stimulate secretion through FFAR1, we examined the interaction of genetic variation in FFAR1 with NEFA and insulin secretion. The inverse association of NEFA and secretion was modulated by rs1573611 and became steeper for carriers of the minor allele. In conclusion, FFAR1 agonists support β-cell function, but variation in FFAR1 influences NEFA effects on insulin secretion and therefore could affect therapeutic efficacy of FFAR1 agonists. PMID:23378609

  16. Diets Containing α-Linolenic (ω3) or Oleic (ω9) Fatty Acids Rescues Obese Mice From Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Marinho, R; Vitorino, D; Santos, G A; Moraes, J C; Dragano, N; Sartori-Cintra, A; Pereira, L; Catharino, R R; da Silva, A S R; Ropelle, E R; Pauli, J R; De Souza, C T; Velloso, L A; Cintra, D E

    2015-11-01

    Subclinical systemic inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance. The results obtained from a number of experimental studies suggest that targeting different components of the inflammatory machinery may result in the improvement of the metabolic phenotype. Unsaturated fatty acids exert antiinflammatory activity through several distinct mechanisms. Here, we tested the capacity of ω3 and ω9 fatty acids, directly from their food matrix, to exert antiinflammatory activity through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120 and GPR40 pathways. GPR120 was activated in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues, reverting inflammation and insulin resistance in obese mice. Part of this action was also mediated by GPR40 on muscle, as a novel mechanism described. Pair-feeding and immunoneutralization experiments reinforced the pivotal role of GPR120 as a mediator in the response to the nutrients. The improvement in insulin sensitivity in the high-fat substituted diets was associated with a marked reduction in tissue inflammation, decreased macrophage infiltration, and increased IL-10 levels. Furthermore, improved glucose homeostasis was accompanied by the reduced expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and reduced body mass. Thus, our data indicate that GPR120 and GPR40 play a critical role as mediators of the beneficial effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in the context of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  17. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and FFA3 are activated by these SCFAs, and several lines of evidence indicate that FFA2 and FFA3 mediate beneficial effects associated with a fiber-rich diet, and that they may be of interest as targets for treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. FFA2 is highly expressed on immune cells, in particular neutrophils, and several studies suggest that the receptor plays a role in diseases involving a dysfunctional neutrophil response, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both FFA2 and FFA3 have been implicated in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and in regulation of appetite. More research is however required to clarify the potential of the receptors as drug targets and establish if activation or inhibition would be the preferred mode of action. The availability of potent and selective receptor modulators is a prerequisite for these studies. The few modulators of FFA2 or FFA3 that have been published hitherto in the peer-reviewed literature in general have properties that make them less than ideal as such tools, but published patent applications indicate that better tool compounds might soon become available which should enable studies critical to validate the receptors as new drug targets. PMID:23060857

  18. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists bearing amide linker.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianyong; Li, Zheng; Li, Huilan; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Nasi; Shi, Wei; Liao, Chen; Cai, Xingguang; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2017-04-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) has attracted extensive attention as a novel antidiabetic target. Aiming to explore the chemical space of FFA1 agonists, a new series of lead compounds with amide linker were designed and synthesized by combining the scaffolds of NIH screened lead compound 1 and GW9508. Among them, the optimal lead compound 17 exhibited a considerable agonistic activity (45.78%) compared to the NIH screened compound 1 (15.32%). During OGTT in normal mice, the compound 17 revealed a significant glucose-lowering effect (-23.7%) at the dose of 50mg/kg, proximity to the hypoglycemic effect (-27.8%) of Metformin (200mg/kg). In addition, the compound 17 (100mg/kg) also exhibited a significant improvement in glucose tolerance with a 29.1% reduction of glucose AUC0-2h in type 2 diabetic mice. All of these results indicated that compound 17 was considered to be a promising lead structure suitable for further optimization.

  19. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a Selective GPR40 Agonist, Improves Hyperglycemia in Rats Unresponsive to Sulfonylureas and Acts Additively with Sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Masami; Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Matsuda, Kae; Takeuchi, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are widely used insulin secretagogues, but they have adverse effects including hypoglycemia and secondary failure. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a selective GPR40 agonist, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. In the present study, we compared the in vivo glucose-lowering effects of fasiglifam with SUs. The risk of secondary failure of fasiglifam and the efficacy in rats desensitized to SUs were also evaluated. Moreover, we assessed whether fasiglifam was effective when combined with SUs. In diabetic neonatally streptozotocin-induced rats 1.5 days after birth (N-STZ-1.5), oral administrations of fasiglifam (3-30 mg/kg) dose dependently improved glucose tolerance; the effect was greater than that of glibenclamide at maximal effective doses (glucose AUC: fasiglifam, -37.6%; glibenclamide, -12.3%). Although the glucose-lowering effects of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day) were completely diminished in N-STZ-1.5 rats after 4 weeks of treatment, effects were maintained in rats receiving fasiglifam (10 mg/kg/day), even after 15 weeks. Fasiglifam (3-10 mg/kg) was still effective in two models desensitized to SUs: 15-week glibenclamide-treated N-STZ-1.5 rats and aged Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Acute administration of fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) and glimepiride (10 mg/kg) in combination additively decreased glucose AUC (fasiglifam, -25.3%; glimepiride, -20.0%; combination, -43.1%). Although glimepiride (10 mg/kg) decreased plasma glucose below normal in nonfasted control rats, fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) maintained normoglycemia, and no further exaggeration of hypoglycemia was observed with combination treatment. These results indicate that GPR40 agonists could be more effective and durable than SUs. Our results also provide new insights into GPR40 pharmacology and rationale for the use of GPR40 agonists in diabetic patients with SU failure.

  20. Acid detection by taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, J A; Lyall, V; Heck, G L; Feldman, G M

    2001-12-01

    Sourness is a primary taste quality that evokes an innate rejection response in humans and many other animals. Acidic stimuli are the unique sources of sour taste so a rejection response may serve to discourage ingestion of foods spoiled by acid producing microorganisms. The investigation of mechanisms by which acids excite taste receptor cells (TRCs) is complicated by wide species variability and within a species, apparently different mechanisms for strong and weak acids. The problem is further complicated by the fact that the receptor cells are polarized epithelial cells with different apical and basolateral membrane properties. The cellular mechanisms proposed for acid sensing in taste cells include, the direct blockage of apical K(+) channels by protons, an H(+)-gated Ca(2+) channel, proton conduction through apical amiloride-blockable Na(+) channels, a Cl(-) conductance blocked by NPPB, the activation of the proton-gated channel, BNC-1, a member of the Na(+) channel/degenerin super family, and by stimulus-evoked changes in intracellular pH. Acid-induced intracellular pH changes appear to be similar to those reported in other mammalian acid-sensing cells, such as type-I cells of the carotid body, and neurons found in the ventrolateral medulla, nucleus of the solitary tract, the medullary raphe, and the locus coceuleus. Like type-I carotid body cells and brainstem neurons, isolated TRCs demonstrate a linear relationship between intracellular pH (pH(i)) and extracellular pH (pH(o)) with slope, DeltapH(i)/DeltapH(o) near unity. Acid-sensing cells also appear to regulate pH(i) when intracellular pH changes occur under iso-extracellular pH conditions, but fail to regulate their pH when pH(i) changes are induced by decreasing extracellular pH. We shall discuss the current status of proposed acid-sensing taste mechanisms, emphasizing pH-tracking in receptor cells.

  1. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors and retinoic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived morphogen controlling important developmental processes in vertebrates, and more generally in chordates, including axial patterning and tissue formation and differentiation. In the embryo, endogenous RA levels are controlled by RA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and the RA signal is transduced by two retinoid receptors: the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Both RAR and RXR are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and mainly act as heterodimers to activate the transcription of target genes in the presence of their ligand, all-trans RA. This signaling pathway was long thought to be a chordate innovation, however, recent findings of gene homologs involved in RA signaling in the genomes of a wide variety of non-chordate animals, including ambulacrarians (sea urchins and acorn worms) and lophotrochozoans (annelids and mollusks), challenged this traditional view and suggested that the RA signaling pathway might have a more ancient evolutionary origin than previously thought. In this chapter, we discuss the evolutionary history of the RA signaling pathway, and more particularly of the RARs, which might have experienced independent gene losses and duplications in different animal lineages. In sum, the available data reveal novel insights into the origin of the RA signaling pathway as well as into the evolutionary history of the RARs.

  2. Differential activation of pregnane X receptor by carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Seow, Chun Ling; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2017-03-10

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of many genes, including those involved in drug metabolism and transport, and has been linked to various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we determined whether carnosic acid and other chemicals in rosemary extract (carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid) are PXR activators. As assessed in dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, activated human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR), whereas carnosol and ursolic acid, but not carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid, activated rat PXR (rPXR). Dose-response experiments indicated that carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid activated hPXR with EC50 values of 0.79, 2.22, and 10.77μM, respectively. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hPXR and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), SRC-2, and SRC-3 to the ligand-binding domain of hPXR. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, increased hPXR target gene expression, as shown by an increase in CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and ABCB1 mRNA expression in LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Rosmarinic acid did not attenuate the extent of hPXR activation by rifampicin, suggesting it is not an antagonist of hPXR. Overall, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, are hPXR agonists, and carnosic acid shows species-dependent activation of hPXR and mPXR, but not rPXR. The findings provide new mechanistic insight on the effects of carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid on PXR-mediated biological effects.

  3. Identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of retinoid X and retinoic acid receptors via quantum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands.

  4. Pharmacophore model for bile acids recognition by the FPR receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Cristina; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Costantino, Gabriele; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) belong to the family A of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily and include three subtypes: FPR, FPR-like-1 and FPR-like-2. They have been involved in the control of␣many inflammatory processes promoting the recruitment and infiltration of leukocytes in regions of inflammation through the molecular recognition of chemotactic factors. A large number of structurally diverse chemotypes modulate the activity of FPRs. Newly identified antagonists include bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The molecular recognition of these compounds at FPR receptor was computationally investigated using both ligand- and structure-based approaches. Our findings suggest that all antagonists bind at the first third of the seven helical bundles. A closer inspection of bile acid interaction reveals a number of unexploited anchor points in the binding site that may be used to aid the design of new potent and selective bile acids derivatives at FPR.

  5. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  6. Bile acid receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liyun; Bambha, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    With the high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and other features of the metabolic syndrome in United States, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has inevitably become a very prevalent chronic liver disease and is now emerging as one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. Insulin resistance and derangement of lipid metabolism, accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory response and fibrogenesis, are essential pathways in the development of the more clinically significant form of NAFLD, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent advances in the functional characterization of bile acid receptors, such as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (TGR) 5, have provided further insight in the pathophysiology of NASH and have led to the development of potential therapeutic targets for NAFLD and NASH. Beyond maintaining bile acid metabolism, FXR and TGR5 also regulate lipid metabolism, maintain glucose homeostasis, increase energy expenditure, and ameliorate hepatic inflammation. These intriguing features have been exploited to develop bile acid analogues to target pathways in NAFLD and NASH pathogenesis. This review provides a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH, and then delves into the biological functions of bile acid receptors, particularly with respect to NASH pathogenesis, with a description of the associated experimental data, and, finally, we discuss the prospects of bile acid analogues in the treatment of NAFLD and NASH. PMID:26668692

  7. Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

  8. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role. PMID:27635169

  9. Selective Orthosteric Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFA2) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Johannes; Smith, Nicola J.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Hudson, Brian D.; Ward, Richard J.; Drewke, Christel; Milligan, Graeme; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2; GPR43) is a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The SCFA propionate has close to optimal ligand efficiency for FFA2 and can hence be considered as highly potent given its size. Propionate, however, does not discriminate between FFA2 and the closely related receptor FFA3 (GPR41). To identify FFA2-selective ligands and understand the molecular basis for FFA2 selectivity, a targeted library of small carboxylic acids was examined using holistic, label-free dynamic mass redistribution technology for primary screening and the receptor-proximal G protein [35S]guanosine 5′-(3-O-thio)triphosphate activation, inositol phosphate, and cAMP accumulation assays for hit confirmation. Structure-activity relationship analysis allowed formulation of a general rule to predict selectivity for small carboxylic acids at the orthosteric binding site where ligands with substituted sp3-hybridized α-carbons preferentially activate FFA3, whereas ligands with sp2- or sp-hybridized α-carbons prefer FFA2. The orthosteric binding mode was verified by site-directed mutagenesis: replacement of orthosteric site arginine residues by alanine in FFA2 prevented ligand binding, and molecular modeling predicted the detailed mode of binding. Based on this, selective mutation of three residues to their non-conserved counterparts in FFA3 was sufficient to transfer FFA3 selectivity to FFA2. Thus, selective activation of FFA2 via the orthosteric site is achievable with rather small ligands, a finding with significant implications for the rational design of therapeutic compounds selectively targeting the SCFA receptors. PMID:21220428

  10. Seizure control by decanoic acid through direct AMPA receptor inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Augustin, Katrin; Boddum, Kim; Williams, Sophie; Sun, Min; Terschak, John A.; Hardege, Jörg D.; Chen, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    See Rogawski (doi:10.1093/awv369) for a scientific commentary on this article.  The medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet is an established treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy that increases plasma levels of decanoic acid and ketones. Recently, decanoic acid has been shown to provide seizure control in vivo, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we show that decanoic acid, but not the ketones β-hydroxybutryate or acetone, shows antiseizure activity in two acute ex vivo rat hippocampal slice models of epileptiform activity. To search for a mechanism of decanoic acid, we show it has a strong inhibitory effect on excitatory, but not inhibitory, neurotransmission in hippocampal slices. Using heterologous expression of excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA subunits in Xenopus oocytes, we show that this effect is through direct AMPA receptor inhibition, a target shared by a recently introduced epilepsy treatment perampanel. Decanoic acid acts as a non-competitive antagonist at therapeutically relevant concentrations, in a voltage- and subunit-dependent manner, and this is sufficient to explain its antiseizure effects. This inhibitory effect is likely to be caused by binding to sites on the M3 helix of the AMPA-GluA2 transmembrane domain; independent from the binding site of perampanel. Together our results indicate that the direct inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission by decanoic acid in the brain contributes to the anti-convulsant effect of the medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet. PMID:26608744

  11. Complement receptor 1 is a sialic acid-independent erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Carmenza; Awandare, Gordon A; Kopydlowski, Karen M; Czege, Jozsef; Moch, J Kathleen; Finberg, Robert W; Tsokos, George C; Stoute, José A

    2010-06-17

    Plasmodium falciparum is a highly lethal malaria parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is dedicated to invading and multiplying inside erythrocytes. The molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion are incompletely understood. P. falciparum depends heavily on sialic acid present on glycophorins to invade erythrocytes. However, a significant proportion of laboratory and field isolates are also able to invade erythrocytes in a sialic acid-independent manner. The identity of the erythrocyte sialic acid-independent receptor has been a mystery for decades. We report here that the complement receptor 1 (CR1) is a sialic acid-independent receptor for the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum. We show that soluble CR1 (sCR1) as well as polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against CR1 inhibit sialic acid-independent invasion in a variety of laboratory strains and wild isolates, and that merozoites interact directly with CR1 on the erythrocyte surface and with sCR1-coated microspheres. Also, the invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes correlates with the level of CR1 expression. Finally, both sialic acid-independent and dependent strains invade CR1 transgenic mouse erythrocytes preferentially over wild-type erythrocytes but invasion by the latter is more sensitive to neuraminidase. These results suggest that both sialic acid-dependent and independent strains interact with CR1 in the normal red cell during the invasion process. However, only sialic acid-independent strains can do so without the presence of glycophorin sialic acid. Our results close a longstanding and important gap in the understanding of the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum that will eventually make possible the development of an effective blood stage vaccine.

  12. Hyodeoxycholic acid derivatives as liver X receptor α and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    De Marino, Simona; Carino, Adriana; Masullo, Dario; Finamore, Claudia; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Catalanotti, Bruno; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are extensively investigated for their potential in the treatment of human disorders. The liver X receptors (LXRs), activated by oxysterols and by a secondary bile acid named hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), have been found essential in the regulation of lipid homeostasis in mammals. Unfortunately, LXRα activates lipogenic enzymes causing accumulation of lipid in the liver. In addition to LXRs, HDCA has been also shown to function as ligand for GPBAR1, a G protein coupled receptor for secondary bile acids whose activation represents a promising approach to liver steatosis. In the present study, we report a library of HDCA derivatives endowed with modulatory activity on the two receptors. The lead optimization of HDCA moiety was rationally driven by the structural information on the binding site of the two targets and results from pharmacological characterization allowed the identification of hyodeoxycholane derivatives with selective agonistic activity toward LXRα and GPBAR1 and notably to the identification of the first example of potent dual LXRα/GPBAR1 agonists. The new chemical entities might hold utility in the treatment of dyslipidemic disorders. PMID:28233865

  13. Hyodeoxycholic acid derivatives as liver X receptor α and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marino, Simona; Carino, Adriana; Masullo, Dario; Finamore, Claudia; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Catalanotti, Bruno; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Bile acids are extensively investigated for their potential in the treatment of human disorders. The liver X receptors (LXRs), activated by oxysterols and by a secondary bile acid named hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), have been found essential in the regulation of lipid homeostasis in mammals. Unfortunately, LXRα activates lipogenic enzymes causing accumulation of lipid in the liver. In addition to LXRs, HDCA has been also shown to function as ligand for GPBAR1, a G protein coupled receptor for secondary bile acids whose activation represents a promising approach to liver steatosis. In the present study, we report a library of HDCA derivatives endowed with modulatory activity on the two receptors. The lead optimization of HDCA moiety was rationally driven by the structural information on the binding site of the two targets and results from pharmacological characterization allowed the identification of hyodeoxycholane derivatives with selective agonistic activity toward LXRα and GPBAR1 and notably to the identification of the first example of potent dual LXRα/GPBAR1 agonists. The new chemical entities might hold utility in the treatment of dyslipidemic disorders.

  14. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid-Activated Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H Eric

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.

  15. Cholestenoic acids regulate motor neuron survival via liver X receptors

    PubMed Central

    Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Griffiths, William J.; Crick, Peter J.; Yang, Shanzheng; Meljon, Anna; Ogundare, Michael; Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Lockhart, Andrew; Tuschl, Karin; Clayton, Peter T.; Morris, Andrew A.; Martinez, Adelaida; Reddy, M. Ashwin; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Bassi, Maria T.; Honda, Akira; Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Kimura, Akihiko; Nittono, Hiroshi; De Michele, Giuseppe; Carbone, Rosa; Criscuolo, Chiara; Yau, Joyce L.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Schüle, Rebecca; Schöls, Ludger; Sailer, Andreas W.; Kuhle, Jens; Fraidakis, Matthew J.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R.; Björkhem, Ingemar; Ernfors, Patrik; Sjövall, Jan; Arenas, Ernest; Wang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Cholestenoic acids are formed as intermediates in metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate cholestenoic acids are expressed in the mammalian CNS. Here, we evaluated the cholestenoic acid profile of mammalian cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and determined that specific cholestenoic acids activate the liver X receptors (LXRs), enhance islet-1 expression in zebrafish, and increase the number of oculomotor neurons in the developing mouse in vitro and in vivo. While 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3β,7α-diHCA) promoted motor neuron survival in an LXR-dependent manner, 3β-hydroxy-7-oxocholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3βH,7O-CA) promoted maturation of precursors into islet-1+ cells. Unlike 3β,7α-diHCA and 3βH,7O-CA, 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3β-HCA) caused motor neuron cell loss in mice. Mutations in CYP7B1 or CYP27A1, which encode enzymes involved in cholestenoic acid metabolism, result in different neurological diseases, hereditary spastic paresis type 5 (SPG5) and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), respectively. SPG5 is characterized by spastic paresis, and similar symptoms may occur in CTX. Analysis of CSF and plasma from patients with SPG5 revealed an excess of the toxic LXR ligand, 3β-HCA, while patients with CTX and SPG5 exhibited low levels of the survival-promoting LXR ligand 3β,7α-diHCA. Moreover, 3β,7α-diHCA prevented the loss of motor neurons induced by 3β-HCA in the developing mouse midbrain in vivo.Our results indicate that specific cholestenoic acids selectively work on motor neurons, via LXR, to regulate the balance between survival and death. PMID:25271621

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for acidic, basic, and neutral amino acid olfactory receptor sites in the catfish

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Electrophysiological experiments indicate that olfactory receptors of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, contain different receptor sites for the acidic (A), basic (B), and neutral amino acids; further, at least two partially interacting neutral sites exist, one for the hydrophilic neutral amino acids containing short side chains (SCN), and the second for the hydrophobic amino acids containing long side chains (LCN). The extent of cross-adaptation was determined by comparing the electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses to 20 "test" amino acids during continuous bathing of the olfactory mucosa with water only (control) to those during each of the eight "adapting" amino acid regimes. Both the adapting and test amino acids were adjusted in concentrations to provide approximately equal response magnitudes in the unadapted state. Under all eight adapting regimes, the test EOG responses were reduced from those obtained in the unadapted state, but substantial quantitative differences resulted, depending upon the molecular structure of the adapting stimulus. Analyses of the patterns of EOG responses to the test stimuli identified and characterized the respective "transduction processes," a term used to describe membrane events initiated by a particular subset of amino acid stimuli that are intricately linked to the origin of the olfactory receptor potential. Only when the stimulus compounds interact with different transduction processes are the stimuli assumed to bind to different membrane "sites." Four relatively independent L-alpha-amino acid transduction processes (and thus at least four binding sites) identified in this report include: (a) the A process for aspartic and glutamic acids; (b) the B process for arginine and lysine; (c) the SCN process for glycine, alanine, serine, glutamine, and possibly cysteine; (d) the LCN process for methionine, ethionine, valine, norvaline, leucine, norleucine, glutamic acid-gamma-methyl ester, histidine, phenylalanine, and also

  17. Receptor for protons: First observations on Acid Sensing Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, Oleg

    2015-07-01

    The history of ASICs began in 1980 with unexpected observation. The concept of highly selective Na(+) current gated by specific receptors for protons was not easily accepted. It took 16 years to get these receptor/channels cloned and start a new stage in their investigation. "The receptor for protons" became ASIC comprising under this name a family of receptor/channels ubiquitous for mammalian nervous system, both peripheral and central. The role of ASICs as putative nociceptors was suggested almost immediately after their discovery. This role subsequently was proven in many forms of pain-related phenomena. Many other functions of ASICs have been also found or primed for speculations both in physiology and in disease. Despite the width of field and strength of efforts, numerous basic questions are to be answered before we understand how the local changes in pH in the nervous tissue transform into electric and messenger signaling via ASICs as transducers. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'.

  18. Pentagastrin gastroprotection against acid is related to H2 receptor activation but not acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S; Akiba, Y; Kaunitz, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Pentagastrin enhances gastric mucosal defence mechanisms against acid and protects the gastric mucosa from experimental injury. 
Aims—To investigate whether this gastroprotection is mediated by histamine receptors or occurs as a secondary effect of acid secretion stimulation. 
Methods—The effects of omeprazole (100 µmol/kg), ranitidine (20 mg/kg), and pyrilamine (10 mg/kg) on pentagastrin (80 µg/kg/h) induced gastroprotection against acidified aspirin injury were examined in a luminal pH controlled model. The effects of these compounds on pentagastrin enhanced gastroprotective mechanisms were investigated using intravital microscopy, in which intracellular pH of gastric surface cells (pHi), mucus gel thickness, gastric mucosal blood flow, and acid output were measured simultaneously. 
Results—Pentagastrin protected rat gastric mucosa from acidified aspirin injury. This gastroprotection was abolished by ranitidine, but not omeprazole or pyrilamine. Pentagastrin induced a hyperaemic response to luminal acid challenge, increased mucus gel thickness, and elevated pHi during acid challenge. Ranitidine reversed these enhanced defence mechanisms, whereas omeprazole and pyrilamine preserved these effects. 
Conclusions—These data indicate that pentagastrin associated gastroprotection and enhanced defence mechanisms against acid result mainly from activation of histamine H2 receptors, and not as an effect of the stimulation of acid secretion. 

 Keywords: gastric injury; gastric defence mechanisms; omeprazole; pyrilamine; ranitidine; intracellular pH PMID:9863477

  19. TAK-875, a GPR40/FFAR1 agonist, in combination with metformin prevents progression of diabetes and β-cell dysfunction in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    Ito, R; Tsujihata, Y; Matsuda-Nagasumi, K; Mori, I; Negoro, N; Takeuchi, K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE TAK-875, a selective GPCR40/free fatty acid receptor 1 agonist, improves glycaemic control by increasing glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Metformin is a first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes that improves peripheral insulin resistance. Based on complementary mechanism of action, combining these agents is expected to enhance glycaemic control. Here, we evaluated the chronic effects of TAK-875 monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin in diabetic rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Long-term effects on glycaemic control and β-cell function were evaluated using Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, which develop diabetes with hyperlipidaemia and progressive β-cell dysfunction. KEY RESULTS Single doses of TAK-875 (3–10 mg·kg−1) and metformin (50–150 mg·kg−1) significantly improved both postprandial and fasting hyperglycaemia, and additive improvements were observed in their combination. Six-week treatment with TAK-875 (10 mg·kg−1, b.i.d.) significantly decreased glycosylated Hb (GHb) by 1.7%, and the effect was additively enhanced by combination with metformin (50 mg·kg−1, q.d.; GHb: −2.4%). This improvement in glycaemic control in the combination group was accompanied by significant 3.2-fold increase in fasting plasma insulin levels. Pancreatic insulin content was maintained at a level comparable to that in normal rats by combination treatment (vehicle: 26, combination: 67.1; normal lean: 69.1 ng·mg−1 pancreas) without affecting pancreatic glucagon content. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed normal morphology, enhanced pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 expression and increased PCNA-positive cells in islets of the combination group. Conclusion and Implications Our results indicate that combination therapy with TAK-875 and metformin could be a valuable strategy for glycaemic control and β-cell preservation in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23848179

  20. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    PubMed

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  1. Fatty acids and retinoids control lipid metabolism through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-retinoid X receptor heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, H; Dreyer, C; Medin, J; Mahfoudi, A; Ozato, K; Wahli, W

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptors called PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, beta, and gamma) regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids by induction of the acyl-CoA oxidase gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway. Gel retardation and cotransfection assays revealed that PPAR alpha heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; RXR is the receptor for 9-cis-retinoic acid) and that the two receptors cooperate for the activation of the acyl-CoA oxidase gene promoter. The strongest stimulation of this promoter was obtained when both receptors were exposed simultaneously to their cognate activators. Furthermore, we show that natural fatty acids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, activate PPARs as potently as does the hypolipidemic drug Wy 14,643, the most effective activator known so far. Moreover, we discovered that the synthetic arachidonic acid analogue 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid is 100 times more effective than Wy 14,643 in the activation of PPAR alpha. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a convergence of the PPAR and RXR signaling pathways in the regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids by fatty acids and retinoids. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8384714

  2. Pharmacological activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors regulates erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Ho, Ya-Hsuan; Chiang, Jui-Chung; Li, Meng-Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung; Chen, Wei-Min; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Lin, Yu-Nung; Yang, Ya-Jan; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lu, Jenher; Huang, Chang-Jen; Tigyi, Gabor; Yao, Chao-Ling; Lee, Hsinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor-like phospholipid, regulates numerous physiological functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that LPA activates erythropoiesis by activating the LPA 3 receptor subtype (LPA3) under erythropoietin (EPO) induction. In the present study, we applied a pharmacological approach to further elucidate the functions of LPA receptors during red blood cell (RBC) differentiation. In K562 human erythroleukemia cells, knockdown of LPA2 enhanced erythropoiesis, whereas knockdown of LPA3 inhibited RBC differentiation. In CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) and K526 cells, the LPA3 agonist 1-oleoyl-2-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothionate (2S-OMPT) promoted erythropoiesis, whereas the LPA2 agonist dodecyl monophosphate (DMP) and the nonlipid specific agonist GRI977143 (GRI) suppressed this process. In zebrafish embryos, hemoglobin expression was significantly increased by 2S-OMPT treatment but was inhibited by GRI. Furthermore, GRI treatment decreased, whereas 2S-OMPT treatment increased RBC counts and amount of hemoglobin level in adult BALB/c mice. These results indicate that LPA2 and LPA3 play opposing roles during RBC differentiation. The pharmacological activation of LPA receptor subtypes represent a novel strategies for augmenting or inhibiting erythropoiesis. PMID:27244685

  3. Leveraging abscisic acid receptors for efficient water use in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jinghui; Tischer, Stefanie V.; Christmann, Alexander; Windisch, Wilhelm; Schnyder, Hans; Grill, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth requires the influx of atmospheric CO2 through stomatal pores, and this carbon uptake for photosynthesis is inherently associated with a large efflux of water vapor. Under water deficit, plants reduce transpiration and are able to improve carbon for water exchange leading to higher water use efficiency (WUE). Whether increased WUE can be achieved without trade-offs in plant growth is debated. The signals mediating the WUE response under water deficit are not fully elucidated but involve the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA is perceived by a family of related receptors known to mediate acclimation responses and to reduce transpiration. We now show that enhanced stimulation of ABA signaling via distinct ABA receptors can result in plants constitutively growing at high WUE in the model species Arabidopsis. WUE was assessed by three independent approaches involving gravimetric analyses, 13C discrimination studies of shoots and derived cellulose fractions, and by gas exchange measurements of whole plants and individual leaves. Plants expressing the ABA receptors RCAR6/PYL12 combined up to 40% increased WUE with high growth rates, i.e., are water productive. Water productivity was associated with maintenance of net carbon assimilation by compensatory increases of leaf CO2 gradients, thereby sustaining biomass acquisition. Leaf surface temperatures and growth potentials of plants growing under well-watered conditions were found to be reliable indicators for water productivity. The study shows that ABA receptors can be explored to generate more plant biomass per water transpired, which is a prime goal for a more sustainable water use in agriculture. PMID:27247417

  4. Positive and Negative Cross-Talk between Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1, Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4, and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Mandi M; Liu, Ze; Meier, Kathryn E

    2016-10-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that mediates cellular effects via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide that acts via a receptor tyrosine kinase. LPA and EGF both induce proliferation of prostate cancer cells and can transactivate each other's receptors. The LPA receptor LPA1 is particularly important for LPA response in human prostate cancer cells. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that free fatty acid 4 (FFA4), a GPCR activated by ω-3 fatty acids, inhibits responses to both LPA and EGF in these cells. One potential mechanism for the inhibition involves negative interactions between FFA4 and LPA1, thereby suppressing responses to EGF that require LPA1 In the current study, we examined the role of LPA1 in mediating EGF and FFA4 agonist responses in two human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC-3. The results show that an LPA1-selective antagonist inhibits proliferation and migration to both LPA and EGF. Knockdown of LPA1 expression, using silencing RNA, blocks responses to LPA and significantly inhibits responses to EGF. The partial response to EGF that is observed after LPA1 knockdown is not inhibited by FFA4 agonists. Finally, the role of arrestin-3, a GPCR-binding protein that mediates many actions of activated GPCRs, was tested. Knockdown of arrestin-3 completely inhibits responses to both LPA and EGF in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that LPA1 plays a critical role in EGF responses and that FFA4 agonists inhibit proliferation by suppressing positive cross-talk between LPA1 and the EGF receptor.

  5. G protein-coupled receptors: signalling and regulation by lipid agonists for improved glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Brian M; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2016-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a pivotal role in cell signalling, controlling many processes such as immunity, growth, cellular differentiation, neurological pathways and hormone secretions. Fatty acid agonists are increasingly recognised as having a key role in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis via stimulation of islet and gastrointestinal GPCRs. Downstream cell signalling results in modulation of the biosynthesis, secretion, proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways of islet and enteroendocrine cells. GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by long-chain fatty acids (>C12) with both receptors coupling to the Gαq subunit that activates the Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. GPR41 and GPR43 are stimulated by short-chain fatty acids (C2-C5), and activation results in binding to Gαi that inhibits the adenylyl cyclase pathway attenuating cAMP production. In addition, GPR43 also couples to the Gαq subunit augmenting intracellular Ca(2+) and activating phospholipase C. GPR55 is specific for cannabinoid endogenous agonists (endocannabinoids) and non-cannabinoid fatty acids, which couples to Gα12/13 and Gαq proteins, leading to enhancing intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and Rho kinase. GPR119 is activated by fatty acid ethanolamides and binds to Gαs utilising the adenylate cyclase pathway, which is dependent upon protein kinase A. Current research indicates that GPCR therapies may be approved for clinical use in the near future. This review focuses on the recent advances in preclinical diabetes research in the signalling and regulation of GPCRs on islet and enteroendocrine cells involved in glucose homoeostasis.

  6. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Elner, Victor M

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipase in situ, in vitro, and after challenge with phagocytic stimuli. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of fluorescently labeled native, aceto-acetylated, and oxidized LDL was studied in vitro and in vivo. LDL effects on RPE lysosomal enzymes were assessed. Lysosomal enzyme activity was compared in RPE cells from monkeys fed diets rich in fish oil to those from control animals and in cultured RPE cells exposed to sera from these monkeys. RESULTS: RPE acid lipase activity was substantial and comparable to that of mononuclear phagocytes. Acid lipase activity increased significantly following phagocytic challenge with photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of labeled lipoproteins was determined in vitro. Distinctive uptake of labeled lipoproteins occurred in RPE cells and mononuclear phagocytes in vivo. Native LDL enhanced RPE lysosomal enzyme activity. RPE lysosomal enzymes increased significantly in RPE cells from monkeys fed fish oil-rich diets and in cultured RPE cells exposed to their sera. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cells contain substantial acid lipase for efficient metabolism of lipids imbibed by POS phagocytosis and LDL uptake. Diets rich in fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids, by enhancing acid lipase, may reduce RPE lipofuscin accumulation, RPE oxidative damage, and the development of ARMD. PMID:12545699

  7. Evolutionary and Functional Diversification of the Vitamin D Receptor-Lithocholic Acid Partnership.

    PubMed

    Kollitz, Erin M; Zhang, Guozhu; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G Kerr; Reif, David M; Kullman, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    The evolution, molecular behavior, and physiological function of nuclear receptors are of particular interest given their diverse roles in regulating essential biological processes. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is well known for its canonical roles in calcium homeostasis and skeletal maintenance. Additionally, VDR has received an increased amount of attention due to the discovery of numerous non-calcemic functions, including the detoxification of lithocholic acid. Lithocholic acid is a toxic metabolite of chenodeoxycholic acid, a primary bile acid. The partnership between the VDR and lithocholic acid has been hypothesized to be a recent adaptation that evolved to mediate the detoxification and elimination of lithocholic acid from the gut. This partnership is speculated to be limited to higher vertebrates (birds and mammals), as lower vertebrates do not synthesize the parent compound of lithocholic acid. However, the molecular functions associated with the observed insensitivity of basal VDRs to lithocholic acid have not been explored. Here we characterize canonical nuclear receptor functions of VDRs from select species representing key nodes in vertebrate evolution and span a range of bile salt phenotypes. Competitive ligand binding assays revealed that the receptor's affinity for lithocholic acid is highly conserved across species, suggesting that lithocholic acid affinity is an ancient and non-adaptive trait. However, transient transactivation assays revealed that lithocholic acid-mediated VDR activation might have evolved more recently, as the non-mammalian receptors did not respond to lithocholic acid unless exogenous coactivator proteins were co-expressed. Subsequent functional assays indicated that differential lithocholic acid-mediated receptor activation is potentially driven by differential protein-protein interactions between VDR and nuclear receptor coregulator proteins. We hypothesize that the vitamin D receptor-lithocholic acid partnership evolved as a

  8. Free Fatty Acid Receptors and Cancer: From Nutrition to Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Mandi M; Meier, Kathryn E

    2017-01-01

    The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3). Moreover, FFA1 and FFA4 can in some cases mediate opposing actions in the same cell type. Another conclusion is that different types of cancer cells respond differently to FFAR activation. Currently, the best-studied models are prostate, breast, and colon cancer. FFA1 and FFA4 agonists can inhibit proliferation and migration of prostate and breast cancer cells, but enhance growth of colon cancer cells. In contrast, FFA2 activation can in some cases inhibit proliferation of colon cancer cells. Although the available data are sometimes contradictory, there are several examples in which FFAR agonists inhibit proliferation of cancer cells. This is a unique response to GPCR activation that will benefit from a mechanistic explanation as the field progresses. The development of more selective FFAR agonists and antagonists, combined with gene knockout approaches, will be important for unraveling FFAR-mediated inhibitory effects. These inhibitory actions, mediated by druggable GPCRs, hold promise for cancer prevention and/or therapy.

  9. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  10. Chromosomal Integration of Retinoic Acid Response Elements Prevents Cooperative Transcriptional Activation by Retinoic Acid Receptor and Retinoid X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Bruno; Brand, Céline; Lefebvre, Philippe; Ozato, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and 9-cis-retinoic acid receptors (RXR) are nuclear receptors known to cooperatively activate transcription from retinoid-regulated promoters. By comparing the transactivating properties of RAR and RXR in P19 cells using either plasmid or chromosomal reporter genes containing the mRARβ2 gene promoter, we found contrasting patterns of transcriptional regulation in each setting. Cooperativity between RXR and RAR occurred at all times with transiently introduced promoters, but was restricted to a very early stage (<3 h) for chromosomal promoters. This time-dependent loss of cooperativity was specific for chromosomal templates containing two copies of a retinoid-responsive element (RARE) and was not influenced by the spacing between the two RAREs. This loss of cooperativity suggested a delayed acquisition of RAR full transcriptional competence because (i) cooperativity was maintained at RAR ligand subsaturating concentrations, (ii) overexpression of SRC-1 led to loss of cooperativity and even to strong repression of chromosomal templates activity, and (iii) loss of cooperativity was observed when additional cis-acting response elements were activated. Surprisingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors counteracted this loss of cooperativity by repressing partially RAR-mediated activation of chromosomal promoters. Loss of cooperativity was not correlated to local histone hyperacetylation or to alteration of constitutive RNA polymerase II (RNAP) loading at the promoter region. Unexpectedly, RNAP binding to transcribed regions was correlated to the RAR activation state as well as to acetylation levels of histones H3 and H4, suggesting that RAR acts at the mRARβ promoter by triggering the switch from an RNA elongation-incompetent RNAP form towards an RNA elongation-competent RNAP. PMID:11839811

  11. Biosynthesis, biological effects, and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Powell, William S; Rokach, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    Arachidonic acid can be oxygenated by a variety of different enzymes, including lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450s, and can be converted to a complex mixture of oxygenated products as a result of lipid peroxidation. The initial products in these reactions are hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HpETEs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) can be formed by the actions of various dehydrogenases on HETEs or by dehydration of HpETEs. Although a large number of different HETEs and oxo-ETEs have been identified, this review will focus principally on 5-oxo-ETE, 5S-HETE, 12S-HETE, and 15S-HETE. Other related arachidonic acid metabolites will also be discussed in less detail. 5-Oxo-ETE is synthesized by oxidation of the 5-lipoxygenase product 5S-HETE by the selective enzyme, 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase. It actions are mediated by the selective OXE receptor, which is highly expressed on eosinophils, suggesting that it may be important in eosinophilic diseases such as asthma. 5-Oxo-ETE also appears to stimulate tumor cell proliferation and may also be involved in cancer. Highly selective and potent OXE receptor antagonists have recently become available and could help to clarify its pathophysiological role. The 12-lipoxygenase product 12S-HETE acts by the GPR31 receptor and promotes tumor cell proliferation and metastasis and could therefore be a promising target in cancer therapy. It may also be involved as a proinflammatory mediator in diabetes. In contrast, 15S-HETE may have a protective effect in cancer. In addition to GPCRs, higher concentration of HETEs and oxo-ETEs can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and could potentially regulate a variety of processes by this mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  12. Unsaturated phosphinic analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid as GABA(C) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chebib, M; Vandenberg, R J; Froestl, W; Johnston, G A

    1997-06-25

    The phosphinic and methylphosphinic analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are potent GABA(C) receptor antagonists but are even more potent as GABA(B) receptor agonists. Conformationally restricted unsaturated phosphinic and methylphosphinic analogues of GABA and some potent GABA(B) receptor phosphonoamino acid antagonists were tested on GABA(C) receptors in Xenopus oocytes expressing human retinal rho1 mRNA. 3-Aminopropyl-n-butyl-phosphinic acid (CGP36742), an orally active GABA(B) receptor antagonist, was found to be a moderately potent GABA(C) receptor antagonist (IC50 = 62 microM). The unsaturated methylphosphinic and phosphinic analogues of GABA were competitive antagonists of the GABA(C) receptors, the order of potency being [(E)-3-aminopropen-1-yl]methylphosphinic acid (CGP44530, IC50 = 5.53 microM) > [(E)-3-aminopropen-1-yl]phosphinic acid (CGP38593, IC50 = 7.68 microM) > [(Z)-3-aminopropen-1-yl]methylphosphinic acid (CGP70523, IC50 = 38.94 microM) > [(Z)-3-aminopropen-1-yl]phosphinic acid (CGP70522, IC50 > 100 microM). This order of potency differs from that reported for these compounds as GABA(B) receptor agonists, where the phosphinic acids are more potent than the corresponding methylphosphinic acids.

  13. Evolutionary and Functional Diversification of the Vitamin D Receptor-Lithocholic Acid Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guozhu; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G. Kerr; Reif, David M.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution, molecular behavior, and physiological function of nuclear receptors are of particular interest given their diverse roles in regulating essential biological processes. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is well known for its canonical roles in calcium homeostasis and skeletal maintenance. Additionally, VDR has received an increased amount of attention due to the discovery of numerous non-calcemic functions, including the detoxification of lithocholic acid. Lithocholic acid is a toxic metabolite of chenodeoxycholic acid, a primary bile acid. The partnership between the VDR and lithocholic acid has been hypothesized to be a recent adaptation that evolved to mediate the detoxification and elimination of lithocholic acid from the gut. This partnership is speculated to be limited to higher vertebrates (birds and mammals), as lower vertebrates do not synthesize the parent compound of lithocholic acid. However, the molecular functions associated with the observed insensitivity of basal VDRs to lithocholic acid have not been explored. Here we characterize canonical nuclear receptor functions of VDRs from select species representing key nodes in vertebrate evolution and span a range of bile salt phenotypes. Competitive ligand binding assays revealed that the receptor’s affinity for lithocholic acid is highly conserved across species, suggesting that lithocholic acid affinity is an ancient and non-adaptive trait. However, transient transactivation assays revealed that lithocholic acid-mediated VDR activation might have evolved more recently, as the non-mammalian receptors did not respond to lithocholic acid unless exogenous coactivator proteins were co-expressed. Subsequent functional assays indicated that differential lithocholic acid-mediated receptor activation is potentially driven by differential protein-protein interactions between VDR and nuclear receptor coregulator proteins. We hypothesize that the vitamin D receptor-lithocholic acid partnership evolved as

  14. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W; Wines, Pamela G; Cryan, Ellen V; Demarest, Keith T

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca(2+)-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca(2+)-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  15. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuting . E-mail: ytang@prdus.jnj.com; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W.; Wines, Pamela G.; Cryan, Ellen V.; Demarest, Keith T.

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2})/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and other FFA4 agonists inhibit growth factor signaling in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Hopkins, Mandi M; Zhang, Zhihong; Quisenberry, Chrystal B; Fix, Louise C; Galvan, Brianna M; Meier, Kathryn E

    2015-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) are proposed to have many beneficial effects on human health. However, the mechanisms underlying their potential cancer preventative effects are unclear. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family, FFA1/GPR40 and FFA4/GPR120, specifically bind n-3 FAs as agonist ligands. In this study, we examined the effects of n-3 FAs in human prostate cancer cell lines. Initial studies established that the long-chain n-3 FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, inhibit proliferation of DU145 cells in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogenic lipid mediator. When added alone to serum-starved DU145 cells, EPA transiently activates signaling events, including p70S6K phosphorylation. However, when added 15 minutes prior to LPA, EPA suppresses LPA-induced activating phosphorylations of ERK, FAK, and p70S6K, and expression of the matricellular protein CCN1. The rapid onset of the inhibitory action of EPA suggested involvement of a GPCR. Further studies showed that DU145 and PC-3 cells express mRNA and protein for both FFA4 and FFA1. TUG-891 (4-[(4-fluoro-4'-methyl[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy]-benzenepropanoic acid), a selective agonist for FFA4, exerts inhibitory effects on LPA- and epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation and migration, similar to EPA, in DU145 and PC-3 cells. The effects of TUG-891 and EPA are readily reversible. The FFA1/FFA4 agonist GW9508 (4-[[(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-benzenepropranoic acid) likewise inhibits proliferation at doses that block FFA4. Knockdown of FFA4 expression prevents EPA- and TUG-891-induced inhibition of growth and migration. Together, these results indicate that activation of FFA4 initiates signaling events that can inhibit growth factor-induced signaling, providing a novel mechanism for suppression of cancer cell proliferation.

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Receptor 5 Inhibits B Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling and Antibody Response1

    PubMed Central

    Shotts, Kristin; Donovan, Erin E.; Strauch, Pamela; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Victorino, Francisco; Al-Shami, Amin; Fujiwara, Yuko; Tigyi, Gabor; Oravecz, Tamas; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysophospholipids have emerged as biologically important chemoattractants capable of directing lymphocyte development, trafficking and localization. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a major lysophospholipid found systemically and whose levels are elevated in certain pathological settings such as cancer and infections. Here, we demonstrate that BCR signal transduction by mature murine B cells is inhibited upon LPA engagement of the LPA5 (GPR92) receptor via a Gα12/13 – Arhgef1 pathway. The inhibition of BCR signaling by LPA5 manifests by impaired intracellular calcium store release and most likely by interfering with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity. We further show that LPA5 also limits antigen-specific induction of CD69 and CD86 expression and that LPA5-deficient B cells display enhanced antibody responses. Thus, these data show that LPA5 negatively regulates BCR signaling, B cell activation and immune response. Our findings extend the influence of lysophospholipids on immune function and suggest that alterations in LPA levels likely influence adaptive humoral immunity. PMID:24890721

  18. The ketogenic diet; fatty acids, fatty acid-activated receptors and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim E

    2004-03-01

    This review outlines the molecular sensors that reprogram cellular metabolism in response to the ketogenic diet (KD). Special emphasis is placed on the fasting-, fatty acid- and drug-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). The KD causes a switch to ketogenesis that is coordinated with an array of changes in cellular lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate and inflammatory pathways. The role of both liver and brain PPARalpha in mediating such changes will be examined, with special reference to the anti-epileptic effects not only of the KD but a range of synthetic anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate. Finally, the implications of the KD and activated brain PPARalpha will be discussed in the context of their potential involvement in a range of disorders of neuro-degeneration and neuro-inflammation.

  19. Characterization of bicuculline/baclofen-insensitive (rho-like) gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. II. Pharmacology of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Woodward, R M; Polenzani, L; Miledi, R

    1993-04-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA from mammalian retina expresses bicuculline/baclofen-insensitive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in Xenopus oocytes with properties similar to those of homooligomeric GABA rho 1 receptors. The pharmacological profile of these rho-like receptors was extended by measuring sensitivities to various GABAA and GABAB receptor ligands. For direct comparison the same compounds were also assayed with GABAA receptors expressed by rat brain RNA. The potency sequence for heterocyclic GABA analogues at the GABA rho-like receptors was GABA (1.3) > muscimol (2.3) > isoguvacine (100) (approximate EC50 in parentheses; all EC50 and Kb values given in microM). Both muscimol and isoguvacine were partial agonists at the rho-like receptors. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (Kb congruent to 32), piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (Kb congruent to 85), and isonipecotic acid (Kb congruent to 1000) acted primarily as competitive antagonists, showing little or no activity as agonists. The sulfonic acid GABA analogue 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid was also a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 20). Conformationally restricted GABA analogues trans- and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA and CACA) were agonists at the rho-like receptors. TACA (EC50 congruent to 0.6) had twice the potency of GABA and was 125 times more potent than CACA (EC50 congruent to 75). Z-3-(Amidinothio)propenoic acid, an isothiouronium analogue of GABA, had little activity as an agonist but instead acted as a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 20). At concentrations of > 100 microM, bicuculline did have some weak competitive inhibitory effects on the GABA rho-like receptors (Kb congruent to 6000), but it was at least 5000 times more potent at GABAA receptors. Strychnine (Kb congruent to 70) and SR-95531 (Kb congruent to 35) also were competitive inhibitors of the rho-like receptors but were, respectively, 20 and 240 times more potent at GABAA receptors. The GABAB receptor ligands baclofen

  20. Pharmacology of the inhibitory glycine receptor: agonist and antagonist actions of amino acids and piperidine carboxylic acid compounds.

    PubMed

    Schmieden, V; Betz, H

    1995-11-01

    To define structure-activity relations for ligands binding to the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), the agonistic and antagonistic properties of alpha- and beta-amino acids were analyzed at the recombinant human alpha 1 GlyR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The agonistic activity of alpha-amino acids exhibited a marked stereoselectivity and was highly susceptible to substitutions at the C alpha-atom. In contrast, alpha-amino acid antagonism was not enantiomer dependent and was influenced little by C alpha-atom substitutions. The beta-amino acids taurine, beta-aminobutyric acid (beta-ABA), and beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIBA) are partial agonists at the GlyR. Low concentrations of these compounds competitively inhibited glycine responses, whereas higher concentrations elicited a significant membrane current. Nipecotic acid, which contains a trans-beta-amino acid configuration, behaved as purely competitive GlyR antagonist. Our data are consistent with the existence of a common binding site for all amino acid agonists and antagonists, at which the functional consequences of binding depend on the particular conformation a given ligand adopts within the binding pocket. In the case of beta-amino acids, the trans conformation appears to mediate antagonistic receptor binding, and the cis conformation appears to mediate agonistic receptor binding. This led us to propose that the partial agonist activity of a given beta-amino acid is determined by the relative mole fractions of the respective cis/trans conformers.

  1. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Wise, Alan; Foord, Steven M; Fraser, Neil J; Barnes, Ashley A; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Eilert, Michelle; Ignar, Diane M; Murdock, Paul R; Steplewski, Klaudia; Green, Andrew; Brown, Andrew J; Dowell, Simon J; Szekeres, Philip G; Hassall, David G; Marshall, Fiona H; Wilson, Shelagh; Pike, Nicholas B

    2003-03-14

    Nicotinic acid has been used clinically for over 40 years in the treatment of dyslipidemia producing a desirable normalization of a range of cardiovascular risk factors, including a marked elevation of high density lipoprotein and a reduction in mortality. The precise mechanism of action of nicotinic acid is unknown, although it is believed that activation of a G(i)-G protein-coupled receptor may contribute. Utilizing available information on the tissue distribution of nicotinic acid receptors, we identified candidate orphan receptors. The selected orphan receptors were screened for responses to nicotinic acid, in an assay for activation of G(i)-G proteins. Here we describe the identification of the G protein-coupled receptor HM74 as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. We then describe the subsequent identification of HM74A in follow-up bioinformatics searches and demonstrate that it acts as a high affinity receptor for nicotinic acid and other compounds with related pharmacology. The discovery of HM74A as a molecular target for nicotinic acid may facilitate the discovery of superior drug molecules to treat dyslipidemia.

  2. Structural basis and functions of abscisic acid receptors PYLs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing L.; Jiang, Lun; Xin, Qi; Liu, Yang; Tan, Jian X.; Chen, Zhong Z.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many developmental processes and responses to adaptive stresses in plants. Recently, a new family of nucleocytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYLs) has been identified as bona fide ABA receptors. PYLs together with protein phosphatases type-2C (PP2Cs), Snf1 (Sucrose-non-fermentation 1)-related kinases subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) and downstream substrates constitute the core ABA signaling network. Generally, PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s kinases by physical interaction and direct dephosphorylation. Upon ABA binding, PYLs change their conformations and then contact and inhibit PP2Cs, thus activating SnRK2s. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in research regarding the structures of the core signaling pathways of ABA, including the (+)-ABA, (−)-ABA and ABA analogs pyrabactin as well as 6AS perception by PYLs, SnRK2s mimicking PYLs in binding PP2Cs. PYLs inhibited PP2Cs in both the presence and absence of ABA and activated SnRK2s. The present review elucidates multiple ABA signal perception and transduction by PYLs, which might shed light on how to design small chemical compounds for improving plant performance in the future. PMID:25745428

  3. Altered food consumption in mice lacking lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Dusaulcy, R; Daviaud, D; Pradère, J P; Grès, S; Valet, Ph; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2009-12-01

    The release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes has previously been proposed to play a role in obesity and associated pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes. In the present work, the sensitivity to diet-induced obesity was studied in mice lacking one of the LPA receptor subtype (LPA1R). Conversely to what was observed in wild type (WT) mice, LPA1R-KO-mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed no significant increase in body weight or fat mass when compared to low fat diet (LFD). In addition, in contrast to what was observed in WT mice, LPA1R-KO mice did not exhibit over-consumption of food associated with HFD. Surprisingly, when fed a LFD, LPA1R-KO mice exhibited significant higher plasma leptin concentration and higher level of adipocyte leptin mRNA than WT mice. In conclusion, LPA1R-KO mice were found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity consecutive to a resistance to fat-induced over-consumption of food that may result at least in part from alterations in leptin expression and production.

  4. In vivo blockade of thalamic GABA(B) receptors increases excitatory amino-acid levels.

    PubMed

    Nyitrai, G; Emri, Z; Crunelli, V; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, A; Juhász, G

    1996-12-30

    The effect of intrathalamic application of GABA(B) receptor antagonists on the basal excitatory amino-acid levels was studied using microdialysis probes implanted in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and in the ventrobasal complex. In both nuclei, continuous perfusion of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl-(diethoxymethyl)-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348) produced an increase in the extracellular concentration of aspartate and (to a lesser extent) glutamate, but no change was observed in the level of taurine, the main amino acid involved in the regulation of brain osmolarity processes. In contrast, 3-amino-2-hydroxy-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-propanesulphonic acid (2-hydroxy-saclofen), another GABA(B) receptor antagonist, failed to affect the extracellular concentration of aspartate, glutamate and taurine. Thus, the basal level of excitatory amino acids in the thalamus in vivo is under the control of CGP 35348-sensitive GABA(B) receptors.

  5. Tannic acid, a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Er Bin; Wei, Liu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yu Zong; Chen, Wei Ning

    2006-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that tannic acid, a plant polyphenol, exerts anticarcinogenic activity in chemically induced cancers. In the present study, tannic acid was found to strongly inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in vitro (IC50 = 323 nM). In contrast, the inhibition by tannic acid of p60(c-src) tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 14 microM) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 5 microM) was much weaker. The inhibition of EGFr tyrosine kinase by tannic acid was competitive with respect to ATP and non-competitive with respect to peptide substrate. In cultured cells, growth factor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, including EGFr, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, was inhibited by tannic acid. No inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin-receptor substrate-1 was observed. EGF-stimulated growth of HepG2 cells was inhibited in the presence of tannic acid. The inhibition of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase, by tannic acid was only detected at relatively high concentration, IC50 being 3, 325 and 142 microM respectively. The molecular modeling study suggested that tannic acid could be docked into the ATP binding pockets of either EGFr or insulin receptor. These results demonstrate that tannic acid is an in vitro potent inhibitor of EGFr tyrosine kinase.

  6. Effects of beer and hop on ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Hitoshi; Takeda, Katsuichi; Okita, Yoichi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2006-04-05

    Beer induced the response of the ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(A) receptors) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, indicating the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like activity. Furthermore, the pentane extract of the beer, hop (Humulus lupulus L.) oil, and myrcenol potentiated the GABA(A) receptor response elicited by GABA. The GABA(A) receptor responses were also potentiated by the addition of aliphatic esters, most of which are reported to be present in beer flavor. Aliphatic esters showed the tendency to decrease in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response with an increase in their carbon chain length. When myrcenol was injected to mice prior to intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital, the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time of mice increased additionally. Therefore, the beer contained not only GABA-like activity but also the modulator(s) of the GABA(A) receptor response.

  7. OR-1, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that interacts with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Teboul, M; Enmark, E; Li, Q; Wikström, A C; Pelto-Huikko, M; Gustafsson, J A

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The cDNA was isolated from a rat liver library and encodes a protein of 446 aa with a predicted mass of 50 kDa. This clone (OR-1) shows no striking homology to any known member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. The most related receptor is the ecdysone receptor and the highest homologies represent < 10% in the amino-terminal domain, between 15-37% in the carboxyl-terminal domain and 50-62% in the DNA binding domain. The expression of OR-1 appears to be widespread in both fetal and adult rat tissues. Potential DNA response elements composed of a direct repeat of the hexameric motif AGGTCA spaced by 0-6 nt were tested in gel shift experiments. OR-1 was shown to interact with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (retinoid X receptor, RXR) and the OR-1/RXR complex to bind to a direct repeat spaced by 4 nt (DR4). In transfection experiments, OR-1 appears to activate RXR-mediated function through the DR4. Therefore OR-1 might modulate 9-cis-retinoic acid signaling by interacting with RXR. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7892230

  8. Acetylated deoxycholic (DCA) and cholic (CA) acids are potent ligands of pregnane X (PXR) receptor.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Alejandro; Hyrsova, Lucie; Dusek, Jan; Chodounska, Hana; Horvatova, Alzbeta; Berka, Karel; Bazgier, Vaclav; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Chamulitrat, Waleé; Kudova, Eva; Pavek, Petr

    2017-01-04

    The Pregnane X (PXR), Vitamin D (VDR) and Farnesoid X (FXR) nuclear receptors have been shown to be receptors of bile acids controlling their detoxification or synthesis. Chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and lithocholic (LCA) acids are ligands of FXR and VDR, respectively, whereas 3-keto and acetylated derivates of LCA have been described as ligands for all three receptors. In this study, we hypothesized that oxidation or acetylation at position 3, 7 and 12 of bile acids DCA (deoxycholic acid), LCA, CA (cholic acid), and CDCA by detoxification enzymes or microbiome may have an effect on the interactions with bile acid nuclear receptors. We employed reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells, the TR-FRET assay with recombinant PXR and RT-PCR to study the effects of acetylated and keto bile acids on the nuclear receptors activation and their target gene expression in differentiated hepatic HepaRG cells. We demonstrate that the DCA 3,12-diacetate and CA 3,7,12-triacetate derivatives are ligands of PXR and DCA 3,12-diacetate induces PXR target genes such as CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and ABCB1/MDR1. In conclusion, we found that acetylated DCA and CA are potent ligands of PXR. Whether the acetylated bile acid derivatives are novel endogenous ligands of PXR with detoxification or physiological functions should be further studied in ongoing experiments.

  9. Potentiation of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Receptors (GABAAR) by Ethanol: How Are Inhibitory Receptors Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Förstera, Benjamin; Castro, Patricio A.; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Aguayo, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the understanding of ethanol actions on the type A γ-aminobutyric acid chloride channel (GABAAR), a member of the pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs). However, the mechanism by which ethanol potentiates the complex is still not fully understood and a number of publications have shown contradictory results. Thus many questions still remain unresolved requiring further studies for a better comprehension of this effect. The present review concentrates on the involvement of GABAAR in the acute actions of ethanol and specifically focuses on the immediate, direct or indirect, synaptic and extra-synaptic modulatory effects. To elaborate on the immediate, direct modulation of GABAAR by acute ethanol exposure, electrophysiological studies investigating the importance of different subunits, and data from receptor mutants will be examined. We will also discuss the nature of the putative binding sites for ethanol based on structural data obtained from other members of the pLGICs family. Finally, we will briefly highlight the glycine gated chloride channel (GlyR), another member of the pLGIC family, as a suitable target for the development of new pharmacological tools. PMID:27199667

  10. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) related to research published in "Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish" (Takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  11. Nicotinic Acid Receptor Abnormalities in Human Skin Cancer: Implications for a Role in Epidermal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Yira; Benavente, Claudia A.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Coyle, W. Russell; Jacobson, Myron K.; Jacobson, Elaine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through Gi-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. Results Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional Gi-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional. Conclusions The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s) of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis. PMID:21655214

  12. Unnatural agrochemical ligands for engineered abscisic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro L; Lozano-Juste, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Existing agrochemicals can be endowed with new applications through protein engineering of plant receptors. A recent study shows an engineered PYR1 ABA receptor can be activated by mandipropamid. Plants engineered with such PYR1 variant are responsive to this agrochemical, which confers protection against drought through activation of ABA signaling.

  13. Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

    2014-01-15

    Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid.

  14. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-05

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  15. Coexpression of striatal dopamine receptor subtypes and excitatory amino acid subunits.

    PubMed

    Ariano, M A; Larson, E R; Noblett, K L; Sibley, D R; Levine, M S

    1997-08-01

    The striatal cellular coexpression patterns for the D(1A) and D2 dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and the ionotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-R1) and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) (GluR1 and GluR2/3) receptor subunits were examined morphologically. Their coincidence was assessed by visualization of mRNA transcripts, localization of encoded receptor proteins, and binding analysis using concurrently paired methods of fluorescence detection. The findings indicated that 1) mRNA transcripts for both receptor systems were detected in the medium-sized neuron population, and the distribution of receptor message closely reflected protein and binding patterns, with the exception of the GluR1 subunit; 2) both DA receptor mRNA transcripts were coexpressed with each ionotropic EAA receptor subunit examined and with each other, and NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits also showed coincident expression; 3) D(1A) DA receptor protein was detected in neurons which coexpressed EAA subunit proteins; and 4) GluR2/3 and NMDA-R1 subunit proteins were coexpressed in medium-sized neurons which also demonstrated D2 DA receptor binding sites. These findings suggest morphological receptor "promiscuity" since the coexpression patterns between DA and EAA receptors were found in all permutations. The results provide a spatial framework for physiological findings describing functional interactions between the two DA receptor types and between specific DA and EAA receptors in the striatum.

  16. Amino Acid- vs. Peptide-Odorants: Responses of Individual Olfactory Receptor Neurons in an Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Hassenklöver, Thomas; Pallesen, Lars P.; Schild, Detlev; Manzini, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are widely used waterborne olfactory stimuli proposed to serve as cues in the search for food. In natural waters the main source of amino acids is the decomposition of proteins. But this process also produces a variety of small peptides as intermediate cleavage products. In the present study we tested whether amino acids actually are the natural and adequate stimuli for the olfactory receptors they bind to. Alternatively, these olfactory receptors could be peptide receptors which also bind amino acids though at lower affinity. Employing calcium imaging in acute slices of the main olfactory epithelium of the fully aquatic larvae of Xenopus laevis we show that amino acids, and not peptides, are more effective waterborne odorants. PMID:23300867

  17. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids: nutritional and therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah; Hudson, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    It is becoming evident that nutrients and metabolic intermediates derived from such nutrients regulate cellular function by activating a number of cell-surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Until now, members of the GPCR family have largely been considered as the molecular targets that communicate cellular signals initiated by hormones and neurotransmitters. Recently, based on tissue expression patterns of these receptors and the concept that they may elicit the production of a range of appetite- and hunger-regulating peptides, such nutrient sensing GPCRs are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to modulate satiety, improve glucose homeostasis and supress the production of various pro-inflammatory mediators. Despite the developing interests in these nutrients sensing GPCR both as sensors of nutritional status, and targets for limiting the development of metabolic diseases, major challenges remain to exploit their potential for therapeutic purposes. Mostly, this is due to limited characterisation and validation of these receptors because of paucity of selective and high-potency/affinity pharmacological agents to define the detailed function and regulation of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid have been of particular interest, and some aspects of these are considered herein.

  18. Activity of 2-substituted lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs at LPA receptors: discovery of a LPA1/LPA3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Heise, C E; Santos, W L; Schreihofer, A M; Heasley, B H; Mukhin, Y V; Macdonald, T L; Lynch, K R

    2001-12-01

    The physiological implications of lysophosphatidic acid occupancy of individual receptors are largely unknown because selective agonists/antagonists are unavailable currently. The molecular cloning of three high-affinity lysophosphatidic acid receptors, LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3, provides a platform for developing receptor type-selective ligands. Starting with an N-acyl ethanolamide phosphate LPA analog, we made a series of substitutions at the second carbon to generate compounds with varying spatial, stereochemical, and electronic characteristics. Analysis of this series at each recombinant LPA receptor using a guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate (GTP[gamma35S]) binding assay revealed sharp differences in activity. Our results suggest that these receptors have one spatially restrictive binding pocket that interacts with the 2-substituted moieties and prefers small hydrophobic groups and hydrogen bonding functionalities. The agonist activity predicted by the GTP[gamma35S] binding assay was reflected in the activity of a subset of compounds in increasing arterial pressure in anesthetized rats. One compound with a bulky hydrophobic group (VPC12249) was a dual LPA1/LPA3 competitive antagonist. Several compounds that had smaller side chains were found to be LPA1-selective agonists.

  19. Betulin binds to gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and exerts anticonvulsant action in mice.

    PubMed

    Muceniece, Ruta; Saleniece, Kristine; Rumaks, Juris; Krigere, Liga; Dzirkale, Zane; Mezhapuke, Rudolfs; Zharkova, Olga; Klusa, Vija

    2008-10-01

    The lupane type pentacyclic triterpenes: lupeol, betulin, and betulinic acid are widely distributed natural compounds. Recently, pharmaceutical compositions from plant extracts (family Marcgraviaceae) containing betulinic acid, have been patented as anxiolytic remedies. To extend our knowledge of the CNS effects of the triterpenes, we suggest here that the chemically related lupeol, betulin and betulinic acid may interact with the brain neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in vitro and in vivo. Using radioligand receptor-binding assay, we showed that only betulin bound to the GABA(A)-receptor sites in mice brain in vitro and antagonised the GABA(A)-receptor antagonist bicuculline-induced seizures in mice after intracisternal and intraperitoneal administration. Neither betulinic acid nor lupeol bound to GABA(A) receptor nor did they inhibit bicuculline-induced seizures in vivo. These findings demonstrate for the first time the CNS effects of betulin in vivo, and they also show distinct GABA(A)-receptor-related properties of lupane type triterpenes. These findings may open new avenues in understanding the central effects of betulin, and they also indicate possibilities for novel drug design on the basis of betulin structure.

  20. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is not an agonist of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, William M; Errington, Adam C; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound and a drug used clinically to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy. GHB is known to be an agonist of GABAB receptors with millimolar affinity, but also binds with much higher affinity to another site, known as the GHB receptor. While a body of evidence has shown that GHB does not bind to GABAA receptors widely, recent evidence has suggested that the GHB receptor is in fact on extrasynaptic α4β1δ GABAA receptors, where GHB acts as an agonist with an EC50 of 140 nM. We investigated three neuronal cell types that express a tonic GABAA receptor current mediated by extrasynaptic receptors: ventrobasal (VB) thalamic neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells and striatal medium spiny neurons. Using whole-cell voltage clamp in brain slices, we found no evidence that GHB (10 µM) induced any GABAA receptor mediated current in these cell types, nor that it modulated inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, a high concentration of GHB (3 mM) was able to produce a GABAB receptor mediated current, but did not induce any other currents. These results suggest either that GHB is not a high affinity agonist at native α4β1δ receptors, or that these receptors do not exist in classical areas associated with extrasynaptic currents.

  1. AMPA receptor subunits expression and phosphorylation in cingulate cortex in rats following esophageal acid exposure

    PubMed Central

    BANERJEE, B.; MEDDA, B. K.; POCHIRAJU, S.; KANNAMPALLI, P.; LANG, I. M.; SENGUPTA, J. N.; SHAKER, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently reported an increase in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit expression and CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of NR2B in the rostral cingulate cortical (rCC) neurons following esophageal acid exposure in rats. As α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors mediate the fast excitatory transmission and play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, in this study, we investigated the effect of esophageal acid exposure in rats on the expression of AMPA receptor subunits and the involvement of these molecular alterations in acid-induced sensitization of neurons in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and midcingulate (MCC) cortices. Methods In molecular study, we examined GluA1 and GluA2 expression and phosphorylation in membrane preparations and in the isolated postsynaptic densities (PSDs) from rats receiving acute esophageal exposure of either saline (control group) or 0.1 NHCl (experimental group). In electrophysiological study, the effect of selective AMPA receptor (Ca2+ permeable) antagonist IEM-1460 and CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 was tested on responses of cortical neurons during acid infusion to address the underlying molecular mechanism of acid-induced sensitization. Key Results The acid exposure significantly increased expression of GluA1, pGluA1Ser831, and phosphorylated CaMKIIThr286, in the cortical membrane preparations. In isolated PSDs, a significant increase in pGluA1Ser831 was observed in acid-treated rats compared with controls. Microinjection of IEM-1460 or KN-93 near the recording site significantly attenuated acid-induced sensitization of cortical neurons. Conclusions & Inferences The underlying mechanism of acid-induced cortical sensitization involves upregulation and CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of GluA1. These molecular changes of AMPA receptors subunit GluA1 in the cortical neurons might play an important role in acid-induced esophageal hypersensitivity. PMID:24118589

  2. Concomitant Action of Structural Elements and Receptor Phosphorylation Determines Arrestin-3 Interaction with the Free Fatty Acid Receptor FFA4*

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Adrian J.; Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Prihandoko, Rudi; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being nutrients, free fatty acids act as signaling molecules by activating a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Among these is FFA4, previously called GPR120, which responds to medium and long chain fatty acids, including health-promoting ω-3 fatty acids, which have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic and inflammatory responses. Here we show, using mass spectrometry, mutagenesis, and phosphospecific antibodies, that agonist-regulated phosphorylation of the human FFA4 receptor occurred primarily at five residues (Thr347, Thr349, Ser350, Ser357, and Ser360) in the C-terminal tail. Mutation of these residues reduced both the efficacy and potency of ligand-mediated arrestin-3 recruitment as well as affecting recruitment kinetics. Combined mutagenesis of all five of these residues was insufficient to fully abrogate interaction with arrestin-3, but further mutagenesis of negatively charged residues revealed additional structural components for the interaction with arrestin-3 within the C-terminal tail of the receptor. These elements consist of the acidic residues Glu341, Asp348, and Asp355 located close to the phosphorylation sites. Receptor phosphorylation thus operates in concert with structural elements within the C-terminal tail of FFA4 to allow for the recruitment of arrestin-3. Importantly, these mechanisms of arrestin-3 recruitment operate independently from Gq/11 coupling, thereby offering the possibility that ligands showing stimulus bias could be developed that exploit these differential coupling mechanisms. Furthermore, this provides a strategy for the design of biased receptors to probe physiologically relevant signaling. PMID:24817122

  3. REACTIVITY PROFILE OF LIGANDS OF MAMMALIAN RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS: A PRELIMINARY COREPA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that bind to and activate different families of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, RXRs), and control many aspects of vertebrate development. Identification of potential RAR and RXR ligands is of interes...

  4. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the predominant perfluoroalkyl acids in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA strongly activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in vitro and negatively impacts development ...

  5. The effects of avermectin on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jie; Sun, Bao-Hong; Cao, Ye; Yao, Hai-Dong; Qu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Ci; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of avermectin (AVM) on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pigeon brain. Four groups two-month-old American king pigeons (n=20/group) were fed either a commercial diet or an AVM-supplemented diet (20mg/kg·diet, 40 mg/kg·diet, or 60 mg/kg·diet) for 30, 60, or 90 days. The contents of aspartic acid (ASP), glutamate (GLU), glycine (GLY), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues were determined using ultraviolet high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression levels of the GLU and GABA receptor genes were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicate that AVM exposure significantly enhances the contents of GABA, GLY, GLU, and ASP in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. In addition, AVM exposure increases the mRNA expression levels of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR), γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR), N-methyl-d-aspartate 1 receptor (NR1), N-methyl-d-aspartate 2A receptor (NR2A), and N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (NR2B) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that the most damaged organ was the cerebrum, followed by the cerebellum, and then the optic lobe. These results show that the AVM-induced neurotoxicity may be associated with its effects on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors. The information presented in this study will help supplement the available data for future AVM toxicity studies.

  6. Effects of arachidonic acid on FFA4 receptor: Signaling, phosphorylation and internalization.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Comonfort, S; Takei, Y; Tsujimoto, G; Hirasawa, A; García-Sáinz, J A

    2017-02-01

    Arachidonic acid increased intracellular calcium, in cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged human FFA4 receptors, with an EC50 of ~40µM. This action was not blocked by cyclooxygenase or lipoxigenase inhibitors but it was inhibited by AH7614, a FFA4 antagonist. Arachidonic acid induced ERK activation accompanied by EGF receptor transactivation. However, EGF transactivation was not the major mechanism through which the fatty acid induced ERK phosphorylation, as evidenced by the inability of AG1478 to block it. Arachidonic acid increased FFA4 receptor phosphorylation that reached its maximum within 15min with an EC50 of ~30µM; inhibitors of protein kinase C partially diminish this effect and AH7614 blocked it. Arachidonic acid induced rapid and sustained Akt/PKB phosphorylation and FFA4 - β-arrestin interaction. Confocal microscopy evidenced that FFA4 receptor activation and phosphorylation were associated to internalization. In conclusion, arachidonic acid is a bona fide FFA4 receptor agonist.

  7. Classification of inhibitory amino acid receptors in the mammalian nervous system.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, M A

    1986-01-01

    Electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence is summarized for the existence of an inhibitory receptor system operated by glycine and another two separate systems operated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, respectively. Claims for subclasses of GABA-A receptor are critically reviewed and found not-proven. A quantitative pharmacological profile of the GABA-A receptor and associated regulatory sites for picrotoxin, barbiturates and benzodiazepines on the dorsal funiculus of the rat cuneate nucleus is described. When compared with this profile and the pharmacological properties of the glycine receptor complex, the effects of taurine cannot be entirely explained by actions on these two receptor systems.

  8. RAGE is a nucleic acid receptor that promotes inflammatory responses to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Cherilyn M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Miller, Allison L.; Bertheloot, Damien; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Horvath, Gabor L.; Mian, Abubakar; Jiang, Jiansheng; Schrum, Jacob; Bossaller, Lukas; Pelka, Karin; Garbi, Natalio; Brewah, Yambasu; Tian, Jane; Chang, ChewShun; Chowdhury, Partha S.; Sims, Gary P.; Kolbeck, Roland; Coyle, Anthony J.; Humbles, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of DNA and RNA molecules derived from pathogens or self-antigen is one way the mammalian immune system senses infection and tissue damage. Activation of immune signaling receptors by nucleic acids is controlled by limiting the access of DNA and RNA to intracellular receptors, but the mechanisms by which endosome-resident receptors encounter nucleic acids from the extracellular space are largely undefined. In this study, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) promoted DNA uptake into endosomes and lowered the immune recognition threshold for the activation of Toll-like receptor 9, the principal DNA-recognizing transmembrane signaling receptor. Structural analysis of RAGE–DNA complexes indicated that DNA interacted with dimers of the outermost RAGE extracellular domains, and could induce formation of higher-order receptor complexes. Furthermore, mice deficient in RAGE were unable to mount a typical inflammatory response to DNA in the lung, indicating that RAGE is important for the detection of nucleic acids in vivo. PMID:24081950

  9. Modulatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on the binding of glucocorticoids to rat liver glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vallette, G; Vanet, A; Sumida, C; Nunez, E A

    1991-09-01

    Binding of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone to the rat liver cytosol glucocorticoid receptor was inhibited by physiological concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids as a function of increasing dose, degree of unsaturation, and chain length of the fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most potent inhibitors. Scatchard analysis and Line-weaver-Burk plots of the binding data revealed that both the association constants and number of binding sites decreased and that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibition was of a mixed non-competitive type. The dissociation rate constant of [3H]dexamethasone from glucocorticoid receptors was increased by up to 10 times in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid, whereas a competitive inhibitor like the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 38486 had no effect. Moreover, sucrose density gradient analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid inhibited the binding of [3H] dexamethasone to both the 8.8S and 4S forms. The results strongly suggest that unsaturated fatty acids are interacting at a site on the receptor different from the hormone binding site and the heat shock protein and that by binding to a second site unsaturated fatty acids greatly change the conformation of the hormone binding site to reduce its affinity for the hormone, either partially or completely depending on the concentration and the class of the fatty acid.

  10. Stimulation of acid secretion and phosphoinositol production by rat parietal cell muscarinic M sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, A.; Rochlitz, H.; Herz, A.; Paumgartner, G. )

    1988-04-01

    The muscarinic receptor system involved in hydrogen production by enriched rat gastric parietal cells was investigated. Muscarinic receptor density determined by (N-methyl-{sup 3}H)scopolamine binding was 8,100/cell. The receptor appeared to be of the M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtype, since it had a low affinity (K{sub d} 189 nM) for the M{sub 1} receptor antagonist pirenzepine compared with atropine. Receptor activation by carbachol rapidly augmented levels of polyphosphoinositides, indicating an activation of phospholipase C. The dose-response relations for the increase in inositol phosphates closely paralleled the binding of carbachol to muscarinic receptors. The inositol phosphate response was antagonized by pirenzepine with a K{sub i} of 177 nM. the stimulation of inositol phosphate levels by carbachol correlated well with the stimulation of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake, determine as an index of acid secretion. The muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, pilocarpine, and bethanechol elicited partial increases in inositol phosphates at maximal drug concentrations, and these partial increases correlated with their ability to stimulate ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake. These data indicate that inositolpolyphosphates may be a second messenger of M{sub 2} receptors stimulating acid secretion.

  11. Free fatty acid receptors: emerging targets for treatment of diabetes and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Vangaveti, Venkat; Shashidhar, Venkatesh; Jarrod, Ghassan; Baune, Bernhard T.; Kennedy, R. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are important as metabolic substrates and as structural components of biological membranes. However, they also function as signalling molecules. Recently, a series of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) for FAs has been described and characterized. These receptors have differing specificities for FAs of differing chain length and degree of saturation, for FA derivatives such as oleoylethanolamide, and for oxidized FAs. They are a critical component of the body's nutrient sensing apparatus, and small molecule agonists and antagonists of these receptors show considerable promise in the management of diabetes and its complications. Agonists of the long-chain free fatty acid receptors FFAR1 and GPR119 act as insulin secretagogues, both directly and by increasing incretins. Although, drugs acting at short-chain FFA receptors (FFAR2 and FFAR3) have not yet been developed, they are attractive targets as they regulate nutrient balance through effects in the intestine and adipose tissue. These include regulation of the secretion of cholecystokinin, peptide YY and leptin. Finally, GPR132 is a receptor for oxidized FAs, which may be a sensor of lipid overload and oxidative stress, and which is involved in atherosclerosis. Regulation of its signalling pathways with drugs may decrease the macrovascular risk experienced by diabetic patients. In summary, FA receptors are emerging drug targets that are involved in the regulation of nutrient status and carbohydrate tolerance, and modulators of these receptors may well figure prominently in the next generation of antidiabetic drugs. PMID:23148161

  12. Topoisomerase IIβ Negatively Modulates Retinoic Acid Receptor α Function: a Novel Mechanism of Retinoic Acid Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Suzan; Wang, Hongling; Hanna, Nessrine; Miller, Wilson H.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between retinoic acid (RA) receptor α (RARα) and coregulators play a key role in coordinating gene transcription and myeloid differentiation. In patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the RARα gene is fused with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene via the t(15;17) translocation, resulting in the expression of a PML/RARα fusion protein. Here, we report that topoisomerase II beta (TopoIIβ) associates with and negatively modulates RARα transcriptional activity and that increased levels of and association with TopoIIβ cause resistance to RA in APL cell lines. Knockdown of TopoIIβ was able to overcome resistance by permitting RA-induced differentiation and increased RA gene expression. Overexpression of TopoIIβ in clones from an RA-sensitive cell line conferred resistance by a reduction in RA-induced expression of target genes and differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that TopoIIβ is bound to an RA response element and that inhibition of TopoIIβ causes hyperacetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 and activation of transcription. Our results identify a novel mechanism of resistance in APL and provide further insight to the role of TopoIIβ in gene regulation and differentiation. PMID:18212063

  13. Modulation of Retinoic Acid Receptor-related Orphan Receptor α and γ Activity by 7-Oxygenated Sterol Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Kumar, Naresh; Solt, Laura A.; Richardson, Timothy I.; Helvering, Leah M.; Crumbley, Christine; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Stayrook, Keith R.; Zhang, Xi; Novick, Scott; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα (NR1F1) and RORγ (NR1F3)) are orphan nuclear receptors and perform critical roles in regulation of development, metabolism, and immune function. Cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate have been suggested to be RORα ligands, but the physiological significance is unclear. To date, no endogenous RORγ ligands have been described. Here, we demonstrate that 7-oxygenated sterols function as high affinity ligands for both RORα and RORγ by directly binding to their ligand-binding domains (Ki ∼20 nm), modulating coactivator binding, and suppressing the transcriptional activity of the receptors. One of the 7-oxygenated sterols, 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OHC), serves as a key intermediate in bile acid metabolism, and we show that 7α-OHC modulates the expression of ROR target genes, including Glc-6-Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, in an ROR-dependent manner. Furthermore, glucose output from hepatocytes is suppressed by 7α-OHC functioning as an RORα/γ ligand. Thus, RORα and RORγ are ligand-regulated members of the NR superfamily and may serve as sensors for 7-oxygenated sterols. PMID:19965867

  14. Mechanisms for the activation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 by saturated fatty acids and inhibition by docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daniel H; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-08-15

    Saturated fatty acids can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 but polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the activation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipopetides, ligands for TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, are acylated by saturated fatty acids. Removal of these fatty acids results in loss of their ligand activity suggesting that the saturated fatty acyl moieties are required for the receptor activation. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these saturated fatty acyl groups of the ligands directly occupy hydrophobic lipid binding domains of the receptors (or co-receptor) and induce the dimerization which is prerequisite for the receptor activation. Saturated fatty acids also induce the dimerization and translocation of TLR4 and TLR2 into lipid rafts in plasma membrane and this process is inhibited by DHA. Whether saturated fatty acids induce the dimerization of the receptors by interacting with these lipid binding domains is not known. Many experimental results suggest that saturated fatty acids promote the formation of lipid rafts and recruitment of TLRs into lipid rafts leading to ligand independent dimerization of the receptors. Such a mode of ligand independent receptor activation defies the conventional concept of ligand induced receptor activation; however, this may enable diverse non-microbial molecules with endogenous and dietary origins to modulate TLR-mediated immune responses. Emerging experimental evidence reveals that TLRs play a key role in bridging diet-induced endocrine and metabolic changes to immune responses.

  15. Identification of the Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR31 as a Receptor for 12-(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yande; Zhang, Wenliang; Giroux, Craig; Cai, Yinlong; Ekambaram, Prasanna; Dilly, Ashok-kumar; Hsu, Andrew; Zhou, Senlin; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Liu, Jingjing; Joshi, Sangeeta; Tucker, Stephanie C.; Lee, Menq-Jer; Honn, Kenneth V.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are critical lipid mediators involved in various pathophysiologic functions. We cloned and identified GPR31, a plasma membrane orphan G protein-coupled receptor that displays high affinity for the human 12-lipoxygenase-derived product 12-(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE). Thus, GPR31 is named 12-(S)-HETE receptor (12-HETER) in this study. The cloned 12-HETER demonstrated high affinity binding for 12-(S)-[3H]HETE (Kd = 4.8 ± 0.12 nm). Also, 12-(S)-HETE efficiently and selectively stimulated GTPγS coupling in the membranes of 12-HETER-transfected cells (EC50 = 0.28 ± 1.26 nm). Activating GTPγS coupling with 12-(S)-HETE proved to be both regio- and stereospecific. Also, 12-(S)-HETE/12-HETER interactions lead to activation of ERK1/2, MEK, and NFκB. Moreover, knocking down 12-HRTER specifically inhibited 12-(S)-HETE-stimulated cell invasion. Thus, 12-HETER represents the first identified high affinity receptor for the 12-(S)-HETE hydroxyl fatty acids. PMID:21712392

  16. Expression of functional receptors by the human gamma-aminobutyric acid A gamma 2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2004-03-02

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors are heteromeric membrane proteins formed mainly by various combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits; and it is commonly thought that the gamma 2 subunit alone does not form functional receptors. In contrast, we found that cDNA encoding the gamma 2L subunit of the human GABA(A) receptor, injected alone into Xenopus oocytes, expressed functional GABA receptors whose properties were investigated by using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABA elicited desensitizing membrane currents that recovered after a few minutes' wash. Repetitive applications of GABA induced a "run-up" of GABA currents that nearly doubled the amplitude of the first response. The GABA currents inverted direction at about -30 mV, indicating that they are carried mainly by Cl(-) ions. The homomeric gamma 2L receptors were also activated by beta-alanine > taurine > glycine, and, like some types of heteromeric GABA(A) receptors, the gamma 2L receptors were blocked by bicuculline and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These results indicate that the human gamma 2L subunit is capable of forming fully functional GABA receptors by itself in Xenopus oocytes and suggest that the roles proposed for the various subunits that make up the heteromeric GABA(A) receptors in situ require further clarification.

  17. Expression of functional receptors by the human γ-aminobutyric acid A γ2 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors are heteromeric membrane proteins formed mainly by various combinations of α, β, and γ subunits; and it is commonly thought that the γ2 subunit alone does not form functional receptors. In contrast, we found that cDNA encoding the γ2L subunit of the human GABAA receptor, injected alone into Xenopus oocytes, expressed functional GABA receptors whose properties were investigated by using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABA elicited desensitizing membrane currents that recovered after a few minutes' wash. Repetitive applications of GABA induced a “run-up” of GABA currents that nearly doubled the amplitude of the first response. The GABA currents inverted direction at about -30 mV, indicating that they are carried mainly by Cl- ions. The homomeric γ2L receptors were also activated by β-alanine > taurine > glycine, and, like some types of heteromeric GABAA receptors, the γ2L receptors were blocked by bicuculline and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These results indicate that the human γ2L subunit is capable of forming fully functional GABA receptors by itself in Xenopus oocytes and suggest that the roles proposed for the various subunits that make up the heteromeric GABAA receptors in situ require further clarification. PMID:14981251

  18. Optical control of trimeric P2X receptors and acid-sensing ion channels.

    PubMed

    Browne, Liam E; Nunes, João P M; Sim, Joan A; Chudasama, Vijay; Bragg, Laricia; Caddick, Stephen; North, R Alan

    2014-01-07

    P2X receptors are trimeric membrane proteins that function as ion channels gated by extracellular ATP. We have engineered a P2X2 receptor that opens within milliseconds by irradiation at 440 nm, and rapidly closes at 360 nm. This requires bridging receptor subunits via covalent attachment of 4,4'-bis(maleimido)azobenzene to a cysteine residue (P329C) introduced into each second transmembrane domain. The cis-trans isomerization of the azobenzene pushes apart the outer ends of the transmembrane helices and opens the channel in a light-dependent manner. Light-activated channels exhibited similar unitary currents, rectification, calcium permeability, and dye uptake as P2X2 receptors activated by ATP. P2X3 receptors with an equivalent mutation (P320C) were also light sensitive after chemical modification. They showed typical rapid desensitization, and they could coassemble with native P2X2 subunits in pheochromocytoma cells to form light-activated heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors. A similar approach was used to open and close human acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are also trimers but are unrelated in sequence to P2X receptors. The experiments indicate that the opening of the permeation pathway requires similar and substantial movements of the transmembrane helices in both P2X receptors and ASICs, and the method will allow precise optical control of P2X receptors or ASICs in intact tissues.

  19. Docking simulations suggest that all- trans retinoic acid could bind to retinoid X receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are ligand-controlled transcription factors which heterodimerize with other nuclear receptors to regulate gene transcriptions associated with crucial biological events. 9- cis retinoic acid (9cRA), which transactivates RXRs, is believed to be an endogenous RXR ligand. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural ligand for retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with RXRs. Although the concentration of 9cRA in tissues is very low, ATRA is relatively abundant and some reports show that ATRA activates RXRs. We computationally studied the possibility of ATRA binding to RXRs using two different docking methods with our developed programs to assess the binding affinities of naturally occurring retinoids. The simulations showed good correlations to the reported binding affinities of these molecules for RXRs and RARs.

  20. Role of transient receptor potential and acid-sensing ion channels in peripheral inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    White, John P M; Cibelli, Mario; Rei Fidalgo, Antonio; Paule, Cleoper C; Noormohamed, Faruq; Urban, Laszlo; Maze, Mervyn; Nagy, Istvan

    2010-03-01

    Pain originating in inflammation is the most common pathologic pain condition encountered by the anesthesiologist whether in the context of surgery, its aftermath, or in the practice of pain medicine. Inflammatory agents, released as components of the body's response to peripheral tissue damage or disease, are now known to be collectively capable of activating transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4, transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1, and acid-sensing ion channels, whereas individual agents may activate only certain of these ion channels. These ionotropic receptors serve many physiologic functions-as, indeed, do many of the inflammagens released in the inflammatory process. Here, we introduce the reader to the role of these ionotropic receptors in mediating peripheral pain in response to inflammation.

  1. Glutamate receptor-like channels in plants: a role as amino acid sensors in plant defence?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Plant glutamate receptor-like genes (GLRs) are homologous to the genes for mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), after which they were named, but in the 16 years since their existence was first revealed, progress in elucidating their biological role has been disappointingly slow. Recently, however, studies from a number of laboratories focusing on the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) have thrown new light on the functional properties of some members of the GLR gene family. One important finding has been that plant GLR receptors have a much broader ligand specificity than their mammalian iGluR counterparts, with evidence that some individual GLR receptors can be gated by as many as seven amino acids. These results, together with the ubiquity of their expression throughout the plant, open up the possibility that GLR receptors could have a pervasive role in plants as non-specific amino acid sensors in diverse biological processes. Addressing what one of these roles could be, recent studies examining the wound response and disease susceptibility in GLR knockout mutants have provided evidence that some members of clade 3 of the GLR gene family encode important components of the plant's defence response. Ways in which this family of amino acid receptors might contribute to the plant's ability to respond to an attack from pests and pathogens are discussed. PMID:24991414

  2. Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling through the Lysophosphatidic Acid-1 Receptor Is Required for Alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Funke, Manuela; Knudsen, Lars; Lagares, David; Ebener, Simone; Probst, Clemens K; Fontaine, Benjamin A; Franklin, Alicia; Kellner, Manuela; Kühnel, Mark; Matthieu, Stephanie; Grothausmann, Roman; Chun, Jerold; Roberts, Jesse D; Ochs, Matthias; Tager, Andrew M

    2016-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through one of its receptors, LPA1, contributes to both the development and the pathological remodeling after injury of many organs. Because we found previously that LPA-LPA1 signaling contributes to pulmonary fibrosis, here we investigated whether this pathway is also involved in lung development. Quantitative assessment of lung architecture of LPA1-deficient knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at 3, 12, and 24 weeks of age using design-based stereology suggested the presence of an alveolarization defect in LPA1 KO mice at 3 weeks, which persisted as alveolar numbers increased in WT mice into adulthood. Across the ages examined, the lungs of LPA1 KO mice exhibited decreased alveolar numbers, septal tissue volumes, and surface areas, and increased volumes of the distal airspaces. Elastic fibers, critical to the development of alveolar septa, appeared less organized and condensed and more discontinuous in KO alveoli starting at P4. Tropoelastin messenger RNA expression was decreased in KO lungs, whereas expression of matrix metalloproteinases degrading elastic fibers was either decreased or unchanged. These results are consistent with the abnormal lung phenotype of LPA1 KO mice, being attributable to reduced alveolar septal formation during development, rather than to increased septal destruction as occurs in the emphysema of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Peripheral septal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, which direct septation in late alveolarization, demonstrated reduced production of tropoelastin and matrix metalloproteinases, and diminished LPA-induced migration, when isolated from LPA1 KO mice. Taken together, our data suggest that LPA-LPA1 signaling is critically required for septation during alveolarization.

  3. Boronic acids as probes for investigation of allosteric modulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR3.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Viachaslau; Admas, Tizita Haimanot; Brox, Regine; Heinemann, Frank W; Tschammer, Nuska

    2014-11-21

    The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which conveys extracellular signals into cells by changing its conformation upon agonist binding. To facilitate the mechanistic understanding of allosteric modulation of CXCR3, we combined computational modeling with the synthesis of novel chemical tools containing boronic acid moiety, site-directed mutagenesis, and detailed functional characterization. The design of boronic acid derivatives was based on the predictions from homology modeling and docking. The choice of the boronic acid moiety was dictated by its unique ability to interact with proteins in a reversible covalent way, thereby influencing conformational dynamics of target biomolecules. During the synthesis of the library we have developed a novel approach for the purification of drug-like boronic acids. To validate the predicted binding mode and to identify amino acid residues responsible for the transduction of signal through CXCR3, we conducted a site-directed mutagenesis study. With the use of allosteric radioligand RAMX3 we were able to establish the existence of a second allosteric binding pocket in CXCR3, which enables different binding modes of structurally closely related allosteric modulators of CXCR3. We have also identified residues Trp109(2.60) and Lys300(7.35) inside the transmembrane bundle of the receptor as crucial for the regulation of the G protein activation. Furthermore, we report the boronic acid 14 as the first biased negative allosteric modulator of the receptor. Overall, our data demonstrate that boronic acid derivatives represent an outstanding tool for determination of key receptor-ligand interactions and induction of ligand-biased signaling.

  4. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Cheryl A; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E; Glass, Leslie L; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+). In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca(2+) response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber-mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms.

  5. Rho/ROCK acts downstream of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 in modulating P2X3 receptor-mediated bone cancer pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-xiang; Yuan, Xiao-min; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and Rho/ROCK signaling is implicated in bone cancer pain development. However, it remains unknown whether the two signaling pathways function together in P2X3 receptor-mediated bone cancer pain. Results In this study, using a rat model of bone cancer, we examined the expression of P2X3 and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and further dissected whether lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and Rho/ROCK-mediated pathways interacted in modulating rat pain behavior. Bone cancer was established by inoculating Walker 256 cells into the left tibia of female Wistar rats. We observed a gradual and yet significant decline in mean paw withdrawal threshold in rats with bone cancer, but not in control rats. Our immunohistochemical staining revealed that the number of P2X3- and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons was significantly greater in rats with bone cancer than control rats. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 blockade with VPC32183 significantly attenuated decline in mean paw withdrawal threshold. Flinching behavior test further showed that lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 inhibition with VPC32183 transiently but significantly attenuated α,β-meATP-induced increase in paw lift time per minute. Rho inhibition by intrathecal BoTXC3 caused a rapid reversal in decline in mean paw withdrawal threshold of rats with bone cancer. Flinching behavior test showed that BoTXC3 transiently and significantly attenuated α,β-meATP-induced increase in paw lift time per minute. Similar findings were observed with ROCK inhibition by intrathecal Y27632. Furthermore, VPC32183 and BoTXC3 effectively aborted the appearance of lysophosphatidic acid-induced calcium influx peak. Conclusions Lysophosphatidic acid and its receptor LPAR1, acting through the Rho-ROCK pathway, regulate P2X3 receptor in the development of both mechanical and spontaneous pain in bone cancer. PMID:27094551

  6. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  7. Ligand specificities of recombinant retinoic acid receptors RAR alpha and RAR beta.

    PubMed Central

    Crettaz, M; Baron, A; Siegenthaler, G; Hunziker, W

    1990-01-01

    Binding of retinoic acid (RA) to specific RA receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) was studied. Receptors were obtained in two ways: (1) full-length receptors were produced by transient expression of the respective human cDNAs in COS 1 cells; and (2) the ligand-binding domains of RAR alpha and RAR beta were produced in Escherichia coli. RA binding to the wild-type and truncated forms of the receptor was identical for both RAR alpha and RAR beta, indicating that the ligand-binding domains have retained the binding characteristics of the intact receptors. Furthermore, RA bound with the same affinity to both RAR alpha and RAR beta. Only retinoid analogues with an acidic end-group were able to actively bind to both receptors. On measuring the binding of various retinoids, we have found that the properties of the ligand-binding sites of RAR alpha and RAR beta were rather similar. Two retinoid analogues were capable of binding preferentially to either RAR alpha or RAR beta, suggesting that it may be possible to synthesize specific ligands for RAR alpha and RAR beta. PMID:2176462

  8. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  9. Identification of dehydroabietc acid from Boswellia thurifera resin as a positive GABAA receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Diana C; Raith, Melanie; De Mieri, Maria; Schöffmann, Angela; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    In a two-microelectrode voltage clamp assay with Xenopus laevis oocytes, a petroleum ether extract (100 μg/mL) of the resin of Boswellia thurifera (Burseraceae) potentiated GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) through receptors of the subtype α₁β₂γ₂s by 319.8% ± 79.8%. With the aid of HPLC-based activity profiling, three known terpenoids, dehydroabietic acid (1), incensole (2), and AKBA (3), were identified in the active fractions of the extract. Structure elucidation was achieved by means of HR-MS and microprobe 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. Compound 1 induced significant receptor modulation in the oocyte assay, with a maximal potentiation of IGABA of 397.5% ± 34.0%, and EC₅₀ of 8.7 μM ± 1.3 μM. This is the first report of dehydroabietic acid as a positive GABAA receptor modulator.

  10. Retinoic acids up-regulate functional eosinophil-driving receptor CCR3.

    PubMed

    Ueki, S; Nishikawa, J; Yamauchi, Y; Konno, Y; Tamaki, M; Itoga, M; Kobayashi, Y; Takeda, M; Moritoki, Y; Ito, W; Chihara, J

    2013-07-01

    Eotaxins and their receptor CCR3 have a definitive role for tissue accumulation of eosinophils both under homeostatic and pathologic conditions. However, physiological stimuli that can up-regulate CCR3 in blood-derived human eosinophils have not been recognized. As a prior gene microarray study revealed up-regulation of CCR3 in eosinophils stimulated with retinoic acids (RAs), the expression of functional CCR3 was examined. We found that 9-cis RA and all-trans RA (ATRA) significantly induced surface CCR3 expression regardless of the presence of IL-3 or IL-5. Pharmacological manipulations with receptor-specific agonists and antagonists indicated that retinoic acid receptor-α activation is critical for CCR3 up-regulation. RA-induced CCR3 was associated with its functional capacity, in terms of the calcium mobilization and chemotactic response to eotaxin-1 (CCL11). Our study suggests an important role of vitamin A derivatives in the tissue accumulation of eosinophils.

  11. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Kenneth R.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for free fatty acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long-chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycemic control and reduced HbA1c levels in T2D patients, with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia. However, this ligand was removed from clinical trials due to potential liver toxicity and determining if this is a target or a ligand-specific feature is now of major importance. Pre-clinical studies also show that FFA4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces weight loss, and reduces inflammation and the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with FFA2 and FFA3 activation. In this review, we therefore show that FFA receptor agonism is a potential clinical target for T2D treatment and discuss ongoing drug development programs within industry and academia aimed at improving the safety and effectiveness of these potential treatments. PMID:25221541

  12. Binding of retinoic acid receptor heterodimers to DNA. A role for histones NH2 termini.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, P; Mouchon, A; Lefebvre, B; Formstecher, P

    1998-05-15

    The retinoic acid signaling pathway is controlled essentially through two types of nuclear receptors, RARs and RXRs. Ligand dependent activation or repression of retinoid-regulated genes is dependent on the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) heterodimers to retinoic acid response element (RARE). Although unliganded RXR/RAR heterodimers bind constitutively to DNA in vitro, a clear in vivo ligand-dependent occupancy of the RARE present in the RARbeta2 gene promoter has been reported (Dey, A., Minucci, S., and Ozato, K. (1994) Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 8191-8201). Nucleosomes are viewed as general repressors of the transcriptional machinery, in part by preventing the access of transcription factors to DNA. The ability of hRXRalpha/hRARalpha heterodimers to bind to a nucleosomal template in vitro has therefore been examined. The assembly of a fragment from the RARbeta2 gene promoter, which contains a canonical DR5 RARE, into a nucleosome core prevented hRXRalpha/hRARalpha binding to this DNA, in conditions where a strong interaction is observed with a linear DNA template. However, histone tails removal by limited proteolysis and histone hyperacetylation yielded nucleosomal RAREs able to bind to hRXRalpha/hRARalpha heterodimers. These data establish therefore the role of histones NH2 termini as a major impediment to retinoid receptors access to DNA, and identify histone hyperacetylation as a potential physiological regulator of retinoid-induced transcription.

  13. Identification of diarylsulfonamides as agonists of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120).

    PubMed

    Sparks, Steven M; Chen, Grace; Collins, Jon L; Danger, Dana; Dock, Steven T; Jayawickreme, Channa; Jenkinson, Stephen; Laudeman, Christopher; Leesnitzer, M Anthony; Liang, Xi; Maloney, Patrick; McCoy, David C; Moncol, David; Rash, Vincent; Rimele, Thomas; Vulimiri, Padmaja; Way, James M; Ross, Sean

    2014-07-15

    The exploration of a diarylsulfonamide series of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120) agonists is described. This work led to the identification of selective FFA4 agonist 8 (GSK137647A) and selective FFA4 antagonist 39. The in vitro profile of compounds 8 and 39 is presented herein.

  14. Cross-talk between lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and tropomyosin receptor kinase A promotes lung epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Nan, Ling; Wei, Jianxin; Jacko, Anastasia M; Culley, Miranda K; Zhao, Jing; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Ma, Haichun; Zhao, Yutong

    2016-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. LPA exerts its biological effects mainly through binding to cell-surface LPA receptors (LPA1-6), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and GPCRs modulates GPCRs-mediated signaling. Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) is a RTK, which mediates nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced biological functions including cell migration in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we show LPA1 transactivation of TrkA in murine lung epithelial cells (MLE12). LPA induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkA in both time- and dose-dependent manners. Down-regulation of LPA1 by siRNA transfection attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA, suggesting a cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA. To investigate the molecular regulation of the cross-talk, we focused on the interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. We found that LPA induced interaction between LPA1 and TrkA. The LPA1/TrkA complex was localized on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. The C-terminus of LPA1 was identified as the binding site for TrkA. Inhibition of TrkA attenuated LPA-induced phosphorylation of TrkA and LPA1 internalization, as well as lung epithelial cell migration. These studies provide a molecular mechanism for the transactivation of TrkA by LPA, and suggest that the cross-talk between LPA1 and TrkA regulates LPA-induced receptor internalization and lung epithelial cell migration.

  15. Amino acid coevolution reveals three-dimensional structure and functional domains of insect odorant receptors.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Thomas A; Morinaga, Satoshi; Ihara, Sayoko; Touhara, Kazushige; Marks, Debora S; Benton, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Insect odorant receptors (ORs) comprise an enormous protein family that translates environmental chemical signals into neuronal electrical activity. These heptahelical receptors are proposed to function as ligand-gated ion channels and/or to act metabotropically as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Resolving their signalling mechanism has been hampered by the lack of tertiary structural information and primary sequence similarity to other proteins. We use amino acid evolutionary covariation across these ORs to define restraints on structural proximity of residue pairs, which permit de novo generation of three-dimensional models. The validity of our analysis is supported by the location of functionally important residues in highly constrained regions of the protein. Importantly, insect OR models exhibit a distinct transmembrane domain packing arrangement to that of canonical GPCRs, establishing the structural unrelatedness of these receptor families. The evolutionary couplings and models predict odour binding and ion conduction domains, and provide a template for rationale structure-activity dissection.

  16. Insulin receptor aggregation and autophosphorylation in the presence of cationic polyamino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohanski, R.A. )

    1989-12-15

    Aggregation and autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor-protein kinase, from cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, were studied in the presence of cationic polyamino acids. Poly-L-lysine and poly-L-arginine produced the following effects with the purified receptor: first, the autophosphorylation rate was increased by polycations. Half-maximal stimulation was proportional to polymer length. The rate enhancement was greater at lower ATP concentrations. Second, near-endpoint (equilibrium) autophosphorylation was greater in the presence of the polycations. Polycations inhibited the reverse reaction: ADP + phosphoreceptor yielding ATP + aporeceptor. Third, the (32P)phosphopeptides generated by trypsin digestion of the 32P-beta-subunit, showed that no new autophosphorylation sites resulted from the presence of polycations. Fourth, the polycations, but not insulin, promoted receptor aggregation, and phosphoreceptor aggregated more readily than aporeceptor. Insulin receptor enriched through the wheat germ agglutinin eluate step was compared with purified receptor. Higher concentrations of poly-L-arginine were required to stimulate autophosphorylation and to promote aggregation. Finally, several polycation-dependent substrates present in the wheat germ agglutinin eluate co-aggregated with the insulin receptor. Polycation-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation is linked to a lower KM,app for ATP, but substrate phosphorylation may require the aggregation.

  17. Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Closs, E I; Albritton, L M; Cunningham, J M

    1991-08-22

    Susceptibility of rodent cells to infection by ecotropic murine leukaemia viruses (MuLV) is determined by binding of the virus envelope to a membrane receptor that has multiple membrane-spanning domains. Cells infected by ecotropic MuLV synthesize envelope protein, gp70, which binds to this receptor, thereby preventing additional infections. The consequences of envelope-MuLV receptor binding for the infected host cell have not been directly determined, partly because the cellular function of the MuLV receptor protein is unknown. Here we report a coincidence in the positions of the first eight putative membrane-spanning domains found in the virus receptor and in two related proteins, the arginine and histidine permeases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fig. 1), but not in any other proteins identified by computer-based sequence comparison of the GenBank data base. Xenopus oocytes injected with receptor-encoding messenger RNA show increased uptake of L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine. The transport properties and the expression pattern of the virus receptor behave in ways previously attributed to y+, the principal transporter of cationic L-amino acids in mammalian cells.

  18. Identification of a Novel Non-retinoid Pan Inverse Agonist of the Retinoic Acid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Scott A.; Kumar, Naresh; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Istrate, Monica A.; Conkright, Juliana J.; Wang, Yongjun; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Cameron, Michael D.; Roush, William R.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are potent forms of vitamin A and are involved in a broad range of physiological processes and the pharmacological effects of retinoids are primarily mediated by the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Several natural and synthetic RAR modulators have proven to be clinically useful for a number of therapeutic indications including cancer, psoriasis, and diabetes. Unfortunately, these agents lead to a number of significant side effects. Most synthetic retinoid ligands are based on the retinoid scaffold and thus have similarities to the natural ligand with all previously disclosed RAR ligands having a carboxylic acid that makes a critical ionic bridge within the ligand binding domain of the receptors. The potential therapeutic value offered from RAR modulation provides the impetus to identify novel ligands based on unique scaffolds that may offer improved toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles. Here we describe the identification of an atypical RAR inverse agonist that represents the first non-acid, non-retinoid direct modulator of RAR receptor subfamily. SR-0065 functions as a pan-RAR inverse agonist suppressing the basal activity of RARα, RARβ, and RARγ as well as inhibiting agonist induced RAR activity. SR-0065 treatment enhanced receptor interaction with a peptide representative of the corepressor SMRT and in cells SR-0065 enhances recruitment of SMRT to RARγ. The acid form of SR-0065, SR-1758, was inactive in all assays. Thus, SR-0065 represents a new class of non-acid, non-retinoid RAR modulator that may be used as a point to initiate development of improved RAR-targeted drugs. PMID:21381756

  19. Acidic stimuli activates two distinct pathways in taste receptor cells from rat fungiform papillae.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Simon, S A

    2001-12-27

    A sour taste sensation may be produced when acidic stimuli interact with taste receptor cells (TRCs) on the dorsal surface of the tongue. We have searched for pathways in TRCs that may be activated by acidic stimuli using RT-PCR and changes in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(I)) induced by acidic stimuli in rat fungiform papillae. RT-PCR revealed the presence of proton-gated subunits ASIC-beta and VR1. Ca(2+) imaging measurements of the TRCs revealed two distinct responses to acidic stimuli: Ca(2+)(i) was increased in 9% (28/308; Type I) and was decreased in 39% (121/308; Type II). Neither of these responses was affected by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+), indicating that the changes arise from the release and sequestration of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. These responses were also not inhibited by the vanilloid receptor antagonist, capsazepine, suggesting they do not arise from the activation of vanilloid receptors. The Type I, but not the Type II response was inhibited by amiloride. Dose-response measurements for Types I and II responses yielded pH(50%) of 4.8 and 4.9, respectively. Type II responses were inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting G-protein involvement. TRCs that exhibit Type II responses could also be activated by quinine (which increased Ca(2+)(I)) thus suggesting a mechanism by which the addition of acid may be suppressive to other chemical stimuli.

  20. Mutations in the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Potter, Carol J.; Xiao, Rui; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Kang Ho; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Picarsic, Jennifer L.; Jacobson, Theodora A.; Zhang, Jing; He, Weimin; Liu, Pengfei; Knisely, A. S.; Finegold, Milton J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R.; Plon, Sharon E.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Eng, Christine M.; Yang, Yaping; Washington, Gabriel C.; Porteus, Matthew H.; Berquist, William E.; Kambham, Neeraja; Singh, Ravinder J.; Xia, Fan; Enns, Gregory M.; Moore, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal cholestasis is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis. Mutations in several different genes can cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, but known genes cannot account for all familial cases. Here we report four individuals from two unrelated families with neonatal cholestasis and mutations in NR1H4, which encodes the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor that regulates bile acid metabolism. Clinical features of severe, persistent NR1H4-related cholestasis include neonatal onset with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease, vitamin K-independent coagulopathy, low-to-normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and undetectable liver bile salt export pump (ABCB11) expression. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal function for FXR in bile acid homeostasis and liver protection. PMID:26888176

  1. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif.

  2. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  3. The lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81/hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1: Expression and action in brain.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Lauritzen, Knut Husø; Puchades, Maja; Holm-Hansen, Signe; Andersson, Krister; Gjedde, Albert; Attramadal, Håvard; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-07-01

    We have proposed that lactate is a "volume transmitter" in the brain and underpinned this by showing that the lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81, also known as HCA1 or HCAR1), which promotes lipid storage in adipocytes, is also active in the mammalian brain. This includes the cerebral neocortex and the hippocampus, where it can be stimulated by physiological concentrations of lactate and by the HCAR1 agonist 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate to reduce cAMP levels. Cerebral HCAR1 is concentrated on the postsynaptic membranes of excitatory synapses and also is enriched at the blood-brain barrier. In synaptic spines and in adipocytes, HCAR1 immunoreactivity is also located on subplasmalemmal vesicular organelles, suggesting trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. Through activation of HCAR1, lactate can act as a volume transmitter that links neuronal activity, cerebral blood flow, energy metabolism, and energy substrate availability, including a glucose- and glycogen-saving response. HCAR1 may contribute to optimizing the cAMP concentration. For instance, in the prefrontal cortex, excessively high cAMP levels are implicated in impaired cognition in old age, fatigue, stress, and schizophrenia and in the deposition of phosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease. HCAR1 could serve to ameliorate these conditions and might also act through downstream mechanisms other than cAMP. Lactate exits cells through monocarboxylate transporters in an equilibrating manner and through astrocyte anion channels activated by depolarization. In addition to locally produced lactate, lactate produced by exercising muscle as well as exogenous HCAR1 agonists, e.g., from fruits and berries, might activate the receptor on cerebral blood vessels and brain cells.

  4. Novel protective role of the circadian nuclear receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yichao; Xu, Longwei; Ding, Song; Lin, Nan; Ji, Qingqi; Gao, Lingchen; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Ben; Pu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication that significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in diabetics with few therapies. Moreover, antidiabetic drugs reported inconsistent or even adverse cardiovascular effects, suggesting that it is important to exploit novel therapeutic targets against diabetic cardiomyopathy. Here, we observed that the nuclear melatonin receptor, the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α (RORα), was downregulated in diabetic hearts. By utilizing a mouse line with RORα disruption, we demonstrated that RORα deficiency led to significantly augmented diastolic dysfunction and cardiac remodeling induced by diabetes. Microscopic and molecular analyses further indicated that the detrimental effects of RORα deficiency were associated with aggravated myocardial apoptosis, autophagy dysfunction, and oxidative stress by disrupting antioxidant gene expression. By contrast, restoration of cardiac RORα levels in transgenic mice significantly improved cardiac functional and structural parameters at 8 weeks after diabetes induction. Consistent with genetic manipulation, pharmacological activation of RORα by melatonin and SR1078 (a synthetic agonist) showed beneficial effects against diabetic cardiomyopathy, while the RORα inhibitor SR3335 significantly exacerbated cardiac impairments in diabetic mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that cardiac-targeted manipulation of nuclear melatonin receptor RORα may hold promise for delaying diabetic cardiomyopathy development.

  5. Evidence for impaired retinoic acid receptor-thyroid hormone receptor AF-2 cofactor activity in human lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moghal, N; Neel, B G

    1995-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is required for normal airway epithelial cell growth and differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. One of the earliest events following the exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to RA is the strong induction of RA receptor beta (RAR beta) mRNA. Previous work established that many lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors display abnormal RAR beta mRNA expression, most often absence or weak expression of the RAR beta 2 isoform, even after RA treatment. Restoration of RAR beta 2 into RAR beta-negative lung cancer cell lines has been reported to inhibit tumorigenicity. Since RAR beta 2 inactivation may contribute to lung cancer, we have investigated the molecular mechanism of defective RAR beta 2 expression. Nuclear run-on assays and transient transfections with RAR beta 2 promoter constructs indicate the presence of trans-acting transcriptional defects in most lung cancer cell lines, which map to the RA response element (RARE). These defects cannot be complemented by RAR-retinoid X receptor cotransfection and can be separated into two types: (i) one affecting transcription from direct repeat RAREs, but not palindromic RAREs, and (ii) another affecting transcription from both types of RARE. Studies using chimeras between RAR alpha, TR alpha, and other transcription factors suggest the existence of novel RAR-thyroid hormone receptor AF-2-specific cofactors, which are necessary for high levels of transcription. Furthermore, these factors may be frequently inactivated in human lung cancer. PMID:7791800

  6. (3-Aminocyclopentyl)methylphosphinic acids: novel GABA(C) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chebib, Mary; Hanrahan, Jane R; Kumar, Rohan J; Mewett, Kenneth N; Morriss, Gwendolyn; Wooller, Soraya; Johnston, Graham A R

    2007-03-01

    Our understanding of the role GABA(C) receptors play in the central nervous system is limited due to a lack of specific ligands. Here we describe the pharmacological effects of (+/-)-cis-3- and (+/-)-trans-3-(aminocyclopentyl)methylphosphinic acids ((+/-)-cis- and (+/-)-trans-3-ACPMPA) as novel ligands for the GABA(C) receptor showing little activity at GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. (+/-)-cis-3-ACPMPA has similar potency to (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) at human recombinant rho1 (K(B)=1.0+/-0.2microM) and rat rho3 (K(B)=5.4+/-0.8microM) but is 15 times more potent than TPMPA on human recombinant rho2 (K(B)=1.0+/-0.3microM) GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (+/-)-cis- and (+/-)-trans-3-ACPMPA are novel lead compounds for developing into more potent and selective GABA(C) receptor antagonists with increased lipophilicity for in vivo studies.

  7. Signaling through retinoic acid receptors in cardiac development: Doing the right things at the right times.

    PubMed

    Xavier-Neto, José; Sousa Costa, Ângela M; Figueira, Ana Carolina M; Caiaffa, Carlo Donato; Amaral, Fabio Neves do; Peres, Lara Maldanis Cerqueira; da Silva, Bárbara Santos Pires; Santos, Luana Nunes; Moise, Alexander R; Castillo, Hozana Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a terpenoid that is synthesized from vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and binds to the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) to control multiple developmental processes in vertebrates. The available clinical and experimental data provide uncontested evidence for the pleiotropic roles of RA signaling in development of multiple embryonic structures and organs such eyes, central nervous system, gonads, lungs and heart. The development of any of these above-mentioned embryonic organ systems can be effectively utilized to showcase the many strategies utilized by RA signaling. However, it is very likely that the strategies employed to transfer RA signals during cardiac development comprise the majority of the relevant and sophisticated ways through which retinoid signals can be conveyed in a complex biological system. Here, we provide the reader with arguments indicating that RA signaling is exquisitely regulated according to specific phases of cardiac development and that RA signaling itself is one of the major regulators of the timing of cardiac morphogenesis and differentiation. We will focus on the role of signaling by RA receptors (RARs) in early phases of heart development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  8. Neurochemical, pharmacological, and developmental studies on cerebellar receptors for dicarboxylic amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, N.A.; Roberts, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Specific binding of L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate ((/sup 3/H)Glu) and L(/sup 3/H)Asp) to cerebellar membranes represented a time-, temperature-, pH- and protein-dependent interaction which was both saturable and reversible. Binding sites for both radioligands appeared maximally enriched in synaptosomal fractions isolated by gradient centrifugation. Kinetically derived dissociation constant (K/sub off//K/sub on/ . K/sub d/) for (/sup 3/H)Glu binding to this fraction indicated high-affinity (433 nM). Competition experiments employing analogs of excitatory amino acids, including new antagonists, helped identify binding sites for (/sup 3/H)Glu and (/sup 3/H)Asp as receptors with differential pharmacological specificities. Membrane freezing reduced numbers of both receptor types, but binding activity could be recovered partially by incubation at 37 degrees C. Glu receptors exhibited a pronounced deleterious sensitivity to thiol modifying reagents and L-Glu (50-1000 microM) provided protection against these compounds during co-incubation with cerebellar membranes. It is suggested that cold storage may induce partially reversible receptor inactivation by promoting sulfhydryl group/bond modification. Rat cerebellar glutamatergic function (endogenous Glu content, Glu uptake and receptor sites) exhibited an apparent ontogenetic peak between days 8-12 postpartum with a plateauing profile from day 30 to adulthood. The accelerated development (days 8-12) coincides with the first demonstrable Glu release and kainic acid neurotoxicity, as described previously.

  9. Bile Acid Nuclear Receptor Farnesoid X Receptor: Therapeutic Target for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Gi; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Kim, Kyumin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the causes of fatty liver, occurring when fat is accumulated in the liver without alcohol consumption. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in advanced countries. NAFLD is a spectrum of pathology involving hepatic steatosis with/without inflammation and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with accumulation of hepatocyte damage and hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies have revealed that NAFLD results in the progression of cryptogenic cirrhosis that leads to hepatocarcinoma and cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. The main causes of NAFLD have not been revealed yet, metabolic syndromes including obesity and insulin resistance are widely accepted for the critical risk factors for the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcriptional factors that sense environmental or hormonal signals and regulate expression of genes, involved in cellular growth, development, and metabolism. Several NRs have been reported to regulate genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Among various NRs, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the liver and a key regulator to control various metabolic processes in the liver. Recent studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with inappropriate function of FXR. The impact of FXR transcriptional activity in NAFLD is likely to be potential therapeutic strategy, but still requires to elucidate underlying potent therapeutic mechanisms of FXR for the treatment of NAFLD. This article will focus the physiological roles of FXR and establish the correlation between FXR transcriptional activity and the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:28029021

  10. Endocytosis of lysosomal acid phosphatase; involvement of mannose receptor and effect of lectins.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Yoshimura, T

    1994-08-01

    Acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase are unique among lysosomal enzymes in that they have both high mannose and complex type sugasr chains, whereas oligosaccharide chains of lysosomal enzymes in matrix are of high mannose type. We have previously shown that beta-glucosidase was endocytosed into macrophages via an unidentified receptor different from a mannose/fucose receptor (K. Imai, Cell Struct. Funct. 13, 325-332, 1988). Here, we show that uptake of acid phosphatase purified from rat liver lysosomes into rat macrophages was inhibited by ligands for a mannose/fucose receptor and was mediated via an apparently single binding site with Kuptake of 24.7 nM. These results indicate that acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase recognize different types of receptors even if they have similar sugar chains. Polyvalent concanavalin A which binds both to the enzyme and to macrophages specifically stimulated the uptake in a dose dependent manner, whereas wheat germ agglutinin and phytohaemagglutinin did not.

  11. Guanidino acids act as rho1 GABA(C) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chebib, Mary; Gavande, Navnath; Wong, Kit Yee; Park, Anna; Premoli, Isabella; Mewett, Kenneth N; Allan, Robin D; Duke, Rujee K; Johnston, Graham A R; Hanrahan, Jane R

    2009-10-01

    GABA(C) receptors play a role in myopia, memory-related disorders and circadian rhythms signifying a need to develop potent and selective agents for this class of receptors. Guanidino analogs related to glycine, beta-alanine and taurine were evaluated at human rho(1)GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes using 2-electrode voltage clamp methods. Of the 12 analogs tested, 8 analogs were active as antagonists and the remaining were inactive. (S)-2-guanidinopropionic acid (IC(50) = 2.2 microM) and guanidinoacetic acid (IC(50) = 5.4 microM; K (B) = 7.75 microM [pK (B) = 5.11 +/- 0.06]) were the most potent being competitive antagonists at this receptor. In contrast, the beta-alanine and GABA guanidino analogs showed reduced activity, indicating the distance between the carboxyl carbon and terminal nitrogen of the guanidino group is critical for activity. Substituting the C2-position of guanidinoacetic acid with various alkyl groups reduced activity indicating that steric effects may impact on activity. The results of this study contribute to the structure-activity-relationship profile required in developing novel therapeutic agents.

  12. Computer-aided design of a novel ligand for retinoic acid receptor in cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos H. T. P.; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Silva, Eloiza H. T.; Espinoza, V. A. A.; Taft, C. A.

    The isotypes of RAR and RXR are retinoic acid and retinoid X acid receptors, respectively, whose ligand-binding domain contains the ligand-dependent activation function, with distinct pharmacological targets for retinoids, involved in the treatment of various cancers and skin diseases. Due to the major challenge which cancer treatment and cure still imposes after many decades to the international scientific community, there is actually considerable interest in new ligands with increased bioactivity. We have focused on the retinoid acid receptor, which is considered an interesting target for drug design. In this work, we carried out density functional geometry optimizations and different docking procedures. We performed screening in a large database (hundreds of thousands of molecules which we optimized at the AM1 level) yielding a set of potential bioactive ligands. A new ligand was selected and optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. A flexible docking program was used to investigate the interactions between the receptor and the new ligand. The result of this work is compared with several crystallographic ligands of RAR. Our theoretically more bioactive new ligand indicates stronger and more hydrogen bonds as well as hydrophobic interactions with the receptor.

  13. Conformations, energies, and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dicarboxylic acids: implications for the design of synthetic dicarboxylic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Hibbs, David E; Howard, Siân T

    2005-09-01

    The various conformers of the dicarboxylic acids HO2C--(CH2)n--CO2H, n = 1-4, were obtained using density functional methods (DFT), both in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase using a polarized continuum model (PCM). Several new conformers were identified, particularly for the two larger molecules glutaric (n = 3) and adipic acid (n =4). The PCM results show that the stability of most conformers were affected, many becoming unstable in the aqueous phase; and the energy ordering of conformers is also different. The results suggest that conformational preferences could be important in determining the design and stability of appropriate synthetic receptors for glutaric and adipic acid. Geometry changes between gas and aqueous phases were most marked in those conformers containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Additional calculations have probed the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in these dicarboxylic acids. In the cases of glutaric and adipic acid, the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bond were estimated to be around 28-29 kJ/mol, without any vibrational energy correction. The intramolecular hydrogen bond energies in malonic and succinic acid were also estimated from the calculated H-bond distances using an empirical relationship. Intramolecular H-bond redshifts of 170-250 cm(-1) have been estimated from the results of the harmonic frequency analyses.

  14. PLZF is a negative regulator of retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Perrine J; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2003-09-06

    BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors controlling cellular proliferation and differentiation. Receptor-interacting proteins such as corepressors and coactivators play a crucial role in specifying the overall transcriptional activity of the receptor in response to ligand treatment. Little is known however on how receptor activity is controlled by intermediary factors which interact with RARs in a ligand-independent manner. RESULTS: We have identified the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF), a transcriptional corepressor, to be a RAR-interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid assay. We confirmed this interaction by GST-pull down assays and show that the PLZF N-terminal zinc finger domain is necessary and sufficient for PLZF to bind RAR. The RAR ligand binding domain displayed the highest affinity for PLZF, but corepressor and coactivator binding interfaces did not contribute to PLZF recruitment. The interaction was ligand-independent and correlated to a decreased transcriptional activity of the RXR-RAR heterodimer upon overexpression of PLZF. A similar transcriptional interference could be observed with the estrogen receptor alpha and the glucocorticoid receptor. We further show that PLZF is likely to act by preventing RXR-RAR heterodimerization, both in-vitro and in intact cells. CONCLUSION: Thus RAR and PLZF interact physically and functionally. Intriguingly, these two transcription factors play a determining role in hematopoiesis and regionalization of the hindbrain and may, upon chromosomal translocation, form fusion proteins. Our observations therefore define a novel mechanism by which RARs activity may be controlled.

  15. Synthesis of C5-tetrazole derivatives of 2-amino-adipic acid displaying NMDA glutamate receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Lenda, Fatimazohra; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Mélanie; Guiramand, Janique; Lanté, Fabien; Barbanel, Gérard; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; Martinez, Jean; Guenoun, Farhate; Lamaty, Frédéric; Vignes, Michel

    2011-03-01

    Five derivatives of 2-amino-adipic acid bearing a tetrazole-substituted in C5 position were synthesized. These compounds displayed selective antagonism towards N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptors compared with AMPA receptors, and they were devoid of any neurotoxicity. Among these five analogues, one exhibited a higher affinity for synaptic NMDA responses than the other four. Therefore, C5 tetrazole-substituted of 2-amino-adipic acid represent an interesting series of new NMDA receptor antagonists. This approach may be considered as a new strategy to develop ligands specifically targeted to synaptic or extra-synaptic NMDA receptors.

  16. Lysergic acid diethylamide-induced Fos expression in rat brain: role of serotonin-2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Gresch, P J; Strickland, L V; Sanders-Bush, E

    2002-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces altered mood and hallucinations in humans and binds with high affinity to serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. Although LSD interacts with other receptors, the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors is thought to mediate the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. The goal of this study was to identify the brain sites activated by LSD and to determine the influence of 5-HT(2A) receptors in this activation. Rats were pretreated with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100907 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min prior to LSD (500 microg/kg, i.p.) administration and killed 3 h later. Brain tissue was examined for Fos protein expression by immunohistochemistry. LSD administration produced a five- to eight-fold increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of amygdala. However, in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens no increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed. Pretreatment with MDL 100907 completely blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, but only partially blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in amygdala. Double-labeled immunohistochemistry revealed that LSD did not induce Fos-like immunoreactivity in cortical cells expressing 5-HT(2A) receptors, suggesting an indirect activation of cortical neurons. These results indicate that the LSD activation of medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex is mediated by 5-HT(2A) receptors, whereas in amygdala 5-HT(2A) receptor activation is a component of the response. These findings support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and perhaps the amygdala, are important regions involved in the production of hallucinations.

  17. Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors are essential for breast cancer cells to control their lipid/fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stäubert, Claudia; Broom, Oliver Jay; Nordström, Anders

    2015-08-14

    Cancer cells exhibit characteristic changes in their metabolism with efforts being made to address them therapeutically. However, targeting metabolic enzymes as such is a major challenge due to their essentiality for normal proliferating cells. The most successful pharmaceutical targets are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), with more than 40% of all currently available drugs acting through them.We show that, a family of metabolite-sensing GPCRs, the Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor family (HCAs), is crucial for breast cancer cells to control their metabolism and proliferation.We found HCA1 and HCA3 mRNA expression were significantly increased in breast cancer patient samples and detectable in primary human breast cancer patient cells. Furthermore, siRNA mediated knock-down of HCA3 induced considerable breast cancer cell death as did knock-down of HCA1, although to a lesser extent. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry based analyses of breast cancer cell medium revealed a role for HCA3 in controlling intracellular lipid/fatty acid metabolism. The presence of etomoxir or perhexiline, both inhibitors of fatty acid β-oxidation rescues breast cancer cells with knocked-down HCA3 from cell death.Our data encourages the development of drugs acting on cancer-specific metabolite-sensing GPCRs as novel anti-proliferative agents for cancer therapy.

  18. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Kohno, Tatsuro; Georgiev, Stefan K; Ikoma, Miho; Ishii, Hideaki; Petrenko, Andrey B; Baba, Hiroshi

    2008-02-12

    Taurine has been suggested to modulate nociceptive information at the spinal cord level. In this study, the pharmacological properties of taurine were investigated in adult rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine seemed to have higher efficacy than glycine on glycine receptors in SG neurons. An increase in chloride conductance was responsible for taurine-induced currents. Taurine at 0.3 mM activated glycine receptors, whereas at 3 mM activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors. The currents activated by coapplication of taurine and glycine are cross inhibitive. Altogether these results show that taurine might represent another important neurotransmitter or modulator in SG neurons, which may be involved in antinociception.

  19. Effect of niflumic acid on electromechanical coupling by tachykinin NK1 receptor activation in rabbit colon.

    PubMed

    Patacchini, R; Santicioli, P; Maggi, C A

    1996-05-15

    We have investigated the effect of the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid, on the contractile response and electromechanical coupling activated by stimulation of the tachykinin NK1 receptor in the longitudinal muscle of rabbit proximal colon, in the presence of indomethacin (5 microM). The application of submaximal equieffective concentrations of the tachykinin NK1 receptor-selective agonist [Sar9]substance P sulfone (30 nM), of carbachol (300 nM) and KCl (40 mM), produced distinct phasic and tonic components of contraction. Niflumic acid (10-100 microM) preferentially and markedly inhibited the tonic component of the response to [Sar9]substance P sulfone and to carbachol, without affecting the response to KCl. Nifedipine (1 microM) abolished the response to KCl and greatly reduced the response to [Sar9]substance P sulfone and carbachol. The nifedipine-resistant response to [Sar9]substance P sulfone was attenuated by niflumic acid (100 microM), while that to carbachol was unaffected. In sucrose gap experiments, superfusion with niflumic acid (100 microM), in the presence of nifedipine (3 microM), produced membrane hyperpolarization, which was totally blocked by tetraethylammonium (10 mM). Niflumic acid inhibited both depolarization and contraction induced by [Sar9]substance P sulfone, both in the absence or in the presence of tetraethylammonium. The present findings support the idea that a niflumic acid-sensitive mechanism, probably an effect on Cl- channels, takes part in the post-receptorial events activated by tachykinin NK1 receptor stimulation in the longitudinal muscle of rabbit colon, and suggest that this mechanism would be more important for generating the sustained tonic than the phasic component of contraction.

  20. Regulation of antibacterial defense in the small intestine by the nuclear bile acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Moschetta, Antonio; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Peng, Li; Zhao, Guixiang; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth T.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Repa, Joyce J.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Obstruction of bile flow results in bacterial proliferation and mucosal injury in the small intestine that can lead to the translocation of bacteria across the epithelial barrier and systemic infection. These adverse effects of biliary obstruction can be inhibited by administration of bile acids. Here we show that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, induces genes involved in enteroprotection and inhibits bacterial overgrowth and mucosal injury in ileum caused by bile duct ligation. Mice lacking FXR have increased ileal levels of bacteria and a compromised epithelial barrier. These findings reveal a central role for FXR in protecting the distal small intestine from bacterial invasion and suggest that FXR agonists may prevent epithelial deterioration and bacterial translocation in patients with impaired bile flow. PMID:16473946

  1. SIGNALLING THROUGH RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS IN CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT: DOING THE RIGHT THINGS AT THE RIGHT TIMES

    PubMed Central

    Xavier-Neto, José; Costa, Ângela M. Sousa; Figueira, Ana Carolina M.; Caiaffa, Carlo Donato; do Amaral, Fabio Neves; Peres, Lara Maldanis Cerqueira; da Silva, Bárbara Santos Pires; Santos, Luana Nunes; Moise, Alexander R.; Castillo, Hozana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a terpenoid that is synthesized from Vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and binds to the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) to control multiple developmental processes in vertebrates. The available clinic and experimental data provide uncontested evidence for the pleiotropic roles of RA signalling in development of multiple embryonic structures and organs such eyes, central nervous system, gonads, lungs and heart. The development of any of these above-mentioned embryonic organ systems can be effectively utilized to showcase the many strategies utilized by RA signalling. However, it is very likely that the strategies employed to transfer RA signals during cardiac development comprise the majority of the relevant and sophisticated ways through which retinoid signals can be conveyed in a complex biological system. Here, we provide the reader with arguments indicating that RA signalling is exquisitely regulated according to specific phases of cardiac development and that RA signalling itself is one of the major regulators of the timing of cardiac morphogenesis and differentiation. We will focus on the role of signalling by RA receptors (RARs) in early phases of heart development. PMID:25134739

  2. The evolution of bat nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Zepeda-Mendoza, M Lisandra; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Méndez-Ojeda, Maria L; Arias, Carlos F; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    We characterized the nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is overall congruent with the species tree, consistent with the evolution of many other mammalian nuclear genes. However, the chiropteran TLRs exhibited unique mutations fixed in ligand-binding sites, some of which involved nonconservative amino acid changes and/or targets of positive selection. Such changes could potentially modify protein function and ligand-binding properties, as some changes were predicted to alter nucleic acid binding motifs in TLR 9. Moreover, evidence for episodic diversifying selection acting specifically upon the bat lineage and sublineages was detected. Thus, the long-term adaptation of chiropterans to a wide variety of environments and ecological niches with different pathogen profiles is likely to have shaped the evolution of the bat TLRs in an order-specific manner. The observed evolutionary patterns provide evidence for potential functional differences between bat and other mammalian TLRs in terms of resistance to specific pathogens or recognition of nucleic acids in general.

  3. Citric acid cycle intermediates as ligands for orphan G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    He, Weihai; Miao, Frederick J-P; Lin, Daniel C-H; Schwandner, Ralf T; Wang, Zhulun; Gao, Jinhai; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Ling, Lei

    2004-05-13

    The citric acid cycle is central to the regulation of energy homeostasis and cell metabolism. Mutations in enzymes that catalyse steps in the citric acid cycle result in human diseases with various clinical presentations. The intermediates of the citric acid cycle are present at micromolar concentration in blood and are regulated by respiration, metabolism and renal reabsorption/extrusion. Here we show that GPR91 (ref. 3), a previously orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), functions as a receptor for the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate. We also report that GPR99 (ref. 4), a close relative of GPR91, responds to alpha-ketoglutarate, another intermediate in the citric acid cycle. Thus by acting as ligands for GPCRs, succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate are found to have unexpected signalling functions beyond their traditional roles. Furthermore, we show that succinate increases blood pressure in animals. The succinate-induced hypertensive effect involves the renin-angiotensin system and is abolished in GPR91-deficient mice. Our results indicate a possible role for GPR91 in renovascular hypertension, a disease closely linked to atherosclerosis, diabetes and renal failure.

  4. Transcriptional upregulation of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) expression by phenylacetate in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sidell, N; Chang, B; Yamashiro, J M; Wada, R K

    1998-02-25

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) has been shown to synergize with retinoic acid (RA) in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. Our studies indicated that NaPA can impact on the RA differentiation program by upregulating nuclear retinoic acid receptor-beta (RAR beta) expression. We have found that NaPA does not alter the half-life of RAR beta mRNA; thus, increased stability of mRNA levels does not contribute to NaPA induction. In contrast, NaPA was able to specifically activate a reporter gene construct (delta SV beta RE-CAT) which contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE beta) that is located in the RAR beta promoter. Activation of delta SV beta RE-CAT by NaPA also occurred in neuroblastoma cells cotransfected with a nuclear retinoic acid receptor expression vector, demonstrating the independence of this activation on cellular RAR levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that induction of RAR beta by NaPA is regulated at the level of transcription and mediated through the retinoic acid response element, RARE beta. This effect may account, at least in part, for the strong synergy between NaPA and RA in promoting neuroblastoma differentiation.

  5. Arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids as 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2006-07-01

    A library consisting of 60 arylpiperazines modified with N-acylated amino acids was prepared on BAL linker SynPhasetrade mark Lanterns and evaluated in vitro for 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity. Biological screening, followed by a simple Fujita-Ban analysis, enabled the description of structure-activity relationships and allowed the selection of some potent, high-affinity ligands for in vivo pharmacological investigations.

  6. Effect of common polymorphisms of the farnesoid X receptor and bile acid transporters on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Fok, Benny S P; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Lee, Vincent H L; Zuo, Zhong; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a natural, dihydroxy bile acid, promotes gallstone dissolution and has been attributed with several other beneficial effects. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) may influence the pharmacokinetics of UDCA by modulating the expression of bile acid transporters. This exploratory study examined whether common functional polymorphisms in FXR and in bile acid transporter genes affect the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA. Polymorphisms in genes for transporters involved in bile acid transport, solute carrier organic anion 1B1 (SLCO1B1) 388A>G and 521T>C, solute carrier 10A1 (SLC10A1) 800 C>T and ATP-binding cassette B11 (ABCB11) 1331T>C, and the FXR -1G>T polymorphism were genotyped in 26 male Chinese subjects who ingested single oral 500-mg doses of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of UDCA and its major conjugate metabolite glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) were determined. The mean systemic exposure of UDCA was higher in the five subjects with one copy of the FXR -1G>T variant allele than in those homozygous for the wild-type allele (n = 21) (AUC0-24 h : 38.5 ± 28.2 vs. 20.9 ± 8.0 μg h/mL, P = 0.021), but this difference appeared mainly due to one outlier with the -1GT genotype and elevated baseline and post-treatment UDCA concentrations. After excluding the outlier, body weight was the only factor associated with plasma concentrations of UDCA and there were no significant associations with the other polymorphisms examined. None of the polymorphisms affected the pharmacokinetics of GUDCA. This study showed that the common polymorphisms in bile acid transporters had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA but an effect of the FXR polymorphism cannot be excluded.

  7. The nuclear receptor PPARγ individually responds to serotonin- and fatty acid-metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Waku, Tsuyoshi; Shiraki, Takuma; Oyama, Takuji; Maebara, Kanako; Nakamori, Rinna; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), recognizes various synthetic and endogenous ligands by the ligand-binding domain. Fatty-acid metabolites reportedly activate PPARγ through conformational changes of the Ω loop. Here, we report that serotonin metabolites act as endogenous agonists for PPARγ to regulate macrophage function and adipogenesis by directly binding to helix H12. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, is a mimetic agonist of these metabolites. Crystallographic analyses revealed that an indole acetate functions as a common moiety for the recognition by the sub-pocket near helix H12. Intriguingly, a serotonin metabolite and a fatty-acid metabolite each bind to distinct sub-pockets, and the PPARγ antagonist, T0070907, blocked the fatty-acid agonism, but not that of the serotonin metabolites. Mutational analyses on receptor-mediated transcription and coactivator binding revealed that each metabolite individually uses coregulator and/or heterodimer interfaces in a ligand-type-specific manner. Furthermore, the inhibition of the serotonin metabolism reduced the expression of the endogenous PPARγ-target gene. Collectively, these results suggest a novel agonism, in which PPARγ functions as a multiple sensor in response to distinct metabolites. PMID:20717101

  8. The Molecular Basis of Ligand Interaction at Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA4 (previously GPR120) is receiving substantial interest as a novel target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disease. This study examines for the first time the detailed mode of binding of both long-chain fatty acid and synthetic agonist ligands at FFA4 by integrating molecular modeling, receptor mutagenesis, and ligand structure-activity relationship approaches in an iterative format. In doing so, residues required for binding of fatty acid and synthetic agonists to FFA4 have been identified. This has allowed for the refinement of a well validated model of the mode of ligand-FFA4 interaction that will be invaluable in the identification of novel ligands and the future development of this receptor as a therapeutic target. The model reliably predicted the effects of substituent variations on agonist potency, and it was also able to predict the qualitative effect of binding site mutations in the majority of cases. PMID:24860101

  9. Essential role for retinoic acid in the promotion of CD4+ T cell effector responses via retinoic acid receptor alpha

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J.A.; Cannons, J.L.; Grainger, J.R.; Santos, L.M. Dos; Hand, T.W.; Naik, S.; Wohlfert, E.A.; Chou, D.B.; Oldenhove, G.; Robinson, M.; Grigg, M.E.; Kastenmayer, R.; Schwartzberg, P.L.; Belkaid, Y.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vitamin A and its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), have recently been implicated in the regulation of immune homeostasis via the peripheral induction of regulatory T cells. Here we show that RA is also required to elicit proinflammatory CD4+ helper T cell responses to infection and mucosal vaccination. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) is the critical mediator of these effects. Strikingly, antagonism of RAR signaling and deficiency in RARα(Rara−/−) results in a cell autonomous CD4+ T cell activation defect. Altogether, these findings reveal a fundamental role for the RA/RARα axis in the development of both regulatory and inflammatory arms of adaptive immunity and establish nutritional status as a broad regulator of adaptive T cell responses. PMID:21419664

  10. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, Karsten; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Xu, Yong; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Park, Sang-Youl; Weiner, Joshua J; Fujii, Hiroaki; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Kovach, Amanda; Li, Jun; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang; Peterson, Francis C; Jensen, Davin R; Yong, Eu-Leong; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric

    2010-01-12

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved β-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling.

  11. Characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the neurointermediate lobe of the amphibian Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B M; Jenks, B G; Lenssen, F J; Vaudry, H

    1987-02-01

    The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in the regulation of secretion of MSH from the intermediate lobe of Xenopus laevis. The purpose of this study was to identify the GABA receptor(s) involved by determination of the effect of specific receptor agonists and antagonists on the release of immunoreactive MSH from superfused neurointermediate lobes of Xenopus. Exogenous GABA induces a rapid inhibition of MSH secretion. There was no evidence for a transitory stimulatory effect of GABA as reported for the rat melanotropes. Both the GABA agonists (GABAa) homotaurine and isoguvacine and the GABA agonist (GABAb) baclofen inhibited MSH release in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, homotaurine and baclofen caused aggregation of pigment in dermal melanophores. The MSH release-inhibiting effect of homotaurine and isoguvacine could be antagonized by the specific GABAa receptor antagonist bicuculline. However, bicuculline and picrotoxin failed to block the effect of exogenous GABA. We conclude that in the neurointermediate lobe of Xenopus laevis both GABAa and GABAb receptors are present, suggesting a dual inhibitory regulation.

  12. N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antagonists Have Variable Affect in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Carbery, Timothy; Geddes, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that excitotoxicity and oxidative stress resulting from excessive activation of glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate) NMDA receptors are major participants in striatal degeneration associated with 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) administration. Although excitotoxic and oxidative mechanisms are implicated in 3NP toxicity, there are conflicting reports as to whether NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate or exacerbate the 3NP-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors in striatal degeneration, protein oxidation and motor impairment following systemic 3NP administration. We examined whether NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, influence the neurotoxicity of 3NP. The development of striatal lesion and protein oxidation following 3NP administration is delayed by memantine but not affected by ifenprodil. However, in behavioral experiments, memantine failed to improve and ifenprodil exacerbated the motor deficits associated with 3NP toxicity. Together, these findings suggest caution in the application of NMDA receptor antagonists as a neuroprotective agent in neurodegenerative disorders associated with metabolic impairment. PMID:18688711

  13. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists have variable affect in 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Payman; Carbery, Timothy; Geddes, James W

    2009-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that excitotoxicity and oxidative stress resulting from excessive activation of glutamate (N-methyl-D-aspartate) NMDA receptors are major participants in striatal degeneration associated with 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) administration. Although excitotoxic and oxidative mechanisms are implicated in 3NP toxicity, there are conflicting reports as to whether NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate or exacerbate the 3NP-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors in striatal degeneration, protein oxidation and motor impairment following systemic 3NP administration. We examined whether NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, influence the neurotoxicity of 3NP. The development of striatal lesion and protein oxidation following 3NP administration is delayed by memantine but not affected by ifenprodil. However, in behavioral experiments, memantine failed to improve and ifenprodil exacerbated the motor deficits associated with 3NP toxicity. Together, these findings suggest caution in the application of NMDA receptor antagonists as a neuroprotective agent in neurodegenerative disorders associated with metabolic impairment.

  14. Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Youl; Peterson, Francis C; Mosquna, Assaf; Yao, Jin; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2015-04-23

    Rising temperatures and lessening fresh water supplies are threatening agricultural productivity and have motivated efforts to improve plant water use and drought tolerance. During water deficit, plants produce elevated levels of abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance by controlling guard cell aperture and other protective responses. One attractive strategy for controlling water use is to develop compounds that activate ABA receptors, but agonists approved for use have yet to be developed. In principle, an engineered ABA receptor that can be activated by an existing agrochemical could achieve this goal. Here we describe a variant of the ABA receptor PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1) that possesses nanomolar sensitivity to the agrochemical mandipropamid and demonstrate its efficacy for controlling ABA responses and drought tolerance in transgenic plants. Furthermore, crystallographic studies provide a mechanistic basis for its activity and demonstrate the relative ease with which the PYR1 ligand-binding pocket can be altered to accommodate new ligands. Thus, we have successfully repurposed an agrochemical for a new application using receptor engineering. We anticipate that this strategy will be applied to other plant receptors and represents a new avenue for crop improvement.

  15. Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip; Guan, Hong-Chang; Hirbec, Hélène

    2009-08-01

    Although it is commonly stated that phencyclidine is an antagonist at ionotropic glutamate receptors, there has been little measure of its potency on other receptors in brain tissue. Although we previously reported that phencyclidine stimulated cloned-dopamine D2Long and D2Short receptors, others reported that phencyclidine did not stimulate D2 receptors in homogenates of rat brain striatum. This study, therefore, examined whether phencyclidine and other hallucinogens and psychostimulants could stimulate the incorporation of [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S into D2 receptors in homogenates of rat brain striatum, using the same conditions as previously used to study the cloned D2 receptors. Using 10 microM dopamine to define 100% stimulation, phencyclidine elicited a maximum incorporation of 46% in rat striata, with a half-maximum concentration of 70 nM for phencyclidine, when compared with 80 nM for dopamine, 89 nM for salvinorin A (48 nM for D2Long), 105 nM for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 120 nM for R-modafinil, 710 nM for dizocilpine, 1030 nM for ketamine, and >10,000 nM for S-modafinil. These compounds also inhibited the binding of the D2-selective ligand [(3)H]domperidone. The incorporation was inhibited by the presence of 200 microM guanylylimidodiphosphate and also by D2 blockade, using 10 microM S-sulpiride, but not by D1 blockade with 10 microM SCH23390. Hypertonic buffer containing 150 mM NaCl inhibited the stimulation by phencyclidine, which may explain negative results by others. It is concluded that phencyclidine and other psychostimulants and hallucinogens can stimulate dopamine D2 receptors at concentrations related to their behavioral actions.

  16. Ultraviolet irradiation selectively disrupts the gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor-linked chloride ionophore

    SciTech Connect

    Evoniuk, G.; Moody, E.J.; Skolnick, P. )

    1989-05-01

    The ability of UV light to affect radioligand binding and 36Cl-uptake at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor-chloride channel complex was examined. Exposure to 302 nm UV light produced a rapid (t1/2 = 4 min) reduction in (35S)t-butylbicyclo-phosphorothionate binding (assayed in the presence of 200 mM chloride) to sites associated with the GABAA receptor-coupled chloride ionophore. Saturation analysis revealed that this effect could be attributed entirely to a decrease in the maximum number of binding sites. Exposure to UV irradiation at lower (254 nm) and higher (366 nm) wavelengths also inhibited (35S)t-butylbicy-clophosphorothionate binding, but the respective rates of inactivation were 8- and 27-fold slower, compared with 302 nm. Other anion-dependent interactions at the GABAA receptor complex were disrupted in a similar manner. In the absence of permeant anion, (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors was unaffected by 302 nm UV irradiation, whereas chloride-enhanced (3H)flunitrazepam binding was inhibited markedly. In the presence of 250-500 mM chloride, (3H)methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate binding to benzodiazepine receptors was also inhibited after UV exposure. Basal 36Cl- uptake into synaptoneurosomes was nearly doubled after 15 min of exposure to 302 nm light, whereas pentobarbital- and muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake were reduced significantly. UV irradiation at 302 nm appears to disrupt selectively the anion-dependent functional interactions at the GABAA receptor complex. The apparent wavelength specificity suggests that the gating structure (channel) may contain tryptophan and/or tyrosine residues vital to the regulation of anion movement through the ionophore portion of this supramolecular receptor-ion channel complex.

  17. Inhibition of lysophosphatidic acid receptors 1 and 3 attenuates atherosclerosis development in LDL-receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Kritikou, Eva; van Puijvelde, Gijs H. M.; van der Heijden, Thomas; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Swart, Maarten; Schaftenaar, Frank H.; Kröner, Mara J.; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid present at high concentrations within lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques. Upon local accumulation in the damaged vessels, LPA can act as a potent activator for various types of immune cells through its specific membrane receptors LPA1/3. LPA elicits chemotactic, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects that lead to atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this study we aimed to inhibit LPA signaling by means of LPA1/3 antagonism using the small molecule Ki16425. We show that LPA1/3 inhibition significantly impaired atherosclerosis progression. Treatment with Ki16425 also resulted in reduced CCL2 production and secretion, which led to less monocyte and neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, we provide evidence that LPA1/3 blockade enhanced the percentage of non-inflammatory, Ly6Clow monocytes and CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells. Finally, we demonstrate that LPA1/3 antagonism mildly reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of LPA1/3 receptors may prove a promising approach to diminish atherosclerosis development. PMID:27883026

  18. Inhibition of lysophosphatidic acid receptors 1 and 3 attenuates atherosclerosis development in LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kritikou, Eva; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; van der Heijden, Thomas; van Santbrink, Peter J; Swart, Maarten; Schaftenaar, Frank H; Kröner, Mara J; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2016-11-24

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid present at high concentrations within lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques. Upon local accumulation in the damaged vessels, LPA can act as a potent activator for various types of immune cells through its specific membrane receptors LPA1/3. LPA elicits chemotactic, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects that lead to atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this study we aimed to inhibit LPA signaling by means of LPA1/3 antagonism using the small molecule Ki16425. We show that LPA1/3 inhibition significantly impaired atherosclerosis progression. Treatment with Ki16425 also resulted in reduced CCL2 production and secretion, which led to less monocyte and neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, we provide evidence that LPA1/3 blockade enhanced the percentage of non-inflammatory, Ly6C(low) monocytes and CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T-regulatory cells. Finally, we demonstrate that LPA1/3 antagonism mildly reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of LPA1/3 receptors may prove a promising approach to diminish atherosclerosis development.

  19. Structure-based drug design targeting the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1: exploiting the bile acid scaffold towards selective agonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Sepe, Valentina; Novellino, Ettore; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids can regulate nutrient metabolism through the activation of the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1 and the nuclear receptor FXR. Developing an exogenous control over these receptors represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of enterohepatic and metabolic disorders. A number of dual GPBAR1/FXR agonists are known, however their therapeutic use is limited by multiple unwanted effects due to activation of the diverse downstream signals controlled by the two receptors. On the other hand, designing selective GPBAR1 and FXR agonists is challenging since the two proteins share similar structural requisites for ligand binding. Here, taking advantage of our knowledge of the two targets, we have identified through a rational drug design study a series of amine lithocholic acid derivatives as selective GPBAR1 agonists. The presence of the 3α-NH2 group on the steroidal scaffold is responsible for the selectivity over FXR unveiling unprecedented structural insights into bile acid receptors activity modulation.

  20. Retinoic Acid Receptor β2 Agonists Restore Glycemic Control In Diabetes and Reduce Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Trasino, Steven E.; Tang, Xiao-Han; Jessurun, Jose; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Retinoids (vitamin A (retinol), and structurally related molecules) possess metabolic modulating properties, prompting new interest in their role in the treatment of diabetes and fatty liver disease, but little is known about the effects of specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists in these diseases. Materials and Methods Synthetic agonists for retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 were administered to wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D). Results We demonstrate that administration of synthetic agonists for the retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 to either wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) or to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D) reduces hyperglycemia, peripheral insulin resistance, and body weight. Furthermore, RARβ2 agonists dramatically reduce steatosis, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys of obese, diabetic mice. RARβ2 agonists also lower levels of mRNAs involved in lipogenesis, such as SREBP1 and FASN (fatty acid synthase), and increase mRNAs that mediate mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, such as CPT1α, in these organs. RARβ2 agonists lower triglyceride levels in these organs, and in muscle. Conclusions Collectively, our data show that orally active, rapidly acting, high affinity pharmacological agonists for RARβ2 improve the diabetic phenotype while reducing lipid levels in key insulin target tissues. We suggest that RARβ2 agonists should be useful drugs for T2D therapy and for treatment of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26462866

  1. Positive modulation of the α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor by ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Boffi, JC; Wedemeyer, C; Lipovsek, M; Katz, E; Calvo, DJ; Elgoyhen, AB

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The activation of α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) present at the synapse between efferent olivocochlear fibres and cochlear hair cells can prevent acoustic trauma. Hence, pharmacological potentiators of these receptors could be useful therapeutically. In this work, we characterize ascorbic acid as a positive modulator of recombinant α9α10 nAChRs. Experimental Approach ACh-evoked responses were analysed under two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with α9 and α10 cRNAs. Key Results Ascorbic acid potentiated ACh responses in X. laevis oocytes expressing α9α10 (but not α4β2 or α7) nAChRs, in a concentration-dependent manner, with an effective concentration range of 1–30 mM. The compound did not affect the receptor's current–voltage profile nor its apparent affinity for ACh, but it significantly enhanced the maximal evoked currents (percentage of ACh maximal response, 240 ± 20%). This effect was specific for the L form of reduced ascorbic acid. Substitution of the extracellular cysteine residues present in loop C of the ACh binding site did not affect the potentiation. Ascorbic acid turned into a partial agonist of α9α10 nAChRs bearing a point mutation at the pore domain of the channel (TM2 V13′T mutant). A positive allosteric mechanism of action rather than an antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid is proposed. Conclusions and Implications The present work describes one of the few agents that activates or potentiates α9α10 nAChRs and leads to new avenues for designing drugs with potential therapeutic use in inner ear disorders. PMID:22994414

  2. Skin Barrier Recovery by Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Antagonist Lobaric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hyunjin; Yoon, Sohyun; Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) results from gene and environment interactions that lead to a range of immunological abnormalities and breakdown of the skin barrier. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) belongs to a family of G-protein coupled receptors and is expressed in suprabasal layers of the epidermis. PAR2 is activated by both trypsin and a specific agonist peptide, SLIGKV-NH2 and is involved in both epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and epithelial inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of lobaric acid on inflammation, keratinocyte differentiation, and recovery of the skin barrier in hairless mice. Lobaric acid blocked trypsin-induced and SLIGKV-NH2-induced PAR2 activation resulting in decreased mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid reduced expression of interleukin-8 induced by SLIGKV-NH2 and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) induced by tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and IFN-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid also blocked SLIGKV-NH2-induced activation of ERK, which is a downstream signal of PAR2 in normal human keratinocytes (NHEKs). Treatment with SLIGKV-NH2 downregulated expression of involucrin, a differentiation marker protein in HaCaT keratinocytes, and upregulated expression of involucrin, transglutamase1 and filaggrin in NHEKs. However, lobaric acid antagonized the effect of SLIGKV-NH2 in HaCaT keratinocytes and NHEKs. Topical application of lobaric acid accelerated barrier recovery kinetics in a SKH-1 hairless mouse model. These results suggested that lobaric acid is a PAR2 antagonist and could be a possible therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27169822

  3. Folic acid mediates activation of the pro-oncogene STAT3 via the Folate Receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mariann F; Greibe, Eva; Skovbjerg, Signe; Rohde, Sarah; Kristensen, Anders C M; Jensen, Trine R; Stentoft, Charlotte; Kjær, Karina H; Kronborg, Camilla S; Martensen, Pia M

    2015-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-described pro-oncogene found constitutively activated in several cancer types. Folates are B vitamins that, when taken up by cells through the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC), are essential for normal cell growth and replication. Many cancer cells overexpress a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Folate Receptor α (FRα). The function of FRα in cancer cells is still poorly described, and it has been suggested that transport of folate is not its primary function in these cells. We show here that folic acid and folinic acid can activate STAT3 through FRα in a Janus Kinase (JAK)-dependent manner, and we demonstrate that gp130 functions as a transducing receptor for this signalling. Moreover, folic acid can promote dose dependent cell proliferation in FRα-positive HeLa cells, but not in FRα-negative HEK293 cells. After folic acid treatment of HeLa cells, up-regulation of the STAT3 responsive genes Cyclin A2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were verified by qRT-PCR. The identification of this FRα-STAT3 signal transduction pathway activated by folic and folinic acid contributes to the understanding of the involvement of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects as well as in tumour growth. Previously, the role of folates in these diseases has been attributed to their roles as one-carbon unit donors following endocytosis into the cell. Our finding that folic acid can activate STAT3 via FRα adds complexity to the established roles of B9 vitamins in cancer and neural tube defects.

  4. Active transport of amino acids by a guanidiniocarbonyl-pyrrole receptor.

    PubMed

    Urban, Christian; Schmuck, Carsten

    2010-08-16

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a transporter 9 for N-acetylated amino acids. Transporter 9 is a conjugate of a guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole cation, one of the most efficient carboxylate binding motifs reported so far, and a hydrophobic tris(dodecylbenzyl) group, which ensures solubility in organic solvents. In its protonated form, 9 binds N-acetylated amino acid carboxylates in wet organic solvents with association constants in the range of 10(4) M(-1) as estimated by extraction experiments. Aromatic amino acids are preferred due to additional cation-pi-interactions of the amino acid side chain with the guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole moiety. U-tube experiments established efficient transport across a bulk liquid chloroform phase with fluxes approaching 10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1). In experiments with single substrates, the release rate of the amino acid from the receptor-substrate complex at the interface with the receiving phase is rate determining. In contrast to this, in competition experiments with several substrates, the thermodynamic affinity to 9 becomes decisive. As 9 can only transport anions in its protonated form and has a pK(a) value of approximately 7, pH-driven active transport of amino acids is also possible. Transport occurs as a symport of the amino acid carboxylate and a proton.

  5. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  6. Amino acids in the COOH-terminal region of the oxytocin receptor third intracellular domain are important for receptor function.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Miao; Parish, Bridgette; Murtazina, Dilyara A; Ku, Chun-Ying; Sanborn, Barbara M

    2007-04-01

    Previously, residue K6.30 in the COOH-terminal region of the third intracellular domain (3iC) of the oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) was identified as important for receptor function leading to phospholipase C activation in both OTR and the vasopressin V(2) receptor (V(2)R) chimera V(2)ROTR3iC. Substitution of either A6.28K or V6.30K in wild-type V(2)R did not recapitulate the increase in phosphatidylinositide (PI) turnover observed in V(2)ROTR3iC. Hence, the role of K6.30 may be context-specific. Deletion of two NH(2)-terminal OTR3iC segments in the V(2)ROTR3iC chimera did not diminish vasopressin-stimulated PI turnover, whereas deletion of RVSSVKL (residues 6.19-6.25) reduced receptor expression. Deletion of this sequence in wild-type OTR reduced expression by 50% without affecting affinity for [(3)H]OT. This OTR mutant was unable to activate PI turnover or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. The effects of alanine substitution for individual residues in RVSSVKL indicated differential importance for OTR function. The R6.19A substitution lost high-affinity sites for [(3)H]OT and the ability to stimulate PI turnover. Affinity for [(3)H]OT and membrane expression was not affected by any other substitutions. OTR-V6.20A and OTR-K6.24A mutants functioned as well as wild-type OTR, whereas OTR S6.21A, S6.22A, and V6.23A mutants exhibited impaired abilities to activate PI turnover (20-40% of OTR), and the OTR-L6.25A mutant exhibited constitutive activity. In conclusion, specific amino acids in the RVSSVKL segment in the COOH-terminal region of the third intracellular domain of OTR influence the ability of OTR to activate G protein-mediated actions.

  7. Correlation of phospholipid structure with functional effects on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. A modulatory role for phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; McNamee, M G

    1993-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is used to characterize specific interactions between negatively charged lipids, such as phosphatidic acid, and the purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. The specific interaction of phosphatidic acid with acetylcholine receptor is demonstrated by the receptor-induced perturbation of the lipid ionization state, which is monitored using Fourier transform infrared bands arising from the phosphate head group. The acetylcholine receptor shifts the pKa of phosphatidic acid molecules adjacent to the receptor to a lower value by almost 2 pH units from 8.5 to 6.6. Decreased pH also leads to changes in ion channel function and to changes in the secondary structure of the acetylcholine receptor in membranes containing ionizable phospholipids. Phospholipase D restores functional activity of acetylcholine receptor reconstituted in an unfavorable environment containing phosphatidylcholine by generating phosphatidic acid. Lipids such as phosphatidic acid may serve as allosteric effectors for membrane protein function and the lipid-protein interface could be a site for activity-dependent changes that lead to modulation of synaptic efficacy. PMID:8471723

  8. Three Dimensional Structure Prediction of Fatty Acid Binding Site on Human Transmembrane Receptor CD36.

    PubMed

    Tarhda, Zineb; Semlali, Oussama; Kettani, Anas; Moussa, Ahmed; Abumrad, Nada A; Ibrahimi, Azeddine

    2013-01-01

    CD36 is an integral membrane protein which is thought to have a hairpin-like structure with alpha-helices at the C and N terminals projecting through the membrane as well as a larger extracellular loop. This receptor interacts with a number of ligands including oxidized low density lipoprotein and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). It is also implicated in lipid metabolism and heart diseases. It is therefore important to determine the 3D structure of the CD36 site involved in lipid binding. In this study, we predict the 3D structure of the fatty acid (FA) binding site [127-279 aa] of the CD36 receptor based on homology modeling with X-ray structure of Human Muscle Fatty Acid Binding Protein (PDB code: 1HMT). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the resulting model suggests that this model was reliable and stable, taking in consideration over 97.8% of the residues in the most favored regions as well as the significant overall quality factor. Protein analysis, which relied on the secondary structure prediction of the target sequence and the comparison of 1HMT and CD36 [127-279 aa] secondary structures, led to the determination of the amino acid sequence consensus. These results also led to the identification of the functional sites on CD36 and revealed the presence of residues which may play a major role during ligand-protein interactions.

  9. Three Dimensional Structure Prediction of Fatty Acid Binding Site on Human Transmembrane Receptor CD36

    PubMed Central

    Tarhda, Zineb; Semlali, Oussama; Kettani, Anas; Moussa, Ahmed; Abumrad, Nada A.; Ibrahimi, Azeddine

    2013-01-01

    CD36 is an integral membrane protein which is thought to have a hairpin-like structure with alpha-helices at the C and N terminals projecting through the membrane as well as a larger extracellular loop. This receptor interacts with a number of ligands including oxidized low density lipoprotein and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). It is also implicated in lipid metabolism and heart diseases. It is therefore important to determine the 3D structure of the CD36 site involved in lipid binding. In this study, we predict the 3D structure of the fatty acid (FA) binding site [127–279 aa] of the CD36 receptor based on homology modeling with X-ray structure of Human Muscle Fatty Acid Binding Protein (PDB code: 1HMT). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the resulting model suggests that this model was reliable and stable, taking in consideration over 97.8% of the residues in the most favored regions as well as the significant overall quality factor. Protein analysis, which relied on the secondary structure prediction of the target sequence and the comparison of 1HMT and CD36 [127–279 aa] secondary structures, led to the determination of the amino acid sequence consensus. These results also led to the identification of the functional sites on CD36 and revealed the presence of residues which may play a major role during ligand-protein interactions. PMID:24348024

  10. Identification of amino acids involved in histamine potentiation of GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Ulrike; Platt, Sarah J.; Wolf, Steffen; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological and neuronal functions. In mammals, such as humans, and rodents, the histaminergic neurons found in the tuberomamillary nucleus project widely throughout the central nervous system. Histamine acts as positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and, in high concentrations (10 mM), as negative modulator of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which histamine acts on GABAARs are unknown. In our study, we aimed to identify amino acids potentially involved in the modulatory effect of histamine on GABAARs. We expressed GABAARs with 12 different point mutations in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized the effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Our data demonstrate that the amino acid residues β2(N265) and β2(M286), which are important for modulation by propofol, are not involved in the action of histamine. However, we found that histamine modulation is dependent on the amino acid residues α1(R120), β2(Y157), β2(D163), β3(V175), and β3(Q185). We showed that the amino acid residues β2(Y157) and β3(Q185) mediate the positive modulatory effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents, whereas α1(R120) and β2(D163) form a potential histamine interaction site in GABAARs. PMID:26074818

  11. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Hanse, Eric A.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Mashek, Mara T.; Hendrickson, Anna M.; Mullany, Lisa K.; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:27351284

  12. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamarajugadda, Sushama; Becker, Jennifer R; Hanse, Eric A; Mashek, Douglas G; Mashek, Mara T; Hendrickson, Anna M; Mullany, Lisa K; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-26

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation.

  13. Reversible receptor methylation is essential for normal chemotaxis of Escherichia coli in gradients of aspartic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, R M; Koshland, D E

    1988-01-01

    The chemotaxis of wild-type cells of Escherichia coli and double mutants lacking the methyltransferase and the methylesterase activities of the receptor modification system has been compared in spatial gradients of aspartic acid. Previous studies showing that a chemotactic response can be observed for the mutant raised questions about the role of methylation in the bacterial memory. To clarify the role of methylation, the redistribution of bacteria in stabilized defined gradients of aspartic acid was monitored by light scattering. There was no redistribution of the mutant cells in nonsaturating gradients of aspartic acid, but over the same range these mutant bacteria were observed to respond and to adapt during tethering experiments. In large saturating gradients of aspartate, slight movement of the mutant up the gradient was observed. These results show that dynamic receptor methylation is required for the chemotactic response to gentle gradients of aspartic acid and that methylation resets to zero and is part of the normal wild-type memory. There are certain gradients, however, in which the methylation-deficient mutants show chemotactic ability, thus explaining the apparent anomaly. Images PMID:2829179

  14. Molecular basis for designing selective modulators of retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, P

    2001-08-01

    Retinoic acid receptors are ligand-regulated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which comprises 49 members in the human genome. all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXRs) are each encoded by three distinct genes and several isoforms arise from alternative splicing and the use of different promoters. While RXRs are promiscuous dimerization partners of several other nuclear receptors, RARs are active, in-vivo, when associated to RXRs. Retinoids are therefore regulators of multiple physiological processes, from embryogenesis to metabolism. Different combinations of RXR:RAR heterodimers occur as a function of their tissue-specific expression and their activity is mostly conditioned by the activation status of RAR. These heterodimers are defined as non permissive heterodimers, in opposition to permissive dimers whose transcriptional activity may be modulated through RXR and its dimerization partner. The transcriptional activity of these dimers also relies on their ability to recruit nuclear coactivators and corepressors, which function as multi proteic complexes harboring several enzymatic activities (acetylases, kinases). The structure of the ligand bound to the RAR moiety of the dimer, as well as the nature of the DNA sequence to which dimers are bound, dictate the relative affinity of dimers for coactivators and thus its overall transcriptional activity. RARs are also able to repress the activity of unrelated transcription factors such as AP1 and NF-kappa-B, and therefore have potent anti proliferative and anti inflammatory properties. This review summarizes our current view of molecular mechanisms governing these various activities and emphasizes the need for a detailed understanding of how retinoids may dictate transactivating and transrepressive properties of RARs and RXRs, which may be considered as highly valuable therapeutic targets in many diseases such as cancer, skin hyperproliferation and

  15. PLZF is a negative regulator of retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Perrine J; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors controlling cellular proliferation and differentiation. Receptor-interacting proteins such as corepressors and coactivators play a crucial role in specifying the overall transcriptional activity of the receptor in response to ligand treatment. Little is known however on how receptor activity is controlled by intermediary factors which interact with RARs in a ligand-independent manner. Results We have identified the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF), a transcriptional corepressor, to be a RAR-interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid assay. We confirmed this interaction by GST-pull down assays and show that the PLZF N-terminal zinc finger domain is necessary and sufficient for PLZF to bind RAR. The RAR ligand binding domain displayed the highest affinity for PLZF, but corepressor and coactivator binding interfaces did not contribute to PLZF recruitment. The interaction was ligand-independent and correlated to a decreased transcriptional activity of the RXR-RAR heterodimer upon overexpression of PLZF. A similar transcriptional interference could be observed with the estrogen receptor alpha and the glucocorticoid receptor. We further show that PLZF is likely to act by preventing RXR-RAR heterodimerization, both in-vitro and in intact cells. Conclusion Thus RAR and PLZF interact physically and functionally. Intriguingly, these two transcription factors play a determining role in hematopoiesis and regionalization of the hindbrain and may, upon chromosomal translocation, form fusion proteins. Our observations therefore define a novel mechanism by which RARs activity may be controlled. PMID:14521715

  16. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs), which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter, and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology. PMID:26578955

  17. Ligand Induction of Retinoic Acid Receptors Alters an Acute Infection by Murine Cytomegalovirus†

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Ana; Chandraratna, Roshantha A. S.; LeBlanc, James F.; Ghazal, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Here we report that administration of retinoids can alter the outcome of an acute murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. We show that a crucial viral control element, the major immediate-early enhancer, can be activated by retinoic acid (RA) via multiple RA-responsive elements (DR2) that bind retinoid X receptor-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimers with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 15 to 33 nM. Viral growth is dramatically increased upon RA treatment of infected tissue culture cells. Using synthetic retinoid receptor-specific agonists and antagonists, we provide evidence that RAR activation in cells is required for mediating the response of MCMV to RA. Oral administration of RA to infected immunocompetent mice selectively exacerbates an infection by MCMV, while cotreatment with an RAR antagonist protects against the adverse effects of RA on MCMV infection. In conclusion, these chemical genetic experiments provide evidence that an RAR-mediated pathway can modulate in vitro and in vivo infections by MCMV. PMID:9573222

  18. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Induces Death Receptor-mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Panchanathan, Radha; Yun, Jeong Won; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gon Sup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background Bile acids have anti-cancer properties in a certain types of cancers. We determined anticancer activity and its underlying molecular mechanism of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in human DU145 prostate cancer cells. Methods Cell viability was measured with an MTT assay. UDCA-induced apoptosis was determined with flow cytometric analysis. The expression levels of apoptosis-related signaling proteins were examined with Western blotting. Results UDCA treatment significantly inhibited cell growth of DU145 in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic blebs and accumulated the cells with sub-G1 DNA contents. Moreover, UDCA activated caspase 8, suggesting that UDCA-induced apoptosis is associated with extrinsic pathway. Consistent to this finding, UDCA increased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), and TRAIL augmented the UDCA-induced cell death in DU145 cells. In addition, UDCA also increased the expressions of Bax and cytochrome c and decreased the expression of Bcl-xL in DU145 cells. This finding suggests that UDCA-induced apoptosis may be involved in intrinsic pathway. Conclusions UDCA induces apoptosis via extrinsic pathway as well as intrinsic pathway in DU145 prostate cancer cells. UDCA may be a promising anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer. PMID:28382282

  19. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  20. Expression and distribution of sialic acid influenza virus receptors in wild birds.

    PubMed

    França, M; Stallknecht, D E; Howerth, E W

    2013-02-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been detected in more than 105 wild bird species from 12 different orders but species-related differences in susceptibility to AI viruses exist. Expression of α2,3-linked (avian-type) and α2,6-linked (human-type) sialic acid (SA) influenza virus receptors in tissues is considered one of the determinants of the host range and tissue tropism of influenza viruses. We investigated the expression of these SA receptors in 37 wild bird species from 11 different orders by lectin histochemistry. Two isoforms of Maackia amurensis (MAA) lectin, MAA1 and MAA2, were used to detect α2,3-linked SA, and Sambucus nigra lectin was used to detect α2,6-linked SA. All species evaluated expressed α2,3-linked and α2,6-linked SA receptors in endothelial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells. Both α2,3-linked and α-2,6-linked SA receptors were expressed in respiratory and intestinal tract tissues of aquatic and terrestrial wild bird species from different taxa, but differences in SA expression and in the predominant isoform of MAA lectin bound were observed. With a few possible exceptions, these observed differences were not generally predictive of reported species susceptibility to AI viruses based on published experimental and field data.

  1. Waking action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) involves histamine and GABAA receptor block.

    PubMed

    Yanovsky, Yevgenij; Schubring, Stephan R; Yao, Quiaoling; Zhao, Yan; Li, Sha; May, Andrea; Haas, Helmut L; Lin, Jian-Sheng; Sergeeva, Olga A

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a constituent of bile, is used against gallstone formation and cholestasis. A neuroprotective action of UDCA was demonstrated recently in models of Alzheimer's disease and retinal degeneration. The mechanisms of UDCA action in the nervous system are poorly understood. We show now that UDCA promotes wakefulness during the active period of the day, lacking this activity in histamine-deficient mice. In cultured hypothalamic neurons UDCA did not affect firing rate but synchronized the firing, an effect abolished by the GABA(A)R antagonist gabazine. In histaminergic neurons recorded in slices UDCA reduced amplitude and duration of spontaneous and evoked IPSCs. In acutely isolated histaminergic neurons UDCA inhibited GABA-evoked currents and sIPSCs starting at 10 µM (IC(50) = 70 µM) and did not affect NMDA- and AMPA-receptor mediated currents at 100 µM. Recombinant GABA(A) receptors composed of α1, β1-3 and γ2L subunits expressed in HEK293 cells displayed a sensitivity to UDCA similar to that of native GABA(A) receptors. The mutation α1V256S, known to reduce the inhibitory action of pregnenolone sulphate, reduced the potency of UDCA. The mutation α1Q241L, which abolishes GABA(A)R potentiation by several neurosteroids, had no effect on GABA(A)R inhibition by UDCA. In conclusion, UDCA enhances alertness through disinhibition, at least partially of the histaminergic system via GABA(A) receptors.

  2. Programmable Multivalent Display of Receptor Ligands using Peptide Nucleic Acid Nanoscaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Ethan A.; Wang, Deyun; Fujigaki, Hidetsugu; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Micklitsch, Christopher M.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Martin-Manso, Gema; Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.; Durell, Stewart R.; Appella, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Multivalent effects dictate the binding affinity of multiple ligands on one molecular entity to receptors. Integrins are receptors that mediate cell attachment through multivalent binding to peptide sequences within the extracellular matrix, and overexpression promotes the metastasis of some cancers. Multivalent display of integrin antagonists enhances their efficacy, but current scaffolds have limited ranges and precision for the display of ligands. Here we present an approach to study multivalent effects across wide ranges of ligand number, density, and three-dimensional arrangement. Using L-lysine γ-substituted peptide nucleic acids, the multivalent effects of an integrin antagonist were examined over a range of 1 to 45 ligands. The optimal construct improves the inhibitory activity of the antagonist by two orders of magnitude against the binding of melanoma cells to the extracellular matrix in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22233624

  3. G-protein coupling and nuclear translocation of the human abscisic acid receptor LANCL2

    PubMed Central

    Fresia, Chiara; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Booz, Valeria; Bruzzone, Santina; Sturla, Laura; Di Bona, Melody; Pesce, Mattia; Usai, Cesare; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a long known phytohormone, has been recently demonstrated to be present also in humans, where it targets cells of the innate immune response, mesenchymal and hemopoietic stem cells and cells involved in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis. LANCL2, a peripheral membrane protein, is the mammalian ABA receptor. We show that N-terminal glycine myristoylation causes LANCL2 localization to the plasmamembrane and to cytoplasmic membrane vesicles, where it interacts with the α subunit of a Gi protein and starts the ABA signaling pathway via activation of adenylate cyclase. Demyristoylation of LANCL2 by chemical or genetic means triggers its nuclear translocation. Nuclear enrichment of native LANCL2 is also induced by ABA treatment. Therefore human LANCL2 is a non-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor susceptible to hormone-induced nuclear translocation. PMID:27222287

  4. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  5. Nipecotic acid ethyl ester: a cholinergic agonist that may differentiate muscarinic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, S.H.; Duman, R.S.; Enna, S.J.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P.; Micheletti, R.; Giraldo, E.; Giachetti, A.

    1986-03-05

    Reports indicate that nipecotic acid ethyl ester (NAEE) displays cholinomimetic properties in vivo. In the present study a series of physiological and biochemical tests were conducted to characterize this action. NAEE had a negative inotropic effect on the guinea pig atrium, and stimulated contraction of the guinea pig ileum and isolated mouse stomach strip at concentrations similar to bethanechol (BCH). The atrial and ilial effects were reversed by atropine. Unlike BCH, NAEE had no effect on basal acid secretion in the isolated mouse stomach at concentrations < 100 ..mu..M. NAEE was more potent than carbachol (CCH) in displacing /sup 3/H-ONB binding from rat brain membranes. The potency of NAEE to inhibit antagonist binding in rat heart membranes was enhanced by Mg/sup + +/ (Hill coefficient < 1.0) and reduced by Gpp(NH)p. Like CCH, NAEE inhibited GTP-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat brain striatal membranes. As compared to CCH, NAEE had little effect (< 5%) as a stimulator of inositol phosphate (IP) production in rat brain slices. The results indicate that NAEE is a direct-acting muscarinic receptor agonist. Moreover, its differential effects on acid secretion, IP accumulation, and adenylate cyclase suggest that it may be useful for defining cholinergic receptor subclasses.

  6. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces hepatic steatosis via the upregulation of fatty acid transport.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Tanaka, Shinwa; Nobutani, Kentaro; Miki, Akira; Yano, Yoshihiko; Seo, Yasushi; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Ashida, Hitoshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2010-12-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim domain transcription factor, which is activated by various xenobiotic ligands. AHR is known to be abundant in liver tissue and to be associated with hepatic steatosis. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the activation of AHR promotes hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of AHR in hepatic steatosis. The intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a potent AHR ligand, into C57BL/6J mice significantly increased the levels of triglycerides and six long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the livers of mice, resulting in hepatic microvesicular steatosis. 3MC significantly enhanced the expression level of fatty acid translocase (FAT), a factor regulating the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes, in the liver. In an in vitro experiment using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, 3MC increased the expression level of FAT, and the downregulation of AHR by AHR siRNA led to the suppression of 3MC-induced FAT expression. In addition, the mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, an upstream factor of FAT, was increased in the livers of 3MC-treated mice. Taking together, AHR activation induces hepatic microvesicular steatosis by increasing the expression level of FAT.

  7. Identification of Darmstoff analogs as selective agonists and antagonists of lysophosphatidic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gududuru, Veeresa; Zeng, Kui; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Makarova, Natalia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Pigg, Kathryn R; Baker, Daniel L; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2006-01-15

    Darmstoff describes a family of gut smooth muscle-stimulating acetal phosphatidic acids initially isolated and characterized from the bath fluid of stimulated gut over 50 years ago. Despite similar structural and biological profiles, Darmstoff analogs have not previously been examined as potential LPA mimetics. Here, we report a facile method for the synthesis of potassium salts of Darmstoff analogs. To understand the effect of stereochemistry on lysophosphatidic acid mimetic activity, synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of selected Darmstoff analogs was achieved starting with chiral methyl glycerates. Each Darmstoff analog was evaluated for subtype-specific LPA receptor agonist/antagonist activity, PPARgamma activation, and autotaxin inhibition. From this study we identified compound 12 as a pan-antagonist and several pan-agonists for the LPA(1-3) receptors. Introduction of an aromatic ring in the lipid chain such as analog 22 produced a subtype-specific LPA(3) agonist with an EC(50) of 692 nM. Interestingly, regardless of their LPA(1/2/3) ligand properties all of the Darmstoff analogs tested activated PPARgamma. However, these compounds are weak inhibitors of autotaxin. The results indicate that Darmstoff analogs constitute a novel class of lysophosphatidic acid mimetics.

  8. Loss of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 leads to impaired islet mass and beta cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Stephanie R.; Priyadarshini, Medha; Fuller, Miles H.; Bhardwaj, Tanya; Brodsky, Michael R.; Angueira, Anthony R.; Mosser, Rockann E.; Carboneau, Bethany A.; Tersey, Sarah A.; Mancebo, Helena; Gilchrist, Annette; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Gannon, Maureen; Layden, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of pancreatic β cell mass is a critical factor to help maintain normoglycemia during insulin resistance. Nutrient-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) contribute to aspects of β cell function, including regulation of β cell mass. Nutrients such as free fatty acids (FFAs) contribute to precise regulation of β cell mass by signaling through cognate GPCRs, and considerable evidence suggests that circulating FFAs promote β cell expansion by direct and indirect mechanisms. Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFA2) is a β cell-expressed GPCR that is activated by short chain fatty acids, particularly acetate. Recent studies of FFA2 suggest that it may act as a regulator of β cell function. Here, we set out to explore what role FFA2 may play in regulation of β cell mass. Interestingly, Ffar2−/− mice exhibit diminished β cell mass at birth and throughout adulthood, and increased β cell death at adolescent time points, suggesting a role for FFA2 in establishment and maintenance of β cell mass. Additionally, activation of FFA2 with Gαq/11-biased agonists substantially increased β cell proliferation in in vitro and ex vivo proliferation assays. Collectively, these data suggest that FFA2 may be a novel therapeutic target to stimulate β cell growth and proliferation. PMID:27324831

  9. Membrane bile acid receptor TGR5 predicts good prognosis in ampullary adenocarcinoma patients with hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min-Chan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are potential carcinogens in gastrointestinal cancer, and interact with nuclear and membrane receptors to initiate downstream signaling. The effect of TGR5 [also known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1)] on cancer progression is dependent on the tissue where it is activated. In this report, the function of TGR5 expression in cancer was studied using a bioinformatic approach. TGR5 expression in ampullary adenocarcinoma and normal duodenum was compared by western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). High GPBAR1 gene expression was found to be an indicator of worse prognosis in gastric and breast cancer patients, and an indication of better prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. The level of GPBAR1 gene expression was higher in bile-acid exposed cancer than in other types of cancer, and was increased in well-differentiated ampullary adenocarcinoma. Negative, weak or mild expression of TGR5 was correlated with younger age, higher plasma level of total/direct bilirubin, higher plasma concentration of CA-125, advanced tumor stage and advanced AJCC TNM stage. The disease-specific survival rate was highest in ampullary adenocarcinoma patients with high TGR5 expression and high total bilirubin level. In summary, TGR5 functions as a tumor-suppressor in patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma and preoperative hyperbilirubinemia. Further study of the suppressive mechanism may provide a new therapeutic option for patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma. PMID:27510297

  10. Characterization of influenza virus sialic acid receptors in minor poultry species.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Brian; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R

    2010-12-09

    It is commonly accepted that avian influenza viruses (AIVs) bind to terminal α2,3 sialic acid (SA) residues whereas human influenza viruses bind to α2,6 SA residues. By a series of amino acid changes on the HA surface protein, AIVs can switch receptor specificity and recognize α2,6 SA positive cells, including human respiratory epithelial cells. Animal species, like pigs and Japanese quail, that contain both α2,3 and α2,6 SA become ideal environments for receptor switching. Here, we describe the SA patterns and distributions in 6 common minor domestic poultry species: Peking duck, Toulouse geese, Chinese ring-neck pheasant, white midget turkey, bobwhite quail, and pearl guinea fowl. Lectins specific to α2,3 and α2,6 SA (Maakia amurensis agglutinin and Sambuca nigra agglutinin, respectively) were used to detect SA by an alkaline phosphotase-based method and a fluorescent-based method. Differences in SA moieties and their ability to bind influenza viruses were visualized by fluorescent labeling of 4 different H3N2 influenza viruses known to be specific for one receptor or the other. The geese and ducks showed α2,3 SA throughout the respiratory tract and marginal α2,6 SA only in the colon. The four other avian species showed both α2,3 and α2,6 SA in the respiratory tract and the intestines. Furthermore, the turkey respiratory tract showed a positive correlation between age and α2,6 SA levels. The fact that these birds have both avian and human flu receptors, combined with their common presence in backyard farms and live bird markets worldwide, mark them as potential mixing bowl species and necessitates improved surveillance and additional research about the role of these birds in influenza host switching.

  11. Oleanolic acid acrylate elicits antidepressant-like effect mediated by 5-HT1A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fajemiroye, James O.; Polepally, Prabhakar R.; Chaurasiya, Narayan D.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Costa, Elson A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new drugs for the treatment of depression is strategic to achieving clinical needs of patients. This study evaluates antidepressant-like effect and neural mechanisms of four oleanolic acid derivatives i.e. acrylate (D1), methacrylate (D2), methyl fumarate (D3) and ethyl fumarate (D4). All derivatives were obtained by simple one-step esterification of oleanolic acid prior to pharmacological screening in the forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. Pharmacological tools like α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, catecholamine depletor), p-chlorophenylalanine (serotonin depletor), prazosin (PRAZ, selective α1-receptor antagonist), WAY-100635 (selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) as well as monoamine oxidase (MAO) and functional binding assays were conducted to investigate possible neural mechanisms. In the FS test, D1 showed the most promising antidepressant-like effect without eliciting locomotor incoordination. Unlike group of mice pretreated with AMPT 100 mg/kg, PCPA 100 mg/kg or PRAZ 1 mg/kg, the effect of D1 was attenuated by WAY-100635 0.3 mg/kg pretreatment. D1 demonstrated moderate inhibition of MAO-A (IC50 = 48.848 ± 1.935 μM), potency (pEC50 = 6.1 ± 0.1) and intrinsic activity (Emax = 26 ± 2.0%) on 5-HT1A receptor. In conclusion, our findings showed antidepressant-like effect of D1 and possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:26199018

  12. Leptin receptor polymorphisms interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to augment risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leptin receptor (LEPR) is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-fatty acid interactions may affect MetS risk. The objective was to investigate the relationship among LEPR polymorphisms, insulin resistance, andMetSrisk and whether plasma fatty acids,...

  13. The short-chain fatty acid receptor, FFA2, contributes to gestational glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Miles; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gibbons, Sean M; Angueira, Anthony R; Brodsky, Michael; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Gilbert, Jack A; Lowe, William L; Layden, Brian T

    2015-11-15

    The structure of the human gastrointestinal microbiota can change during pregnancy, which may influence gestational metabolism; however, a mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we observed that in wild-type (WT) mice the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased during pregnancy. Along with these changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are mainly produced through gut microbiota fermentation, significantly changed in both the cecum and peripheral blood throughout gestation in these mice. SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy. Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy. Insulin tolerance tests were similar in Ffar2-/- and WT mice before and during pregnancy. Next, we examined the role of FFA2 in gestational β-cell mass, observing that Ffar2-/- mice had diminished gestational expansion of β-cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, mouse genotype had no significant impact on the composition of the gut microbiome, but did affect the observed SCFA profiles, suggesting a functional difference in the microbiota. Together, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis.

  14. Human gestation-associated tissues express functional cytosolic nucleic acid sensing pattern recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Aled H; Menzies, Georgina E; Scott, Louis M; Spencer-Harty, Samantha; Davies, Lleucu B; Smith, Rachel A; Jones, Ruth H; Thornton, Catherine A

    2017-03-13

    The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these PRRs were expressed by the term placenta, choriodecidua and amnion. A statistically significant increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-8 production in response to specific agonists for TLR3 (Poly(I:C); low and high molecular weight), TLR7 (Imiquimod), TLR8 (ssRNA40) and RIG-I/MDA5 (Poly(I:C)LyoVec) was observed; there was no response to a TLR9 (ODN21798) agonist. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to compare the response of each tissue type to the ligands studied and revealed that the placenta and choriodecidua generate a more similar IL-8 response, while the choriodecidua and amnion generate a more similar IL-6 response to nucleic acid ligands. These findings demonstrate that responsiveness via TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and RIG-1/MDA5 is a broad feature of human term gestation-associated tissues with differential responses by tissue that might underpin adverse obstetric outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Up-regulation of the alpha-secretase ADAM10 by retinoic acid receptors and acitretin.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, Frank; Hundt, Jana; Schneider, Anja; Endres, Kristina; Fahrenholz, Falk

    2009-06-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is often connected with nutritional misbalance, such as enhanced cholesterol intake, deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids, or hypovitaminosis. The alpha-secretase ADAM10 has been found to be regulated by retinoic acid, the bioreactive metabolite of vitamin A. Here we show that retinoids induce gene expression of ADAM10 and alpha-secretase activity by nonpermissive retinoid acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) heterodimers, whereby alpha- and beta-isotypes of RAR play a major role. However, ligands of other RXR binding partners, such as the vitamin D receptor, do not stimulate alpha-secretase activity. On the basis of these findings, we examined the effect of synthetic retinoids and found a strong enhancement of nonamyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein by the vitamin A analog acitretin: it stimulated ADAM10 promoter activity with an EC(50) of 1.5 microM and led to an increase of mature ADAM10 protein that resulted in a two- to three-fold increase of the ratio between alpha- and beta-secretase activity in neuroblastoma cells. The alpha-secretase stimulation by acitretin was completely inhibited by the ADAM10-specific inhibitor GI254023X. Intracerebral injection of acitretin in APP/PS1-21 transgenic mice led to a reduction of Abeta(40) and Abeta(42). The results of this study may have clinical relevance because acitretin has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis since 1997 and found generally safe for long-term use in humans.

  16. Felbamate displays in vitro antiepileptic effects as a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Domenici, M R; Sagratella, S; Ongini, E; Longo, R; Scotti de Carolis, A

    1994-12-27

    The in vitro antiepileptic activity of the novel anticonvulsant drug felbamate was tested in rat hippocampal slices on the CA1 epileptiform bursting induced by different chemical epileptogenic agents. The effects of felbamate were compared with those of the anticonvulsant drugs diphenylhydantoin and pentobarbitone and with the effects of excitatory amino acid antagonists acting at both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors. Like the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), felbamate at a minimum effective concentration of 1 mM induced a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of the duration of the CA1 epileptiform bursting due to the K+ channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, and the excitatory amino acids, kainate and quisqualate. Like the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine, felbamate (1.6 mM) significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the duration of the CA1 epileptiform bursting caused by 'Mg(2+)-free' solutions. Conversely, felbamate (1.6 mM), CNQX (100 microM) and ketamine (100 microM) failed to affect the epileptiform bursting induced by the GABA antagonist penicillin. Pentobarbitone (100 microM) significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the duration of the CA1 epileptiform bursting caused by 'Mg(2+)-free' solutions, 4-aminopyridine or penicillin, while diphenylhydantoin (up to concentrations of 100 microM) failed to have an effect. The results indicate that felbamate displays a unique profile of in vitro antiepileptic effects as a broad spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid transmission.

  17. Recessive and Dominant Mutations in Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta in Cases with Microphthalmia and Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Srour, Myriam; Chitayat, David; Caron, Véronique; Chassaing, Nicolas; Bitoun, Pierre; Patry, Lysanne; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Capo-Chichi, José-Mario; Francannet, Christine; Calvas, Patrick; Ragge, Nicola; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Hamdan, Fadi F.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Tremblay, André; Michaud, Jacques L.

    2013-01-01

    Anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and cardiac defects are the main features of PDAC syndrome. Recessive mutations in STRA6, encoding a membrane receptor for the retinol-binding protein, have been identified in some cases with PDAC syndrome, although many cases have remained unexplained. Using whole-exome sequencing, we found that two PDAC-syndrome-affected siblings, but not their unaffected sibling, were compound heterozygous for nonsense (c.355C>T [p.Arg119∗]) and frameshift (c.1201_1202insCT [p.Ile403Serfs∗15]) mutations in retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB). Transfection studies showed that p.Arg119∗ and p.Ile403Serfs∗15 altered RARB had no transcriptional activity in response to ligands, confirming that the mutations induced a loss of function. We then sequenced RARB in 15 subjects with anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia and at least one other feature of PDAC syndrome. Surprisingly, three unrelated subjects with microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia showed de novo missense mutations affecting the same codon; two of the subjects had the c.1159C>T (Arg387Cys) mutation, whereas the other one carried the c.1159C>A (p.Arg387Ser) mutation. We found that compared to the wild-type receptor, p.Arg387Ser and p.Arg387Cys altered RARB induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in transcriptional activity in response to retinoic acid ligands, suggesting a gain-of-function mechanism. Our study thus suggests that both recessive and dominant mutations in RARB cause anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia, providing further evidence of the crucial role of the retinoic acid pathway during eye development and organogenesis. PMID:24075189

  18. The short chain fatty acid receptor, FFA2, contributes to gestational glucose homeostasis

    DOE PAGES

    Fuller, Miles; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gibbons, Sean M.; ...

    2015-09-22

    The structure of the human gastrointestinal microbiota can change during pregnancy, which may influence gestational metabolism; however, a mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we observed that in wild-type (WT) mice the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased during pregnancy. Along with these changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are mainly produced through gut microbiota fermentation, significantly changed in both the cecum and peripheral blood throughout gestation in these mice. SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression ismore » higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy. Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy. Insulin tolerance tests were similar in Ffar2-/- and WT mice before and during pregnancy. Next, we examined the role of FFA2 in gestational β-cell mass, observing that Ffar2-/- mice had diminished gestational expansion of β-cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, mouse genotype had no significant impact on the composition of the gut microbiome, but did affect the observed SCFA profiles, suggesting a functional difference in the microbiota. Altogether, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis.« less

  19. The short chain fatty acid receptor, FFA2, contributes to gestational glucose homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Miles; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gibbons, Sean M.; Angueira, Anthony R.; Brodsky, Michael; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Backhed, Fredrik; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lowe, Jr., William L.; Layden, Brian T.

    2015-09-22

    The structure of the human gastrointestinal microbiota can change during pregnancy, which may influence gestational metabolism; however, a mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we observed that in wild-type (WT) mice the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased during pregnancy. Along with these changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are mainly produced through gut microbiota fermentation, significantly changed in both the cecum and peripheral blood throughout gestation in these mice. SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy. Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy. Insulin tolerance tests were similar in Ffar2-/- and WT mice before and during pregnancy. Next, we examined the role of FFA2 in gestational β-cell mass, observing that Ffar2-/- mice had diminished gestational expansion of β-cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, mouse genotype had no significant impact on the composition of the gut microbiome, but did affect the observed SCFA profiles, suggesting a functional difference in the microbiota. Altogether, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis.

  20. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingling; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xiaobing; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Haiman; Wu, Mengting; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1)/ PYRL (PYR-Like)/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor) (PYR/PYL/RCAR) ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (PtPYRLs) function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants.

  1. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaobing; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Haiman; Wu, Mengting; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1)/ PYRL (PYR-Like)/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor) (PYR/PYL/RCAR) ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (PtPYRLs) function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants. PMID:27992471

  2. Bioorthogonal click chemistry to assay mu-opioid receptor palmitoylation using 15-hexadecynoic acid and immunoprecipitation

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Levenson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a modification of bioorthogonal click chemistry to assay the palmitoylation of cellular proteins. This assay utilizes 15-hexadecynoic acid (15-HDYA) as a chemical probe in combination with protein immunoprecipitation using magnetic beads in order to detect S-palmitoylation of proteins of interest. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach for the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), a GPCR responsible for mediating the analgesic and addictive properties of most clinically relevant opioid agonist drugs. This technique provides a rapid, non-isotopic, and efficient method to assay the palmitoylation status of a variety of cellular proteins including most GPCRs. PMID:24463015

  3. Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Regulatory Functions in Immunity, Development, Circadian Rhythm, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Donald N.; Kang, Hong Soon; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    In this overview, we provide an update on recent progress made in understanding the mechanisms of action, physiological functions, and roles in disease of retinoic acid related orphan receptors (RORs). We are particularly focusing on their roles in the regulation of adaptive and innate immunity, brain function, retinal development, cancer, glucose and lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, metabolic and inflammatory diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. We also summarize the current status of ROR agonists and inverse agonists, including their regulation of ROR activity and their therapeutic potential for management of various diseases in which RORs have been implicated. PMID:26878025

  4. Aminosulfhydryl and Aminodisulfide Compounds Enhance Binding of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Complex to Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Coated Cellulose and to Chromatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    glucocorticoid receptor [21]. Diaminosulfhydryl chloroacetic acid was obtained from the Fisher compounds are more active at enhancing GRC Scientific...phase consisting of 0. I M BASE containing 25mM KCI and 3 mM chloroacetic acid and 5mM d/-10-camphorsul- MgCI2, pH 7.6 at 0 0C) was added to each tube...Enhance Binding of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Complex to Deoxy- ribonucleic Acid -Coated Cellulose and to Chromatin 4. AUThOR(S)’ J.M. Karle, R. Olmeda and

  5. A Conserved Aspartic Acid Is Important for Agonist (VUAA1) and Odorant/Tuning Receptor-Dependent Activation of the Insect Odorant Co-Receptor (Orco)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Brijesh N.; Taylor, Robert W.; Pask, Gregory M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Newcomb, Richard D.; Christie, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco). An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ∼2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels. PMID:23894621

  6. Loss of Nuclear Receptor SHP Impairs but Does Not Eliminate Negative Feedback Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas A.; Saeki, Shigeru; Schneider, Manfred; Schaefer, Karen; Berdy, Sara; Redder, Thadd; Shan, Bei; Russell, David W.; Schwarz, Margrit

    2014-01-01

    Summary The in vivo role of the nuclear receptor SHP in feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis was examined. Loss of SHP in mice caused abnormal accumulation and increased synthesis of bile acids due to derepression of rate-limiting CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 hydroxylase enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Dietary bile acids induced liver damage and restored feedback regulation. A synthetic agonist of the nuclear receptor FXR was not hepatotoxic and had no regulatory effects. Reduction of the bile acid pool with cholestyramine enhanced CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 expression. We conclude that input from three negative regulatory pathways controls bile acid synthesis. One is mediated by SHP, and two are SHP independent and invoked by liver damage and changes in bile acid pool size. PMID:12062084

  7. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Suppresses Lipogenesis in Mouse Liver: Possible Role of the Decrease in β-Muricholic Acid, a Farnesoid X Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kyosuke; Iguchi, Yusuke; Une, Mizuho; Watanabe, Shiro

    2017-03-17

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a major nuclear receptor of bile acids; its activation suppresses sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c)-mediated lipogenesis and decreases the lipid contents in the liver. There are many reports showing that the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses lipogenesis and reduces the lipid contents in the liver of experimental animals. Since UDCA is not recognized as an FXR agonist, these effects of UDCA cannot be readily explained by its direct activation of FXR. We observed that the dietary administration of UDCA in mice decreased the expression levels of SREBP1c and its target lipogenic genes. Alpha- and β-muricholic acids (MCA) and cholic acid (CA) were the major bile acids in the mouse liver but their contents decreased upon UDCA administration. The hepatic contents of chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid (DCA) were relatively low but were not changed by UDCA. UDCA did not show FXR agonistic or antagonistic potency in in vitro FXR transactivation assay. Taking these together, we deduced that the above-mentioned change in hepatic bile acid composition induced upon UDCA administration might cause the relative increase in the FXR activity in the liver, mainly by the reduction in the content of β-MCA, a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, which suggests a mechanism by which UDCA suppresses lipogenesis and decreases the lipid contents in the mouse liver.

  8. Hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids as agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mizukami, Hajime; Nagatsu, Akito; Tanabe, Hiroki; Inoue, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and pathological role of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been extensively studied, whereas those of hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are not well understood. This study demonstrated that 11-hydroxy-(9Z)-octadecenoic acid ((9Z)-11-HOE), which was isolated from adlay seeds (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAF.), can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, delta and gamma in luciferase reporter assays more efficiently than (9Z)-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid), and to the same degree as linoleic acid. (9Z)-11-HOE increased the mRNA levels of UCP2 and CD36 in C2C12 myotubes and THP- 1 cells, respectively, and these effects were blocked by the PPARdelta- and gamma-specific antagonists GSK0660 and T0070907, respectively. Evaluation of the structure.activity relationship between hydroxy MUFAs and PPAR activation revealed that (9E)-11-HOE, the geometrical isomer of (9Z)-11-HOE, activated PPARs more potently than (9Z)-11-HOE, and that PPAR activation by hydroxyl MUFAs was not markedly influenced by the position of the hydroxy group or the double bond, although PPARdelta seemed to possess ligand specificity different to that of PPARalpha or gamma . Additionally, the finding that 11-hydroxy octadecanoic acid, the hydrogenated product of (9E)-11- HOE, was also capable of activating PPARs to a similar extent as (9E)-11-HOE indicates that the double bond in hydroxy MUFAs is not essential for PPAR activation. In conclusion, (9Z)-11-HOE derived from alday seeds and hydroxy MUFAs with a chain length of 16 or 18 acted as PPAR agonists. Hydroxylation of MUFAs may change these compounds from silent PPAR ligands to active PPAR agonists.

  9. Synthesis and Activity of Dafachronic Acid Ligands for the C. elegans DAF-12 Nuclear Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamalesh K.; Wang, Zhu; Motola, Daniel L.; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 from Caenorhabditis elegans is activated by dafachronic acids, which derive from sterols upon oxidation by DAF-9, a cytochrome P450. DAF-12 activation is a critical checkpoint in C. elegans for acquisition of reproductive competence and for entry into adulthood rather than dauer diapause. Previous studies implicated the (25S)-Δ7-dafachronic acid isomer as the most potent compound, but the (25S)-Δ4-isomer was also identified as an activator of DAF-12. To explore the tolerance of DAF-12 for structural variations in the ligand and to enable further studies requiring large amounts of ligands for DAF-12 and homologs in other nematodes, we synthesized (25R)- and (25S)-isomers of five dafachronic acids differing in A/B-ring configurations. Both the (25S)- and (25R)-Δ7-dafachronic acids are potent transcriptional activators in a Gal4-transactivation assay using HEK-293 cells, with EC50 values of 23 and 33 nm, respectively, as are (25S)- and (25R)-Δ4-dafachronic acids, with EC50 values of 23 and 66 nm, respectively. The (25S)- and (25R)-Δ5-isomers were much less potent, with EC50 values approaching 1000 nm, and saturated 5α- and 5β-dafachronic acids showed mostly intermediate potencies. Rescue assays using daf- 9-null mutants confirmed the results from transactivation experiments, but this in vivo assay accentuated the greater potencies of the (25S)-epimers, particularly for the (25S)-Δ7-isomer. We conclude that DAF-12 accommodates a large range of structural variation in ligand geometry, but (25S)-Δ7-dafachronic acid is the most potent and probably biologically relevant isomer. Potency derives more from the A/B-ring configuration than from the stereochemistry at C-25. PMID:19196833

  10. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat α1β2γ2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor β1, β2, β3, and γ2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  11. Abscisic acid (ABA) receptors: light at the end of the tunnel

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in several aspects of plant growth and development. Understanding how this hormonal stimulus is sensed and transduced turned out to be one of the major tasks in the field of plant signaling. A series of recent papers proposed several different proteins that could receive the ABA signal and initiate the signaling cascade. The winner appears to be PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYrabactin Resistance/PYrabactin Resistance-Like/Regulatory Component of Abscisic acid Receptor) proteins, as crystal structures were recently published. The crystal structures support the idea that upon ABA binding to a PYR/PYL/RCAR protein, the activity of a phosphatase 2C, with known repressive activity on ABA signaling, is inhibited. PMID:20948817

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Unoda, Kiichi; Doi, Yoshimitsu; Nakajima, Hideto; Yamane, Kazushi; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-03-15

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is a neuroprotective lipid with anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of EPA on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE mice were fed a diet with or without EPA. The clinical EAE scores of the EPA-fed mice were significantly lower than those of the non-EPA mice. In the EPA-treated mice, IFN-γ and IL-17 productions were remarkably inhibited and the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors were significantly enhanced in the CNS-infiltrating CD4T cells. Thus EPA shows promise as a potential new therapeutic agent against multiple sclerosis.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to modulate the painful symptoms associated to cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Raquel D S; Costa, Kesiane M; Nicoletti, Natália F; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Campos, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP.

  14. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic β cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic β cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated Gαs and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective Gαs inhibitor) or U73122 (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, U73122 or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on Gs/cAMP/Ca2+ pathway. 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic β cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis. PMID:23022524

  15. A novel role for the dioxin receptor in fatty acid metabolism and hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Wada, Taira; Febbraio, Maria; He, Jinhan; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Lee, Min Jae; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Xie, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a PAS domain transcription factor previously known as the “dioxin receptor” or “xenobiotic receptor.” The goal of this study is to determine the endobiotic role of AhR in hepatic steatosis. Methods Wild type, constitutively activated AhR (CA-AhR) transgenic, AhR null (AhR-/-), and fatty acid translocase CD36/FAT null (CD36-/-) mice were used to investigate the role of AhR in steatosis and the involvement of CD36 in the steatotic effect of AhR. The promoters of the mouse and human CD36 genes were cloned and their regulation by AhR was analyzed. Results Activation of AhR induced spontaneous hepatic steatosis characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides. The steatotic effect of AhR is likely due to the combined upregulation of CD36 and fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), suppression of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of hepatic export of triglycerides, increase in peripheral fat mobilization, and increased hepatic oxidative stress. Promoter analysis established CD36 as a novel transcriptional target of AhR. Activation of AhR in liver cells induced CD36 gene expression and enhanced fatty acid uptake. The steatotic effect of an AhR agonist was inhibited in CD36-/- mice. Conclusions Our study reveals a novel link between AhR-induced steatosis and the expression of CD36. Industrial or military exposures to dioxin and related compounds have been linked to increased prevalence of fatty liver in humans. Results from this study may help to establish AhR and its target CD36 as novel therapeutic and preventive targets for fatty liver disease. PMID:20303349

  16. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-10-04

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity.

  17. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  18. Structural analysis of binding functionality of folic acid-PEG dendrimers against folate receptor.

    PubMed

    Sampogna-Mireles, Diana; Araya-Durán, Ingrid D; Márquez-Miranda, Valeria; Valencia-Gallegos, Jesús A; González-Nilo, Fernando D

    2017-03-01

    Dendrimers functionalized with folic acid (FA) are drug delivery systems that can selectively target cancer cells with folate receptors (FR-α) overexpression. Incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) can enhance dendrimers solubility and pharmacokinetics, but ligand-receptor binding must not be affected. In this work we characterized, at atomic level, the binding functionality of conventional site-specific dendrimers conjugated with FA with PEG 750 or PEG 3350 as a linker. After Molecular Dynamics simulation, we observed that both PEG's did not interfere over ligand-receptor binding functionality. Although binding kinetics could be notably affected, the folate fragment from both dendrimers remained exposed to the solvent before approaching selectively to FR-α. PEG 3350 provided better solubility and protection from enzymatic degradation to the dendrimer than PEG 750. Also, FA-PEG3350 dendrimer showed a slightly better interaction with FR-α than FA-PEG750 dendrimer. Therefore, theoretical evidence supports that both dendrimers are suitable as drug delivery systems for cancer therapies.

  19. Variant Ionotropic Receptors in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae Tuned to Amines and Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Derryberry, Stephen L.; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2017-01-01

    The principal Afrotropical human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, remains a significant threat to global health. A critical component in the transmission of malaria is the ability of An. gambiae females to detect and respond to human-derived chemical kairomones in their search for blood meal hosts. The basis for host odor responses resides in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that express chemoreceptors encoded by large gene families, including the odorant receptors (ORs) and the variant ionotropic receptors (IRs). While ORs have been the focus of extensive investigation, functional IR complexes and the chemical compounds that activate them have not been identified in An. gambiae. Here we report the transcriptional profiles and functional characterization of three An. gambiae IR (AgIr) complexes that specifically respond to amines or carboxylic acids - two classes of semiochemicals that have been implicated in mediating host-seeking by adult females but are not known to activate An. gambiae ORs (AgOrs). Our results suggest that AgIrs play critical roles in the detection and behavioral responses to important classes of host odors that are underrepresented in the AgOr chemical space. PMID:28067294

  20. Pharmacodynamics of long-acting folic acid-receptor targeted ritonavir boosted atazanavir nanoformulations

    PubMed Central

    Puligujja, Pavan; Balkundi, Shantanu; Kendrick, Lindsey; Baldridge, Hannah; Hilaire, James; Bade, Aditya N.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Zhang, Gang; Poluektova, Larisa; Gorantla, Santhi; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) that target monocyte-macrophage could improve the drug’s half-life and protein binding capacities while facilitating cell and tissue depots. To this end, ART nanoparticles that target the folic acid (FA) receptor and permit cell-based drug depots were examined using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD) tests. FA receptor-targeted poloxamer 407 nanocrystals, containing ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), significantly affected several therapeutic factors: drug bioavailability increased as much as 5 times and PD activity improved as much as 100 times. Drug particles administered to human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituted NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and infected with HIV-1ADA at a tissue culture infective dose50 of 104 infectious viral particles/ml led to ATV/r drug concentrations that paralleled FA receptor beta staining in both the macrophage-rich parafollicular areas of spleen and lymph nodes. Drug levels were higher in these tissues than what could be achieved by either native drug or untargeted nanoART particles. The data also mirrored potent reductions in viral loads, tissue viral RNA and numbers of HIV-1p24+ cells in infected and treated animals. We conclude that FA-P407 coating of ART nanoparticles readily facilitate drug carriage and facilitate antiretroviral responses. PMID:25522973

  1. Pharmacodynamics of long-acting folic acid-receptor targeted ritonavir-boosted atazanavir nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Puligujja, Pavan; Balkundi, Shantanu S; Kendrick, Lindsey M; Baldridge, Hannah M; Hilaire, James R; Bade, Aditya N; Dash, Prasanta K; Zhang, Gang; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Gorantla, Santhi; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Gendelman, Howard E

    2015-02-01

    Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) that targets monocyte-macrophages could improve the drug's half-life and protein-binding capacities while facilitating cell and tissue depots. To this end, ART nanoparticles that target the folic acid (FA) receptor and permit cell-based drug depots were examined using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD) tests. FA receptor-targeted poloxamer 407 nanocrystals, containing ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), significantly increased drug bioavailability and PD by five and 100 times, respectively. Drug particles administered to human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituted NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice and infected with HIV-1ADA led to ATV/r drug concentrations that paralleled FA receptor beta staining in both the macrophage-rich parafollicular areas of spleen and lymph nodes. Drug levels were higher in these tissues than what could be achieved by either native drug or untargeted nanoART particles. The data also mirrored potent reductions in viral loads, tissue viral RNA and numbers of HIV-1p24+ cells in infected and treated animals. We conclude that FA-P407 coating of ART nanoparticles readily facilitates drug carriage and antiretroviral responses.

  2. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-08-02

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR.

  3. Activation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 Contributes to Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Nogueira, Eva; López-Serrano, Clara; Hernández, Joaquim; Lago, Natalia; Astudillo, Alma M.; Balsinde, Jesús; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions that signals through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1–LPA6). A wide range of LPA effects have been identified in the CNS, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and development of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of LPA in CNS pathologies. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that LPA signaling via LPA1 contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury. LPA levels increase in the contused spinal cord parenchyma during the first 14 d. To model this potential contribution of LPA in the spinal cord, we injected LPA into the normal spinal cord, revealing that LPA induces microglia/macrophage activation and demyelination. Use of a selective LPA1 antagonist or mice lacking LPA1 linked receptor-mediated signaling to demyelination, which was in part mediated by microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that selective blockade of LPA1 after spinal cord injury results in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery. Overall, these results support LPA–LPA1 signaling as a novel pathway that contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord contusion in mice and suggest that LPA1 antagonism might be useful for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that LPA signaling via LPA receptor type 1 activation causes demyelination and functional deficits after spinal cord injury. PMID:26180199

  4. Neuroendocrine factors regulate retinoic acid receptors in normal and hypoplastic lung development

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Terra, Patrícia; Moura, Rute S; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is characterised by a spectrum of lung hypoplasia and consequent pulmonary hypertension, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. Moreover, CDH has been associated with an increase in the levels of pulmonary neuroendocrine factors, such as bombesin and ghrelin, and a decrease in the action of retinoic acid (RA). The present study aimed to elucidate the interaction between neuroendocrine factors and RA. In vitro analyses were performed on Sprague–Dawley rat embryos. Normal lung explants were treated with bombesin, ghrelin, a bombesin antagonist, a ghrelin antagonist, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), RA dissolved in DMSO, bombesin plus RA and ghrelin plus RA. Hypoplastic lung explants (nitrofen model) were cultured with bombesin, ghrelin, bombesin antagonist or ghrelin antagonist. The lung explants were analysed morphometrically, and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α, β and γ expression levels were assessed via Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of RAR was performed in normal and hypoplastic lungs 17.5 days post-conception (dpc). Compared with the controls, hypoplastic lungs exhibited significantly higher RARα/γ expression levels. Furthermore considering hypoplastic lungs, bombesin and ghrelin antagonists decreased RARα/γ expression. Normal lung explants (13.5 dpc) treated with RA, bombesin plus RA, ghrelin plus RA, bombesin or ghrelin exhibited increased lung growth. Moreover, bombesin and ghrelin increased RARα/γ expression levels, whereas the bombesin and ghrelin antagonists decreased RARα/γ expression. This study demonstrates for the first time that neuroendocrine factors function as lung growth regulators, sensitising the lung to the action of RA through up-regulation of RARα and RARγ. Key points Retinoic acid (RA) and ghrelin levels are altered in human hypoplastic lungs when compared to healthy lungs. Although considerable data have been obtained about RA, ghrelin and bombesin in the congenital

  5. Mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene during progression of lung tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Takanori; Obo, Yumi; Furukawa, Mami; Hotta, Mayuko; Yamasaki, Ayako; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2009-01-16

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. In this study, mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 (LPA1) gene were investigated to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats. Male Wistar rats, 6 weeks of age, were given 2000 ppm BHP in their drinking water for 12 weeks and then maintained without further treatment until sacrifice at 25 weeks. Genomic DNAs were extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and exons 2-4 were examined for mutations, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. No LPA1 mutations were detected in 15 hyperplasias, but 2 out of 12 adenomas (16.7%) and 7 out of 17 adenocarcinomas (41.2%). These results suggest that mutations of LPA1 gene may be involved in the acquisition of growth advantage from adenomas to adenocarcinomas in lung carcinogenesis induced in rats by BHP.

  6. Kynurenic acid, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, is elevated in serum of Zucker fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, G; Cornicelli, J; van der Hart, M; Roeser, J; Summergrad, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem and the molecular mechanisms of obesity are not fully understood. Dysregulation of the tryptophan (Trp) – kynurenine (Kyn) metabolic pathway (TKP) have been suggested as a mechanism of obesity and described in obese humans and in animal models of obesity. However, to the best of our knowledge, TKP metabolism has not been studied in leptin-receptor-deficient Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) (fa/fa), the best-known and most widely used rat model of obesity. We were interested to determine if there are any deviations of TKP in ZFR. Concentrations of major TKP metabolites were evaluated (HPLC- MS method) in serum of ZFR (fa/fa) and age-matched lean rats (FA/-). Concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) were 50% higher in ZFR than in lean rats (p<0.004, Mann-Whitney two-tailed test). Anthranilic acid (AA) concentrations, while elevated by 33%, did not reach statistical significance (p<0.04, one-tailed test). Elevated KYNA serum concentrations might contribute to development of obesity via KYNA-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Present results warrant further studies of KYNA and AA in ZFR and other animal models of obesity. PMID:27738521

  7. Regulation of GABA-modulin phosphorylation and GABA receptor binding by excitatory amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccarino, F.; Guidotti, A.

    1987-05-01

    Primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells phosphorylate numerous proteins including GABA-modulin (GM), which is a putative allosteric modulator of GABA receptors. Cell depolarization and treatment with dicarboxylic excitatory amino acids, which activate PI turnover, Ca/sup 2 +/ influx and guanylate cyclase in granule cells increase the phosphorylation of specific proteins. To determine GM phosphorylation by endogenous protein kinases in living granule cell cultures, GM was isolated by immunoprecipitation and reverse-phase HPLC. High K/sup +/, veratridine, glutamate and NMDA treatment stimulated GM phosphorylation over 2-fold. This increase was abolished by the absence of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and was antagonized by Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and by AVP. The excitatory amino acid action was mimicked by phorbol esters but not by forskolin or by cGMP, and thus may be mediated by an activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Moreover, excitatory amino acids increase /sup 3/H-labelled phorbol ester binding sites in granule cell membrane. The same cultures, treated with glutamate or kainate, showed a 50-fold greater efficacy of muscimol for the stimulation of benzodiazepine (BZ) binding. These data-suggest that excitatory amino acid stimulation of neurons triggers PKC translocation and the activated enzyme phosphorylates GM. The extent of GM phosphorylation may regulate the coupling between GABA and BZ binding sites.

  8. Acid-responsive PEGylated doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticles for neuropilin-1 receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Huijuan; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembled prodrug nanoparticles have demonstrated great promise in cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, we developed a new kind of prodrug nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. PEGylated doxorubicin conjugate with an acid-cleavable cis-aconityl spacer was prepared. Then it was functionalized with a tumor-penetrating peptide, Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-Lys (CRGDK), providing the prodrug nanoparticles with the specific binding ability to neurophilin-1 receptor. In acid mediums, doxorubicin could be released from the prodrug nanoparticles with an accumulative release around 60% through the acid-triggered hydrolysis of cis-aconityl bond and nanoparticle disassembly. Whereas, drug release was slow under a neutral pH and the accumulative drug release was less than 16%. In the cell culture tests, our prodrug nanoparticles showed enhanced endocytosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells including HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but lower cytotoxicity in human cardiomyocyte H2C9. In the animal experiments, the prodrug nanoparticles were intravenously injected into Balb/c nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumors. Enhanced drug penetration and accumulation in tumors, accompanying with a rapid early tumor-binding behavior, was observed after intravenous injection of the peptide modified prodrug nanoparticles. These data suggests that the acid-sensitive and tumor-targeting PEGylated doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticle may be an efficient drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Acidic tumor microenvironment and pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Justus, Calvin R; Dong, Lixue; Yang, Li V

    2013-12-05

    The tumor microenvironment is acidic due to glycolytic cancer cell metabolism, hypoxia, and deficient blood perfusion. It is proposed that acidosis in the tumor microenvironment is an important stress factor and selection force for cancer cell somatic evolution. Acidic pH has pleiotropic effects on the proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic response of cancer cells and the function of immune cells, vascular cells, and other stromal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells and stromal cells sense and respond to acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. In this article the role of a family of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in tumor biology is reviewed. Recent studies show that the pH-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8), GPR68 (OGR1), and GPR132 (G2A), regulate cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, immune cell function, inflammation, and blood vessel formation. Activation of the proton-sensing GPCRs by acidosis transduces multiple downstream G protein signaling pathways. Since GPCRs are major drug targets, small molecule modulators of the pH-sensing GPCRs are being actively developed and evaluated. Research on the pH-sensing GPCRs will continue to provide important insights into the molecular interaction between tumor and its acidic microenvironment and may identify new targets for cancer therapy and chemoprevention.

  10. A Novel Allosteric Activator of Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor Displays Unique Gi-functional Bias*

    PubMed Central

    Bolognini, Daniele; Moss, Catherine E.; Nilsson, Karolina; Petersson, Annika U.; Donnelly, Iona; Sergeev, Eugenia; König, Gabriele M.; Kostenis, Evi; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Miller, Ashley; Dekker, Niek; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    The short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2 is able to stimulate signaling via both Gi- and Gq/G11-promoted pathways. These pathways are believed to control distinct physiological end points but FFA2 receptor ligands appropriate to test this hypothesis have been lacking. Herein, we characterize AZ1729, a novel FFA2 regulator that acts as a direct allosteric agonist and as a positive allosteric modulator, increasing the activity of the endogenously produced short chain fatty acid propionate in Gi-mediated pathways, but not at those transduced by Gq/G11. Using AZ1729 in combination with direct inhibitors of Gi and Gq/G11 family G proteins demonstrated that although both arms contribute to propionate-mediated regulation of phospho-ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling in FFA2-expressing 293 cells, the Gq/G11-mediated pathway is predominant. We extend these studies by employing AZ1729 to dissect physiological FFA2 signaling pathways. The capacity of AZ1729 to act at FFA2 receptors to inhibit β-adrenoreceptor agonist-promoted lipolysis in primary mouse adipocytes and to promote chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils confirmed these as FFA2 processes mediated by Gi signaling, whereas, in concert with blockade by the Gq/G11 inhibitor FR900359, the inability of AZ1729 to mimic or regulate propionate-mediated release of GLP-1 from mouse colonic preparations defined this physiological response as an end point transduced via activation of Gq/G11. PMID:27385588

  11. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D.; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. PMID:25725299

  12. Efficient Modulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors by Piperine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators. PMID:24905252

  13. Bone marrow stromal cell transplantation preserves gammaaminobutyric acid receptor function in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shunsuke; Kuroda, Satoshi; Shichinohe, Hideo; Seki, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Takako; Tamagami, Hiroshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2006-11-01

    A surprising shortage of information surrounds the mechanisms by which bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) restore lost neurologic functions when transplanted into the damaged central nervous system. In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether BMSCs express the neuron-specific gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor when transplanted into injured spinal cord. To examine this, we harvested and cultured rat femoral BMSCs. We then subjected Sprague-Dawley rats to thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) with a pneumatic impact device. Fluorescence-labeled BMSCs (n = 7) were transplanted stereotactically or the vehicle in which these cells were cultured (n = 4) was introduced stereotactically into the rostral site of SCI at 7 days after injury. We evaluated GABA receptor function by measuring the binding potential for 125I-iomazenil (125I-IMZ) through in vitro autoradiography at 4 weeks after BMSC transplantation and simultaneously examined the fate of the transplanted BMSCs by immunocytochemistry. We found that the transplanted BMSC migrated toward the core of the injury and were densely distributed in the marginal region at 4 weeks after transplantation. BMSC transplantation significantly increased the binding potential for 125I-IMZ (p = 0.0376) and increased the number of GABA receptor-positive cells (p = 0.0077) in the marginal region of the injury site. Some of the transplanted BMSCs were positive for microtubule-associated protein-2 and the alpha1 subunit of GABA(A) receptor in the region of injury. These findings suggest that BMSCs have the potential to support the survival of neurons in the marginal region of SCI and can partly differentiate into neurons, regenerating spinal cord tissue at the site of injury.

  14. Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hohenegger, Martin; Suko, Josef; Gscheidlinger, Regina; Drobny, Helmut; Zidar, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Calcium is a universal second messenger. The temporal and spatial information that is encoded in Ca(2+)-transients drives processes as diverse as neurotransmitter secretion, axonal outgrowth, immune responses and muscle contraction. Ca(2+)-release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores can be triggered by diffusible second messengers like Ins P (3), cyclic ADP-ribose or nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). A target has not yet been identified for the latter messenger. In the present study we show that nanomolar concentrations of NAADP trigger Ca(2+)-release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was due to a direct action on the Ca(2+)-release channel/ryanodine receptor type-1, since in single channel recordings, NAADP increased the open probability of the purified channel protein. The effects of NAADP on Ca(2+)-release and open probability of the ryanodine receptor occurred over a similar concentration range (EC(50) approximately 30 nM) and were specific because (i) they were blocked by Ruthenium Red and ryanodine, (ii) the precursor of NAADP, NADP, was ineffective at equimolar concentrations, (iii) NAADP did not affect the conductance and reversal potential of the ryanodine receptor. Finally, we also detected an ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction of skeletal muscle. This enzyme was not only capable of synthesizing cyclic GDP-ribose but also NAADP, with an activity of 0.25 nmol/mg/min. Thus, we conclude that NAADP is generated in the vicinity of type 1 ryanodine receptor and leads to activation of this ion channel. PMID:12102654

  15. Modulation of NMDA receptor function by inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Strick, Christine A; Li, Cheryl; Scott, Liam; Harvey, Brian; Hajós, Mihály; Steyn, Stefanus J; Piotrowski, Mary A; James, Larry C; Downs, James T; Rago, Brian; Becker, Stacey L; El-Kattan, Ayman; Xu, Youfen; Ganong, Alan H; Tingley, F David; Ramirez, Andres D; Seymour, Patricia A; Guanowsky, Victor; Majchrzak, Mark J; Fox, Carol B; Schmidt, Christopher J; Duplantier, Allen J

    2011-01-01

    Observations that N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) antagonists produce symptoms in humans that are similar to those seen in schizophrenia have led to the current hypothesis that schizophrenia might result from NMDA receptor hypofunction. Inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), the enzyme responsible for degradation of D-serine, should lead to increased levels of this co-agonist at the NMDA receptor, and thereby provide a therapeutic approach to schizophrenia. We have profiled some of the preclinical biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral consequences of administering potent and selective inhibitors of DAAO to rodents to begin to test this hypothesis. Inhibition of DAAO activity resulted in a significant dose and time dependent increase in D-serine only in the cerebellum, although a time delay was observed between peak plasma or brain drug concentration and cerebellum D-serine response. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling employing a mechanism-based indirect response model was used to characterize the correlation between free brain drug concentration and D-serine accumulation. DAAO inhibitors had little or no activity in rodent models considered predictive for antipsychotic activity. The inhibitors did, however, affect cortical activity in the Mescaline-Induced Scratching model, produced a modest but significant increase in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in primary neuronal cultures from rat hippocampus, and resulted in a significant increase in evoked hippocampal theta rhythm, an in vivo electrophysiological model of hippocampal activity. These findings demonstrate that although DAAO inhibition did not cause a measurable increase in D-serine in forebrain, it did affect hippocampal and cortical activity, possibly through augmentation of NMDA receptor-mediated currents.

  16. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  17. γ-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor Mediated Inhibition of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons Is Suppressed by Kisspeptin-G Protein-Coupled Receptor 54 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most important neurotransmitters that regulate the excitability of GnRH neurons. Numerous studies have shown that GABA activates Cl− currents in GnRH neurons, and these effects are antagonized by GABAA receptor antagonists. The GABAB receptor is a heterodimer composed of GABAB R1 and R2, and although both subunits have been localized in GnRH neurons, nothing is known about the cellular signaling of this Gαi,o-coupled receptor in GnRH neurons. Using whole-cell recordings from mouse enhanced green fluorescent protein-GnRH neurons, we found that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen hyperpolarized GnRH neurons through activation of an inwardly rectifying K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of baclofen were antagonized by the selective GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432 with a Ki (inhibitory constant) of 85 nm. Furthermore, in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin, GABA hyperpolarized GnRH neurons in a similar manner. Treatment with 17β-estradiol as compared with oil vehicle did not significantly alter either the EC50 for the baclofen-induced response (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 μm, respectively) or the maximal outward current (10.8 ± 1.7 pA vs. 11.4 ± 0.6 pA, respectively) in GnRH neurons. However, the outward current (and membrane hyperpolarization) was abrogated by submaximal concentrations of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) agonist kisspeptin-10 in both groups, indicating that Gαq-coupled (GPR54) can desensitize the GABAB receptor-mediated response. Therefore, the activation of GABAB receptors in GnRH neurons may provide increased inhibitory tone during estrogen-negative feedback states that is attenuated by kisspeptin during positive feedback. PMID:19164470

  18. Evidence for a bladder cell glycolipid receptor for Escherichia coli and the effect of neuraminic acid and colominic acid on adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C P; Avots-Avotins, A E; Fader, R C

    1981-01-01

    The rat bladder epithelial cell receptors involved in mannose-sensitive adherence of Escherichia coli strains were studied. Sodium metaperiodate and lipase pretreatment of epithelial cells significantly reduced bacterial adherence to cells whereas trypsin and phospholipase C had a marginal or insignificant effect on adherence. Neuraminidase and colominic acid significantly increased adherence, whereas N-acetylneuraminic acid significantly reduced adherence. These data suggest that the rat bladder epithelial cell receptors involved in mannose-sensitive adherence are glycolipids. In addition, the data suggested that sialic acid on bladder epithelial cells acts as a nonspecific inhibitor of adherence, whereas colominic acid, a component of some E. coli K1 capsules, may act as a promoter of adherence. PMID:6277793

  19. Discovery of novel dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid based calcium sensing receptor antagonists for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gui-Bai; Zhou, Changyou; Huo, Xianghong; Wang, Hank; Yang, Xuelin; Huang, Shaoqiang; Wang, Haisheng; Wilkinson, Hilary; Luo, Lusong; Tang, Wei; Sutton, David; Li, Hong; Zaller, Dennis; Meinke, Peter T

    2016-08-15

    In a search for novel small molecule calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists as oral bone anabolic agents, we discovered dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid derivatives, such as 12f (IC50=27.6nM), are highly potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists. Studies in rats established that compound 12f stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) release in a fast-acting, pulsatile manner.

  20. Postsynaptic clustering of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors by the γ3 subunit in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Kristin; Essrich, Christian; Benson, Jack A.; Benke, Dietmar; Bluethmann, Horst; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Lüscher, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    Synaptic localization of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors is a prerequisite for synaptic inhibitory function, but the mechanism by which different receptor subtypes are localized to postsynaptic sites is poorly understood. The γ2 subunit and the postsynaptic clustering protein gephyrin are required for synaptic localization and function of major GABAA receptor subtypes. We now show that transgenic overexpression of the γ3 subunit in γ2 subunit-deficient mice restores benzodiazepine binding sites, benzodiazepine-modulated whole cell currents, and postsynaptic miniature currents, suggesting the formation of functional, postsynaptic receptors. Moreover, the γ3 subunit can substitute for γ2 in the formation of GABAA receptors that are synaptically clustered and colocalized with gephyrin in vivo. These clusters were formed even in brain regions devoid of endogenous γ3 subunit, indicating that the factors present for clustering of γ2 subunit-containing receptors are sufficient to cluster γ3 subunit-containing receptors. The GABAA receptor and gephyrin-clustering properties of the ectopic γ3 subunit were also observed for the endogenous γ3 subunit, but only in the absence of the γ2 subunit, suggesting that the γ3 subunit is at a competitive disadvantage with the γ2 subunit for clustering of postsynaptic GABAA receptors in wild-type mice. PMID:10536013

  1. Lithocholic acid decreases expression of bile salt export pump through farnesoid X receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinghua; Lo, Jane-L; Huang, Li; Zhao, Annie; Metzger, Edward; Adams, Alan; Meinke, Peter T; Wright, Samuel D; Cui, Jisong

    2002-08-30

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a major bile acid transporter in the liver. Mutations in BSEP result in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis, a severe liver disease that impairs bile flow and causes irreversible liver damage. BSEP is a target for inhibition and down-regulation by drugs and abnormal bile salt metabolites, and such inhibition and down-regulation may result in bile acid retention and intrahepatic cholestasis. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the regulation of BSEP expression by FXR ligands in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that BSEP expression is dramatically regulated by ligands of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Both the endogenous FXR agonist chenodeoxycholate (CDCA) and synthetic FXR ligand GW4064 effectively increased BSEP mRNA in both cell types. This up-regulation was readily detectable at as early as 3 h, and the ligand potency for BSEP regulation correlates with the intrinsic activity on FXR. These results suggest BSEP as a direct target of FXR and support the recent report that the BSEP promoter is transactivated by FXR. In contrast to CDCA and GW4064, lithocholate (LCA), a hydrophobic bile acid and a potent inducer of cholestasis, strongly decreased BSEP expression. Previous studies did not identify LCA as an FXR antagonist ligand in cells, but we show here that LCA is an FXR antagonist with partial agonist activity in cells. In an in vitro co-activator association assay, LCA decreased CDCA- and GW4064-induced FXR activation with an IC(50) of 1 microm. In HepG2 cells, LCA also effectively antagonized GW4064-enhanced FXR transactivation. These data suggest that the toxic and cholestatic effect of LCA in animals may result from its down-regulation of BSEP through FXR. Taken together, these observations indicate that FXR plays an important role in BSEP gene expression and that FXR ligands may be potential therapeutic drugs for intrahepatic cholestasis.

  2. Allosteric Regulation in the Ligand Binding Domain of Retinoic Acid Receptorγ

    PubMed Central

    Amal, Ismail; Lutzing, Régis; Stote, Roland H.; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Rochel, Natacha; Dejaegere, Annick

    2017-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays key roles in cell differentiation and growth arrest through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. While the main trigger of RAR activation is the binding of RA, phosphorylation of the receptors has also emerged as an important regulatory signal. Phosphorylation of the RARγ N-terminal domain (NTD) is known to play a functional role in neuronal differentiation. In this work, we investigated the phosphorylation of RARγ ligand binding domain (LBD), and present evidence that the phosphorylation status of the LBD affects the phosphorylation of the NTD region. We solved the X-ray structure of a phospho-mimetic mutant of the LBD (RARγ S371E), which we used in molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the consequences of the S371E mutation on the RARγ structural dynamics. Combined with simulations of the wild-type LBD, we show that the conformational equilibria of LBD salt bridges (notably R387-D340) are affected by the S371E mutation, which likely affects the recruitment of the kinase complex that phosphorylates the NTD. The molecular dynamics simulations also showed that a conservative mutation in this salt bridge (R387K) affects the dynamics of the LBD without inducing large conformational changes. Finally, cellular assays showed that the phosphorylation of the NTD of RARγ is differentially regulated by retinoic acid in RARγWT and in the S371N, S371E and R387K mutants. This multidisciplinary work highlights an allosteric coupling between phosphorylations of the LBD and the NTD of RARγ and supports the importance of structural dynamics involving electrostatic interactions in the regulation of RARs activity. PMID:28125680

  3. Expanding Duplication of Free Fatty Acid Receptor-2 (GPR43) Genes in the Chicken Genome.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Camille; Desert, Colette; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djari, Anis; Klopp, Christophe; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Martin, Pascal; Froment, Pascal; Guilbert, Edith; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Monget, Philippe

    2015-04-24

    Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) belong to a family of five G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, so that their loss of function increases the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the expansion of genes encoding paralogs of FFAR2 in the chicken, considered as a model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research. By estimating the gene copy number using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genomic DNA resequencing, and RNA sequencing data, we showed the existence of 23 ± 1.5 genes encoding FFAR2 paralogs in the chicken genome. The FFAR2 paralogs shared an identity from 87.2% up to 99%. Extensive gene conversion was responsible for this high degree of sequence similarities between these genes, and this concerned especially the four amino acids known to be critical for ligand binding. Moreover, elevated nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios on some amino acids within or in close-vicinity of the ligand-binding groove suggest that positive selection may have reduced the effective rate of gene conversion in this region, thus contributing to diversify the function of some FFAR2 paralogs. All the FFAR2 paralogs were located on a microchromosome in a same linkage group. FFAR2 genes were expressed in different tissues and cells such as spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal adipose tissue, intestine, and lung, with the highest rate of expression in testis. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these chicken-specific events along evolution are the consequence of domestication and may play a role in regulating lipid metabolism in this species.

  4. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the detection of IMP and L-amino acids by mouse taste sensory cells.

    PubMed

    Pal Choudhuri, S; Delay, R J; Delay, E R

    2016-03-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are thought to be involved in the detection of umami and L-amino acid taste. These include the heterodimer taste receptor type 1 member 1 (T1r1)+taste receptor type 1 member 3 (T1r3), taste and brain variants of mGluR4 and mGluR1, and calcium sensors. While several studies suggest T1r1+T1r3 is a broadly tuned lLamino acid receptor, little is known about the function of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in L-amino acid taste transduction. Calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells (TSCs) of T1r3-GFP and T1r3 knock-out (T1r3 KO) mice was performed using the ratiometric dye Fura 2 AM to investigate the role of different mGluRs in detecting various L-amino acids and inosine 5' monophosphate (IMP). Using agonists selective for various mGluRs such as (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (an mGluR1 agonist) and L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (l-AP4) (an mGluR4 agonist), we evaluated TSCs to determine if they might respond to these agonists, IMP, and three L-amino acids (monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine and L-arginine). Additionally, we used selective antagonists against different mGluRs such as (RS)-L-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA) (an mGluR1 antagonist), and (RS)-α-methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP) (an mGluR4 antagonist) to determine if they can block responses elicited by these L-amino acids and IMP. We found that L-amino acid- and IMP-responsive cells also responded to each agonist. Antagonists for mGluR4 and mGluR1 significantly blocked the responses elicited by IMP and each of the L-amino acids. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the involvement of taste and brain variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4 in L-amino acid and IMP taste responses in mice, and support the concept that multiple receptors contribute to IMP and L-amino acid taste.

  5. [Relationship between the crystal lattice structure and the biological action of some agonists of amino acid receptors].

    PubMed

    Kertser, L S; Baev, K V

    1992-01-01

    The crystal structures of glycine, taurine, GABA, beta-alanine were compared. The quantity and the accuracy of distances coincidence between nitrogen and oxygen atoms were used as a criterion of similarity of the crystalline structures. The conclusion is made about a correlation between crystalline structure of agonists and their effect on amino acid receptors. It is assumed that in case of a cooperative effect of agonist on the receptor a mutual arrangement of molecules on the receptor surface is similar to their arrangement in the agonist crystal.

  6. Agonist-directed signaling of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors: differences between serotonin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

    PubMed

    Backstrom, J R; Chang, M S; Chu, H; Niswender, C M; Sanders-Bush, E

    1999-08-01

    For more than 40 years the hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been known to modify serotonin neurotransmission. With the advent of molecular and cellular techniques, we are beginning to understand the complexity of LSD's actions at the serotonin 5-HT2 family of receptors. Here, we discuss evidence that signaling of LSD at 5-HT2C receptors differs from the endogenous agonist serotonin. In addition, RNA editing of the 5-HT2C receptor dramatically alters the ability of LSD to stimulate phosphatidylinositol signaling. These findings provide a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism(s) of partial agonism.

  7. G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor plays a key role in bile acid metabolism and fasting-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Boehme, Shannon; Li, Feng; Chiang, John Y L

    2017-03-01

    Bile acids are signaling molecules that play a critical role in regulation of hepatic metabolic homeostasis by activating nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and membrane G-protein-coupled receptor (Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5; Tgr5). The role of FXR in regulation of bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism has been studied extensively. However, the role of TGR5 in hepatic metabolism has not been explored. The liver plays a central role in lipid metabolism, and impaired response to fasting and feeding contributes to steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver and obesity. We have performed a detailed analysis of gallbladder bile acid and lipid metabolism in Tgr5(-/-) mice in both free-fed and fasted conditions. Lipid profiles of serum, liver and adipose tissues, bile acid composition, energy metabolism, and messenger RNA and protein expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed. Results showed that deficiency of the Tgr5 gene in mice alleviated fasting-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression of liver oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase in the alternative bile acid synthesis pathway was reduced. Analysis of gallbladder bile acid composition showed marked increase of taurocholic acid and decrease of tauro-α and β-muricholic acid in Tgr5(-/-) mice. Tgr5(-/-) mice had increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation rate and decreased hepatic fatty acid uptake. Interestingly, fasting induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 in liver was attenuated. In addition, fasted Tgr5(-/-) mice had increased activation of hepatic growth hormone-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (GH-Stat5) signaling compared to wild-type mice.

  8. Concentration-dependent mode of interaction of angiotensin II receptor blockers with uric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Takashi; Sato, Masanobu; Maeda, Tomoji; Ogihara, Toshio; Tamai, Ikumi

    2007-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is currently recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), losartan, decreases SUA level, whereas other ARBs, such as candesartan, have no lowering effect. Because the renal uric acid transporter (URAT1) is an important factor controlling the SUA level, we examined the involvement of URAT1 in those differential effects of various ARBs on SUA level at clinically relevant concentrations. This study was done by using URAT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Losartan, pratosartan, and telmisartan exhibited cis-inhibitory effects on the uptake of uric acid by URAT1, whereas at higher concentrations, only telmisartan did, and these ARBs reduced the uptake in competitive inhibition kinetics. On the other hand, candesartan, EXP3174 [2-n-butyl-4-chloro-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yI)methyl]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid] (a major metabolite of losartan), olmesartan, and valsartan were not inhibitory. Preloading of those ARBs in the oocytes enhanced the URAT1-mediated uric acid uptake, showing a trans-stimulatory effect. The present study is a first demonstration of the differential effects of ARBs on URAT1 that some ARBs are both cis-inhibitory and trans-stimulatory, depending on concentration, whereas others exhibit either a trans-stimulatory or cis-inhibitory effect alone, which could explain the clinically observed differential effects of ARBs on SUA level. Furthermore, it was found that such differential effects of ARBs on URAT1 could be predicted from the partial chemical structures of ARBs, which will be useful information for the appropriate use and development of ARBs without an increase of SUA.

  9. (+)Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a potent serotonin 5HT1C receptor agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, K.D.; Breeding, M.; Sanders-Bush, E. )

    1991-09-01

    Activation of central serotonin 5HT2 receptors is believed to be the primary mechanism whereby lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other hallucinogens induce psychoactive effects. This hypothesis is based on extensive radioligand binding and electrophysiological and behavioral studies in laboratory animals. However, the pharmacological profiles of 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between effects due to activation of one or the other receptor. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate the interaction of LSD with 5HT1C receptors. Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat choroid plexus was used as a direct measure of 5HT1C receptor activation. (+)LSD potently stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in intact choroid plexus and in cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells, with EC50 values of 9 and 26 nM, respectively. The effect of (+)LSD in both systems was blocked by 5HT receptor antagonists with an order of activity consistent with interaction at 5HT1C receptors. Neither (+)-2-bromo-LSD nor lisuride, two nonhallucinogenic congeners of LSD, were able to stimulate 5HT1C receptors in cultured cells or intact choroid plexus. In contrast, lisuride, like (+)LSD, is a partial agonist at 5HT2 receptors in cerebral cortex slices and in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with 5HT2 receptor cDNA. The present finding that (+)LSD, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a 5HT1C receptor agonist suggests a possible role for these receptors in mediating the psychoactive effects of LSD.

  10. Critical Role for an acidic amino acid region in platelet signaling by the HemITAM (hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif) containing receptor CLEC-2 (C-type lectin receptor-2).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Craig E; Sinha, Uma; Pandey, Anjali; Eble, Johannes A; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Watson, Steve P

    2013-02-15

    CLEC-2 is a member of new family of C-type lectin receptors characterized by a cytosolic YXXL downstream of three acidic amino acids in a sequence known as a hemITAM (hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif). Dimerization of two phosphorylated CLEC-2 molecules leads to recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Syk via its tandem SH2 domains and initiation of a downstream signaling cascade. Using Syk-deficient and Zap-70-deficient cell lines we show that hemITAM signaling is restricted to Syk and that the upstream triacidic amino acid sequence is required for signaling. Using surface plasmon resonance and phosphorylation studies, we demonstrate that the triacidic amino acids are required for phosphorylation of the YXXL. These results further emphasize the distinct nature of the proximal events in signaling by hemITAM relative to ITAM receptors.

  11. G-protein-coupled receptors mediate ω-3 PUFAs-inhibited colorectal cancer by activating the Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Haixia; Shi, Zhemin; Chang, Yanan; Yao, Qingbin; Cui, Hongmei; Zheng, Lina; Han, Yawei; Han, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Ting; Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers leading to high mortality. However, long-term administration of anti-tumor therapy for CRC is not feasible due to the side effects. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), particularly DHA and EPA, exert protection against CRC, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that ω-3 PUFAs inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of CRC cells in vitro and alleviate AOM/DSS-induced mice colorectal cancer in vivo. Moreover, ω-3 PUFAs promote phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of YAP and this effect was mediated by MST1/2 and LATS1, suggesting that the canonical Hippo Pathway is involved in ω-3 PUFAs function. We further confirmed that increase of pYAP by ω-3 PUFAs was mediated by GPRs, including GPR40 and GPR120, which subsequently activate PKA via Gαs, thus inducing the Hippo pathway activation. These data provide a novel DHA/EPA-GPR40/120-Gαs-PKA-MST1/2-LATS1-YAP signaling pathway which is linked to ω-3 PUFAs-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis in CRC cells, indicating a mechanism that could explain the anti-cancer action of ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:27506947

  12. G-protein-coupled receptors mediate ω-3 PUFAs-inhibited colorectal cancer by activating the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Hu, Zhimei; Qi, Haixia; Shi, Zhemin; Chang, Yanan; Yao, Qingbin; Cui, Hongmei; Zheng, Lina; Han, Yawei; Han, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Ting; Hong, Wei

    2016-09-06

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers leading to high mortality. However, long-term administration of anti-tumor therapy for CRC is not feasible due to the side effects. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), particularly DHA and EPA, exert protection against CRC, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that ω-3 PUFAs inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of CRC cells in vitro and alleviate AOM/DSS-induced mice colorectal cancer in vivo. Moreover, ω-3 PUFAs promote phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of YAP and this effect was mediated by MST1/2 and LATS1, suggesting that the canonical Hippo Pathway is involved in ω-3 PUFAs function. We further confirmed that increase of pYAP by ω-3 PUFAs was mediated by GPRs, including GPR40 and GPR120, which subsequently activate PKA via Gαs, thus inducing the Hippo pathway activation. These data provide a novel DHA/EPA-GPR40/120-Gαs-PKA-MST1/2-LATS1-YAP signaling pathway which is linked to ω-3 PUFAs-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis in CRC cells, indicating a mechanism that could explain the anti-cancer action of ω-3 PUFAs.

  13. Potentiation of acid-sensing ion channel activity by peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiong; Wu, Jing; Ren, Cuixia; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Kun; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate activates peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and contributes to inflammatory pain. However, it is still not clear the mechanisms are involved in group I mGluR-mediated peripheral sensitization. Herein, we report that group I mGluRs signaling sensitizes acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and contributes to acidosis-evoked pain. DHPG, a selective group I mGluR agonist, can potentiate the functional activity of ASICs, which mediated the proton-induced events. DHPG concentration-dependently increased proton-gated currents in DRG neurons. It shifted the proton concentration-response curve upwards, with a 47.3±7.0% increase of the maximal current response to proton. Group I mGluRs, especially mGluR5, mediated the potentiation of DHPG via an intracellular cascade. DHPG potentiation of proton-gated currents disappeared after inhibition of intracellular Gq/11 proteins, PLCβ, PKC or PICK1 signaling. Moreover, DHPG enhanced proton-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and increased the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripherally administration of DHPG dose-dependently exacerbated nociceptive responses to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. Potentiation of ASIC activity by group I mGluR signaling in rat DRG neurons revealed a novel peripheral mechanism underlying group I mGluRs involvement in hyperalgesia.

  14. Pore architecture and ion sites in acid-sensing ion channels and P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric B; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Gouaux, Eric

    2009-07-30

    Acid-sensing ion channels are proton-activated, sodium-selective channels composed of three subunits, and are members of the superfamily of epithelial sodium channels, mechanosensitive and FMRF-amide peptide-gated ion channels. These ubiquitous eukaryotic ion channels have essential roles in biological activities as diverse as sodium homeostasis, taste and pain. Despite their crucial roles in biology and their unusual trimeric subunit stoichiometry, there is little knowledge of the structural and chemical principles underlying their ion channel architecture and ion-binding sites. Here we present the structure of a functional acid-sensing ion channel in a desensitized state at 3 A resolution, the location and composition of the approximately 8 A 'thick' desensitization gate, and the trigonal antiprism coordination of caesium ions bound in the extracellular vestibule. Comparison of the acid-sensing ion channel structure with the ATP-gated P2X(4) receptor reveals similarity in pore architecture and aqueous vestibules, suggesting that there are unanticipated yet common structural and mechanistic principles.

  15. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase regulates retinoic acid receptor-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Le May, Nicolas; Iltis, Izarn; Amé, Jean-Christophe; Zhovmer, Alexander; Biard, Denis; Egly, Jean-Marc; Schreiber, Valérie; Coin, Frédéric

    2012-12-14

    Poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a catabolic enzyme that cleaves ADP-ribose polymers synthesized by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Here, transcriptome profiling and differentiation assay revealed a requirement of PARG for retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated transcription. Mechanistically, PARG accumulates early at promoters of RAR-responsive genes upon retinoic acid treatment to promote the formation of an appropriate chromatin environment suitable for transcription. Silencing of PARG or knockout of its enzymatic activity maintains the H3K9me2 mark at the promoter of the RAR-dependent genes, leading to the absence of preinitiation complex formation. In the absence of PARG, we found that the H3K9 demethylase KDM4D/JMJD2D became PARsylated. Mutation of two glutamic acids located in the Jumonji N domain of KDM4D inhibited PARsylation. PARG becomes dispensable for ligand-dependent transcription when either a PARP inhibitor or a non-PARsylable KDM4D/JMJD2D mutant is used. Our results define PARG as a coactivator regulating chromatin remodeling during RA-dependent gene expression.

  16. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B).

    PubMed

    Offermanns, Stefan; Colletti, Steven L; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Semple, Graeme; Wise, Alan; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2011-06-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptors GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B share significant sequence homology and form a small group of receptors, each of which is encoded by clustered genes. In recent years, endogenous ligands for all three receptors have been described. These endogenous ligands have in common that they are hydroxy-carboxylic acid metabolites, and we therefore have proposed that this receptor family be named hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors. The HCA(1) receptor (GPR81) is activated by 2-hydroxy-propanoic acid (lactate), the HCA(2) receptor (GPR109A) is a receptor for the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, and the HCA(3) receptor (GPR109B) is activated by the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. HCA(1) and HCA(2) receptors are found in most mammalian species, whereas the HCA(3) receptor is present only in higher primates. The three receptors have in common that they are expressed in adipocytes and are coupled to G(i)-type G-proteins mediating antilipolytic effects in fat cells. HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors are also expressed in a variety of immune cells. HCA(2) is a receptor for the antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) and related compounds, and there is an increasing number of synthetic ligands mainly targeted at HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the discovery and pharmacological characterization of HCAs, and to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature. We will also discuss open questions regarding this receptor family as well as their physiological role and therapeutic potential.

  17. Chlorogenic Acid Improves Late Diabetes through Adiponectin Receptor Signaling Pathways in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shasha; Chang, Cuiqing; Zhang, Lantao; Liu, Yang; Huang, Xianren; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on glucose and lipid metabolism in late diabetic db/db mice, as well as on adiponectin receptors and their signaling molecules, to provide evidence for CGA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We randomly divided 16 female db/db mice into db/db-CGA and db/db-control (CON) groups equally; db/m mice were used as control mice. The mice in both the db/db-CGA and db/m-CGA groups were administered 80 mg/kg/d CGA by lavage for 12 weeks, whereas the mice in both CON groups were given equal volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by lavage. At the end of the intervention, we assessed body fat and the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in the plasma, liver and skeletal muscle tissues as well as the levels of aldose reductase (AR) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the kidneys and measured adiponectin receptors and the protein expression of their signaling molecules in liver and muscle tissues. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared with the db/db-CON group, the percentage of body fat, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the db/db-CGA group were all significantly decreased; TGF-β1 protein expression and AR activity in the kidney were both decreased; and the adiponectin level in visceral adipose was increased. The protein expression of adiponectin receptors (ADPNRs), the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver and muscle, and the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) in the liver were all significantly greater. CGA could lower the levels of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during late diabetes and improve kidney fibrosis to some extent through the modulation of adiponectin receptor signaling pathways in db/db mice. PMID:25849026

  18. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors.

    PubMed

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J; Delay, Eugene R

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5' ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5' monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex.

  19. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5’ ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5’ monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. PMID:26110622

  20. Activation function 2 (AF-2) of retinoic acid receptor and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor: presence of a conserved autonomous constitutive activating domain and influence of the nature of the response element on AF-2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Saunders, M; Gaudon, C; Roy, B; Losson, R; Chambon, P

    1994-01-01

    A motif essential for the transcriptional activation function 2 (AF-2) present in the E region of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) alpha has been characterized as an amphipathic alpha-helix whose main features are conserved between transcriptionally active members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This conserved motif, which can activate autonomously in the absence of ligand in animal and yeast cells, can be swapped between nuclear receptors without affecting the ligand dependency for activation of transcription, thus indicating that a ligand-dependent conformational change is necessary to reveal the AF-2 activation potential within the E region of the nuclear receptor. Interestingly, we show that the precise nature of the direct repeat response element to which RAR/RXR heterodimers are bound can affect the activity of the AF-2s of the heterodimeric partners, as well as the relative efficiency with which all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acids activate the RAR partner. Images PMID:7957103

  1. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  2. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Brian D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Adams, David R.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL of the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) could be developed on the basis of pharmacological variation between species orthologs. For this, bovine FFA2 was characterized, revealing distinct ligand selectivity compared with human FFA2. Homology modeling and mutational analysis demonstrated a single mutation in human FFA2 of C4.57G resulted in a human FFA2 receptor with ligand selectivity similar to the bovine receptor. This was exploited to generate human FFA2-RASSL by the addition of a second mutation at a known orthosteric ligand interaction site, H6.55Q. The resulting FFA2-RASSL displayed a >100-fold loss of activity to endogenous ligands, while responding to the distinct ligand sorbic acid with pEC50 values for inhibition of cAMP, 5.83 ± 0.11; Ca2+ mobilization, 4.63 ± 0.05; ERK phosphorylation, 5.61 ± 0.06; and dynamic mass redistribution, 5.35 ± 0.06. This FFA2-RASSL will be useful in future studies on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.—Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs. PMID:22919070

  3. Gamma-Aminobutyric acid and benzodiazepine receptors in the kindling model of epilepsy: a quantitative radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, C.; Pedersen, H.B.; McNamara, J.O.

    1985-10-01

    Quantitative radiohistochemistry was utilized to study alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepine receptors in the kindling model of epilepsy. The radioligands used for GABA and benzodiazepine receptors were (TH) muscimol and (TH)flunitrazepam, respectively. GABA receptor binding was increased by 22% in fascia dentata of the hippocampal formation but not in neocortex or substantia nigra of kindled rats. Within fascia dentata, GABA receptor binding was increased to an equivalent extent in stratum granulosum and throughout stratum moleculare; no increase was found in dentate hilus or stratum lacunosummoleculare or stratum radiatum of CA1. The increased binding was present at 24 hr but not at 28 days after the last kindled seizure. The direction, anatomic distribution, and time course of the increased GABA receptor binding were paralleled by increased benzodiazepine receptor binding. The anatomic distribution of the increased GABA receptor binding is consistent with a localization to somata and dendritic trees of dentate granule cells. The authors suggest that increased GABA and benzodiazepine receptor binding may contribute to enhanced inhibition of dentate granule cells demonstrated electrophysiologically in kindled animals.

  4. Amino acid residues 4425-4621 localized on the three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Benacquista, B L; Sharma, M R; Samsó, M; Zorzato, F; Treves, S; Wagenknecht, T

    2000-01-01

    We have localized a region contained within the sequence of amino acid residues 4425-4621 on the three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR). Mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against a peptide comprising these residues have been complexed with ryanodine receptors and imaged in the frozen-hydrated state by cryoelectron microscopy. These images, along with images of antibody-free ryanodine receptor, were used to compute two-dimensional averaged images and three-dimensional reconstructions. Two-dimensional averages of immunocomplexes in which the ryanodine receptor was in the fourfold symmetrical orientation disclosed four symmetrical regions of density located on the edges of the receptor's cytoplasmic assembly that were absent from control averages of receptor without added antibody. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the antibody-binding sites to be on the so-called handle domains of the ryanodine receptor's cytoplasmic assembly, near their junction with the transmembrane assembly. This study is the first to demonstrate epitope mapping on the three-dimensional structure of the ryanodine receptor. PMID:10692321

  5. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR. PMID:27490540

  6. Loss of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-3 enhances cell migration in rat lung tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mai; Okabe, Kyoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Honoki, Kanya; Mori, Toshio; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of the Lpar3 expression due to aberrant DNA methylation occurred in rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 inhibited cell migration of rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 may act as a negative regulator of rat lung tumor cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) indicates several biological effects, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. LPA interacts with G protein-coupled transmembrane LPA receptors. In our previous report, we detected that loss of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1) expression is due to its aberrant DNA methylation in rat tumor cell lines. In this study, to assess an involvement of the other LPA receptor, Lpar3, in the pathogenesis of rat lung tumor cells, we measured the expression levels of the Lpar3 gene and its DNA methylation status by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing analyses, respectively. RLCNR lung adenocarcinoma cells showed reduced expression of the Lpar3, compared with normal lung tissues. In the 5' upstream region of the Lpar3, normal lung tissues were unmethylated. By contrast, RLCNR cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expressions of the Lpar3. Based on these results, we generated the Lpar3-expressing RLCNR-a3 cells and measured the cell migration ability. Interestingly, the cell migration of RLCNR-a3 cells was significantly lower than that of RLCNR cells. This study suggests that loss of the Lpar3 due to aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the progression of rat lung tumor cells.

  7. Identification of a chemoreceptor for tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates: differential chemotactic response towards receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lacal, Jesús; Alfonso, Carlos; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Rebecca E; Morel, Bertrand; Conejero-Lara, Francisco; Rivas, Germán; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L; Krell, Tino

    2010-07-23

    We report the identification of McpS as the specific chemoreceptor for 6 tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and butyrate in Pseudomonas putida. The analysis of the bacterial mutant deficient in mcpS and complementation assays demonstrate that McpS is the only chemoreceptor of TCA cycle intermediates in the strain under study. TCA cycle intermediates are abundantly present in root exudates, and taxis toward these compounds is proposed to facilitate the access to carbon sources. McpS has an unusually large ligand-binding domain (LBD) that is un-annotated in InterPro and is predicted to contain 6 helices. The ligand profile of McpS was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry of purified recombinant LBD (McpS-LBD). McpS recognizes TCA cycle intermediates but does not bind very close structural homologues and derivatives like maleate, aspartate, or tricarballylate. This implies that functional similarity of ligands, such as being part of the same pathway, and not structural similarity is the primary element, which has driven the evolution of receptor specificity. The magnitude of chemotactic responses toward these 7 chemoattractants, as determined by qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays, differed largely. Ligands that cause a strong chemotactic response (malate, succinate, and fumarate) were found by differential scanning calorimetry to increase significantly the midpoint of protein unfolding (T(m)) and unfolding enthalpy (DeltaH) of McpS-LBD. Equilibrium sedimentation studies show that malate, the chemoattractant that causes the strongest chemotactic response, stabilizes the dimeric state of McpS-LBD. In this respect clear parallels exist to the Tar receptor and other eukaryotic receptors, which are discussed.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs): Potential targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Velasco, María; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Sheridan, Graham K

    2017-02-01

    Neuropathic pain can arise from lesions to peripheral or central nerve fibres leading to spontaneous action potential generation and a lowering of the nociceptive threshold. Clinically, neuropathic pain can manifest in many chronic disease states such as cancer, diabetes or multiple sclerosis (MS). The bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), via activation of its receptors (LPARs), is thought to play a central role in both triggering and maintaining neuropathic pain. In particular, following an acute nerve injury, the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and substance P are released from primary afferent neurons leading to upregulated synthesis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), the precursor for LPA production. LPC is converted to LPA by autotaxin (ATX), which can then activate macrophages/microglia and modulate neuronal functioning. A ubiquitous feature of animal models of neuropathic pain is demyelination of damaged nerves. It is thought that LPA contributes to demyelination through several different mechanisms. Firstly, high levels of LPA are produced following macrophage/microglial activation that triggers a self-sustaining feed-forward loop of de novo LPA synthesis. Secondly, macrophage/microglial activation contributes to inflammation-mediated demyelination of axons, thus initiating neuropathic pain. Therefore, targeting LPA production and/or the family of LPA-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may prove to be fruitful clinical approaches to treating demyelination and the accompanying neuropathic pain. This review discusses our current understanding of the role of LPA/LPAR signalling in the initiation of neuropathic pain and suggests potential targeted strategies for its treatment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Lipid Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the CNS'.

  9. Evolutionary diversification of retinoic acid receptor ligand-binding pocket structure by molecular tinkering

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Studer, Romain A.; Alvarez, Susana; de Lera, Angel R.; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Bourguet, William; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGDs) have been classically associated with the origin of evolutionary novelties and the so-called duplication–degeneration–complementation model describes the possible fates of genes after duplication. However, how sequence divergence effectively allows functional changes between gene duplicates is still unclear. In the vertebrate lineage, two rounds of WGDs took place, giving rise to paralogous gene copies observed for many gene families. For the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), for example, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily, a unique ancestral gene has been duplicated resulting in three vertebrate paralogues: RARα, RARβ and RARγ. It has previously been shown that this single ancestral RAR was neofunctionalized to give rise to a larger substrate specificity range in the RARs of extant jawed vertebrates (also called gnathostomes). To understand RAR diversification, the members of the cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish), jawless vertebrates representing the extant sister group of gnathostomes, provide an intermediate situation and thus allow the characterization of the evolutionary steps that shaped RAR ligand-binding properties following the WGDs. In this study, we assessed the ligand-binding specificity of cyclostome RARs and found that their ligand-binding pockets resemble those of gnathostome RARα and RARβ. In contrast, none of the cyclostome receptors studied showed any RARγ-like specificity. Together, our results suggest that cyclostome RARs cover only a portion of the specificity repertoire of the ancestral gnathostome RARs and indicate that the establishment of ligand-binding specificity was a stepwise event. This iterative process thus provides a rare example for the diversification of receptor–ligand interactions of NRs following WGDs. PMID:27069642

  10. A naturally occurring insertion of a single amino acid rewires transcriptional regulation by glucocorticoid receptor isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Watson, Lisa C; Cooper, Samantha B; Pufall, Miles A; Liu, Jennifer S; Borzym, Katja; Vingron, Martin; Yamamoto, Keith R; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-10-29

    In addition to guiding proteins to defined genomic loci, DNA can act as an allosteric ligand that influences protein structure and activity. Here we compared genome-wide binding, transcriptional regulation, and, using NMR, the conformation of two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms that differ by a single amino acid insertion in the lever arm, a domain that adopts DNA sequence-specific conformations. We show that these isoforms differentially regulate gene expression levels through two mechanisms: differential DNA binding and altered communication between GR domains. Our studies suggest a versatile role for DNA in both modulating GR activity and also in directing the use of GR isoforms. We propose that the lever arm is a "fulcrum" for bidirectional allosteric signaling, conferring conformational changes in the DNA reading head that influence DNA sequence selectivity, as well as conferring changes in the dimerization domain that connect functionally with remote regulatory surfaces, thereby influencing which genes are regulated and the magnitude of their regulation.

  11. The N-terminal portion of domain E of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta is essential for the recognition of retinoic acid and various analogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, J; Hammer, L; Roalsvig, T; Pokornowski, K; Reczek, P R

    1995-03-14

    Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR alpha- or RAR beta-specific response. Two amino acid residues within this region, serine-232 (S232) and threonine-239 (T239) in RAR alpha and the corresponding alanine-225 (A225) and isoleucine-232 (I232) in RAR beta, were found to be essential for this effect. In addition, binding studies using the chimeric receptors expressed in Escherichia coli showed that the N-terminal portion of domain E was also important for the characteristic binding profile of t-RA and various retinoids with RAR alpha or RAR beta. Structural predictions of the primary amino acid sequence in this region indicate the presence of an amphipathic helix-turn-helix structure with five hydrophobic amino acids that resemble a leucine zipper motif. The amino acid residues identified by domain swapping, S232 and T239 in RAR alpha and A225 and I232 in RAR beta, were found within the hydrophobic face of an alpha-helix in close proximity to this zipper motif, suggesting that the ligand may interact with the receptor in the region adjacent to a surface involved in protein-protein interactions. This finding may link ligand binding to other processes important for transcriptional activation.

  12. The N-terminal portion of domain E of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta is essential for the recognition of retinoic acid and various analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, J; Hammer, L; Roalsvig, T; Pokornowski, K; Reczek, P R

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR alpha- or RAR beta-specific response. Two amino acid residues within this region, serine-232 (S232) and threonine-239 (T239) in RAR alpha and the corresponding alanine-225 (A225) and isoleucine-232 (I232) in RAR beta, were found to be essential for this effect. In addition, binding studies using the chimeric receptors expressed in Escherichia coli showed that the N-terminal portion of domain E was also important for the characteristic binding profile of t-RA and various retinoids with RAR alpha or RAR beta. Structural predictions of the primary amino acid sequence in this region indicate the presence of an amphipathic helix-turn-helix structure with five hydrophobic amino acids that resemble a leucine zipper motif. The amino acid residues identified by domain swapping, S232 and T239 in RAR alpha and A225 and I232 in RAR beta, were found within the hydrophobic face of an alpha-helix in close proximity to this zipper motif, suggesting that the ligand may interact with the receptor in the region adjacent to a surface involved in protein-protein interactions. This finding may link ligand binding to other processes important for transcriptional activation. PMID:7892182

  13. Tributyltin and triphenyltin inhibit osteoclast differentiation through a retinoic acid receptor-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Ahn, Jae-Yong; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae; E-mail: jwoo@isc.chubu.ac.jp

    2007-03-30

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used in agriculture and industry. Although these compounds are known to have many toxic effects, including endocrine-disrupting effects, their effects on bone resorption are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of organotin compounds, such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), TBT, and TPT, on osteoclast differentiation using mouse monocytic RAW264.7 cells. MBT and DBT had no effects, whereas TBT and TPT dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast differentiation at concentrations of 3-30 nM. Treatment with a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-specific antagonist, Ro41-5253, restored the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by TBT and TPT. TBT and TPT reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 expression, and the reduction in NFATc1 expression was recovered by Ro41-5253. Our results suggest that TBT and TPT suppress osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression via an RAR-dependent signaling pathway.

  14. Synaptic enhancement induced by gintonin via lysophosphatidic acid receptor activation in central synapses.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoyong; Kim, Sungmin; Rhee, Jeehae; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Han, Jung-Soo; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Chung, ChiHye

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is one of the well-characterized, ubiquitous phospholipid molecules. LPA exerts its effect by activating G protein-coupled receptors known as LPA receptors (LPARs). So far, LPAR signaling has been critically implicated during early development stages, including the regulation of synapse formation and the morphology of cortical and hippocampal neurons. In adult brains, LPARs seem to participate in cognitive as well as emotional learning and memory. Recent studies using LPAR1-deficient mice reported impaired performances in a number of behavioral tasks, including the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and fear conditioning tests. Nevertheless, the effect of LPAR activation in the synaptic transmission of central synapses after the completion of embryonic development has not been investigated. In this study, we took advantage of a novel extracellular agonist for LPARs called gintonin to activate LPARs in adult brain systems. Gintonin, a recently identified active ingredient in ginseng, has been shown to activate LPARs and mobilize Ca(2+) in an artificial cell system. We found that the activation of LPARs by application of gintonin acutely enhanced both excitatory and inhibitory transmission in central synapses, albeit through tentatively distinct mechanisms. Gintonin-mediated LPAR activation primarily resulted in synaptic enhancement and an increase in neuronal excitability in a phospholipase C-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that LPARs are able to directly potentiate synaptic transmission in central synapses when stimulated exogenously. Therefore, LPARs could serve as a useful target to modulate synaptic activity under pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Designed abscisic acid analogs as antagonists of PYL-PP2C receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Akiyama, Tomonori; Muto, Takuya; Yajima, Shunsuke; Sue, Masayuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Cutler, Sean R; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    The plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for several abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is normally repressed by group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), but stress-induced ABA binds Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) receptors, which then bind and inhibit PP2Cs. X-ray structures of several receptor-ABA complexes revealed a tunnel above ABA's 3' ring CH that opens at the PP2C binding interface. Here, ABA analogs with sufficiently long 3' alkyl chains were predicted to traverse this tunnel and block PYL-PP2C interactions. To test this, a series of 3'-alkylsulfanyl ABAs were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Physiological, biochemical and structural analyses revealed that a six-carbon alkyl substitution produced a potent ABA antagonist that was sufficiently active to block multiple stress-induced ABA responses in vivo. This study provides a new approach for the design of ABA analogs, and the results validated structure-based design for this target class.

  16. Phosphatidic Acid Induces Ligand-independent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Endocytic Traffic through PDE4 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Andrés; Metz, Claudia; Jung, Juan E.; Silva, Antonia; Otero, Carolina; Cancino, Jorge; Retamal, Claudio; Valenzuela, Juan C.; Soza, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Endocytosis modulates EGFR function by compartmentalizing and attenuating or enhancing its ligand-induced signaling. Here we show that it can also control the cell surface versus intracellular distribution of empty/inactive EGFR. Our previous observation that PKA inhibitors induce EGFR internalization prompted us to test phosphatidic acid (PA) generated by phospholipase D (PLD) as an endogenous down-regulator of PKA activity, which activates rolipram-sensitive type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4) that degrade cAMP. We found that inhibition of PA hydrolysis by propranolol, in the absence of ligand, provokes internalization of inactive (neither tyrosine-phosphorylated nor ubiquitinated) EGFR, accompanied by a transient increase in PA levels and PDE4s activity. This EGFR internalization is mimicked by PA micelles and is strongly counteracted by PLD2 silencing, rolipram or forskolin treatment, and PKA overexpression. Accelerated EGFR endocytosis seems to be mediated by clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways, leading to receptor accumulation in juxtanuclear recycling endosomes, also due to a decreased recycling. Internalized EGFR can remain intracellular without degradation for several hours or return rapidly to the cell surface upon discontinuation of the stimulus. This novel regulatory mechanism of EGFR, also novel function of signaling PA, can transmodulate receptor accessibility in response to heterologous stimuli. PMID:20554760

  17. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds.

  18. Binding of thyroglobulin to bovine thyroid membranes. Role of specific amino acids in receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, S; Kohn, L D

    1981-10-25

    Bovine thyroglobulin was treated with increasing ratios of succinic anhydride, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, tetranitromethane, and N-acetylimidazole in an attempt to assess the role of lysine or tyrosine residues in binding to thyroid membrane receptors. Extensive succinylation results in dissociation to 12 S thyroglobulin with retention of a considerable portion of the three-dimensional structure. Only 25% of the lysine residues can be modified by trinitrophenylation without affecting inter-subunit interactions. Succinylation as well as trinitrophenylation increases the affinity of thyroglobulin for the membrane receptor by a factor of 2. The binding of thyroglobulin to the membrane was reduced after nitration of 30% of the tyrosyl residues with tetranitromethane. O-Acetylation of 40-70% of the tyrosyl residues by N-acetylimidazole nearly abolished the ability of thyroglobulin to bind to the membrane. Removal of the O-acetyl group with hydroxylamine restored the binding properties. The results indicate that tyrosyl residues play an important role in thyroglobulin interactions with thyroid membranes.

  19. Contamination with retinoic acid receptor agonists in two rivers in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Mai; Sei, Kazunari; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Hu, Jianying; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the agonistic activity against human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha in the Lake Biwa-Yodo River and the Ina River in the Kinki region of Japan. To accomplish this, a yeast two-hybrid assay was used to elucidate the spatial and temporal variations and potential sources of RARalpha agonist contamination in the river basins. RARalpha agonistic activity was commonly detected in the surface water samples collected along two rivers at different periods, with maximum all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) equivalents of 47.6 ng-atRA/L and 23.5 ng-atRA/L being observed in Lake Biwa-Yodo River and Ina River, respectively. The results indicated that RARalpha agonists are always present and widespread in the rivers. Comparative investigation of RARalpha and estrogen receptor alpha agonistic activities at 20 stations along each river revealed that the spatial variation pattern of RARalpha agonist contamination was entirely different from that of the estrogenic compound contamination. This suggests that the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants, a primary source of estrogenic compounds, seemed not to be the cause of RARalpha agonist contamination in the rivers. Fractionation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directed by the bioassay found two bioactive fractions from river water samples, suggesting the presence of at least two RARalpha agonists in the rivers. Although a trial conducted to identify RARalpha agonists in the major bioactive fraction was not completed as part of this study, comparison of retention times in HPLC analysis and quantification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major causative contaminants responsible for the RARalpha agonistic activity were not RAs (natural RAR ligands) and 4-oxo-RAs, while 4-oxo-RAs were identified as the major RAR agonists in sewage in Beijing, China. These findings suggest that there are unknown RARalpha agonists with high

  20. Antagonizing Retinoic Acid Receptors Increases Myeloid Cell Production by Cultured Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey; Marchwicka, Aleksandra; Cunningham, Alan; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Activities of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α and RARγ are important to hematopoiesis. Here, we have investigated the effects of receptor selective agonists and antagonists on the primitive human hematopoietic cell lines KG1 and NB-4 and purified normal human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Agonizing RARα (by AGN195183) was effective in driving neutrophil differentiation of NB-4 cells and this agonist synergized with a low amount (10 nM) of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to drive monocyte differentiation of NB-4 and KG1 cells. Treatment of cultures of human HSCs (supplemented with stem cell factor ± interleukin 3) with an antagonist of all RARs (AGN194310) or of RARα (AGN196996) prolonged the lifespan of cultures, up to 55 days, and increased the production of neutrophils and monocytes. Slowing down of cell differentiation was not observed, and instead, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells had expanded in number. Antagonism of RARγ (by AGN205728) did not affect cultures of HSCs. Studies of CV-1 and LNCaP cells transfected with RAR expression vectors and a reporter vector revealed that RARγ and RARβ are activated by sub-nM all-trans retinoic acid (EC50-0.3 nM): ~50-fold more is required for activation of RARα (EC50-16 nM). These findings further support the notion that the balance of expression and activity of RARα and RARγ are important to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion and differentiation.

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ruisanchez, Éva; Dancs, Péter; Kerék, Margit; Németh, Tamás; Faragó, Bernadett; Balogh, Andrea; Patil, Renukadevi; Jennings, Brett L.; Liliom, Károly; Malik, Kafait U.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Tigyi, Gabor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated as a mediator of several cardiovascular functions, but its potential involvement in the control of vascular tone is obscure. Here, we show that both LPA (18:1) and VPC31143 (a synthetic agonist of LPA1–3 receptors) relax intact mouse thoracic aorta with similar Emax values (53.9 and 51.9% of phenylephrine-induced precontraction), although the EC50 of LPA- and VPC31143-induced vasorelaxations were different (400 vs. 15 nM, respectively). Mechanical removal of the endothelium or genetic deletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) not only diminished vasorelaxation by LPA or VPC31143 but converted it to vasoconstriction. Freshly isolated mouse aortic endothelial cells expressed LPA1, LPA2, LPA4 and LPA5 transcripts. The LPA1,3 antagonist Ki16425, the LPA1 antagonist AM095, and the genetic deletion of LPA1, but not that of LPA2, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase–protein kinase B/Akt pathway by wortmannin or MK-2206 failed to influence the effect of LPA. However, pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73122 or edelfosine, but not genetic deletion of PLCε, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation and indicated that a PLC enzyme, other than PLCε, mediates the response. In summary, the present study identifies LPA as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator substance acting via LPA1, PLC, and eNOS.—Ruisanchez, É., Dancs, P., Kerék, M., Németh, T., Faragó, B., Balogh, A., Patil, R., Jennings, B. L., Liliom, K., Malik, K. U., Smrcka, A. V., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:24249637

  2. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  3. Identification of the putative binding pocket of valerenic acid on GABAA receptors using docking studies and site‐directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luger, D; Poli, G; Wieder, M; Stadler, M; Ke, S; Ernst, M; Hohaus, A; Linder, T; Seidel, T; Langer, T; Hering, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose β2/3‐subunit‐selective modulation of GABAA receptors by valerenic acid (VA) is determined by the presence of transmembrane residue β2/3N265. Currently, it is not known whether β2/3N265 is part of VA's binding pocket or is involved in the transduction pathway of VA's action. The aim of this study was to clarify the localization of VA's binding pocket on GABAA receptors. Experimental Approach Docking and a structure‐based three‐dimensional pharmacophore were employed to identify candidate amino acid residues that are likely to interact with VA. Selected amino acid residues were mutated, and VA‐induced modulation of the resulting GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes was analysed. Key Results A binding pocket for VA at the β+/α− interface encompassing amino acid β3N265 was predicted. Mutational analysis of suggested amino acid residues revealed a complete loss of VA's activity on β3M286W channels as well as significantly decreased efficacy and potency of VA on β3N265S and β3F289S receptors. In addition, reduced efficacy of VA‐induced I GABA enhancement was also observed for α1M235W, β3R269A and β3M286A constructs. Conclusions and Implications Our data suggest that amino acid residues β3N265, β3F289, β3M286, β3R269 in the β3 subunit, at or near the etomidate/propofol binding site(s), form part of a VA binding pocket. The identification of the binding pocket for VA is essential for elucidating its pharmacological effects and might also help to develop new selective GABAA receptor ligands. PMID:26375408

  4. Structural studies of the actions of anesthetic drugs on the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor.

    PubMed

    Akk, Gustav; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2011-12-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor is the major transmitter-gated inhibitory channel in the central nervous system. The receptor is a target for anesthetics, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and sedatives whose actions facilitate the flow of chloride ions through the channel and enhance the inhibitory tone in the brain. Both the kinetic and structural aspects of the actions of modulators of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor are of great importance to understanding the molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia. In this review, the structural rearrangements that take place in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor during channel activation and modulation are described, focusing on data obtained using voltage-clamp fluorometry. Voltage-clamp fluorometry entails the binding of an environmentally sensitive fluorophore molecule to a site of interest in the receptor, and measurement of changes in the fluorescence signal resulting from activation- or modulation-elicited structural changes. Detailed investigations can provide a map of structural changes that underlie or accompany the functional effects of modulators.

  5. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26796668

  6. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptors, transmitter output and fatty acids: studies in rat brain slices.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, G.; Leonardi, P.; Moroni, F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD), a non-selective agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), have been studied in rat cortical and striatal slices by measuring the depolarization-induced output of D-[3H]-aspartate (D-[3H]-Asp) and of [3H]-glutamate ([3H]-Glu), neosynthesized from [3H]-glutamine. 2. In cortical slices, 1S,3R-ACPD potentiated the depolarization-induced (KCl, 30 mM) output of both D-[3H]-Asp and [3H]-Glu. The potentiation, obtained at 300 microM 1S,3R-ACPD was 65 +/- 6% for D-[3H]-Asp and 56 +/- 10% for [3H]-Glu. Conversely, in striatal slices, 1S,3R-ACPD reduced the depolarization-induced transmitter output. The reduction, obtained at 300 microM of the agonist, was 60 +/- 8% for D-[3H]-Asp and 50 +/- 5% for neosynthesized [3H]-Glu. 3. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, 15 microM), which is able to bind locally produced fatty acids, completely eliminated the potentiating effect 1S,3R-ACPD had on D-[3H]-Asp output from cortical slices. Low concentrations of arachidonic acid (1-10 microM) or of oleic acid (1-10 microM) added to BSA-containing perfusion medium, restored this potentiating effect. BSA, however, had no effect on the inhibitory action of 1S,3R-ACPD in striatal slices. 4. Bromophenacyl bromide (100 microM), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, and RG80267 (100 microM), an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, have been shown to inhibit fatty acid production. These compounds prevented the potentiating effect of 1S,3R-ACPD on D-[3H]-Asp-output in cortical slices. 5. Indomethacin (100 microM), an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenases, plus nordihydroguaiaretic acid (100 microM), an inhibitor of lipoxygenases, increased D-[3H]-Asp output in cortical slices perfused with BSA-containing medium. 6. These experiments suggest that the mGluR-mediated potentiation of transmitter output requires the availability of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic or oleic acids, in cortical slices. In contrast, the m

  8. Assessment of the presence of chemosensing receptors based on bitter and fat taste in the gastrointestinal tract of young pig.

    PubMed

    Colombo, M; Trevisi, P; Gandolfi, G; Bosi, P

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge on porcine bitter and fat taste receptors and on their expression in gastrointestinal tract of pigs is scarce. We searched for the presence of porcine homologous sequences for 13 human transcripts of bitter and fat taste receptors in ENSEMBL and National Center for Biotechnology Information databases. For taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) 8, alignment was not observed; for TAS2R13 and TAS2R46 the porcine predicted sequence aligned with several other human bitter genes. For 7 genes for bitter taste (TAS2R1, TAS2R3, TAS2R7, TAS2R9, TAS2R10, TAS2R16, and TAS2R38) and for 3 genes for fat taste (GPR40, GPR43, and GPR120), a full homology for exon sequences was found and primers were designed by Primer3. These 7 genes were amplified with real-time PCR and verified on agarose gel in 5 gastrointestinal segments of weaned pigs: oxyntic (ST1), pyloric (ST2), and cardiac to oxyntic transition mucosa (ST3), jejunum (JEJ), and colon (COL). Suitability of mRNA was verified by amplifying RPL4 and HMBS2 genes. Each bitter taste gene was detectable on agarose gel in at least 1 subject of all the gastrointestinal segments except for TAS2R3 and TAS2R38 that were never detected in ST1 and COL, respectively. The inspection of bitter taste genes amplification curve indicated that the expression was in general very low. GPR43 and GPR120 were present in all segments from all pigs. Expression was not detected for GPR40. Data also indicate that colon is the preeminent tract where fat detection by GPR120 takes place (P < 0.001). The presence of gene expression for several chemosensing receptors for bitter and fat taste in different compartments of the stomach confirms that this organ should be considered a player for the early detection of bolus composition.

  9. Targeting metastasis-initiating cells through the fatty acid receptor CD36.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Gloria; Avgustinova, Alexandra; Mejetta, Stefania; Martín, Mercè; Castellanos, Andrés; Attolini, Camille Stephan-Otto; Berenguer, Antoni; Prats, Neus; Toll, Agustí; Hueto, Juan Antonio; Bescós, Coro; Di Croce, Luciano; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2017-01-05

    The fact that the identity of the cells that initiate metastasis in most human cancers is unknown hampers the development of antimetastatic therapies. Here we describe a subpopulation of CD44(bright) cells in human oral carcinomas that do not overexpress mesenchymal genes, are slow-cycling, express high levels of the fatty acid receptor CD36 and lipid metabolism genes, and are unique in their ability to initiate metastasis. Palmitic acid or a high-fat diet specifically boosts the metastatic potential of CD36(+) metastasis-initiating cells in a CD36-dependent manner. The use of neutralizing antibodies to block CD36 causes almost complete inhibition of metastasis in immunodeficient or immunocompetent orthotopic mouse models of human oral cancer, with no side effects. Clinically, the presence of CD36(+) metastasis-initiating cells correlates with a poor prognosis for numerous types of carcinomas, and inhibition of CD36 also impairs metastasis, at least in human melanoma- and breast cancer-derived tumours. Together, our results indicate that metastasis-initiating cells particularly rely on dietary lipids to promote metastasis.

  10. Retinoic acid receptor regulation of epimorphic and homeostatic regeneration in the axolotl.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Matthew; Singhal, Pankhuri; Piet, Judith W; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Maden, Malcolm; Voss, S Randal; Monaghan, James R

    2017-02-15

    Salamanders are capable of regenerating amputated limbs by generating a mass of lineage-restricted cells called a blastema. Blastemas only generate structures distal to their origin unless treated with retinoic acid (RA), which results in proximodistal (PD) limb duplications. Little is known about the transcriptional network that regulates PD duplication. In this study, we target specific retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to either PD duplicate (RA treatment or RARγ agonist) or truncate (RARβ antagonist) regenerating limbs. RARE-EGFP reporter axolotls showed divergent reporter activity in limbs undergoing PD duplication versus truncation, suggesting differences in patterning and skeletal regeneration. Transcriptomics identified expression patterns that explain PD duplication, including upregulation of proximal homeobox gene expression and silencing of distal-associated genes, whereas limb truncation was associated with disrupted skeletal differentiation. RARβ antagonism in uninjured limbs induced a loss of skeletal integrity leading to long bone regression and loss of skeletal turnover. Overall, mechanisms were identified that regulate the multifaceted roles of RARs in the salamander limb including regulation of skeletal patterning during epimorphic regeneration, skeletal tissue differentiation during regeneration, and homeostatic regeneration of intact limbs.

  11. Phosphorylation of histone H3 is functionally linked to retinoic acid receptor β promoter activation

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Bruno; Ozato, Keiko; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) is a multistep process culminating in the formation of a multimeric co-activator complex on regulated promoters. Several co-activator complexes harbor an acetyl transferase activity, which is required for retinoid-induced transcription of reporter genes. Using murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, we examined the relationship between histone post-translational modifications and activation of the endogenous RARβ2 promoter, which is under the control of a canonical retinoic acid response element and rapidly induced upon retinoid treatment. While histones H3 and H4 were constitutively acetylated at this promoter, retinoid agonists induced a rapid phosphorylation at Ser10 of histone H3. A retinoid antagonist, whose activity was independent of co-repressor binding to RAR, could oppose this agonist-induced H3 phosphorylation. Since such post-translational modifications were not observed at several other promoters, we conclude that histone H3 phosphorylation may be a molecular signature of the activated, retinoid-controlled mRARβ2 gene promoter. PMID:11897660

  12. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dennis S.; Calandria, Jorgelina M.; Gordon, William C.; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M.; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J.; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells’ functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1−/− mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1−/− mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1−/− reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  13. The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TGR5, stimulates gallbladder filling.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Holmstrom, Sam R; Kir, Serkan; Umetani, Michihisa; Schmidt, Daniel R; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2011-06-01

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 stimulates the filling of the gallbladder with bile. Gallbladder volume was increased in wild-type but not Tgr5(-/-) mice by administration of either the naturally occurring TGR5 agonist, lithocholic acid, or the synthetic TGR5 agonist, INT-777. These effects were independent of fibroblast growth factor 15, an enteric hormone previously shown to stimulate gallbladder filling. Ex vivo analyses using gallbladder tissue showed that TGR5 activation increased cAMP concentrations and caused smooth muscle relaxation in a TGR5-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel, gallbladder-intrinsic mechanism for regulating gallbladder contractility. They further suggest that TGR5 agonists should be assessed for effects on human gallbladder as they are developed for treating metabolic disease.

  14. Sialyl Lewis(x) hybridized complement receptor type 1 moderates acid aspiration injury.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, C; Wang, Y; Austen, W G; Favuzza, J; Kobzik, L; Moore, F D; Hechtman, H B

    2001-12-01

    The potentially enhanced anti-inflammatory effects of the sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x))-decorated version of soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) in moderating acid aspiration injury are examined. HCl was instilled in tracheostomy tubes placed in mice, and extravasation of (125)I-labeled albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was used to calculate the vascular permeability index (PI). Neutrophil counts in BAL fluid and immunohistochemistry were performed. PI was moderated by 82% after treatment with sCR1sLe(x) compared with 54% in sCR1-untreated mice (P < 0.05). Respective reductions in PI in mice treated 0.5 and 1 h after acid aspiration with sCR1sLe(x) of 70 and 57% were greater than the decreases in PI of 45 and 38% observed in respective sCR1-treated groups (P < 0.05). BAL fluid neutrophil counts in sCR1sLe(x)-treated mice were significantly less than those in sCR1-treated animals, which were similar to those in untreated mice. Immunohistochemistry stained for sCR1 only on the pulmonary vascular endothelium of sCR1sLe(x)- but not sCR1-treated mice. In conclusion, sCR1sLe(x) moderates permeability by antagonizing complement activation and neutrophil adhesion. Delayed complement and neutrophil antagonism significantly reduces injury.

  15. [EFfect of quinazolone-alkyl-carboxylic acid derivatives on the transmembrane Ca2+ ion flux mediated by AMPA receptors].

    PubMed

    Szárics, Eva; LaszTóczi, Bálint; Nyikos, Lajos; Barabás, Péter; Kovács, Ilona; Skuban, Nina; Nagy, Péter I; Kökösi, József; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina; Kardos, Julianna

    2002-01-01

    The excitatory neurotransmitter, Glu, plays a crucial role in many sensory and motor functions as well as in brain development, learning and memory and it is also involved in the pathogenesis of a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, the study of Glu receptors (GluRs) is of therapeutical importance. We showed here by fluorescence monitoring of transmembrane Ca2+ ion fluxes in response to (S)-alpha-amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-izoxazol propionic acid ((S)-AMPA) on the time scale of 0.00004-10 s that Ca2+ ion influx proceeds through faster and slower desensitizing receptors. Pharmacological isolation of the slower and faster desensitizing AMPA receptor was possible by fluorescence monitoring of Ca2+ ion translocation in response to (S)-AMPA in the presence and absence of various 2-methyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazoline-3-alkyl-carboxilic acid derivatives (Qxs): the acetic acid Q1 inhibits the slower desensitizing receptor response specifically, while the acetyl-piperidine Q5 is a more potent inhibitor of the faster desensitizing receptor response. In addition, spontaneous interictal activity, as induced by high [K+] conditions in hippocampal slices, was reduced significantly by Q5, suggesting a possible anticonvulsant property of Q5. Substitutions of Qxs into the GluR2 S1S2 binding core were consistent with their effect by causing variable degree of S1S2 bridging interaction as one of the main determinants of AMPA receptor agonist activity. The exploitation of differences between similar receptors will be important in the development and use of drugs with high pharmacological specificity.

  16. Succinate reverses in-vitro platelet inhibition by acetylsalicylic acid and P2Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Spath, Brigitte; Hansen, Arne; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    High on-treatment platelet reactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events in patients receiving anti-platelet agents, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain incompletely understood. Succinate, a citric acid cycle intermediate, is released into the circulation under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction due to hypoxic organ damage, including sepsis, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Because the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for succinate, SUCNR1 (GPR91), is present on human platelets, we hypothesized that succinate-mediated platelet stimulation may counteract the pharmacological effects of cyclooxygenase-1 and ADP receptor antagonists. To test this hypothesis in a controlled in-vitro study, washed platelets from healthy donors were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or small-molecule P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) inhibitors and subsequently analyzed by light transmittance aggregometry using arachidonic acid (AA), ADP and succinate as platelet agonists. Aggregation in response to succinate alone was highly variable with only 29% of donors showing a (mostly delayed) platelet response. In contrast, succinate reproducibly and concentration-dependently (10-1000 µM) enhanced platelet aggregation in response to low concentrations of exogenous ADP. Furthermore, while succinate alone had no effect in the presence of platelet inhibitors, responsiveness of platelets to ADP after pretreatment with P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) antagonists was fully restored, when platelets were co-stimulated with 100 µM succinate. Similarly, succinate completely (at 1000 µM) or partially (at 100 µM) reversed the inhibitory effect of ASA on AA-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, succinate failed to restore platelet responsiveness in the presence of both ASA and the P2Y(12) antagonist, suggesting that concomitant signaling via different GPCRs was required. Essentially identical results were obtained, when flow cytometric analysis of surface CD62P

  17. Regulation of Phospholipase D Activity and Phosphatidic Acid Production after Purinergic (P2Y6) Receptor Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Xiang, Yun; Mathews, Thomas P.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Myers, David S.; Armstrong, Michelle D.; Tallman, Keri A.; O'Reilly, Matthew C.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid second messenger located at the intersection of several lipid metabolism and cell signaling events including membrane trafficking, survival, and proliferation. Generation of signaling PA has long been primarily attributed to the activation of phospholipase D (PLD). PLD catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into PA. A variety of both receptor-tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor stimulations have been shown to lead to PLD activation and PA generation. This study focuses on profiling the PA pool upon P2Y6 receptor signaling manipulation to determine the major PA producing enzymes. Here we show that PLD, although highly active, is not responsible for the majority of stable PA being produced upon UDP stimulation of the P2Y6 receptor and that PA levels are tightly regulated. By following PA flux in the cell we show that PLD is involved in an initial increase in PA upon receptor stimulation; however, when PLD is blocked, the cell compensates by increasing PA production from other sources. We further delineate the P2Y6 signaling pathway showing that phospholipase Cβ3 (PLCβ3), PLCδ1, DGKζ and PLD are all downstream of receptor activation. We also show that DGKζ is a novel negative regulator of PLD activity in this system that occurs through an inhibitory mechanism with PKCα. These results further define the downstream events resulting in PA production in the P2Y6 receptor signaling pathway. PMID:23723068

  18. Allosteric regulation of the discriminative responsiveness of retinoic acid receptor to natural and synthetic ligands by retinoid X receptor and DNA.

    PubMed

    Mouchon, A; Delmotte, M H; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1999-04-01

    Transcriptional activation by retinoids is mediated through two families of nuclear receptors, all-trans-retinoic acid (RARs) and 9-cis retinoic acid receptors (RXRs). Conformationally restricted retinoids are used to achieve selective activation of RAR isotype alpha, beta or gamma, which reduces side effects in therapeutical applications. Synthetic retinoids mimic some of all-trans retinoic acid biological effects in vivo but interact differently with the ligand binding domain of RARalpha and induce distinct structural transitions of the receptor. In this report, we demonstrate that RAR-selective ligands have distinct quantitative activation properties which are reflected by their abilities to promote interaction of DNA-bound human RXRalpha (hRXRalpha)-hRARalpha heterodimers with the nuclear receptor coactivator (NCoA) SRC-1 in vitro. The hormone response element core motifs spacing defined the relative affinity of liganded heterodimers for two NCoAs, SRC-1 and RIP140. hRXRalpha activating function 2 was critical to confer hRARalpha full responsiveness but not differential sensitivity of hRARalpha to natural or synthetic retinoids. We also provide evidence showing that lysines located in helices 3 and 4, which define part of hRARalpha NCoA binding surface, contribute differently to (i) the transcriptional activity and (ii) the interaction of RXR-RAR heterodimers with SRC-1, when challenged by either natural or RAR-selective retinoids. Thus, ligand structure, DNA, and RXR exert allosteric regulations on hRARalpha conformation organized as a DNA-bound heterodimer. We suggest that the use of physically distinct NCoA binding interfaces may be important in controlling specific genes by conformationally restricted ligands.

  19. Allosteric Regulation of the Discriminative Responsiveness of Retinoic Acid Receptor to Natural and Synthetic Ligands by Retinoid X Receptor and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mouchon, Arnaud; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    Transcriptional activation by retinoids is mediated through two families of nuclear receptors, all-trans-retinoic acid (RARs) and 9-cis retinoic acid receptors (RXRs). Conformationally restricted retinoids are used to achieve selective activation of RAR isotype α, β or γ, which reduces side effects in therapeutical applications. Synthetic retinoids mimic some of all-trans retinoic acid biological effects in vivo but interact differently with the ligand binding domain of RARα and induce distinct structural transitions of the receptor. In this report, we demonstrate that RAR-selective ligands have distinct quantitative activation properties which are reflected by their abilities to promote interaction of DNA-bound human RXRα (hRXRα)-hRARα heterodimers with the nuclear receptor coactivator (NCoA) SRC-1 in vitro. The hormone response element core motifs spacing defined the relative affinity of liganded heterodimers for two NCoAs, SRC-1 and RIP140. hRXRα activating function 2 was critical to confer hRARα full responsiveness but not differential sensitivity of hRARα to natural or synthetic retinoids. We also provide evidence showing that lysines located in helices 3 and 4, which define part of hRARα NCoA binding surface, contribute differently to (i) the transcriptional activity and (ii) the interaction of RXR-RAR heterodimers with SRC-1, when challenged by either natural or RAR-selective retinoids. Thus, ligand structure, DNA, and RXR exert allosteric regulations on hRARα conformation organized as a DNA-bound heterodimer. We suggest that the use of physically distinct NCoA binding interfaces may be important in controlling specific genes by conformationally restricted ligands. PMID:10082574

  20. Retinoic acid receptor α1 variants, RARα1ΔB and RARα1ΔBC, define a new class of nuclear receptor isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Parrado, Antonio; Despouy, Gilles; Kraïba, Radhia; Pogam, Carole Le; Dupas, Stéphane; Choquette, Maryline; Robledo, Macarena; Larghero, Jérôme; Bui, Hung; Gall, Isabelle Le; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Chomienne, Christine; Padua, Rose Ann

    2001-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) binds and activates retinoid X receptor (RXR)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimers, which regulate the transcription of genes that have retinoic acid response elements (RARE). The RAR isotypes (α, β and γ) are comprised of six regions designated A–F. Two isoforms of RARα, 1 and 2, have been identified in humans, which have different A regions generated by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. We have isolated two new splice variants of RARα1 from human B lymphocytes. In one of these variants, exon 2 is juxtaposed to exon 5, resulting in an altered reading frame and a stop codon. This variant, designated RARα1ΔB, does not code for a functional receptor. In the second variant, exon 2 is juxtaposed to exon 6, maintaining the reading frame. This isoform, designated RARα1ΔBC, retains most of the functional domains of RARα1, but omits the transactivation domain AF-1 and the DNA-binding domain. Consequently, it does not bind nor transactivate RARE on its own. Nevertheless, RARα1ΔBC interacts with RXRα and, as an RXRα/RARα1ΔBC heterodimer, transactivates the DR5 RARE upon all-trans-RA binding. The use of RAR- and RXR-specific ligands shows that, whereas transactivation of the DR5 RARE through the RXRα/RARα1 heterodimer is mediated only by RAR ligands, transactivation through the RXRα/RARα1ΔBC heterodimer is mediated by RAR and RXR ligands. Whilst RARα1 has a broad tissue distribution, RARα1ΔBC has a more heterogeneous distribution, but with significant expression in myeloid cells. RARα1ΔBC is an infrequent example of a functional nuclear receptor which deletes the DNA-binding domain. PMID:11812818

  1. Amino acid residues of bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 that determine sensitivity in primates to β-glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiroo; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Sakurai, Takanobu; Yin, Lijie; Pan, Wenshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids responsible for the difference in sensitivities of TAS2R16s of various primates using a cultured cell expression system. We found that the sensitivity of TAS2R16 varied due to several amino acid residues. Mutation of amino acid residues at E86T, L247M, and V260F in human and langur TAS2R16 for mimicking the macaque TAS2R16 decreased the sensitivity of the receptor in an additive manner, which suggests its contribution to the potency of salicin, possibly via direct interaction. However, mutation of amino acid residues 125 and 133 in human TAS2R16, which are situated in helix 4, to the macaque sequence increased the sensitivity of the receptor. These results suggest the possibility that bitter taste sensitivities evolved independently by replacing specific amino acid residues of TAS2Rs in different primate species to adapt to species-specific food. PMID:27924271

  2. Porcine Sapelovirus Uses α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid on GD1a Ganglioside as a Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Song; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Koo, Kyung-Min; Kim, Ji-Yun; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Kang, Mun-Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The receptor(s) for porcine sapelovirus (PSV), which causes diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs, remains largely unknown. Given the precedent for other picornaviruses which use terminal sialic acids (SAs) as receptors, we examined the role of SAs in PSV binding and infection. Using a variety of approaches, including treating cells with a carbohydrate-destroying chemical (NaIO4), mono- or oligosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose, and 6′-sialyllactose), linkage-specific sialidases (neuraminidase and sialidase S), lectins (Maakia amurensis lectin and Sambucus nigra lectin), proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin), and glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors (dl-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol and phospholipase C), we demonstrated that PSV could recognize α2,3-linked SA on glycolipids as a receptor. On the other hand, PSVs had no binding affinity for synthetic histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), suggesting that PSVs could not use HBGAs as receptors. Depletion of cell surface glycolipids followed by reconstitution studies indicated that GD1a ganglioside, but not other gangliosides, could restore PSV binding and infection, further confirming α2,3-linked SA on GD1a as a PSV receptor. Our results could provide significant information on the understanding of the life cycle of sapelovirus and other picornaviruses. For the broader community in the area of pathogens and pathogenesis, these findings and insights could contribute to the development of affordable, useful, and efficient drugs for anti-sapelovirus therapy. IMPORTANCE The porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is known to cause enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs. However, the receptor(s) that the PSV utilizes to enter host cells remains largely unknown. Using a variety of approaches, we showed that α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA) on the cell surface GD1a ganglioside could be used for PSV

  3. Expression and regulation of retinoic acid receptors in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Roman, S D; Clarke, C L; Hall, R E; Alexander, I E; Sutherland, R L

    1992-04-15

    Retinoic acid is known to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis in rodents and to inhibit proliferation and steroid hormone receptor gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Since these effects are likely to be mediated by nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) the present study was initiated to determine the expression and regulation of RARs in human breast cancer cell lines. Differential cellular gene expression of the RARs was determined by Northern blot analysis of total RNA prepared from 5 ER+ and 6 ER- cell lines. RAR alpha was detected as mRNA species of 2.7 and 3.4 kilobases in all cell lines and the level of gene expression was greater in ER+ cell lines (P less than 0.001). RAR beta mRNA (3.7 kilobases) was detected in seven of the eleven lines tested and was expressed most commonly in ER- cell lines. RAR gamma mRNA was expressed in all cell lines as a transcript of 3.4 kilobases at levels that were similar in both ER+ and ER- cell lines. Retinoic acid failed to regulate the expression of the RAR alpha and RAR gamma genes. The effect of steroid hormones on RAR alpha and RAR gamma mRNA levels was also examined. In four PR+ cell lines (T-47D, BT 474, MCF-7M, and MDA-MB-361), progestins markedly decreased RAR alpha mRNA levels. The progestin effect on RAR alpha levels in T-47D cells was detectable at concentrations of 0.05 nM and was maximal at 1 nM 16 alpha-ethyl-21-hydroxy-19-nor-4-pregnene-3,20-dione ORG 2058, whereas dihydrotestosterone and dexamethasone were without effect. RAR alpha and RAR gamma mRNA levels were rapidly decreased by progestin, and the effect was maximal 3-6 h after ORG 2058 treatment. However, the mRNA loss was transient, and recovery of RAR alpha and RAR gamma mRNA levels was noted 12-24 h after retinoic acid treatment. Although RAR gamma mRNA returned to control levels by 24 h, the decrease in RAR alpha mRNA was maintained at around 50% control until at least 48 h. In summary, RAR alpha and RAR gamma were expressed in all human breast

  4. Activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor by gintonin inhibits Kv1.2 channel activity: involvement of tyrosine kinase and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Rhee, Jeehae; Chung, Chihye; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2013-08-26

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. The primary action of gintonin is to elicit a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i via activation of LPA receptor subtypes. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels play important roles in synaptic transmission in nervous systems. The previous reports have shown that Kv channels can be regulated by Gαq/11 protein-coupled receptor ligands. In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of RNA encoding the human Kv1.2 α subunit. Gintonin treatment inhibited Kv1.2 channel activity in reversible and concentration-dependent manners. The inhibitory effect of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity was blocked by active phospholipase C inhibitor, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. The co-expression of active receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α (RPTPα) with Kv1.2 channel greatly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity, but attenuation was not observed with catalytically inactive RPTPα. Furthermore, neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor site-directed mutation of a tyrosine residue (Y132 to Y132F), which is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase of the N-terminal of the Kv1.2 channel α subunit, significantly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity. These results indicate that the gintonin-mediated Kv1.2 channel regulation involves the dual coordination of both tyrosine kinase and RPTPα coupled to this receptor. Finally, gintonin-mediated regulation of Kv1.2 channel activity might explain one of the modulations of gintonin-mediated neuronal activities in nervous systems.

  5. Genetic variants of the unsaturated fatty acid receptor GPR120 relating to obesity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Masahiro; Gin, Azusa; Onozawa, Eri; Daimon, Mana; Yamada, Hana; Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Momota, Yutaka; Azakami, Daigo; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Mochizuki, Mariko; Sako, Toshinori; Tamura, Katsutoshi; Ishioka, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 120 is an unsaturated fatty acid receptor, which is associated with various physiological functions. It is reported that the genetic variant of GPR120, p.Arg270His, is detected more in obese people, and this genetic variation functionally relates to obesity in humans. Obesity is a common nutritional disorder also in dogs, but the genetic factors have not ever been identified in dogs. In this study, we investigated the molecular structure of canine GPR120 and searched for candidate genetic variants which may relate to obesity in dogs. Canine GPR120 was highly homologous to those of other species, and seven transmembrane domains and two N-glycosylation sites were conserved. GPR120 mRNA was expressed in lung, jejunum, ileum, colon, hypothalamus, hippocampus, spinal cord, bone marrow, dermis and white adipose tissues in dogs, as those in mice and humans. Genetic variants of GPR120 were explored in client-owned 141 dogs, resulting in that 5 synonymous and 4 non-synonymous variants were found. The variant c.595C>A (p.Pro199Thr) was found in 40 dogs, and the gene frequency was significantly higher in dogs with higher body condition scores, i.e. 0.320 in BCS4-5 dogs, 0.175 in BCS3 dogs and 0.000 in BCS2 dogs. We conclude that c.595C>A (p.Pro199Thr) is a candidate variant relating to obesity, which may be helpful for nutritional management of dogs.

  6. A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Kevin W; Nichols, Andrew S; Walden, Kimberly K O; Brockmann, Axel; Luetje, Charles W; Robertson, Hugh M

    2007-09-04

    By using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a honey bee [Apis mellifera (Am)] odorant receptor (Or) for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA). Honey bees live in large eusocial colonies in which a single queen is responsible for reproduction, several thousand sterile female worker bees complete a myriad of tasks to maintain the colony, and several hundred male drones exist only to mate. The "queen substance" [also termed the queen retinue pheromone (QRP)] is an eight-component pheromone that maintains the queen's dominance in the colony. The main component, 9-ODA, acts as a releaser pheromone by attracting workers to the queen and as a primer pheromone by physiologically inhibiting worker ovary development; it also acts as a sex pheromone, attracting drones during mating flights. However, the extent to which social and sexual chemical messages are shared remains unresolved. By using a custom chemosensory-specific microarray and qPCR, we identified four candidate sex pheromone Ors (AmOr10, -11, -18, and -170) from the honey bee genome based on their biased expression in drone antennae. We assayed the pheromone responsiveness of these receptors by using Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiology. AmOr11 responded specifically to 9-ODA (EC50=280+/-31 nM) and not to any of the other seven QRP components, other social pheromones, or floral odors. We did not observe any responses of the other three Ors to any of the eight QRP pheromone components, suggesting 9-ODA is the only QRP component that also acts as a long-distance sex pheromone.

  7. Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid-Mediated Motility is Associated with Poor Survival in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Bo; Sato, Norihiro; Kohi, Shiro; Koga, Atsuhiro; Hirata, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) is a nonintegral cell surface receptor involved in the aggressive phenotype in a wide spectrum of human malignancies, but the significance of RHAMM in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of RHAMM and its clinical relevance in PDAC. RHAMM mRNA expression was examined in 8 PDAC cell lines and in primary pancreatic cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 14 patients using real-time RT-PCR. Western blotting was carried out to analyze the expression of RHAMM protein in PDAC cell lines. We also investigated the expression patterns of RHAMM protein in tissue samples from 70 PDAC patients using immunohistochemistry. The RHAMM mRNA expression was increased in some PDAC cell lines as compared to a non-tumorous pancreatic epithelial cell line HPDE. The RHAMM mRNA expression was significantly higher in PDAC tissues as compared to corresponding non-tumorous pancreatic tissues (P < 0.0001). The RHAMM protein expression was higher in the vast majority of PDAC cell lines relative to the expression in HPDE. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong expression of RHAMM in 52 (74%) PDAC tissues. Strong expression of RHAMM was significantly associated with a shorter survival time (P = 0.038). In multivariate analysis, tumor stage (P = 0.039), residual tumor (P = 0.015), and strong RHAMM expression (P = 0.034) were independent factors predicting poor survival. Strong expression of RHAMM may predict poor survival in PDAC patients and may provide prognostic and, possibly, therapeutic value. PMID:26516356

  8. The antiallodynic action target of intrathecal gabapentin: Ca2+ channels, KATP channels or N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Yang, Jia-Rung; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2006-01-01

    Gabapentin is a novel analgesic whose mechanism of action is not known. We investigated in a postoperative pain model whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and Ca2+ channels are involved in the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin. Mechanical allodynia was induced by a paw incision in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Withdrawal thresholds to von Frey filament stimulation near the incision site were measured before and after incision and after intrathecal drug administration. The antiallodynic effect of gabapentin (100 mug) was not affected by intrathecal pretreatment with antagonists of K(ATP) channels, NMDA receptors or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. K(ATP) channel openers and GABA(A) receptor agonist, per se, had little effect on the postincision allodynic response. The Ca2+ channel blocker of N-type (omega-conotoxin GVIA, 0.1-3 microg), but not of P/Q-type (omega-agatoxin IVA), L-type (verapamil, diltiazem or nimodipine), or T-type (mibefradil), attenuated the incision-induced allodynia, as did gabapentin. Both the antiallodynic effects of gabapentin and omega-conotoxin GVIA were attenuated by Bay K 8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel activator. These results provide correlative evidence to support the contention that N-type Ca2+ channels, but not K(ATP) channels or NMDA or GABA(A) receptors, might be involved in the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin.

  9. Bile acid regulates c-Jun expression through the orphan nuclear receptor SHP induction in gastric cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Il; Park, Min Jung; An, Jin Kwang; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Hye Young; Cheong, JaeHun Yang, Ung Suk

    2008-05-02

    Bile reflux is considered to be one of the most important causative factors in gastric carcinogenesis, due to the attendant inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we have assessed the molecular mechanisms inherent to the contribution of bile acid to the transcriptional regulation of inflammatory-related genes. In this study, we demonstrated that bile acid induced the expression of the SHP orphan nuclear receptor at the transcriptional level via c-Jun activation. Bile acid also enhanced the protein interaction of NF-{kappa}B and SHP, thereby resulting in an increase in c-Jun expression and the production of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF{alpha}. These results indicate that bile acid performs a critical function in the regulation of the induction of inflammatory-related genes in gastric cells, and that bile acid-mediated gene expression provides a pre-clue for the development of gastric cellular malformation.

  10. Estrogen dissociates Tau and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor subunit in postischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia; Arango-Davila, Cesar; Gallego-Gómez, Juan Carlos; Barrera-Ocampo, Alvaro; Pimienta, Hernan; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2006-08-21

    During cerebral ischemia, part of the damage associated with the hyperactivation of glutamate receptors results from the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau. Previous studies have shown that estradiol treatment reduces neural damage after cerebral ischemia. Here, we show that transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in the hyperphosphorylation of Tau and in a significant increase in the association of Tau with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid type glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 in the hippocampus. Estradiol treatment decreased hippocampal injury, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and decreased the hyperphosphorylation of Tau and the interaction of Tau with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor. These findings suggest that ischemia produces a strong association between Tau and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor, and estradiol can exert at least part of its neuroprotective activity through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta.

  11. Arachidonic Acid Metabolite 19(S)-HETE Induces Vasorelaxation and Platelet Inhibition by Activating Prostacyclin (IP) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chennupati, Ramesh; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    19(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (19(S)-HETE) belongs to a family of arachidonic acid metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which play critical roles in the regulation of cardiovascular, renal and pulmonary functions. Although it has been known for a long time that 19(S)-HETE has vascular effects, its mechanism of action has remained unclear. In this study we show that 19(S)-HETE induces cAMP accumulation in the human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line MEG-01. This effect was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 520 nM, insensitive to pharmacological inhibition of COX-1/2 and required the expression of the G-protein Gs. Systematic siRNA-mediated knock-down of each G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in MEG-01 followed by functional analysis identified the prostacyclin receptor (IP) as the mediator of the effects of 19(S)-HETE, and the heterologously expressed IP receptor was also activated by 19(S)-HETE in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 567 nM. Pretreatment of isolated murine platelets with 19(S)-HETE blocked thrombin-induced platelets aggregation, an effect not seen in platelets from mice lacking the IP receptor. Furthermore, 19(S)-HETE was able to relax mouse mesenteric artery- and thoracic aorta-derived vessel segments. While pharmacological inhibition of COX-1/2 enzymes had no effect on the vasodilatory activity of 19(S)-HETE these effects were not observed in vessels from mice lacking the IP receptor. These results identify a novel mechanism of action for the CYP450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolite 19(S)-HETE and point to the existence of a broader spectrum of naturally occurring prostanoid receptor agonists. PMID:27662627

  12. Imidazoleacetic acid-ribotide induces depression of synaptic responses in hippocampus through activation of imidazoline receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bozdagi, O.; Wang, X. B.; Martinelli, G. P.; Prell, G.; Friedrich, V. L.; Huntley, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP), an endogenous agonist at imidazoline receptors (I-Rs), is a putative neurotransmitter/regulator in mammalian brain. We studied the effects of IAA-RP on excitatory transmission by performing extracellular and whole cell recordings at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in rat hippocampal slices. Bath-applied IAA-RP induced a concentration-dependent depression of synaptic transmission that, after washout, returned to baseline within 20 min. Maximal decrease occurred with 10 μM IAA-RP, which reduced the slope of field extracellular postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) to 51.2 ± 5.7% of baseline at 20 min of exposure. Imidazole-4-acetic acid-riboside (IAA-R; 10 μM), the endogenous dephosphorylated metabolite of IAA-RP, also produced inhibition of fEPSPs. This effect was smaller than that produced by IAA-RP (to 65.9 ± 3.8% of baseline) and occurred after a further 5- to 8-min delay. The frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents was decreased, and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was increased after application of IAA-RP, suggesting a principally presynaptic site of action. Since IAA-RP also has low affinity for α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs), we tested synaptic depression induced by IAA-RP in the presence of α2-ARs, I1-R, or I3-R antagonists. The α2-AR antagonist rauwolscine (100 nM), which blocked the actions of the α2-AR agonist clonidine, did not affect either the IAA-RP-induced synaptic depression or the increase in PPF. In contrast, efaroxan (50 μM), a mixed I1-R and α2-AR antagonist, abolished the synaptic depression induced by IAA-RP and abolished the related increase in PPF. KU-14R, an I3-R antagonist, partially attenuated responses to IAA-RP. Taken together, these data support a role for IAA-RP in modulating synaptic transmission in the hippocampus through activation of I-Rs. PMID:21228308

  13. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Lu; Xue, Jian-Xin; Li, Xin; Liu, De-Song; Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin; Lu, You; Jiang, Wei

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. {yields} Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. {yields} VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGF{beta}1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGF{beta}1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1

  14. Central phencyclidine (PCP) receptor binding is glutamate dependent: evidence for a PCP/excitatory amino acid receptor (EAAR) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, P.; Braunwalder, A.; Lehmann, J.; Williams, M.

    1986-03-01

    PCP and other dissociative anesthetica block the increase in neuronal firing rate evoked by the EAAR agonist, N-methyl-Daspartate. NMDA and other EAAs such as glutamate (glu) have not been previously shown to affect PCP ligand binding. In the present study, using once washed rat forebrain membranes, 10 ..mu..M-glu was found to increase the binding of (/sup 3/H)TCP, a PCP analog, to defined PCP recognition sites by 20%. Removal of glu and aspartate (asp) by extensive washing decreased TCP binding by 75-90%. In these membranes, 10 ..mu..M L-glu increased TCP binding 3-fold. This effect was stereospecific and evoked by other EAAs with the order of activity, L-glu > D-asp > L- asp > NMDA > D-glu > quisqualate. Kainate, GABA, NE, DA, 5-HT, 2-chloroadenosine, oxotremorine and histamine had no effect on TCP binding at concentrations up to 100 ..mu..M. The effects of L-glu were attenuated by the NMDA-type receptor antagonist, 2-amino-7--phosphonoheptanoate (AP7; 10 ..mu..M-1 mM). These findings indicate that EAAS facilitate TCP binding, possibly through NMDA-type receptors. The observed interaction between the PCP receptor and EAARs may reflect the existence of a macromolecular receptor complex similar to that demonstrated for the benzodiazepines and GABA.

  15. PERFLUOROPHOSPHONIC ACID ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROUFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-ALPHA BUT NOT CONSTITUTIVE ANDROSTANE RECEPTOR IN THE MURINE LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Masurf FS-780 is a commercial perfluoro-chemical mixture that contains C612-perfluoroalkylphosphonic acid (PFPA) derivatives. PFPAs have received recent attention as a previously under recognized subclass of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that are found in the environment. The curr...

  16. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its membrane receptor STRA6 control adipogenesis by regulating cellular retinoid homeostasis and retinoic acid receptor α activity.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Matthias; Tuvia, Neta; Deutschmann, Claudia; Witte, Nicole; Tolkachov, Alexander; Valai, Atijeh; Henze, Andrea; Sander, Leif E; Raila, Jens; Schupp, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Retinoids are vitamin A (retinol) derivatives and complex regulators of adipogenesis by activating specific nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and its membrane receptor STRA6 coordinate cellular retinol uptake. It is unknown whether retinol levels and the activity of RAR and RXR in adipocyte precursors are linked via RBP4/STRA6. Here, we show that STRA6 is expressed in precursor cells and, dictated by the apo- and holo-RBP4 isoforms, mediates bidirectional retinol transport that controls RARα activity and subsequent adipocyte differentiation. Mobilization of retinoid stores in mice by inducing RBP4 secretion from the liver activated RARα signaling in the precursor cell containing the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. Retinol-loaded holo-RBP4 blocked adipocyte differentiation of cultured precursors by activating RARα. Remarkably, retinol-free apo-RBP4 triggered retinol efflux that reduced cellular retinoids, RARα activity, and target gene expression and enhanced adipogenesis synergistically with ectopic STRA6. Thus, STRA6 in adipocyte precursor cells links nuclear RARα activity to the circulating RBP4 isoforms, whose ratio in obese mice was shifted toward limiting the adipogenic potential of their precursors. This novel cross talk identifies a retinol-dependent metabolic function of RBP4 that may have important implications for the treatment of obesity.

  17. Inhibition of testicular embryonal carcinoma cell tumorigenicity by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ- and retinoic acid receptor-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Chen, Li Ping; Dobrzański, Tomasz P; Phillips, Dylan A; Zhu, Bokai; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2015-11-03

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has important physiological functions in control of cell growth, lipid and glucose homeostasis, differentiation and inflammation. To investigate the role of PPARβ/δ in cancer, stable human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell lines were developed that constitutively express PPARβ/δ. Expression of PPARβ/δ caused enhanced activation of the receptor, and this significantly decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and also reduced tumor mass and volume of ectopic xenografts derived from NT2/D1 cells compared to controls. The changes observed in xenografts were associated with decreased PPARβ/δ-dependent expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and octamer-binding transcription factor-3/4, suggesting suppressed tumor proliferation and induction of differentiation. Inhibition of migration and invasion was mediated by PPARβ/δ competing with formation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) complex, resulting in attenuation of RARα-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity. These results demonstrate that PPARβ/δ mediates attenuation of human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell progression through a novel RAR-dependent mechanism and suggest that activation of PPARβ/δ inhibits RAR/RXR dimerization and represents a new therapeutic strategy.

  18. Induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Wang, Qi; Yao, Xiaomin; Li, Yan

    2010-08-25

    The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. Real time PCR, western blotting, and a luminescent assay were used to assess the induction of gene expression and activity of CYP3A4 and MDR1 by the test compounds. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Baicalein induced the expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA by activating pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression.

  19. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α regulates diurnal rhythm and fasting induction of sterol 12α-hydroxylase in bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Preeti; Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y L

    2013-12-27

    Sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) is required for cholic acid synthesis and plays a critical role in intestinal cholesterol absorption and pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism of fasting induction and circadian rhythm of CYP8B1 by a cholesterol-activated nuclear receptor and core clock gene retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα). Fasting stimulated, whereas restricted-feeding reduced expression of CYP8B1 mRNA and protein. However, fasting and feeding had little effect on the diurnal rhythm of RORα mRNA expression, but fasting increased RORα protein levels by cAMP-activated protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of the protein. Adenovirus-mediated gene transduction of RORα to mice strongly induced CYP8B1 expression, and increased liver cholesterol and 12α-hydroxylated bile acids in the bile acid pool and serum. A reporter assay identified a functional RORα response element in the CYP8B1 promoter. RORα recruited cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) to stimulate histone acetylation on the CYP8B1 gene promoter. In conclusion, RORα is a key regulator of diurnal rhythm and fasting induction of CYP8B1, which regulates bile acid composition and serum and liver cholesterol levels. Antagonizing RORα activity may be a therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Non-classical mechanism of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor channel block by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Barygin, Oleg I; Komarova, Margarita S; Tikhonova, Tatiana B; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2015-04-01

    Antidepressants have many targets in the central nervous system. A growing body of data demonstrates the influence of antidepressants on glutamatergic neurotransmission. In the present work, we studied the inhibition of native Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rat brain neurons by fluoxetine. The Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were weakly affected. The IC50 value for the inhibition of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in giant striatal interneurons was 43 ± 7 μM. The inhibition of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors was voltage dependent, suggesting deep binding in the pore. However, the use dependence of fluoxetine action differed markedly from that of classical AMPA receptor open-channel blockers. Moreover, fluoxetine did not compete with other channel blockers. In contrast to fluoxetine, its membrane-impermeant quaternary analog demonstrated all of the features of channel inhibition typical for open-channel blockers. It is suggested that fluoxetine reaches the binding site through a hydrophobic access pathway. Such a mechanism of block is described for ligands of sodium and calcium channels, but was never found in AMPA receptors. Molecular modeling suggests binding of fluoxetine in the subunit interface; analogous binding was proposed for local anesthetics in closed sodium channels and for benzothiazepines in calcium channels.

  1. Multiplex detection of functional G protein-coupled receptors harboring site-specifically modified unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Saranga; Ray-Saha, Sarmistha; Park, Minyoung; Tian, He; Sakmar, Thomas P; Huber, Thomas

    2015-01-27

    We developed a strategy for identifying positions in G protein-coupled receptors that are amenable to bioorthogonal modification with a peptide epitope tag under cell culturing conditions. We introduced the unnatural amino acid p-azido-l-phenylalanine (azF) into human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) at site-specific amber codon mutations. We then used strain-promoted azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition to label the azF-CCR5 variants with a FLAG peptide epitope-conjugated aza-dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) reagent. A microtiter plate-based sandwich fluorophore-linked immunosorbent assay was used to probe simultaneously the FLAG epitope and the receptor using infrared dye-conjugated antibodies so that the extent of DBCO incorporation, corresponding nominally to labeling efficiency, could be quantified ratiometrically. The extent of incorporation of DBCO at the various sites was evaluated in the context of a recent crystal structure of maraviroc-bound CCR5. We observed that labeling efficiency varied dramatically depending on the topological location of the azF in CCR5. Interestingly, position 109 in transmembrane helix 3, located in a hydrophobic cavity on the extracellular side of the receptor, was labeled most efficiently. Because the bioorthogonal labeling and detection strategy described might be used to introduce a variety of different peptide epitopes or fluorophores into engineered expressed receptors, it might prove to be useful for a wide range of applications, including single-molecule detection studies of receptor trafficking and signaling mechanism.

  2. Multiplex Detection of Functional G Protein-Coupled Receptors Harboring Site-Specifically Modified Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We developed a strategy for identifying positions in G protein-coupled receptors that are amenable to bioorthogonal modification with a peptide epitope tag under cell culturing conditions. We introduced the unnatural amino acid p-azido-l-phenylalanine (azF) into human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) at site-specific amber codon mutations. We then used strain-promoted azide–alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition to label the azF-CCR5 variants with a FLAG peptide epitope-conjugated aza-dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) reagent. A microtiter plate-based sandwich fluorophore-linked immunosorbent assay was used to probe simultaneously the FLAG epitope and the receptor using infrared dye-conjugated antibodies so that the extent of DBCO incorporation, corresponding nominally to labeling efficiency, could be quantified ratiometrically. The extent of incorporation of DBCO at the various sites was evaluated in the context of a recent crystal structure of maraviroc-bound CCR5. We observed that labeling efficiency varied dramatically depending on the topological location of the azF in CCR5. Interestingly, position 109 in transmembrane helix 3, located in a hydrophobic cavity on the extracellular side of the receptor, was labeled most efficiently. Because the bioorthogonal labeling and detection strategy described might be used to introduce a variety of different peptide epitopes or fluorophores into engineered expressed receptors, it might prove to be useful for a wide range of applications, including single-molecule detection studies of receptor trafficking and signaling mechanism. PMID:25524496

  3. Fatty acid synthase regulates estrogen receptor-α signaling in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, J A; Lupu, R

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme for endogenous synthesis of fatty acids, is overexpressed and hyperactivated in a biologically aggressive subset of sex steroid-related tumors, including breast carcinomas. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we assessed the molecular relationship between FASN signaling and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in breast cancer. The small compound C75, a synthetic slow-binding inhibitor of FASN activity, induced a dramatic augmentation of estradiol (E2)-stimulated, ERα-driven transcription. FASN and ERα were both necessary for the synergistic activation of ERα transcriptional activity that occurred following co-exposure to C75 and E2: first, knockdown of FASN expression using RNAi (RNA interference) drastically lowered (>100 fold) the amount of E2 required for optimal activation of ERα-mediated transcriptional activity; second, FASN blockade synergistically increased E2-stimulated ERα-mediated transcriptional activity in ERα-negative breast cancer cells stably transfected with ERα, but not in ERα-negative parental cells. Non-genomic, E2-regulated cross-talk between the ERα and MAPK pathways participated in these phenomena. Thus, treatment with the pure antiestrogen ICI 182 780 or the potent and specific inhibitor of MEK/ERK, U0126, was sufficient to abolish the synergistic nature of the interaction between FASN blockade and E2-stimulated ERα transactivation. FASN inhibition suppressed E2-stimulated breast cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation while promoting the reduction of ERα protein. FASN blockade resulted in the increased expression and nuclear accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27Kip1, two critical mediators of the therapeutic effects of antiestrogen in breast cancer, while inactivating AKT, a key mediator of E2-promoted anchorage-independent growth. The ability of FASN to regulate E2/ERα signaling may represent a

  4. New Clothes for the Jasmonic Acid Receptor COI1: Delayed Abscission, Meristem Arrest and Apical Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonyup; Dotson, Bradley; Rey, Camila; Lindsey, Joshua; Bleecker, Anthony B.; Binder, Brad M.; Patterson, Sara E.

    2013-01-01

    In a screen for delayed floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis, we have identified a novel mutant of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), the F-box protein that has been shown to be the jasmonic acid (JA) co-receptor. While JA has been shown to have an important role in senescence, root development, pollen dehiscence and defense responses, there has been little focus on its critical role in floral organ abscission. Abscission, or the detachment of organs from the main body of a plant, is an essential process during plant development and a unique type of cell separation regulated by endogenous and exogenous signals. Previous studies have indicated that auxin and ethylene are major plant hormones regulating abscission; and here we show that regulation of floral organ abscission is also controlled by jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our characterization of coi1-1 and a novel allele (coi1-37) has also revealed an essential role in apical dominance and floral meristem arrest. In this study we provide genetic evidence indicating that delayed abscission 4 (dab4-1) is allelic to coi1-1 and that meristem arrest and apical dominance appear to be evolutionarily divergent functions for COI1 that are governed in an ecotype-dependent manner. Further characterizations of ethylene and JA responses of dab4-1/coi1-37 also provide new information suggesting separate pathways for ethylene and JA that control both floral organ abscission and hypocotyl growth in young seedlings. Our study opens the door revealing new roles for JA and its interaction with other hormones during plant development. PMID:23573263

  5. Robust GLP-1 secretion by basic L-amino acids does not require the GPRC6A receptor.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Jørgensen, Christinna V; Smajilovic, Sanela; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-04-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A (GPCR, Class C, group 6, subtype A) has been proposed to be a sensor for basic L-amino acids that are hypothesized to translate ingestive behaviour to endocrine information. However, the contribution of the GPRC6A receptor to L-amino acid-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion is unclear. Therefore, to discover whether the GPRC6A receptor is indispensible for amino acid-induced secretion of GLP-1, we treated, with oral gavage, GPRC6A knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice with GPRC6A ligands (L-arginine and L-ornithine) and assessed GLP-1 levels in circulation. We found that oral administration of both L-arginine and L-ornithine significantly increased total plasma GLP-1 levels to a similar level in GPRC6A KO and WT mice 15 minutes after gavage (both amino acids) and accumulated up to 60 minutes after gavage (L-arginine). Conversely, GLP-1 secretion at the 30- and 60-minute time points in the KO mice was attenuated and did not reach statistical significance. In summary, these data confirm that L-arginine is a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and show that the main effect occurs independently of GPRC6A. In addition, this is the first study to show that also L-ornithine powerfully elicits GLP-1 release in vivo.

  6. Biphasic effects of baclofen on phrenic motoneurons: possible involvement of two types of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Lalley, P M

    1983-08-01

    Intravenous injections of baclofen have two general dose-dependent effects on phrenic motoneurons in anesthetized cats. Small doses (0.5-1.5 mg/kg) increase the frequency of action potentials recorded from single motoneurons and from the phrenic nerve, whereas large doses (2-10 mg/kg) reduce or abolish action potentials. The increase in frequency produced by small doses is accompanied by membrane depolarization and, in most experiments, by increased input resistance. Large doses hyperpolarize phrenic motoneurons and produce greater increases in input resistance. Extracellular recording during microelectrophoretic application of baclofen reveals only one effect, depression of cell firing, at all effective current strengths. The low dose stimulatory effect of i.v. baclofen is attributed to disinhibition, whereas the depression by large doses is attributed to disfacilitation. During incomplete inhibition by baclofen, CO2 administration further depresses phrenic nerve activity. Bicuculline (100-600 micrograms/kg i.v.) and picrotoxin (900 micrograms/kg i.v.) restore firing depressed by baclofen, whereas strychnine (80-1280 micrograms/kg) does not. 3-Aminopropanesulfonic acid (5-75 mg/kg i.v.) an agonist at gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor sites, depresses phrenic nerve activity. It is suggested that the low dose stimulatory effects are related to actions at gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors, whereas the high dose depressant effects are related, at least in part, to activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

  7. Effects of curcumin and tannic acid on the aluminum- and lead-induced oxidative neurotoxicity and alterations in NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Tüzmen, Münire Nalan; Yücel, Nilgün Candan; Kalburcu, Tülden; Demiryas, Nazan

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to aluminum (Al) and lead (Pb) can cause brain damage. Also, Pb and Al exposure alters N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression. Polyphenols such as tannic acid and curcumin are very efficient chelator for metals. The effects of curcumin and tannic acid (polyphenols) on Al(3+)- and Pb(2+)-induced oxidative stress were examined by investigating lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity and also NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B concentrations in the brain tissue of rats sub-chronically. Rats were divided into seven groups as control, Al, Pb, aluminum-tannic acid treatment (AlT), aluminum-curcumin treatment (AlC), lead-tannic acid treatment (PbT) and lead-curcumin treatment (PbC). After 16 weeks of treatment, LPO levels in the brain and hippocampus were higher in Al(3+)-exposed rats than that of Pb(2+)-exposed group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in brain tissue of Al- and Pb-exposed rats increased significantly compared with control, while catalase (CAT) and AChE activities decreased. It was observed that metal exposure affected NR2A concentrations more than NR2B concentrations and also that polyphenol treatments increased these receptor protein concentrations.

  8. p-Coumaric acid activates the GABA-A receptor in vitro and is orally anxiolytic in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scheepens, Arjan; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Skinner, Margot

    2014-02-01

    The increasing prevalence and social burden of subclinical anxiety in the western world represents a significant psychosocial and financial cost. Consumers are favouring a more natural and nonpharmacological approach for alleviating the effects of everyday stress and anxiety. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor is the primary mediator of central inhibitory neurotransmission, and GABA-receptor agonists are well known to convey anxiolytic effects. Using an in vitro screening approach to identify naturally occurring phytochemical GABA agonists, we discovered the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid to have significant GABAergic activity, an effect that could be blocked by co-administration of the specific GABA-receptor antagonist, picrotoxin. Oral administration of p-coumaric acid to rodents induced a significant anxiolytic effect in vivo as measured using the elevated plus paradigm, in line with the effects of oral diazepam. Given that p-coumaric acid is reasonably well absorbed following oral consumption in man and is relatively nontoxic, it may be suitable for the formulation of a safe and effective anxiolytic functional food.

  9. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K.; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% lower than those fed a control diet containing adequate α-linolenic acid. Decreased brain DHA produced a significant main effect of decreased density of ventral striatal D2-like receptors. Virgin females with decreased DHA also exhibited higher density of D1-like receptors in the caudate nucleus than virgin females with normal DHA. These receptor alterations are similar to those found in several rodent models of depression, and are consistent with the proposed hypodopaminergic basis for anhedonia and motivational deficits in depression. PMID:20670471

  10. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Okito, Asuka; Nakahama, Ken-Ichi; Akiyama, Masako; Ono, Takashi; Morita, Ikuo

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of mouse GPRC6A, an L-α-amino-acid receptor modulated by divalent cations

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, B; Hansen, K B; Wellendorph, P; Bräuner-Osborne, H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: GPRC6A is a novel member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors with so far unknown function. We have recently described both human and mouse GPRC6A as receptors for L-α-amino acids. To date, functional characterization of wild-type GPRC6A has been impaired by the lack of activity in quantitative functional assays. The aim of this study was thus to develop such an assay and extend the pharmacological characterization of GPRC6A. Experimental approach: We have engineered a novel cell-based inositol phosphate turnover assay for wild-type mouse GPRC6A based on transient co-expression with the promiscuous GαqG66D protein, known to increase receptor signalling sensitivity. This assay allowed for measurements of L-α-amino acid potencies. Furthermore, in combination with an assay measuring inward currents at Ca2+-activated chloride channels in Xenopus oocytes, the divalent cation-sensing ability of the receptor was examined. Key results: Using our novel assay, we demonstrate that the basic L-α-amino acids ornithine, lysine, and arginine are the most potent agonists at wild-type mouse GPRC6A. Using two different assay systems, we show that divalent cations do not activate the Gq signalling pathway of mouse GPRC6A per se but positively modulate the amino-acid response. Conclusions and Implications: This is the first reported assay for a wild-type GPRC6A successfully applied for quantitative pharmacological characterization of amino acid and divalent cation responses at mouse GPRC6A. The assay enables further search for GPRC6A ligands such as allosteric modulators, which may provide essential information about the physiological function of GPRC6A. PMID:17245368

  12. Repression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 polypeptide biosynthesis requires chronic agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J D; Barnes, E M

    1997-06-27

    Although it is well established that the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors declines in cortical neurons exposed to GABAA receptor agonists, the mechanisms responsible for this use-dependent down-regulation remain unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: (i) agonist-evoked sequestration and degradation of surface GABAA receptors and (ii) repression of receptor subunit biosynthesis. We have addressed this problem using [35S]Met/Cys pulse-chase labeling of chick cortical neurons in culture and immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with an antibody (RP4) directed against a GABAA receptor alpha1-(331-381) fusion protein. Exposure of the cells to GABA or isoguvacine for 2 h to 4 days had no effect on the initial rate of 35S incorporation into the GABAA receptor 51-kDa alpha1 polypeptide, but this rate declined by 33% after a 7-day treatment. This is consistent with a previous report (Baumgartner, B. J., Harvey, R. J., Darlison, M. G., and Barnes, E. M. (1994) Mol. Brain Res. 26, 9-17) that a 7-day GABA treatment of this preparation produced a 45% reduction in the alpha1 subunit mRNA level, while a 4-day exposure had no detectable effect. On the other hand, after a 4-day exposure to these agonists, a 30% reduction in the level of the alpha1 polypeptide was observed on immunoblots, similar to that found previously for down-regulation of GABAA receptor ligand-binding sites. Thus, the de novo synthesis of GABAA receptor alpha1 subunits is subject to a delayed use-dependent repression that was observed after, rather than before, the decline in neuronal levels of the polypeptide. Pulse-chase experiments showed a monophasic degradation of the GABAA receptor 35S-alpha1 subunit with a t1/2 = 7.7 h, a process that was unaffected by the addition of GABA to neurons during the chase period. These nascent 35S-labeled polypeptides are presumably diluted into the neuronal pool of unlabeled unassembled alpha1 subunits, which was found to exceed by a 4:1 molar

  13. Functional characterization of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 mutants identified in rat cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2017-05-06

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an extracellular lipid mediator, exerts various cellular effects through activation of LPA receptors, LPA1-LPA6, in many types of cells including cancer cells. We recently found several missense mutations of Lpar1 in rat cancer tissues. One of these mutations is located at the extracellular tip of the seventh transmembrane domain of LPA1, and another three mutations are found within the NPXXY motif in the seventh transmembrane domain. These mutants are designated F295S LPA1 and P308S, I310T, and Y311H LPA1, respectively. Here, we examined the functions of these LPA1 mutants. Compared with wild-type (WT) LPA1, F295S, P308S, and I310T LPA1 showed decreased maximal responses in inhibition of cAMP formation, Ca(2+) mobilization, and cytoskeletal changes. Y311H LPA1 failed to show LPA-induced cellular responses. However, these LPA1 mutants were internalized in response to LPA exposure. Finally, while WT and F295S LPA1 showed a similar, broad distribution throughout the cell, P308S, I310T, and Y311H LPA1 displayed a restricted cellular distribution and co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest that the LPA1 mutants perturb LPA signaling in cancer tissues.

  14. Deletion of lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 reduces neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Matas-Rico, Elisa; García-Diaz, Beatriz; Llebrez-Zayas, Pedro; López-Barroso, Diana; Santín, Luis; Pedraza, Carmen; Smith-Fernández, Anibal; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; Tellez, Teresa; Redondo; Chun, Jerold; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in certain regions of the adult brain including the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus wherein its regulation is essential, particularly in relation to learning, stress and modulation of mood. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular signaling phospholipid with important neural regulatory properties mediated by specific G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-5. LPA1 is highly expressed in the developing neurogenic ventricular zone wherein it is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis, and, by extension may play a role in adult neurogenesis as well. By means of the analyses of a variant of the original LPA1-null mutant mouse, termed the Malaga variant or “maLPA1-null,” which has recently been reported to have defective neurogenesis within the embryonic cerebral cortex, we report here a role for LPA1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proliferation, differentiation and survival of newly formed neurons are defective in the absence of LPA1 under normal conditions and following exposure to enriched environment and voluntary exercise. Furthermore, analysis of trophic factors in maLPA1-null mice demonstrated alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin growth factor 1 levels after enrichment and exercise. Morphological analyses of doublecortin positive cells revealed the anomalous prevalence of bipolar cells in the subgranular zone, supporting the operation of LPA1 signaling pathways in normal proliferation, maturation and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:18708146

  15. Comparative receptor based brain delivery of tramadol-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Jigar; Raichandani, Yogesh; Mathur, Rashi; Lalan, Manisha; Chutani, Krishna; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2012-12-01

    Receptor mediated endocytosis or transcytosis has been reported for drug delivery across Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and hence, the aim of the present investigations was to prepare and compare brain targeting efficiency of tramadol-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles surface modified with transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf). Nanoparticles of tramadol were prepared using nanoprecipitation technique and surface conjugated with Tf and Lf using epoxy linker. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized for their size, surface charge, drug entrapment, transmission electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. The surface density of Tf and Lf was estimated by protein estimation. The drug distribution in blood, brain and other tissues was studied in mice after intravenous administration. Tf and Lf anchored nanoparticles exhibit enhanced uptake with 2.38 and 3.85 folds higher targeting respectively in the brain when compared with unconjugated nanoparticles. The brain targeting observed for Lf anchored PLGA nanoparticles (Lf-TMD-PLGA-NP) was 1.62 folds that of Tf anchored PLGA nanoparticles (Tf-TMD-PLGA-NP). Hence, the study revealed Tf and specially Lf as promising ligand for enhanced brain deposition of tramadol.

  16. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA.

  17. N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist Kynurenic Acid Affects Human Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Bagasrawala, Inseyah; Zecevic, Nada; Radonjić, Nevena V.

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. Elevated levels of KYNA have been observed in pregnant women after viral infections and are considered to play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the consequences of KYNA-induced NMDAR blockade in human cortical development still remain elusive. To study the potential impact of KYNA on human neurodevelopment, we used an in vitro system of multipotent cortical progenitors, i.e., radial glia cells (RGCs), enriched from human cerebral cortex at mid-gestation (16–19 gestational weeks). KYNA treatment significantly decreased RGCs proliferation and survival by antagonizing NMDAR. This alteration resulted in a reduced number of cortical progenitors and neurons while number and activation of astrocytes increased. KYNA treatment reduced differentiation of RGCs into GABAergic neurons, while differentiation into glutamatergic neurons was relatively spared. Furthermore, in mixed cortical cultures KYNA triggered an inflammatory response as evidenced by increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. In conclusion, elevated levels of KYNA play a significant role in human RGC fate determination by antagonizing NMDARs and by activating an inflammatory response. The altered cell composition observed in cell culture following exposure to elevated KYNA levels suggests a mechanism for impairment of cortical circuitry formation in the fetal brain after viral infection, as seen in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:27746712

  18. Retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-C inhibition suppresses Th17 cells and induces thymic aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Guntermann, Christine; Piaia, Alessandro; Hamel, Marie-Laure; Theil, Diethilde; Rubic-Schneider, Tina; del Rio-Espinola, Alberto; Dong, Linda; Billich, Andreas; Kaupmann, Klemens; Dawson, Janet; Hoegenauer, Klemens; Orain, David; Hintermann, Samuel; Stringer, Rowan; Patel, Dhavalkumar D.; Doelemeyer, Arno; Deurinck, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-C (RORC) is a master regulator of Th17 cells, which are pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Genetic Rorc deficiency in mice, while preventing autoimmunity, causes early lethality due to metastatic thymic T cell lymphomas. We sought to determine whether pharmacological RORC inhibition could be an effective and safe therapy for autoimmune diseases by evaluating its effects on Th17 cell functions and intrathymic T cell development. RORC inhibitors effectively inhibited Th17 differentiation and IL-17A production, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. In vitro, RORC inhibitors induced apoptosis, as well as Bcl2l1 and BCL2L1 mRNA downregulation, in mouse and nonhuman primate thymocytes, respectively. Chronic, 13-week RORC inhibitor treatment in rats caused progressive thymic alterations in all analyzed rats similar to those in Rorc-deficient mice prior to T cell lymphoma development. One rat developed thymic cortical hyperplasia with neoplastic features, including increased mitosis and reduced IKAROS expression, albeit without skewed T cell clonality. In summary, pharmacological inhibition of RORC not only blocks Th17 cell development and related cytokine production, but also recapitulates thymic aberrations seen in Rorc-deficient mice. While RORC inhibition may offer an effective therapeutic principle for Th17-mediated diseases, T cell lymphoma with chronic therapy remains an apparent risk. PMID:28289717

  19. Effect of paraoxon on muscarinic, dopamine and. gamma. -aminobutyric acid receptors of brain and sensitivity to muscarinic antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, J.C.R.; Hoskins, B.; Ho, I.K.

    1986-03-05

    Several acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors decrease muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptors in the brain, alteration of dopamine (DA) and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors after AChE inhibition was also reported. In view of the important interactions among DA, GABA and ACh systems, whether this is a common effect of AChE inhibitors should be established. They report the effect of the AChE inhibitor, paraoxon, on DA, GABA and mACh receptors in the rat. The binding of /sup 3/H-QNB (for mACh), /sup 3/H-spiperone (for DA) and /sup 3/H-muscimol (for GABA) to striatal and hippocampal membranes was analyzed. Also, behavioral sensitivity to atropine was studied. Twenty-four hr after a single dose (0.75 mg/kg, s.c.) of paraoxon, the density of mACh receptors in the striatum was decreased but, at 3 days, no change was seen. In the hippocampus, the mACh receptors were not affected. Repeated treatment with paraoxon (0.3 mg/kg, 48 hourly) for 2 weeks reduced the mACh receptor density in both regions. Neither single nor repeated paraoxon treatment had an effect on DA or GABA receptors. After single or repeated dosing with paraoxon, myoclonus induced by atropine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced. The results show rapid downregulation of mACh receptors by paraoxon. DA or GABA, however, appear not to be affected under these treatment regimens.

  20. Retinal NMDA receptor function and expression are altered in a mouse lacking d-amino acid oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Catherine W.; Tekmen, Merve; Sullivan, Steven J.; Esguerra, Manuel; Konno, Ryuichi; Miller, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    d-serine is present in the vertebrate retina and serves as a coagonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of ganglion cells. Although the enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) has been implicated as a pathway for d-serine degradation, its role in the retina has not been established. In this study, we investigated the role of DAO in regulating d-serine levels using a mutant mouse line deficient in DAO (ddY/DAO−) and compared these results with their wild-type counterparts (ddY/DAO+). Our results show that DAO is functionally present in the mouse retina and normally serves to reduce the background levels of d-serine. The enzymatic activity of DAO was restricted to the inner plexiform layer as determined by histochemical analysis. Using capillary electrophoresis, we showed that mutant mice had much higher levels of d-serine. Whole cell recordings from identified retinal ganglion cells demonstrated that DAO-deficient animals had light-evoked synaptic activity strongly biased toward a high NMDA-to-AMPA receptor ratio. In contrast, recordings from wild-type ganglion cells showed a more balanced ratio between the two receptor subclasses. Immunostaining for AMPA and NMDA receptors was carried out to compare the two receptor ratios by quantitative immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the mutant mouse had a significantly higher representation of NMDA receptors compared with the wild-type controls. We conclude that 1) DAO is an important regulatory enzyme and normally functions to reduce d-serine levels in the retina, and 2) d-serine levels play a role in the expression of NMDA receptors and the NMDA-to-AMPA receptor ratio. PMID:24068757

  1. Differential regulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism by the farnesoid X receptor in Ldlr -/- mice versus hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Christophe; Chaput, Evelyne; Staempfli, Andreas; Blum, Denise; Richter, Hans; Benson, G Martin

    2013-05-01

    Modulating bile acid synthesis has long been considered a good strategy by which to improve cholesterol homeostasis in humans. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the key regulator of bile acid synthesis, was, therefore, identified as an interesting target for drug discovery. We compared the effect of four, structurally unrelated, synthetic FXR agonists in two fat-fed rodent species and observed that the three most potent and selective agonists decreased plasma cholesterol in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr (-/-)) mice, but none did so in hamsters. Detailed investigation revealed increases in the expression of small heterodimer partner (Shp) in their livers and of intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 or 19 (Fgf15/19) in mice only. Cyp7a1 expression and fecal bile acid (BA) excretion were strongly reduced in mice and hamsters by all four FXR agonists, whereas bile acid pool sizes were reduced in both species by all but the X-Ceptor compound in hamsters. In Ldlr (-/-) mice, the predominant bile acid changed from cholate to the more hydrophilic β-muricholate due to a strong repression of Cyp8b1 and increase in Cyp3a11 expression. However, FXR agonists caused only minor changes in the expression of Cyp8b1 and in bile acid profiles in hamsters. In summary, FXR agonist-induced decreases in bile acid pool size and lipophilicity and in cholesterol absorption and synthesis could explain the decreased plasma cholesterol in Ldlr (-/-) mice. In hamsters, FXR agonists reduced bile acid pool size to a smaller extent with minor changes in bile acid profile and reductions in sterol absorption, and consequently, plasma cholesterol was unchanged.

  2. Modulation of ischemia-evoked release of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids by adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Goda, H; Ooboshi, H; Nakane, H; Ibayashi, S; Sadoshima, S; Fujishima, M

    1998-09-18

    Adenosine has been reported to have beneficial effects against ischemic brain damage, although the mechanisms are not fully clarified. To examine the role of adenosine on the ischemia-evoked release of neurotransmitters, we applied a highly selective agonist for adenosine A1 receptor, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), into the ischemic brain using in vivo brain dialysis, which directly delivered the agonist to the local brain area. Concentrations of extracellular amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine) and regional blood flow in the striatum of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were monitored during cerebral ischemia elicited by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 40 min and recirculation. Striatal blood flow and basal levels of amino acids were not affected by direct perfusion of CCPA (10 microM or 100 microM). During ischemia, concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine increased up to 37-, 30-, 96- and 31-fold, respectively, when vehicle alone was administered. Administration of CCPA did not affect the changes in regional blood flow during ischemia and reperfusion. Perfusion of CCPA (100 microM), however, significantly attenuated the ischemia-evoked release of aspartate (by 70%) and glutamate (by 73%). The ischemia-induced increase of GABA tended to be decreased by CCPA, although it was not statistically significant. In contrast, both low and high concentrations of CCPA had little effect on the release of taurine during ischemia. These results suggest that stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors selectively attenuated the ischemia-evoked release of excitatory amino acids, but not of inhibitory amino acids without affecting blood flow. This modulation of the release of amino acids by adenosine A1 receptor agonists may play a protective role against ischemic neuronal damage.

  3. A Dominant Mutation in Nuclear Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Causes Urinary Tract Malformations via Dysregulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vivante, Asaf; Mann, Nina; Yonath, Hagith; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Getwan, Maike; Kaminski, Michael M; Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Teyssier, Catherine; Chen, Jing; Shril, Shirlee; van der Ven, Amelie T; Ityel, Hadas; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Widmeier, Eugen; Bauer, Stuart B; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Gharavi, Ali G; Lu, Weining; Magen, Daniella; Shukrun, Rachel; Lifton, Richard P; Tasic, Velibor; Stanescu, Horia C; Cavaillès, Vincent; Kleta, Robert; Anikster, Yair; Dekel, Benjamin; Kispert, Andreas; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2017-04-05

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of CKD in the first three decades of life. However, for most patients with CAKUT, the causative mutation remains unknown. We identified a kindred with an autosomal dominant form of CAKUT. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous truncating mutation (c.279delG, p.Trp93fs*) of the nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 gene (NRIP1) in all seven affected members. NRIP1 encodes a nuclear receptor transcriptional cofactor that directly interacts with the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to modulate retinoic acid transcriptional activity. Unlike wild-type NRIP1, the altered NRIP1 protein did not translocate to the nucleus, did not interact with RARα, and failed to inhibit retinoic acid-dependent transcriptional activity upon expression in HEK293 cells. Notably, we also showed that treatment with retinoic acid enhanced NRIP1 binding to RARα RNA in situ hybridization confirmed Nrip1 expression in the developing urogenital system of the mouse. In explant cultures of embryonic kidney rudiments, retinoic acid stimulated Nrip1 expression, whereas a pan-RAR antagonist strongly reduced it. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for a null allele of Nrip1 showed a CAKUT-spectrum phenotype. Finally, expression and knockdown experiments in Xenopus laevis confirmed an evolutionarily conserved role for NRIP1 in renal development. These data indicate that dominant NRIP1 mutations can cause CAKUT by interference with retinoic acid transcriptional signaling, shedding light on the well documented association between abnormal vitamin A levels and renal malformations in humans, and suggest a possible gene-environment pathomechanism in this disease.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptors and uric acid mediate protective effects of inosine against TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Reza; Fakhfouri, Gohar; Daneshmand, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-12-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease comprises chronic recurrent inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to investigate inosine, a potent immunomodulator, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic model of experimental colitis, and contribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors and the metabolite uric acid as possible underlying mechanisms. Experimental colitis was rendered in rats by a single colonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS. Inosine, potassium oxonate (a hepatic uricase inhibitor), SCH-442416 (a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist), inosine+potassium oxonate, or inosine+SCH-442416 were given twice daily for 7 successive days. At the end of experiment, macroscopic and histopathologic scores, colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. Plasma uric acid level was measured throughout the experiment. Both macroscopic and histological features of colonic injury were markedly ameliorated by either inosine, oxonate or inosine+oxonate. Likewise, the elevated amounts of MPO and MDA abated as well as those of TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05). SCH-442416 partially reversed the effect of inosine on theses markers, while inosine+oxonate showed a higher degree of protection than each treatment alone (P<.0.05). No significant difference was observed between TNBS and SCH-442416 groups. Uric acid levels were significantly higher in inosine or oxonate groups compared to control. Inosine+oxonate resulted in an even more elvelated uric acid level than each treatment alone (P<0.05). Inosine elicits notable anti-inflammatory effects on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Uric acid and adenosine A(2A) receptors contribute to these salutary properties.

  5. Enhancement of acid-sensing ion channel activity by metabotropic P2Y UTP receptors in primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Wu, Jing; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral purinergic signaling plays an important role in nociception. Increasing evidence suggests that metabotropic P2Y receptors are also involved, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Herein, we report that selective P2Y receptor agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) can exert an enhancing effect on the functional activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), key sensors for extracellular protons, in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. First, UTP dose-dependently increased the amplitude of ASIC currents. UTP also shifted the concentration-response curve for proton upwards, with a 56.6 ± 6.4% increase of the maximal current response to proton. Second, UTP potentiation of proton-gated currents can be mimicked by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), but not by P2Y1 receptor agonist ADP. Potentiation of UTP was blocked by P2Y receptor antagonist suramin and by inhibition of intracellular G protein, phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC), or protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) signaling. Third, UTP altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, UTP dose-dependently exacerbated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in rats. These results suggest that UTP enhanced ASIC-mediated currents and nociceptive responses, which reveal a novel peripheral mechanism underlying UTP-sensitive P2Y2 receptor involvement in hyperalgesia by sensitizing ASICs in primary sensory neurons.

  6. α4βδ GABA(A) receptors are high-affinity targets for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).

    PubMed

    Absalom, Nathan; Eghorn, Laura F; Villumsen, Inge S; Karim, Nasiara; Bay, Tina; Olsen, Jesper V; Knudsen, Gitte M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P; Chebib, Mary; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2012-08-14

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) binding to brain-specific high-affinity sites is well-established and proposed to explain both physiological and pharmacological actions. However, the mechanistic links between these lines of data are unknown. To identify molecular targets for specific GHB high-affinity binding, we undertook photolinking studies combined with proteomic analyses and identified several GABA(A) receptor subunits as possible candidates. A subsequent functional screening of various recombinant GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique showed GHB to be a partial agonist at αβδ- but not αβγ-receptors, proving that the δ-subunit is essential for potency and efficacy. GHB showed preference for α4 over α(1,2,6)-subunits and preferably activated α4β1δ (EC(50) = 140 nM) over α4β(2/3)δ (EC(50) = 8.41/1.03 mM). Introduction of a mutation, α4F71L, in α4β1(δ)-receptors completely abolished GHB but not GABA function, indicating nonidentical binding sites. Radioligand binding studies using the specific GHB radioligand [(3)H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid showed a 39% reduction (P = 0.0056) in the number of binding sites in α4 KO brain tissue compared with WT controls, corroborating the direct involvement of the α4-subunit in high-affinity GHB binding. Our data link specific GHB forebrain binding sites with α4-containing GABA(A) receptors and postulate a role for extrasynaptic α4δ-containing GABA(A) receptors in GHB pharmacology and physiology. This finding will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the proposed function of GHB as a neurotransmitter and its unique therapeutic effects in narcolepsy and alcoholism.

  7. GABAB receptor stimulation by baclofen and taurine enhances excitatory amino acid induced phosphatidylinositol turnover in neonatal rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Smith, S S; Li, J

    1991-10-28

    Excitatory amino acid stimulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis has been associated with development of the CNS. Normally minimally ineffective in stimulating PI hydrolysis in the neonatal rat cerebellum, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) increased levels of PI hydrolysis 82.3 +/- 5.5% above basal values in the presence of 1 microM baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptor agonist. This effect was observed at day 7 but not in adult cerebellum. The effect of baclofen could be mimicked by low dose GABA and taurine, actions which were blocked by prior application of a specific GABAB antagonist. Therefore, the ability of NMDA to stimulate PI hydrolysis in neonatal cerebellar tissue may be regulated by the degree of GABAB receptor stimulation.

  8. Associations of uric acid with polymorphisms in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase genes in Korean lead workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Schwartz, Brian S; Jaar, Bernard G; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Todd, Andrew C; Lee, Sung-Soo; Kelsey, Karl T; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Lustberg, Mark E; Parsons, Patrick J; Wen, Jiayu; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2005-11-01

    Recent research suggests that uric acid may be nephrotoxic at lower levels than previously recognized and that it may be one mechanism for lead-related nephrotoxicity. Therefore, in understanding mechanisms for lead-related nephrotoxicity, it would be of value to determine whether genetic polymorphisms that are associated with renal outcomes in lead workers and/or modify associations between lead dose and renal function are also associated with uric acid and/or modify associations between lead dose and uric acid. We analyzed data on three such genetic polymorphisms: delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Mean (+/- SD) tibia, blood, and dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead levels were 37.2 +/- 40.4 microg/g bone mineral, 32.0+/- 15.0 g/dL, and 0.77+/- 0.86 microg/mg creatinine, respectively, in 798 current and former lead workers. Participants with the eNOSAsp allele had lower mean serum uric acid compared with those with the Glu/Glu genotype. Among older workers (age > or = median of 40.6 years), ALAD genotype modified associations between lead dose and uric acid levels. Higher lead dose was significantly associated with higher uric acid in workers with the ALAD1-1 genotype; associations were in the opposite direction in participants with the variant ALAD1-2 genotype. In contrast, higher tibia lead was associated with higher uric acid in those with the variant VDRB allele; however, modification was dependent on participants with the bb genotype and high tibia lead levels. We conclude that genetic polymorphisms may modify uric acid mediation of lead-related adverse renal effects.

  9. Inhibition of insulin receptor gene expression and insulin signaling by fatty acid: interplay of PKC isoforms therein.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debleena; Mukherjee, Mohua; Basu, Dipanjan; Datta, Malabika; Roy, Sib Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting the loss of insulin sensitivity causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, underlying mechanism involved here is still unclear. Incubation of rat skeletal muscle cells with palmitate followed by I(125)- insulin binding to the plasma membrane receptor preparation demonstrated a two-fold decrease in receptor occupation. In searching the cause for this reduction, we found that palmitate inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) gene expression effecting reduced amount of IR protein in skeletal muscle cells. This was followed by the inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRbeta tyrosine phosphorylation that consequently resulted inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS 1) and IRS 1 associated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3 Kinase), phosphoinositide dependent kinase-1 (PDK 1) phosphorylation. PDK 1 dependent phosphorylation of PKCzeta and Akt/PKB were also inhibited by palmitate. Surprisingly, although PKCepsilon phosphorylation is PDK1 dependent, palmitate effected its constitutive phosphorylation independent of PDK1. Time kinetics study showed translocation of palmitate induced phosphorylated PKCepsilon from cell membrane to nuclear region and its possible association with the inhibition of IR gene transcription. Our study suggests one of the pathways through which fatty acid can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cell.

  10. The S protein of bovine coronavirus is a hemagglutinin recognizing 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, B; Gross, H J; Brossmer, R; Herrler, G

    1991-01-01

    The S protein of bovine coronavirus (BCV) has been isolated from the viral membrane and purified by gradient centrifugation. Purified S protein was identified as a viral hemagglutinin. Inactivation of the cellular receptors by sialate 9-O-acetylesterase and generation of receptors by sialylation of erythrocytes with N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) indicate that S protein recognizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant as has been shown previously for intact virions. The second glycoprotein of BCV, HE, which has been thought previously to be responsible for the hemagglutinating activity of BCV, is a less efficient hemagglutinin; it agglutinates mouse and rat erythrocytes, but in contrast to S protein, it is unable to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes, which contain a lower level of Neu5,9Ac2 on their surface. S protein is proposed to be responsible for the primary attachment of virus to cell surface. S protein is proposed to be responsible for the primary attachement of virus to cell surface receptors. The potential of S protein as a probe for the detection of Neu5,9Ac2-containing glycoconjugates is demonstrated. Images PMID:1920630

  11. A study of the source-receptor relationships influencing the acidity of precipitation collected at a rural site in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, Aurélie; Plaisance, Hervé; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Galloo, Jean-Claude; Guillermo, René

    In order to examine the qualitative and quantitative source-receptor relationships responsible for acid rains at a background site in France, a receptor-oriented model was applied to the precipitation data collected from 1992 to 1995. Origins of acidic and alkaline species in precipitations have been investigated. The methodology combines precipitation chemical data with air parcel backward trajectories to establish concentration field maps of likely contributing sources. Highest acidities and concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in precipitation were associated with transport from the high emission areas of central Europe. Alkaline events were associated with air masses originating from Mediterranean basin or northern Africa. The quantitative relationships between the maps of potential sources and the European emissions of SO 2 and NO x were examined performing a correlation analysis. Good correlations were found between computed concentrations of acidic species and emissions of SO 2 and NO x. Substantial seasonal variations of acidic species were revealed. The highest concentrations occurred during the warm season. These seasonal variations are the effect of change of meteorological conditions and of the strength atmospheric processes according to the season.

  12. Arachidonic acid activates release of calcium ions from reticulum via ryanodine receptor channels in C2C12 skeletal myotubes.

    PubMed

    Muslikhov, E R; Sukhanova, I F; Avdonin, P V

    2014-05-01

    Arachidonic acid causes an increase in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in differentiated skeletal multinucleated myotubes C2C12 and does not induce calcium response in C2C12 myoblasts. The same reaction of myotubes to arachidonic acid is observed in Ca2+-free medium. This indicates that arachidonic acid induces release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. The blocker of ryanodine receptor channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum dantrolene (20 µM) inhibits this effect by 68.7 ± 6.3% (p < 0.001). The inhibitor of two-pore calcium channels of endolysosomal vesicles trans-NED19 (10 µM) decreases the response to arachidonic acid by 35.8 ± 5.4% (p < 0.05). The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (10 µM) has no effect. These data indicate the involvement of ryanodine receptor calcium channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum in [Ca2+]i elevation in skeletal myotubes caused by arachidonic acid and possible participation of two-pore calcium channels from endolysosomal vesicles in this process.

  13. Regulation of GABAergic inputs to CA1 pyramidal neurons by nicotinic receptors and kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2012-05-01

    Impaired α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function and GABAergic transmission in the hippocampus and elevated brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, are key features of schizophrenia. KYNA acts as a noncompetitive antagonist with respect to agonists at both α7 nAChRs and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in hippocampal slices tonically active α7 nAChRs control GABAergic transmission to CA1 pyramidal neurons and are sensitive to inhibition by rising levels of KYNA. The α7 nAChR-selective antagonist α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT; 100 nM) and methyllycaconitine (MLA; 10 nM), an antagonist at α7 and other nAChRs, reduced by 51.3 ± 1.3 and 65.2 ± 1.5%, respectively, the frequency of GABAergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs) recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. MLA had no effect on miniature GABAergic PSCs. Thus, GABAergic synaptic activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons is maintained, in part, by tonically active α7 nAChRs located on the preterminal region of axons and/or the somatodendritic region of interneurons that synapse onto the neurons under study. L-Kynurenine (20 or 200 μM) or KYNA (20-200 μM) suppressed concentration-dependently the frequency of GABAergic PSCs; the inhibitory effect of 20 μM L-kynurenine had an onset time of approximately 35 min and could not be detected in the presence of 100 nM α-BGT. These results suggest that KYNA levels generated from 20 μM kynurenine inhibit tonically active α7 nAChR-dependent GABAergic transmission to the pyramidal neurons. Disruption of nAChR-dependent GABAergic transmission by mildly elevated levels of KYNA can be an important determinant of the cognitive deficits presented by patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Cloning and expression of two distinct high-affinity receptors cross-reacting with acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, C A; Crumley, G; Bellot, F; Kaplow, J M; Searfoss, G; Ruta, M; Burgess, W H; Jaye, M; Schlessinger, J

    1990-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of at least seven closely related polypeptide mitogens which exert their activities by binding and activation of specific cell surface receptors. Unanswered questions have been whether there are multiple FGF receptors and what factors determine binding specificity and biological response. We report the complete cDNA cloning of two human genes previously designated flg and bek. These genes encode two similar but distinct cell surface receptors comprised of an extracellular domain with three immunoglobulin-like regions, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic portion containing a tyrosine kinase domain with a typical kinase insert. The expression of these two cDNAs in transfected NIH 3T3 cells led to the biosynthesis of proteins of 150 kd and 135 kd for flg and bek, respectively. Direct binding experiments with radiolabeled acidic FGF (aFGF) or basic FGF (bFGF), inhibition of binding with native growth factors, and Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated that bek and flg bind either aFGF or bFGF with dissociation constants of (2-15) x 10(-11) M. The high affinity binding of two distinct growth factors to each of two different receptors represents a unique double redundancy without precedence among polypeptide growth factor-receptor interactions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1697263

  15. Sulfenic Acid Modification of Endothelin B Receptor is Responsible for the Benefit of a Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist in Renal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Prince, Sonia; Fadel, Fouad; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Warnock, David G.; Kolkhof, Peter; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    AKI is associated with high mortality rates and the development of CKD. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of AKI. Unfortunately, there is no available pharmacologic approach to prevent or limit renal IR injury in common clinical practice. Renal IR is characterized by diminished nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced renal blood flow; however, the mechanisms leading to these alterations are poorly understood. In a rat model of renal IR, we investigated whether the administration of the novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist BR-4628 can prevent or treat the renal dysfunction and tubular injury induced by IR. Renal injury induced by ischemia was associated with increased oxidant damage, which led to a cysteine sulfenic acid modification in endothelin B receptor and consequently decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. These modifications were efficiently prevented by nonsteroidal MR antagonism. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the protective effect of BR-4628 against IR was lost when a selective endothelin B receptor antagonist was coadministered. These data describe a new mechanism for reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation during renal IR that can be blocked by MR antagonism with BR-4628. PMID:26361797

  16. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid increases cytochrome P-450 2J2 gene expression and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid production via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dahai; Hirase, Tetsuaki; Nitto, Takeaki; Soma, Masaaki; Node, Koichi

    2009-12-01

    ω-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2J2 that is expressed in endothelial cells metabolizes arachidonic acids to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that possess anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. We studied the effects of EPA and DHA on the expression of CYP 2J2 mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and found that EPA, but not DHA, increased the expression of CYP 2J2 mRNA in a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manner. EPA-induced CYP 2J2 expression was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ antagonist, GW9662. EPA, but not DHA, caused a significant increase in cellular levels of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid that is a stable metabolite of 11,12-EET, which was blocked by pretreatment with GW9662. These data demonstrate that EPA increases CYP 2J2 mRNA expression and 11,12-EET production via PPARγ in endothelial cells and indicate a novel protective role of EPA and PPARγ against vascular inflammation.

  18. [Hyaluronic acid, receptor CD44, and their role in diabetic complications].

    PubMed

    Ievdokimova, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a straight chain glycosaminoglycan polymer composed of repeating units of the disaccharide [-D-glucuronic acid-beta1,3-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-beta1,4-]n, and is found in vertebrates and certain microorganisms. The molecular weight of HA chains is usually equal to approximately 1-10 and MDa, n > 10(3-4), although it can exists as oligosaccharides under some physiological and pathological conditions. HA resides on the cell surface or in the extracellular space, but it also occurred inside the mammalian cells. HA is synthesized in mammals by three enzymes with polymers of varying chain length. The biological functions of HA include the maintenance of elastoviscosity of liquid connective tissues, control of tissue hydration, supramolecular assembly of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and besides numerous receptor-mediated functions in cell attachment, mitosis, migration, tumor development, wound healing and inflammation. The extensive repertoire of biological functions of HA corresponds to the existence of a large repertoire of HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins). Many hyaladherins contain a common structural domain, termed a Link module, which is involved in ligand binding. The most important member of the Link module superfamily is the main HA receptor, CD44. CD44 has diverse functions including not only the organization and metabolism of extracellular matrix, but also engage the cytoskeleton and co-ordinate signaling events to enable the cell responce to changes in the environment. HA has an extraordinary high rate of turnover, and at the cellular level it is considered to be degraded progressively by a series of enzymatic reactions that generate polymers of decreasing sizes. HA biological effects are known to be determined by the polymer size and depend on the cell type. For example, the native high molecular weight HA is anti-angiogenic, while its degradation products (6-20 saccharides) stimulate endothelial cell proliferation

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA1-LPA6) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA1 and LPA5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA1.

  20. Pharmacologic retinoid signaling and physiologic retinoic acid receptor signaling inhibit basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    So, Po-Lin; Fujimoto, Michele A.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer. Patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome) are highly susceptible to developing many BCCs as a result of a constitutive inactivating mutation in one allele of PATCHED 1, which encodes a tumor suppressor that is a major inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling. Dysregulated Hedgehog signaling is a common feature of both hereditary and sporadic BCCs. Recently, we showed remarkable anti-BCC chemopreventive efficacy of tazarotene, a retinoid with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) β/γ specificity, in Ptch1 +/− mice when treatment was commenced before carcinogenic insults. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of tazarotene against BCC carcinogenesis is sustained after its withdrawal and whether tazarotene is effective against preexisting microscopic BCC lesions. We found that BCCs did not reappear for at least 5 months after topical drug treatment was stopped and that already developed, microscopic BCCs were susceptible to tazarotene inhibition. In vitro, tazarotene inhibited a murine BCC keratinocyte cell line, ASZ001, suggesting that its effect in vivo is by direct action on the actual tumor cells. Down-regulation of Gli1, a target gene of Hedgehog signaling and up-regulation of CRABPII, a target gene of retinoid signaling, were observed with tazarotene treatment. Finally, we investigated the effects of topical applications of other retinoid-related compounds on BCC tumorigenesis in vivo. Tazarotene was the most effective of the preparations studied, and its effect most likely was mediated by RARγ activation. Furthermore, inhibition of basal RAR signaling in the skin promoted BCC carcinogenesis, suggesting that endogenous RAR signaling restrains BCC growth. PMID:18483315

  1. Histamine H3 receptor antagonism by ABT-239 attenuates kainic acid induced excitotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Malay; Saini, Neeru; Vohora, Divya

    2014-09-18

    The multifaceted pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) offers a number of adjunctive therapeutic prospects. One such therapeutic strategy could be targeting H3 receptor (H3R) by selective H3R antagonists which are perceived to have antiepileptic and neuroprotective potential. Kainic acid (KA) induced seizure, a reliable model of TLE, triggers epileptogenic events resulting from initial neuronal death and ensuing recurring seizures. The present study aimed to determine whether pre-treatment with ABT-239, a novel H3R antagonist, and its combinations with sodium valproate (SVP) and TDZD-8 (glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) inhibitor) can prevent the excitotoxic events in mice exposed to KA (10 mg/kg i.p.). ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) significantly attenuated KA-mediated behavioural and excitotoxic anomalies and restored altered expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Akt (Ser473) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Surprisingly, restoration of Bcl2 and phospho-GSK3β (Ser9) by ABT-239 did not reach the level of statistical significance. Co-administration of ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) with a sub-effective dose of SVP (150 mg/kg i.p.) yielded improved efficacy than when given alone. Similarly, low and high dose combinations of ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) with TDZD-8 (5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) produced greater neuroprotection than any other treatment group. Our findings suggests a neuroprotective potential of ABT-239 and its combinations with SVP and TDZD-8 against KA-induced neurotoxicity, possibly mediated through in part each by modulating Akt/GSK3β and CREB pathways. The use of H3R antagonists as adjuvant in the treatment of human TLE might find potential utility, and can be pursued further.

  2. Activation of A-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    DeFazio, R Anthony; Heger, Sabine; Ojeda, Sergio R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2002-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R), is hypothesized to suppress reproduction by inhibiting GnRH secretion, but GABA actions directly on GnRH neurons are not well established. In green fluorescent protein-identified adult mouse GnRH neurons in brain slices, gramicidin-perforated-patch-clamp experiments revealed the reversal potential (E(GABA)) for current through GABA(A)Rs was depolarized relative to the resting potential. Furthermore, rapid GABA application elicited action potentials in GnRH neurons but not controls. The consequence of GABA(A)R activation depends on intracellular chloride levels, which are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms. Membrane proteins that typically extrude chloride (KCC-2 cotransporter, CLC-2 channel) were absent from the GT1-7 immortalized GnRH cell line and GnRH neurons in situ or were not localized to the proper cell compartment for function. In contrast, GT1-7 cells and some GnRH neurons expressed the chloride-accumulating cotransporter, NKCC-1. Patch-clamp experiments showed that blockade of NKCC hyperpolarized E(GABA) by lowering intracellular chloride. Regardless of reproductive state, rapid GABA application excited GnRH neurons. In contrast, bath application of the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol transiently increased then suppressed firing; suppression persisted 4-15 min. Rapid activation of GABA(A)R thus excites GnRH neurons whereas prolonged activation reduces excitability, suggesting the physiological consequence of synaptic activation of GABA(A)R in GnRH neurons is excitation.

  3. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Xue, Ruyi; Ji, Lingling; Shen, Xizhong; Chen, She; Gu, Jianxin; Zhang, Si

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: • FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. • FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. • FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup −/−}) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup −/−} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup −/−}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.

  4. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Okito, Asuka; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Akiyama, Masako; Ono, Takashi; Morita, Ikuo

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  5. ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

  6. QUANTITATION OF ABERRANT INTERLOCUS T-CELL RECEPTOR REARRANGEMENTS IN MOUSE THYMOCYTES AND THE EFFECT OF THE HERBICIDE 2,4- DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitation of aberrant interlocus T-cell receptor rearrangements in mouse thymocytes and the effect of the herbicide 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Small studies in human populations have suggested a correlation between the frequency of errors in antigen receptor gene a...

  7. Excitatory amino acid receptors mediate asymmetry and lateralization in the descending cardiovascular pathways from the dorsomedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Ianzer, Danielle; Lima, Augusto Martins; Marins, Fernanda Ribeiro; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Vaz, Gisele; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2014-01-01

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) are anatomically and functionally connected. Both the DMH and PAG depend on glutamatergic inputs for activation. We recently reported that removal of GABA-ergic tone in the unilateral DMH produces: asymmetry, that is, a right- (R-) sided predominance in cardiac chronotropism, and lateralization, that is, a greater increase in ipsilateral renal sympathetic activity (RSNA). In the current study, we investigated whether excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the DMH-PAG pathway contribute to the functional interhemispheric difference. In urethane (1.2 to 1.4 g/kg, i.p.) anesthetized rats, we observed that: (i) nanoinjections of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA 100 pmol/100 nl) into the unilateral DMH produced the same right-sided predominance in the control of cardiac chronotropy, (ii) nanoinjections of NMDA into the ipsilateral DMH or PAG evoked lateralized RSNA responses, and (iii) blockade of EAA receptors in the unilateral DMH attenuated the cardiovascular responses evoked by injection of NMDA into either the R- or left- (L-) PAG. In awake rats, nanoinjection of kynurenic acid (1 nmol/100 nL) into the L-DMH or R- or L-PAG attenuated the tachycardia evoked by air stress. However, the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia was smallest when the EAA receptors of the R-DMH were blocked. We conclude that EAA receptors contribute to the right-sided predominance in cardiac chronotropism. This interhemispheric difference that involves EAA receptors was observed in the DMH but not in the PAG.

  8. Receptor binding proteins of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophages A118 and P35 recognize serovar-specific teichoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Bielmann, Regula; Habann, Matthias; Eugster, Marcel R.; Lurz, Rudi; Calendar, Richard; Klumpp, Jochen; Loessner, Martin J.

    2015-03-15

    Adsorption of a bacteriophage to the host requires recognition of a cell wall-associated receptor by a receptor binding protein (RBP). This recognition is specific, and high affinity binding is essential for efficient virus attachment. The molecular details of phage adsorption to the Gram-positive cell are poorly understood. We present the first description of receptor binding proteins and a tail tip structure for the siphovirus group infecting Listeria monocytogenes. The host-range determining factors in two phages, A118 and P35 specific for L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2 have been determined. Two proteins were identified as RBPs in phage A118. Rhamnose residues in wall teichoic acids represent the binding ligands for both proteins. In phage P35, protein gp16 could be identified as RBP and the role of both rhamnose and N-acetylglucosamine in phage adsorption was confirmed. Immunogold-labeling and transmission electron microscopy allowed the creation of a topological model of the A118 phage tail. - Highlights: • We present the first description of receptor binding proteins and a tail tip structure for the Siphovirus group infecting Listeria monocytogenes. • The host-range determining factors in two phages, A118 and P35 specific for L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2 have been determined. • Rhamnose residues in wall teichoic acids represent the binding ligands for both receptor binding proteins in phage A118. • Rhamnose and N-acetylglucosamine are required for adsorption of phage P35. • We preset a topological model of the A118 phage tail.

  9. Development of betulinic acid as an agonist of TGR5 receptor using a new in vitro assay

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Li, Ying-Xiao; Chang, Chin-Hong; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lee, Kung-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, also known as TGR5 is known to be involved in glucose homeostasis. In animal models, treatment with a TGR5 agonist induces incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. Betulinic acid, a triterpenoid present in the leaves of white birch, has been introduced as a selective TGR5 agonist. However, direct activation of TGR5 by betulinic acid has not yet been reported. Methods Transfection of TGR5 into cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was performed to establish the presence of TGR5. Additionally, TGR5-specific small interfering RNA was employed to silence TGR5 in cells (NCI-H716 cells) that secreted incretins. Uptake of glucose by CHO-K1 cells was evaluated using a fluorescent indicator. Amounts of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and glucagon-like peptide were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results Betulinic acid dose-dependently increases glucose uptake by CHO-K1 cells transfected with TGR5 only, which can be considered an alternative method instead of radioligand binding assay. Additionally, signals coupled to TGR5 activation are also increased by betulinic acid in cells transfected with TGR5. In NCI-H716 cells, which endogenously express TGR5, betulinic acid induces glucagon-like peptide secretion via increasing calcium levels. However, the actions of betulinic acid were markedly reduced in NCI-H716 cells that received TGR5-silencing treatment. Therefore, the present study demonstrates the activation of TGR5 by betulinic acid for the first time. Conclusion Similar to the positive control lithocholic acid, which is the established agonist of TGR5, betulinic acid has been characterized as a useful agonist of TGR5 and can be used to activate TGR5 in the future. PMID:27578964

  10. Identification and Mechanism of 10-Carbon Fatty Acid as Modulating Ligand of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Malapaka, Raghu R. V.; Khoo, SokKean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H.; Zhou, X. Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs. PMID:22039047

  11. Identification and mechanism of 10-carbon fatty acid as modulating ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Malapaka, Raghu R V; Khoo, Sokkean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H; Zhou, X Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H; Griffin, Patrick R; Chen, Y Eugene; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-02

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs.

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  13. Activation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 4 Is Essential for Cholinergic Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion: Relation to D Cell/Somatostatin

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji; Endoh, Takuya; Hayashi, Shusaku; Aihara, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in five subtypes (M1∼M5), and they are widely expressed in various tissues to mediate diverse autonomic functions, including gastric secretion. In the present study, we demonstrated, using M1∼M5 KO mice, the importance of M4 receptors in carbachol (CCh) stimulation of acid secretion and investigated how the secretion is modulated by the activation of M4 receptors. Methods: C57BL/6J mice of wild-type (WT) and M1–M5 KO were used. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was measured in the stomach equipped with an acute fistula. CCh (30 μg/kg) was given subcutaneously (s.c.) to stimulate acid secretion. Atropine or octreotide (a somatostatin analog) was given s.c. 20 min before the administration of CCh. CYN154806 (a somatostatin SST2 receptor antagonist) was given i.p. 20 min before the administration of octreotide or CCh. Results: CCh caused an increase of acid secretion in WT mice, and the effect was totally inhibited by prior administration of atropine. The effect of CCh was similarly observed in the animals lacking M1, M2 or M5 receptors but significantly decreased in M3 or M4 KO mice. CYN154806, the SST2 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently and significantly reversed the decreased acid response to CCh in M4 but not M3 KO mice. Octreotide, the somatostatin analog, inhibited the secretion of acid under CCh-stimulated conditions in WT mice. The immunohistochemical study showed the localization of M4 receptors on D cells in the stomach. Serum somatostatin levels in M4 KO mice were higher than WT mice under basal conditions, while those in WT mice were significantly decreased in response to CCh. Conclusions: These results suggest that under cholinergic stimulation the acid secretion is directly mediated by M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. It is assumed that the activation of M4 receptors inhibits the release of somatostatin from D cells and minimizes the acid inhibitory effect of

  14. Potentiation of the teratogenic effects induced by coadministration of retinoic acid or phytanic acid/phytol with synthetic retinoid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Elmazar, M M A; Nau, H

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory identified retinoid-induced defects that are mediated by RAR-RXR heterodimerization using interaction of synthetic ligands selective for the retinoid receptors RAR and RXR in mice (Elmazar et al. 1997, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 146:21-28; Elmazar et al. 2001, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 170:2-9; Nau and Elmazar 1999, Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 139, Retinoids, Springer-Verlag, pp 465-487). The present study was designed to investigate whether these RAR-RXR heterodimer-mediated defects can be also induced by interactions of natural and synthetic ligands for retinoid receptors. A non-teratogenic dose of the natural RXR agonist phytanic acid (100 mg/kg orally) or its precursor phytol (500 mg/kg orally) was coadministered with a synthetic RARalpha-agonist (Am580; 5 mg/kg orally) to NMRI mice on day 8.25 of gestation (GD8.25). Furthermore, a non-teratogenic dose of the synthetic RXR agonist LGD1069 (20 mg/kg orally) was also coadministered with the natural RAR agonist, all- trans-retinoic acid (atRA, 20 mg/kg orally) or its precursor retinol (ROH, 50 mg/kg orally) to NMRI mice on GD8.25. The teratogenic outcome was scored in day-18 fetuses. The incidence of Am580-induced resorptions, spina bifida aperta, micrognathia, anotia, kidney hypoplasia, dilated bladder, undescended testis, atresia ani, short and absent tail, fused ribs and fetal weight retardation were potentiated by coadministration of phytanic acid or its precursor phytol. Am580-induced exencephaly and cleft palate, which were not potentiated by coadministration with the synthetic RXR agonists, were also not potentiated by coadministration with either phytanic acid or its precursor phytol. LGD1069 potentiated atRA- and ROH-induced resorption, exencephaly, spina bifida, aperta, ear anotia and microtia, macroglossia, kidney hypoplasia, undescended testis, atresia ani, tail defects and fetal weight retardation, but not cleft palate. These results suggest that synergistic

  15. Mapping the location of functional nicotinic and gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors on hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Alkondon, M; Pereira, E F; Albuquerque, E X

    1996-12-01

    To assess the density and distribution of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors on hippocampal neurons, we have combined infrared videomicroscopy with a nanorobotic micromanipulator system and studied the receptor-mediated currents by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Acetylcholine or GABA was applied by pressure ejection onto a small segment of either cell soma or dendrite, and the resulting current was measured in cultured hippocampal neurons by using a whole-cell pipette positioned at the cell soma. Type IA nicotinic currents, sensitive to blockade by methyllycaconitine (1 nM) and alpha-bungarotoxin and associated with alpha 7-subunit-containing nAChRs, type II currents, sensitive to blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (100 nM) subserved by alpha 4 beta 2 nAChRs, and GABA-mediated currents were evoked when the agonists were applied to either cell soma or the dendrites. Analysis of the current amplitude with respect to the membrane area covered by the applied agonist provided an estimation of the receptor density along the somato-dendritic axis of the hippocampal neurons. Such analysis revealed: 1) a nonuniform distribution for the receptor types studied; 2) a higher density of nAChR and GABA receptors at the dendrites than at the soma; and 3) an increasing density for both nAChR subtypes with distance from the center of the cell soma, but increasing and then decreasing density for the GABA receptor. Exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to colchicine (100 nM for 3 days) produced a dramatic reduction in the dendritic branching, and this morphological feature was associated with a significant decrease in the receptor density, such an effect being more prominent for nAChRs than for GABA receptors. Given the high Ca+2 permeability of nAChRs, the dendritic localization of nAChRs suggest that they are involved in modulating the synaptic efficacy at the level of the dendrites.

  16. A hydrophobic amino acid cluster inserted into the C-terminus of a recycling cell surface receptor functions as an endosomal sorting signal.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yuji; Yoshino, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Katsuhiko; Takeshita, Toshikazu

    2013-11-08

    Cell surface receptors ubiquitylated after ligand stimulation are internalized and delivered to the lysosomal pathway for degradation. Ubiquitylated receptors are captured by ESCRT protein complexes that sort them to the lysosomal pathway. Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a component of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-0 that recognizes ubiquitin attached to receptors, indicating that it functions as a key molecule for ubiquitin-dependent endosomal sorting. In a previous study on interleukin (IL)-2 receptor β (IL-2Rβ) and IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), which are constitutively internalized without ligand stimulation, we revealed that Hrs bound to IL-2Rβ and IL-4Rα in a ubiquitin-independent manner, and identified a hydrophobic amino acid cluster in the cytoplasmic region of IL-2Rβ and IL-4Rα as the Hrs-interacting domain. However, a chimeric receptor containing the hydrophobic amino acid cluster inserted into the C-terminal of IL-2Rα was not delivered to late endosomes, but recycled back to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we explored the functional domain related to endosomal sorting in IL-2Rβ together with the hydrophobic amino acid cluster, and discovered the importance of an approximately 30-amino acid stretch following the C-terminus of the hydrophobic amino acid cluster in IL-2Rβ. Even though the amino acid stretch following the hydrophobic amino acid cluster was composed of arbitrary amino acids, such a stretch was also permissive for the sorting ability, suggesting that the hydrophobic amino acid cluster functions as an endosomal sorting signal. These findings clarify part of the molecular mechanism underlying the ubiquitin-independent endosomal sorting of cytokine receptors that are constitutively internalized without ligand stimulation.

  17. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Inhibits γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Liu, Wentao; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD) or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET) inhibited GABA-activated current (IGABA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited IGABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IGABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation. PMID:27616980

  18. Adolescent social defeat alters N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and impairs fear learning in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Mears, Mackenzie; Forster, Gina L; Lei, Yanlin; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Repeated social defeat of adolescent male rats results in adult mesocortical dopamine hypofunction, impaired working memory, and increased contextual anxiety-like behavior. Given the role of glutamate in dopamine regulation, cognition, and fear and anxiety, we investigated potential changes to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors following adolescent social defeat. As both NMDA receptors and mesocortical dopamine are implicated in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear, a separate cohort of rats was challenged with a classical fear conditioning paradigm to investigate whether fear learning is altered by adolescent defeat. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure 3H-MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus. Assessment of fear learning was achieved using an auditory fear conditioning paradigm, with freezing toward the auditory tone used as a measure of conditioned fear. Compared to controls, adolescent social defeat decreased adult NMDA receptor expression in the infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while increasing expression in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Previously defeated rats also displayed decreased conditioned freezing during the recall and first extinction periods, which may be related to the observed decreases and increases in NMDA receptors within the central amygdala and CA3, respectively. The alteration in NMDA receptors seen following adolescent social defeat suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic systems, combined with mesocortical dopamine deficits, likely plays a role in the some of the long-term behavioral consequences of social stressors in adolescence seen in both preclinical and clinical studies.

  19. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  20. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially.

  1. Naturally Occurring Eccentric Cleavage Products of Provitamin A β-Carotene Function as Antagonists of Retinoic Acid Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Abdulkerim; Hruszkewycz, Damian P.; dela Sena, Carlo; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Ken M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Curley, Robert W.; Harrison, Earl H.

    2012-01-01

    β-Carotene is the major dietary source of provitamin A. Central cleavage of β-carotene catalyzed by β-carotene oxygenase 1 yields two molecules of retinaldehyde. Subsequent oxidation produces all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which functions as a ligand for a family of nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Eccentric cleavage of β-carotene at non-central double bonds is catalyzed by other enzymes and can also occur non-enzymatically. The products of these reactions are β-apocarotenals and β-apocarotenones, whose biological functions in mammals are unknown. We used reporter gene assays to show that none of the β-apocarotenoids significantly activated RARs. Importantly, however, β-apo-14′-carotenal, β-apo-14′-carotenoic acid, and β-apo-13-carotenone antagonized ATRA-induced transactivation of RARs. Competitive radioligand binding assays demonstrated that these putative RAR antagonists compete directly with retinoic acid for high affinity binding to purified receptors. Molecular modeling studies confirmed that β-apo-13-carotenone can interact directly with the ligand binding site of the retinoid receptors. β-Apo-13-carotenone and the β-apo-14′-carotenoids inhibited ATRA-induced expression of retinoid responsive genes in Hep G2 cells. Finally, we developed an LC/MS method and found 3–5 nm β-apo-13-carotenone was present in human plasma. These findings suggest that β-apocarotenoids function as naturally occurring retinoid antagonists. The antagonism of retinoid signaling by these metabolites may have implications for the activities of dietary β-carotene as a provitamin A and as a modulator of risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:22418437

  2. Α-amino-β-fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic acids as a new tool for drug development: synthesis of glutamic acid analogs and agonist activity towards metabotropic glutamate receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, Gérald; Lion, Cédric; Quirion, Jean-Charles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Goudet, Cyril; Jubault, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Herein we describe the diastereoselective synthesis of glutamic acid analogs and the evaluation of their agonist activity towards metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4). These analogs are based on a monofluorinated cyclopropane core substituted with an α-aminoacid function. The potential of this new building block as a tool for the development of a novel class of drugs is demonstrated with racemic analog 11a that displayed the best agonist activity with an EC50 of 340 nM.

  3. Identification of a Chemoattractant G-Protein-Coupled Receptor for Folic Acid that Controls Both Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miao; Xu, Xuehua; Chen, Yong; Jin, Tian

    2016-02-22

    Eukaryotic phagocytes search and destroy invading microorganisms via chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a professional phagocyte that chases bacteria through chemotaxis and engulfs them as food via phagocytosis. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known for detecting chemoattractants and directing cell migration, but their roles in phagocytosis are not clear. Here, we developed a quantitative phosphoproteomic technique to discover signaling components. Using this approach, we discovered the long sought after folic acid receptor, fAR1, in D. discoideum. We showed that the seven-transmembrane receptor fAR1 is required for folic acid-mediated signaling events. Significantly, we discovered that fAR1 is essential for both chemotaxis and phagocytosis of bacteria, thereby representing a chemoattractant GPCR that mediates not only chasing but also ingesting bacteria. We revealed that a phagocyte is able to internalize particles via a chemoattractant-mediated engulfment process. We propose that mammalian phagocytes may also use this mechanism to engulf and ingest bacterial pathogens.

  4. Expression of multiple membrane-associated phospholipase A1 beta transcript variants and lysophosphatidic acid receptors in Ewing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, Benjamin Joachim; Hutter, Christoph; Hesse, Manuela; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2011-10-01

    The prognosis for patients with advanced stages of Ewing family tumors (EFT) is very poor. EFT express high levels of phosphatidic acid specific membrane-associated phospholipase A1 beta (lipase I, LIPI). LIPI is a cancer/testis antigen and the high tumor specificity suggests that LIPI might be an attractive target for new diagnostic and/or therapeutic developments. By using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we observed simultaneous presence of multiple LIPI transcript variants in EFT. We cloned and sequenced these transcript variants from EFT cell lines. Sequence analysis indicated that all transcript variants were derived by alternative splicing. Homology modeling of corresponding protein structures suggested that different transcript variants differ in their regulatory lid domains. In addition, expression of receptors for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was analyzed in a panel of EFT cell lines by RT-PCR. We observed that EFT cell lines expressed high levels of LPA receptors. Different LIPI transcript variants present in EFT might be involved in the pathogenesis of EFT by signaling via these LPA receptors.

  5. Effect of netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, on gastric acid secretion and rabeprazoleinduced hypergastrinaemia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Malcolm; Dowen, Sally; Turnbull, Gillian; van den Berg, Frans; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan; Black, James

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare gastric acid suppression by netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, with that by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and to determine if netazepide can prevent the trophic effects of PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia. Methods Thirty healthy subjects completed a double-blind, randomized, parallel group trial of oral netazepide and rabeprazole, alone and combined, once daily for 6 weeks. Primary end points were: basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and 24 h circulating gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA) at baseline, start and end of treatment, gastric biopsies at baseline and end of treatment and basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and dyspepsia questionnaire after treatment withdrawal. Results All treatments similarly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. All treatments increased serum gastrin, but the combination and rabeprazole did so more than netazepide alone. The combination also reduced basal acid secretion. Rabeprazole increased plasma CgA, whereas netazepide and the combination reduced it. None of the biopsies showed enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia. Withdrawal of treatments led neither to rebound hyperacidity nor dyspepsia. Conclusions Netazepide suppressed pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion as effectively as did rabeprazole. The reduction in basal acid secretion and greater increase in serum gastrin by the combination is consistent with more effective acid suppression. Despite our failure to show rabeprazole-induced ECL cell hyperplasia and rebound hyperacidity, the increase in plasma CgA after rabeprazole is consistent with a trophic effect on ECL cells, which netazepide prevented. Thus, netazepide is a potential treatment for the trophic effects of hypergastrinaemia and, with or without a PPI, is a potential treatment for acid-related conditions. PMID:25335860

  6. Di-acidic Motifs in the Membrane-distal C Termini Modulate the Transport of Angiotensin II Receptors from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cell Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dong, Chunmin; Wu, Qiong J.; Balch, William E.; Wu, Guangyu

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export and cell surface transport of nascent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have just begun to be revealed and previous studies have shown that hydrophobic motifs in the putative amphipathic 8th α-helical region within the membrane-proximal C termini play an important role. In this study, we demonstrate that di-acidic motifs in the membrane-distal, nonstructural C-terminal portions are required for the exit from the ER and transport to the plasma membrane of angiotensin II receptors, but not adrenergic receptors. More interestingly, distinct di-acidic motifs dictate optimal export trafficking of different angiotensin II receptors and export ability of each acidic residue in the di-acidic motifs cannot be fully substituted by other acidic residue. Moreover, the function of the di-acidic motifs is likely mediated through facilitating the recruitment of the receptors onto the ER-derived COPII transport vesicles. Therefore, the di-acidic motifs located in the membrane-distal C termini may represent the first linear motifs which recruit selective GPCRs onto the COPII vesicles to control their export from the ER. PMID:21507945

  7. Structure-activity relationships of seco-prezizaane terpenoids in gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors of houseflies and rats.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Tadahiko; Schmidt, Thomas J; Okuyama, Emi; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2002-06-01

    Thirteen seco-prezizaane terpenoids isolated from star anise species (Illcium floridanum, Illcium parviflorum, and Illcium verum) were investigated for their ability to inhibit the specific binding of [(3)H]4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB), a non-competitive antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, to housefly-head and rat-brain membranes. Veranisatin A was found to be the most potent inhibitor in both membranes, with an IC(50)(fly) of 78.5 nM and an IC(50)(rat) of 271 nM, followed by anisatin (IC(50)(fly)=123 nM; IC(50)(rat)=282 nM). Six of the other 11 tested compounds were effective only in housefly-head membranes. Pseudoanisatin proved to display a high (>26-fold) selectivity for housefly versus rat GABA receptors (IC(50)(fly)=376 nM; IC(50)(rat) >10,000 nM). Although pseudoanisatin does not structurally resemble EBOB, Scatchard plots indicated that the two compounds bind to the same site in housefly receptors. Anisatin and pseudoanisatin exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against German cockroaches. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), a method of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analysis, demonstrated that seco-prezizaane terpenoids can bind to the same site as do picrotoxane terpenoids such as picrotoxinin and picrodendrins, and the CoMFA maps allowed us to identify the parts of the molecules essential to high activity in housefly GABA receptors.

  8. Encapsulation of Nod1 and Nod2 receptor ligands into poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles potentiates their immune properties.

    PubMed

    Pavot, Vincent; Rochereau, Nicolas; Primard, Charlotte; Genin, Christian; Perouzel, Eric; Lioux, Thierry; Paul, Stéphane; Verrier, Bernard

    2013-04-10

    Most successful vaccines are able to induce persistent antibody responses that can last a lifetime. Emerging evidences indicate that activation of immune cells through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or Nod-like receptors (NLRs) may be critical mechanisms. Among PRRs, the use of TLR ligands as adjuvants is already largely described whereas the use of NLRs ligands remains largely unexplored. As activation of intracytoplasmic NLRs is able to induce proinflammatory molecules, the added value of encapsulation of Nod1 and Nod2 receptor ligands into Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) biodegradable nanocarriers to modulate their immune properties on human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation has been evaluated. Their ability to induce systemic immune responses in mice was also measured and compared to free ligands and the Alum adjuvant. Nod ligands encapsulated into PLA NPs were efficiently taken up by DCs and subsequently induced a strong up-regulation of maturation markers and the enhancement of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by DCs. Furthermore, co-injection of encapsulated Nod-ligands with PLA particles carrying Gag p24 HIV-1 antigen allowed a 100 fold increase in antibody responses in comparison to Alum. These results suggest that encapsulation of Nod ligands into PLA-NPs could be an effective way to improve vaccine efficiency.

  9. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (−)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

  10. Lysophosphatidic Acid Triggers Apoptosis in HeLa Cells through the Upregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 21

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a naturally occurring bioactive phospholipid, activates G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), leading to regulation of diverse cellular events including cell survival and apoptosis. Despite extensive studies of the signaling pathways that mediate LPA-regulated cell growth and survival, the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effect of LPA remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated this issue in HeLa cells. Our data demonstrate that LPA induces apoptosis in HeLa cells at pathologic concentrations with a concomitant upregulation of the expression of TNFRSF21 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 21), also known as death receptor number 6 (DR6) involved in inflammation. Moreover, treatment of cells with LPA receptor (LPAR) antagonist abolished the DR6 upregulation by LPA. LPA-induced DR6 expression was also abrogated by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of GPCRs, and by inhibitors of PI3K, PKC, MEK, and ERK. Intriguingly, LPA-induced DR6 expression was specifically blocked by dominant-negative form of PKCδ (PKCδ-DN). LPA-induced DR6 expression was also dramatically inhibited by knockdown of ERK or CREB. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and the transcription factor CREB mediate LPA-induced DR6 expression. More interestingly, knockdown of DR6 using siRNA approach remarkably attenuated LPA-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LPA-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells is mediated by the upregulation of DR6 expression. PMID:28348459

  11. Chronic Carbamazepine Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2-like Receptor-Initiated Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Bell, Jane M.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2016-01-01

    Observations that dopaminergic antagonists are beneficial in bipolar disorder and that dopaminergic agonists can produce mania suggest that bipolar disorder involves excessive dopaminergic transmission. Thus, mood stabilizers used to treat the disease might act in part by downregulating dopaminergic transmission. In agreement, we reported that dopamine D2-like receptor mediated signaling involving arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) was downregulated in rats chronically treated with lithium. To see whether chronic carbamazepine, another mood stabilizer, did this as well, we injected i.p. saline or the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg), into unanesthetized rats that had been pretreated for 30 days with i.p. carbamazepine (25 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, and used quantitative autoradiography to measure regional brain incorporation coefficients (k*) for AA, markers of signaling. We also measured brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an AA metabolite. In vehicle-treated rats, quinpirole compared with saline significantly increased k* for AA in 35 of 82 brain regions examined, as well as brain PGE2 concentration. Affected regions belong to dopaminergic circuits and have high D2-like receptor densities. Chronic carbamazepine pretreatment prevented the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and in PGE2. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that effective mood stabilizers generally downregulate brain AA signaling via D2-like receptors, and that this signaling is upregulated in bipolar disorder. PMID:18302021

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  13. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival.

  14. Expression of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR120 in the gonadotropes of the mouse anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Ryutaro; Deura, Chikaya; Imoto, Shingo; Nose, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been known to be a receptor of long-chain fatty acids. Here, we investigated GPR120 expression in the mouse pituitary gland via real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. GPR120 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland of ad-lib fed animals. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed GPR120 expression in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland, but not in thyrotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, melanotropes, and the posterior pituitary gland. Furthermore, 24 h of fasting induced an increase in GPR120 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland. These results demonstrate that GPR120 in mouse pituitary gonadotropes is upregulated by fasting and that it may play a role in controlling gonadotropin secretion.

  15. Excitatory amino acids acting on metabotropic glutamate receptors broaden the action potential in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, G Y; Storm, J F

    1991-12-24

    Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs, QP or ACPD receptors) has recently been shown to cause depolarization, blockade of the slow after-hyperpolarization and depression of calcium currents in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Here, we report evidence for a new mGluR-mediated effect: slowing of the spike repolarization in CA1 cells in rat hippocampal slices. During blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, the mGluR agonists trans-1-amino-cyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (t-ACPD), quisqualate or L-glutamate caused spike broadening. In contrast, the ionotropic receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) was ineffective. The spike broadening may act in concert with the other mGluR effects, e.g. by further increasing the influx of Ca2+ ions which, in turn, may contribute to synaptic modulation.

  16. The brain metabolite kynurenic acid inhibits alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity and increases non-alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression: physiopathological implications.

    PubMed

    Hilmas, C; Pereira, E F; Alkondon, M; Rassoulpour, A; Schwarcz, R; Albuquerque, E X

    2001-10-01

    The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) has long been recognized as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Here, interactions between KYNA and the nicotinic system in the brain were investigated using the patch-clamp technique and HPLC. In the electrophysiological studies, agonists were delivered via a U-shaped tube, and KYNA was applied in admixture with agonists and via the background perfusion. Exposure (>/=4 min) of cultured hippocampal neurons to KYNA (>/=100 nm) inhibited activation of somatodendritic alpha7 nAChRs; the IC(50) for KYNA was approximately 7 microm. The inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs was noncompetitive with respect to the agonist and voltage independent. The slow onset of this effect could not be accounted for by an intracellular action because KYNA (1 mm) in the pipette solution had no effect on alpha7 nAChR activity. KYNA also blocked the activity of preterminal/presynaptic alpha7 nAChRs in hippocampal neurons in cultures and in slices. NMDA receptors were less sensitive than alpha7 nAChRs to KYNA. The IC(50) values for KYNA-induced blockade of NMDA receptors in the absence and presence of glycine (10 microm) were approximately 15 and 235 microm, respectively. Prolonged (3 d) exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to KYNA increased their nicotinic sensitivity, apparently by enhancing alpha4beta2 nAChR expression. Furthermore, as determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection, repeated systemic treatment of rats with nicotine caused a transient reduction followed by an increase in brain KYNA levels. These results demonstrate that nAChRs are targets for KYNA and suggest a functionally significant cross talk between the nicotinic cholinergic system and the kynurenine pathway in the brain.

  17. Distinct modes of interaction of the retinoic acid receptor alpha with natural and synthetic retinoids.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, B; Mouchon, A; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1998-04-30

    Retinoids regulate key cellular processes through their binding to their cognate nuclear receptors, RARs and RXRs. Synthetic ligands mimic most of their biological effects and alteration of their chemical structure confers selectivity for RAR isotypes alpha, beta or gamma. In this study, we have examined the contribution of a domain (L box) of hRARalpha located at the C-terminus of the ligand binding domain (LBD), between helices H11 and H12, to the ligand binding activity of this receptor. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that, in the absence of the ligand-dependent activation domain 2 (AF2-AD), the receptor discriminates between classes of structurally distinct retinoids. This property was lost in the presence of the AF2-AD domain, evidencing major structural transitions in this part of the receptor. We propose that ligand binding occurs in two steps: first, the ligand interacts with the LBD in its opened, holo-receptor conformation in which the L box plays a crucial role in defining the ligand binding repertoire of hRARalpha; secondly, the LBD adopts its closed conformation in which the ligand interacts with the receptor mostly through its carboxylic moiety.

  18. MiRNA-194 Regulates Palmitic Acid-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Inflammatory Responses in THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huiqun; Liu, Chaoqi; Zou, Xiaohua; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-05-13

    There is strong evidence to suggest that inflammatory responses link obesity and diseases, and the understanding of obesity-induced inflammatory mechanisms is central to the pathogenesis of diseases such asnonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and atherosclerosis that are modified by obesity. Based on this, anti-inflammatory treatments become a potential therapies for obesity-related diseases like NAFLD.A critical role of toll-like receptor (TLR) and its downstream molecules such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6(TRAF6) has been documented in inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. TLR pathway regulation provides a new insight to controlling the inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. Taken together, our study was aimed to understand the mechanism of fatty acid-mediated inflammation and look for an effective target which can prevent the inflammatory response induced by obesity. In this study, we used the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (PA) to activate TLR4 signal pathway in human monocyte cells THP-1 that established an intracellular inflammatory model. Followed with activated TLR4, downstream molecular TRAF6 was upregulated and ultimately induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Based on this model, we also found that PA downregulated miR-194 expression with TLR4 activation. Moreover, our results showed that key signal molecular TRAF6 is a target of miR-194, overexpression of miR-194 directly decreased TRAF6 expression and attenuated the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in PA-activated monocyte THP-1. We conclude that miR-194 negatively regulates the TLR4 signal pathway which is activated by PA through directly negative TRAF6 expression.

  19. Selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blockade benefits fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism significantly in weight-stable nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Vidya; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Higgins, Paul B; Voruganti, V Saroja; Kamath, Subhash; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether administration of the CB₁ cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant would alter fatty acid flux in nonhuman primates. Five adult baboons (Papio Sp) aged 12.1 ± 4.7 yr (body weight: 31.9 ± 2.1 kg) underwent repeated metabolic tests to determine fatty acid and TG flux before and after 7 wk of treatment with rimonabant (15 mg/day). Animals were fed ad libitum diets, and stable isotopes were administered via diet (d₃₁-tripalmitin) and intravenously (¹³C₄-palmitate, ¹³C₁-acetate). Plasma was collected in the fed and fasted states, and blood lipids were analyzed by GC-MS. DEXA was used to assess body composition and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp used to assess insulin-mediated glucose disposal. During the study, no changes were observed in food intake, body weight, plasma, and tissue endocannabinoid concentrations or the quantity of liver-TG fatty acids originating from de novo lipogenesis (19 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 5%, for pre- and posttreatment, respectively, P = 0.39). However, waist circumference was significantly reduced 4% in the treated animals (P < 0.04), glucose disposal increased 30% (P = 0.03), and FFA turnover increased 37% (P = 0.02). The faster FFA flux was consistent with a 43% reduction in these fatty acids used for TRL-TG synthesis (40 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 4%, P = 0.02) and a twofold increase in TRL-TG turnover (1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4 μmol·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹, P = 0.03). These data support the potential for a strong effect of CB₁ receptor antagonism at the level of adipose tissue, resulting in improvements in fasting turnover of fatty acids at the whole body level, central adipose storage, and significant improvements in glucose homeostasis.

  20. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase, a Key Enzyme That Controls Blood Glucose, Is a Target of Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Shima, Akiho; Kuramoto, Daisuke; Kikumoto, Daisuke; Matsui, Takashi; Michihara, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyzes a committed and rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis, and its activity is tightly regulated to maintain blood glucose levels within normal limits. PEPCK activity is primarily regulated through hormonal control of gene transcription. Transcription is additionally regulated via a cAMP response unit, which includes a cAMP response element and four binding sites for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP). Notably, the cAMP response unit also contains a putat