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Sample records for acid reduce post-coronary

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis in A Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patient: Successful Conservative Management.

    PubMed

    Sarker, S H; Miraj, A K; Hossain, M A; Aftabuddin, M

    2017-07-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is an alarming medical emergency. Deep vein thrombosis or deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein predominantly in the legs. Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting deep vein thrombosis is a very rare medical condition relatively in Asian. Approximately 80% of deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) is clinically asymptomatic, 20% of those that actually demonstrate signs and symptoms can be easily confused with symptoms of other commonly presenting musculoskeletal disorders. Proper medical management can reduce patient's morbidity and further burden. A 50 years old diabetic Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting gentleman had been suffering for left leg swelling, high grade fever and calf muscle pain for 5 days. He had absent Arteria Dorsalis Paedis pulse on left foot, Positive Homan sign and Wells score is 7. His left leg was hugely swelled. He had normal leg hair distribution. Duplex study of Left Leg-Deep Vein Thrombosis in left lower limb (Popliteal segment) with sign of recanalization. He is also a patient of anemia of chronic disease due to hemorrhoid. Several investigations have done to find the cause of his chronic anemia. His treatment was meticulous with complete bed rest, elevation of left lower limb, heparinization, oralrivaroxaban. He had rapid recovery following treatment. Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting patient should be given post-operative enoxaparin (Low molecular weight Heparin) or Heparin for 3-5 days. Early diagnosis of the disease condition reduces morbidity. Combined treatment with Rivaroxaban and Heparin is of great clinical value and outcome in a case of Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Deep Vein Thrombosis patient.

  2. Risk factors for post coronary artery bypass graft atrial fibrillation: role of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Qaddoura, Amro; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2016-12-21

    In this chapter, we start by discussing coronary artery bypass grafting and the most common complication after surgery – post coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation (PCAF). We then discuss the major risk factors for PCAF, and subsequently conduct an in-depth discussion of obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor. In this endeavor, we outline how obstructive sleep apnea is diagnosed, its pathophysiological relationship to PCAF, and recent clinical studies investigating the association between obstructive sleep apnea and PCAF. We conclude with prevention and treatment strategies for PCAF, and a discussion of future research recommendations.

  3. Angina self-management plan and quality of life, anxiety and depression in post coronary angioplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Moattari, Marzieh; Adib, Fakhteh; Kojuri, Javad; Tabatabaee, Seyed Hamid Reza

    2014-11-01

    Coronary artery diseases are the most frequent cause of mortality in industrialized countries as well as Iran. Coronary artery disease affects patient's quality of life (QoL) and produces some degrees of anxiety and depression. Although self-management programs have shown significant impact on chronic diseases, there is limited evidence in Iran regarding the effectiveness of these interventions, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of angina plan on QoL, anxiety, and depression in post coronary angioplasty patients referred to selected hospitals in Shiraz. This parallel randomized, controlled trial was conducted in selected hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. We enrolled 80 post coronary angioplasty eligible patients in the study. After acquisition of the informed consent, eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups: control and experimental. Pretest data were obtained by using a demographic data form and two valid and reliable questionnaires for QoL, anxiety, and depression. Blood pressure, weight, and height (to calculate body mass index) were measured too. Patient's history of smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and coronary vascular involvement (with grade and severity) were obtained from their medical records. A 12-week angina plan intervention consisted of a 30 to 40 minutes of counseling interview and telephone follow up at the end of 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks were performed for experimental group. Post-test data were obtained three months after the pretest using the same questionnaires as pretest. QoL data were analyzed by analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). The results (before and after intervention) regarding anxiety and depression were analyzed by independent t-tests or their equivalent nonparametric Mann-Whitney test using SPSS v. 11.5. There was no statistically significant difference in demographic variables between two groups. Baseline mean scores for QoL, anxiety, and

  4. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  5. First flush reduces coal pile acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, P.

    1981-11-01

    Research at two Pennsylvania utilities into the effects of heavy rainfall on coal piles indicates that not all of the runoff becomes acidic as previously was assumed. This is because the first flush of rainfall carries off much of the pollutants. A case is being built to modify EPA regulations.

  6. Acid rain reduced in eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on our analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, we conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  7. Acid rain reduced in Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.A.; Bowersox, V.C.; Grimm, J.W.

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and free hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) in precipitation decreased from 10% to 25% over a large area of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 as compared to the previous 12-year (1983--1994) reference period. These decreases were unprecedented in magnitude and spatial extent. In contrast, nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) concentrations generally did not change over this period. The largest decreases in both H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations, which nearly mimicked one another, occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set limitations on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from a large number of utility-owned coal-fired sources. Phase 1 of the CAAA required that these limitations be met by January 1, 1995. On the basis of their analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, the authors conclude that significant declines in acid rain occurred in many parts of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 because of large reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions in this region and a corresponding reduction in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations in precipitation.

  8. Editorial Commentary: Knee Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation Reduces Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the AAOS knee osteoarthritis guidelines, systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection reduces knee osteoarthritis pain and improves function according to the highest level of evidence.

  9. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  10. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  11. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  12. Underestimation of the incidence of new-onset post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation and its impact on 30-day mortality.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giovanni; Pollock, Benjamin D; da Graca, Briget; Phan, Teresa K; Sass, Danielle M; Ailawadi, Gorav; Thourani, Vinod; Damiano, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    Inconsistent definitions of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting have caused uncertainty about its incidence and risk. We examined the extent to which limiting the definition to post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation events requiring treatment underestimates its incidence and impact on 30-day mortality. We assessed in-hospital atrial fibrillation and 30-day mortality in 9268 consecutive patients without preoperative atrial fibrillation who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at 5 US hospitals (2004-2010). Patients who experienced 1 or more episode of post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation detected via continuous in-hospital electrocardiogram/telemetry monitoring were divided into those for whom Society of Thoracic Surgeons data (applying the definition "atrial fibrillation/flutter requiring treatment") also indicated atrial fibrillation versus those for whom it did not. Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality was compared between these 2 groups and with patients without post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation. Risk-adjusted incidence of post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation incidence was 33.4% (27.0% recorded in Society of Thoracic Surgeons data, 6.4% missed). Patients with post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation missed by Society of Thoracic Surgeons data had a significantly greater risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.08, 95% confidence interval, 1.17-3.69) than those captured. By applying the significant underestimation of post-coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation incidence we observed (odds ratio [Society of Thoracic Surgeons vs missed], 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.83) to the approximately 150,000 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in the United States each year estimates this increased risk of mortality is carried by 9600 patients (95% confidence interval, 9420-9780) annually. Defining post-coronary

  13. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  14. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions.

  15. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N.; Schellinger, Joan G.; Carlson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-L-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol]propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity was attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers. PMID:21893178

  16. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N; Schellinger, Joan G; Carlson, Peter M; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-l-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol] propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity were attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers.

  17. Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Modell, Bernadette; Lawn, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) remain an important, preventable cause of mortality and morbidity. High-income countries have reported large reductions in NTDs associated with folic acid supplementation or fortification. The burden of NTDs in low-income countries and the effectiveness of folic acid fortification/supplementation are unclear. Objective To review the evidence for, and estimate the effect of, folic acid fortification/supplementation on neonatal mortality due to NTDs, especially in low-income countries. Methods We conducted systematic reviews, abstracted data meeting inclusion criteria and evaluated evidence quality using adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were performed. Results Meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of folic acid supplementation for women with a previous pregnancy with NTD indicates a 70% [95% confidence interval (CI): 35–86] reduction in recurrence (secondary prevention). For NTD primary prevention through folic acid supplementation, combining one RCT with three cohort studies which adjusted for confounding, suggested a reduction of 62% (95% CI: 49–71). A meta-analysis of eight population-based observational studies examining folic acid food fortification gave an estimated reduction in NTD incidence of 46% (95% CI: 37–54). In low-income countries an estimated 29% of neonatal deaths related to visible congenital abnormalities are attributed to NTD. Assuming that fortification reduces the incidence of NTDs, but does not alter severity or case-fatality rates, we estimate that folic acid fortification could prevent 13% of neonatal deaths currently attributed to congenital abnormalities in low-income countries. Discussion Scale-up of periconceptional supplementation programmes is challenging. Our final effect estimate was therefore based on folic acid fortification data. If folic acid food fortification achieved

  18. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  20. Dietary adipic acid reduces ammonia emission from swine excreta.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid is only partially catabolized when it is fed to animals, and a portion of it is excreted in urine. The excreted portion may lower urinary pH and, as a result, ammonia emission. The present study tested this hypothesis. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on urinary pH (collected on d 5 or 6) and in vitro ammonia emission from the collected urine samples that were mixed with control feces. In Exp. 2, grower pigs housed 10 each in one of two chambers were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid. Ventilated air was quantified and analyzed for ammonia using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the effects of feeding 1% adipic acid on ammonia emission. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid strongly reduced urinary pH (from 7.7 to 5.5, P < 0.05). In vitro ammonia emission from these urine samples was significantly reduced at all the time points evaluated (1, 3, 18, and 46 h with reductions of 94, 93, 70, and 39%, respectively, P < 0.05). Experiment 2 showed that adipic acid supplementation reduced ammonia emission by 25% (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the predicted reduction in ammonia emission based on the reduction in manure pH observed. In conclusion, feeding adipic acid lowers urinary pH and reduces ammonia emission. The reduction in ammonia emission, though, does not correspond to the reduction in urinary pH but corresponds to the reduction in fecal pH as a result of mixing the urine and feces, in which feces act as a strong buffer.

  1. Means for reducing oxalic acid to a product

    SciTech Connect

    Morduchowitz, A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an apparatus for reducing oxalic acid to a product comprising: a cell including a separator for separating the cell into two chambers, a catholyte chamber and an anolyte chamber, each chamber having an inlet and an outlet; a porous anode arranged within the anolyte section in a manner so that an electrolyte entering through the inlet of the anolyte section will pass through the anode and exit through the outlet of the anolyte section; means for providing an electrolyte to the inlet of the anolyte chamber in a manner so that it will exit through the outlet of the anolyte chamber; means for providing a mixture of oxalic acid and an electrolyte to the inlet of the catholyte chamber; porous cathode means located in the catholyte chamber for reducing the oxalic acid in the oxalic acid-electrolyte mixture to the product within the cathode means when a d.c. voltage provided across the anode and the cathode means, the product exiting the cell by way of the catholyte chamber's outlet; and means for providing a d.c. voltage across the cathode means and the anode so as to cooperate in the reduction of the oxalic acid; and in which the cathode means includes a porous cathode having discrete sites of platinum and mercury as catalysts and the product is ethylene glycol.

  2. Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-10-01

    Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.

  3. Acetylsalicylic acid reduces viral shedding induced by thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Bryan M; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Mice that were latent for the McKrae strain of HSV-1 were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, a nonspecific inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, either prophylactically or at the time of heat stress-induced viral reactivation. The effect of the drug on viral shedding in the tear film, infectious virus in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion, and viral DNA in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion was determined. Acetylsalicylic acid inhibited heat stress-induced shedding of virus in the tears and reduced the numbers of corneal and trigeminal ganglion homogenates containing virus. Intraperitoneal therapeutic and oral prophylactic plus therapeutic treatments were similar in their ability to inhibit reactivation. The results indicate that a cyclooxygenase inhibitor such as acetylsalicylic acid can reduce recurrent viral infection in mice. These findings may implicate prostaglandins as agents in the viral reactivation process and suggest that therapy to suppress viral reactivation using nontoxic inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis may be effective in humans.

  4. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roelof J; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-07-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Thirty-six patients with GERD (18 not taking PPIs, 18 taking PPIs; 19 men; age, 55 ± 2.1 y) were analyzed by concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardized meal. The acid pocket was visualized using scintigraphy after intravenous administration of (99m)technetium-pertechnetate. The size of the acid pocket was measured and its position was determined, relative to the diaphragm, using radionuclide markers on a high-resolution manometry catheter. At the end of the study, the acid pocket was aspirated, and its pH level was measured. The number of reflux episodes was comparable between patients on and off PPIs, but the number of acid reflux episodes was reduced significantly in patients on PPIs. In patients on PPIs, the acid pocket was smaller and more frequently located below the diaphragm. The mean pH of the acid pocket was significantly lower in patients not taking PPIs (n = 6) than in those who were (n = 16) (0.9; range, 0.7-1.2 vs 4.0; range, 1.6-5.9; P < .001). The pH of acid pockets correlated significantly with the lowest pH values measured for refluxate (r = 0.72; P < .01). Based on analyses of acid pockets in patients with GERD, the acid pocket appears to be a reservoir from which reflux occurs when patients are receiving PPIs. PPIs might affect the size, acidity, or position of the acid pocket, which contributes to the efficacy in patients with GERD. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing acid in dilute acid pretreatment and the impact on enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Stevens, Mark A; Zhu, Yongming; Holmes, Jason; Moxley, Geoffrey; Xu, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a leading pretreatment technology for biomass to ethanol conversion due to the comparatively low chemical cost and effective hemicellulose solubilization. The conventional dilute acid pretreatment processes use relatively large quantities of sulfuric acid and require alkali for pH adjustment afterwards. Significant amounts of sulfate salts are generated as by-products, which have to be properly treated before disposal. Wastewater treatment is an expensive, yet indispensable part of commercial level biomass-to-ethanol plants. Therefore, reducing acid use to the lowest level possible would be of great interest to the emerging biomass-to-ethanol industry. In this study, a dilute acid pretreatment process was developed for the pretreatment of corn stover. The pretreatment was conducted at lower acid levels than the conventional process reported in the literature while using longer residence times. The study indicates that a 50% reduction in acid consumption can be achieved without compromising pretreatment efficiency when the pretreatment time was extended from 1-5 min to 15-20 min. To avoid undesirable sugar degradation and inhibitor generation, temperatures should be controlled below 170°C. When the sulfuric acid-to-lignocellulosic biomass ratio was kept at 0.025 g acid/g dry biomass, a cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 72.7% can be achieved at an enzyme loading of 0.016 g/g corn stover. It was also found that acid loading based on total solids (g acid/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency rather than the acid concentration (g acid/g pretreatment liquid). While the acid loading on lignocellulosic biomass may be achieved through various combinations of solids loading and acid concentration in the pretreatment step, this work shows that it is unlikely to reduce acid use without undermining pretreatment efficiency simply by increasing the solid content in pretreatment reactors, therefore acid loading on biomass is indicated

  6. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  7. A Potent, Versatile Disulfide-Reducing Agent from Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard reagent for reducing disulfide bonds between and within biological molecules. At neutral pH, however, >99% of DTT thiol groups are protonated and thus unreactive. Herein, we report on (2S)-2-amino-1,4-dimercaptobutane (dithiobutylamine or DTBA), a dithiol that can be synthesized from l-aspartic acid in a few high-yielding steps that are amenable to a large-scale process. DTBA has thiol pKa values that are ∼1 unit lower than those of DTT and forms a disulfide with a similar E°′ value. DTBA reduces disulfide bonds in both small molecules and proteins faster than does DTT. The amino group of DTBA enables its isolation by cation-exchange and facilitates its conjugation. These attributes indicate that DTBA is a superior reagent for reducing disulfide bonds in aqueous solution. PMID:22353145

  8. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Remediation of acidic industrial effluents by sulphate reducing bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, V; Chaudhary, R; Tholia, N K

    2012-07-01

    This research work was designed to examine the feasibility of sulphate reducing bioreactors with organic substrates, containing manures, and other cellulosic wastes for remediation of acidic industrial wastewater on bench scale. The pH of the wastewater increased from 5.5. to 7.18, alkalinity from 0 to 2566 mg/L as CaCO3, acidity removal was from 357 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3, sulphate removal was 92.7%, lead removal was 97.3%, zinc- 99.8%, copper-97.5%, cobalt-99.4%, manganese-98.9%, nickel- 98.3% and iron 99.5%, were observed in this study after the maximum retention of 106 days. This paper describes bioremediation as a state-of-art for the treatment of wastewater from the industries.

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Amyloid β Production via Multiple Pleiotropic Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Kuchenbecker, Johanna; Grösgen, Sven; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Friess, Petra; de Wilde, Martijn C.; Broersen, Laus M.; Penke, Botond; Péter, Mária; Vígh, László; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and a reduced risk in Alzheimer disease in several epidemiological trials; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of DHA on amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic APP processing and the potential cross-links to cholesterol metabolism in vivo and in vitro. DHA reduces amyloidogenic processing by decreasing β- and γ-secretase activity, whereas the expression and protein levels of BACE1 and presenilin1 remain unchanged. In addition, DHA increases protein stability of α-secretase resulting in increased nonamyloidogenic processing. Besides the known effect of DHA to decrease cholesterol de novo synthesis, we found cholesterol distribution in plasma membrane to be altered. In the presence of DHA, cholesterol shifts from raft to non-raft domains, and this is accompanied by a shift in γ-secretase activity and presenilin1 protein levels. Taken together, DHA directs amyloidogenic processing of APP toward nonamyloidogenic processing, effectively reducing Aβ release. DHA has a typical pleiotropic effect; DHA-mediated Aβ reduction is not the consequence of a single major mechanism but is the result of combined multiple effects. PMID:21324907

  11. The use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce mercury bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Jadán-Piedra, C; Alcántara, C; Monedero, V; Zúñiga, M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2017-08-01

    Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH3Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH3Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion. All of the strains assayed reduce the soluble fraction from standards of mercury species under gastrointestinal digestion conditions (72-98%). However their effectiveness is lower in food, and reductions in bioaccessibility are only observed with mushrooms (⩽68%). It is hypothesized that bioaccessible mercury in seafood forms part of complexes that do not interact with lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  13. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  14. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor.

  15. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions.—Seritrakul, P., Samarut, E., Lama, T. T. S., Gibert, Y., Laudet, V., Jackman, W. R. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish. PMID:22942074

  16. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Ettehad, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Nabi, Bahram Naderi; Moghaddam, Roya; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Khanjanian, Gita

    2017-03-01

    Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead to postoperative acute anemia and some other complications. Tranexamic acid (TA) is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements during some elective surgeries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA) on intraoperative blood loss and a subsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting. Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullary nailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. Group I, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA) via intravenous infusion before surgical incision. Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline. Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobin change as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups. Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.570). Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group (5.6%) compared to the placebo group (30%) (P=0.06). No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during the surgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894). Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during traumatic femoral fracture operation.

  17. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Ettehad, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Nabi, Bahram Naderi; Moghaddam, Roya; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Khanjanian, Gita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead to postoperative acute anemia and some other complications. Tranexamic acid (TA) is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements during some elective surgeries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA) on intraoperative blood loss and a subsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting. Methods: Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullary nailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. Group I, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA) via intravenous infusion before surgical incision. Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline. Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobin change as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.570). Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group (5.6%) compared to the placebo group (30%) (P=0.06). No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during the surgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894). Conclusion: Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during traumatic femoral fracture operation. PMID:28497100

  18. Inhibitors of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid reduce renal vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Quilley, J; Qiu, Y; Hirt, J

    2003-10-01

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P450-derived constrictor eicosanoid produced by the preglomerular vasculature where it contributes to regulation of tone. Removal of the tonic inhibitory influence of nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to increase renal 20-HETE release. Because inhibition of NO synthesis enhances responses to vasoconstrictor agents, we examined a contribution for increased 20-HETE generation. In the rat kidney perfused with Krebs' buffer, responses to U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9alpha,11alpha-methanoepoxy PGF2alpha), a thromboxane A2 mimetic, were compared before and after 50 microM L-nitroarginine (L-NA) to inhibit NO synthase. L-NA raised perfusion pressure (PP) from 79 +/- 3 to 190 +/- 7 mm Hg and enhanced constrictor responsiveness to U46619. U46619 (10, 30, 100, and 300 ng) increased PP by 7 +/- 1, 17 +/- 2, 50 +/- 7, and 67 +/- 7 mm Hg, respectively, before L-NA and 15 +/- 1, 37 +/- 7, 68 +/- 10, and 85 +/- 11 mm Hg, respectively, after L-NA, which did not increase 20-HETE efflux from the kidney. Nonetheless, an inhibitor of omega-hydroxylase, dibromododecencyl methylsulfonimide (DDMS), which reduced 20-HETE release, normalized the enhanced responsiveness to U46619. When PP was elevated with phenylephrine, vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 were similarly enhanced, an effect that was also prevented by DDMS. DDMS and an antagonist of 20-HETE, 20-HEDE [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z), 15(Z)-dienoic acid], also reduced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 in the absence of elevation of PP. Because 20-HETE inhibits K+ channels, we examined the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on vasoconstrictor responses and showed that both tetraethylammonium (TEA) and charybdotoxin enhanced renal vasoconstrictor responses to U46619. However, the inhibitory effects of 20-HEDE on vasoconstrictor responses remained after treatment with TEA. These results support a role for 20-HETE vasoconstrictor responses but suggest an action independent of K+ channels.

  19. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by a 3-thia fatty acid reduces triacylglycerol secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Skrede, S; Bremer, J; Berge, R K; Rustan, A C

    1994-08-01

    The present work shows that when mitochondrial beta-oxidation is stimulated by the hypolipemic, non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid, there is a decrease in the secretion of triacylglycerol in cultured rat hepatocytes. In order to study the effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid in cells with different fatty acid oxidation rates, cells were grown without or with L-carnitine supplement or with addition of the beta-oxidation inhibitor L-aminocarnitine. In cells grown without and with L-carnitine in the medium, the oxidation of [1-14C]oleic acid was stimulated by tetradecylthioacetic acid, whereas it was not significantly changed by palmitic acid. In cells grown with L-aminocarnitine, oxidation of [1-14C]oleic acid was almost abolished both in the absence and in presence of tetradecylthioacetic acid. The effect of tetradecylthioacetic acid and palmitic acid on incorporation of [1-14C]oleic acid into triacylglycerol was similar under all conditions. In the presence of L-carnitine, secretion of oleic acid-labeled triacylglycerol was reduced significantly more by tetradecylthioacetic acid than by palmitic acid. The effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid and palmitic acid on secretion of oleic acid-labeled triacylglycerol were reversed in cells grown with L-aminocarnitine, where palmitic acid was the stronger inhibitor. These results were substantiated by determination of mass of triacylglycerol secreted. It is concluded that tetradecylthioacetic acid reduces secretion of triacylglycerol from rat hepatocytes mainly by acutely stimulating fatty acid oxidation.

  20. Use of sulfate reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.J.

    1995-10-01

    The environmental impacts caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) were first recorded in 1556 by Georgius Agricola. In the United States 10,000 miles of streams and 29,000 surface acres of impoundments are estimated to be seriously affected by AMD. Abandoned surface mines are estimated to contribute about 15% of the drainage, while active mines (40%) and shaft and drift mines (45%) contribute the remainder. AMD results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), come in contact with oxygen and water. Acid generation occurs when metal sulfide minerals are oxidized according to the Initiator Reaction: FeS{sub 2}(pyrite) + 3 1/2O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {yields} Fe{sup 2+} + 2SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} + 2H{sup +}. This reaction is one of many that results in increased metal mobility and increased acidity (lowered pH) of the mine water. The oxidation of ferrous sulfate is accelerated by bacterial action of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, a naturally occurring bacterium that at pH 3.5 or less, can rapidly accelerate the conversion of dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous iron) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric iron), and can act as an oxidant for the oxidation of pyrite. Ferric ions, as well as other metal ions, and the sulfuric acid have a deleterious influence on the biota of streams receiving AMD. The Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine, located in the Elliston Mining District of Powell County, Montana, was selected as the Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) technology demonstration site. The mine is situated on a patented claim on Deerlodge National Forest Land about 11 miles south of Elliston, Montana. This abandoned mining operation consists of a 250-foot shaft, four horizontal workings, and some stopping. The shaft is flooded with AMD to the 74-foot level and is discharging about 3 gallons per minute (gpm) at a pH of 3.0 from the adit associated with this level.

  1. Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shea, Beverley; Swinden, Michael V; Ghogomu, Elizabeth Tanjong; Ortiz, Zulma; Katchamart, Wanruchada; Rader, Tamara; Bombardier, Claire; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-06-01

    To perform a systematic review of the benefits and harms of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing the mucosal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and hematologic side effects of methotrexate (MTX); and to assess whether folic or folinic acid supplementation has any effect on MTX benefit. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and US National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry from inception to March 2012. We selected all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in which adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated with MTX (dose ≤ 25 mg/week) concurrently with folate supplementation. We included only trials using low-dose folic or folinic acid (a starting dose of ≤ 7 mg weekly) because the high dose is no longer recommended or used. Data were extracted from the trials, and the trials were independently assessed for risk of bias using a predetermined set of criteria. Six trials with 624 patients were eligible for inclusion. Most studies had low or unclear risk of bias for key domains. The quality of the evidence was rated as "moderate" for each outcome as assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group, with the exception of hematologic side effects, which were rated as "low." There was no significant heterogeneity between trials, including where folic acid and folinic acid studies were pooled. For patients supplemented with any form of exogenous folate (either folic or folinic acid) while receiving MTX therapy for RA, a 26% relative (9% absolute) risk reduction was seen for the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.92; p = 0.008). Folic and folinic acid also appear to be protective against abnormal serum transaminase elevation caused by MTX, with a 76.9% relative (16% absolute) risk reduction (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.34; p < 0.00001), as well as reducing patient withdrawal from

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  4. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  5. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  6. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces cardiovascular events: relationship with the EPA/arachidonic acid ratio.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Haruo; Saito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of fish oil and high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (hp-EPA-E) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. Fish oil contains saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that have pharmacological effects opposite to those of ω3 fatty acids (ω3). Moreover, ω3, such as EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), do not necessarily have the same metabolic and biological actions. This has obscured the clinical efficacy of ω3. Recently, the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) of hp-EPA-E established the clinical efficacy of EPA for CVD, and higher levels of blood EPA, not DHA, were found to be associated with a lower incidence of major coronary events. A significant reduction in the risk of coronary events was observed when the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA) (EPA/AA) was > 0.75. Furthermore, the ratio of prostaglandin (PG) I3 and PGI2 to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) ([PGI2 + PGI3]/TXA2) was determined to have a linear relationship with the EPA/AA ratio as follows: (PGI2 + PGI3)/TXA2 =λ + π* (EPA/AA). Like PGI2, PGI3 not only inhibits platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, but also is assumed to reduce cardiac ischemic injury and arteriosclerosis and promote angiogenesis. Thus, the effects of EPA in reducing the risk of CVD could be mediated by biological action of PGI3 in addition to hypotriglyceridemic action of EPA. Compared with DHA, EPA administration increases the EPA/AA ratio and the (PGI2 + PGI3)/TXA2 balance to a state that inhibits the onset and/or progression of CVD.

  8. Ascorbic acid does not reduce the anticancer effect of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Saga, Ryo; Monzen, Satoru; Terashima, Shingo; Tsuruga, Eichi

    2017-01-01

    The present study hypothesized that the therapeutic use of ascorbic acid (AsA) in combination with radiation may reduce therapy-related side effects and increase the antitumor effects. The aim of the study was to examine the association between the scavenged activity of AsA and the biological anticancer effect of hydroxyl (OH) radicals generated by X-ray irradiation. Cell survival, DNA fragmentation of human leukemia HL60 cells and the amount of OH radicals were investigated following X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment. The number of living cells decreased, and DNA fragmentation increased at AsA concentrations >1 mM. Electron spin resonance spectra revealed that X-ray irradiation generated OH radicals, which were scavenged by AsA at concentrations >75 µM. The AsA concentration inside the cell was 75 µM when cells underwent extracellular treatment with 5 mM AsA, which significantly induced HL60 cell death even without irradiation. No increase in the number of viable HL60 cells was observed following AsA treatment with irradiation when compared to irradiation alone. In conclusion, the disappearance of the radiation anticancer effects with AsA treatment in combination with radiotherapy for cancer treatment is not a cause for concern. PMID:28123717

  9. Formation of diphenylthioarsinic acid from diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Shihoko; Guan, Ling; Nakajima, Mami; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a toxic phenylarsenical compound often found around sites contaminated with phenylarsenic chemical warfare agents, diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were buried in soil after the World Wars. This research concerns the elucidation of the chemical structure of an arsenic metabolite transformed from DPAA under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions. In LC/ICP-MS analysis, the retention time of the metabolite was identical to that of a major phenylarsenical compound synthesized by chemical reaction of DPAA and hydrogen sulfide. Moreover the mass spectra for the two compounds measured using LC/TOF-MS were similar. Subsequent high resolution mass spectral analysis indicated that two major ions at m/z 261 and 279, observed on both mass spectra, were attributable to C12H10AsS and C12H12AsSO, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that the latter ion is the molecular-related ion ([M+H](+)) of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTA; (C6H5)2AsS(OH)) and the former ion is its dehydrated fragment. Thus, our results reveal that DPAA can be transformed to DPTA, as a major metabolite, under sulfate-reducing soil conditions. Moreover, formation of diphenyldithioarsinic acid and subsequent dimerization were predicted by the chemical reaction analysis of DPAA with hydrogen sulfide. This is the first report to elucidate the occurrence of DPAA-thionation in an anaerobic soil.

  10. A molecular biological approach to reducing dietary amino acid needs.

    PubMed

    Rees, W D; Flint, H J; Fuller, M F

    1990-07-01

    Rapid developments in transgenic animal technology make it possible to consider introducing new metabolic capabilities into animals, using genes from other species. Lysine and threonine are both essential amino acids in mammals, and are commonly the first and second limiting amino acids, respectively, for protein accretion in pigs and poultry fed cereal based diets. Here we consider the potential for transgenic animals with microbial biosynthetic pathways for these amino acids.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid, but not eicosapentaenoic acid, supplementation reduces vulnerability to atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ramadeen, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Leong-Poi, Howard; Hu, Xudong; Fujii, Hiroko; Laurent, Gabriel; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Bazinet, Richard P; Dorian, Paul

    2012-10-01

    The potential health benefits of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) usually are studied using a combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This combination reduces vulnerability to experimentally induced atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unknown whether EPA and DHA have differential effects when taken alone. Using a model of pacing-induced atrial hemodynamic overload, we investigated the individual effects of EPA and DHA on vulnerability to AF and atrial remodeling. Thirty-four dogs were randomized into 3 groups, all of which underwent simultaneous atrial and ventricular pacing at 220 beats per minute for 14 days. One group received purified DHA (≈1 g/d) orally for 21 days beginning 7 days before pacing began. Similarly, 1 group received ≈1 g/d purified EPA. In a third (control) group (No-PUFAs), 8 dogs received ≈1 g/d olive oil, and 12 were unsupplemented. Electrophysiological and echocardiographic measurements were taken at baseline and 21 days. Atrial tissue samples were collected at 21 days for histological and molecular analyses. Persistent AF inducibility was significantly reduced by DHA compared with No-PUFAs median [25-75 percentiles], 0% [0%-3%] for DHA versus 3.1% [2.2%-11%] for No-PUFAs; P=0.007) but not by EPA (3.4% [1.9%-8.9%]). DHA also reduced atrial fibrosis compared with No-PUFAs (11 ± 6% versus 20 ± 4%, respectively; P<0.05), whereas EPA did not (15 ± 5%; P>0.05). DHA is more effective than EPA in attenuating AF vulnerability and atrial remodeling in structural remodeling-induced AF.

  12. Rinsing with antacid suspension reduces hydrochloric acid-induced erosion.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria do Socorro Coelho; Mantilla, Taís Fonseca; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinsing with antacids, following erosive episodes, have been suggested as a preventative strategy to minimize tooth surface loss due to their neutralizing effect. The purpose of this in situ study was to evaluate the effect of an antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate in controlling simulated erosion of enamel of intrinsic origin. The experimental units were 48 slabs (3×3×2mm) of bovine enamel, randomly divided among 12 volunteers who wore palatal appliances with two enamel slabs. One of them was exposed extra-orally twice a day to 25mL of a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (0.01M, pH 2) for 2min. There were two independent phases, lasting 5 days each. In the first phase, according to a random scheme, half of the participants rinsed with 10mL of antacid suspension (Gaviscon(®), Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Ltd.), while the remainder was rinsed with deionized water, for 1min. For the second phase, new slabs were inserted and participants switched to the treatment not received in the first stage. Therefore, the groups were as follows: (a) erosive challenge with HCl+antacid suspension; (b) erosive challenge with HCl+deionized water (DIW); (c) no erosive challenge+antacid suspension; (d) no erosive challenge+DIW. Specimens were assessed in terms of surface loss using optical profilometry and Knoop microhardness. The data were analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Compared to DIW rinses, surface loss of enamel was significantly lower when using an antacid rinse following erosive challenges (p=0.015). The Knoop microhardness of the enamel was significantly higher when the antacid rinse was used (p=0.026). The antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, rinsed after erosive challenges of intrinsic origin, reduced enamel surface loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of Different Perioperative Statin Regimens on Protection Against Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebral Events.

    PubMed

    Elmarsafawi, Aya G; Abbassi, Maggie M; Elkaffas, Sameh; Elsawy, Hassan M; Sabry, Nirmeen A

    2016-12-01

    Comparing different perioperative statin regimens for the prevention of post-coronary artery bypass grafting adverse events. A randomized, prospective study. Cardiothoracic surgical units in a government hospital. The study comprised 94 patients scheduled for elective, isolated on- or off- pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: group I (80 mg of atorvastatin/day for 2 days preoperatively), group II (40 mg of atorvastatin/day for 5-9 days preoperatively), or group III (80 mg of atorvastatin/day for 5-9 days preoperatively). The same preoperative doses were restarted postoperatively and continued for 1 month. Cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were assayed preoperatively; at 8, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively; and at discharge. CRP levels at 24 hours (p = 0.045) and 48 hours (p = 0.009) were significantly lower in group III compared with the other 2 groups. However, troponin I levels at 8 hours (p = 0.011) and 48 hours (p = 0.025) after surgery were significantly lower in group II compared with group III. The incidence of postoperative major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events was assessed, and there was no significant difference among the 3 groups. The 3 regimens did not result in any significant difference in outcomes, but only simple trends. The higher-dose regimen resulted in a significant reduction in the CRP level. Thus, more studies are needed to confirm the benefit of higher-dose statins for the protection from post-coronary artery bypass grafting adverse events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid is associated with early onset of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shusuke; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Daiju; Takashima, Akira; Bando, Mika; Hara, Tomoya; Nishimoto, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tobiume, Takeshi; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Akaike, Masashi; Sata, Masataka

    2015-10-29

    The hospitalization rate for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for people aged ≤50 has remained stable over the past decade. Increased serum levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in older patients; however, it is currently unknown whether reduced serum levels of n-3 PUFAs is also a risk factor for ACS in patients aged ≤50 years. We retrospectively reviewed 102 (male/ female 73/29) Japanese ACS patients whose serum levels of EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA/AA were evaluated on admission. The EPA/AA ratio was the lowest in patients aged ≤50 compared to patients aged 51-74 and ≥75. Pearson correlation analysis showed that early ACS onset was associated with low EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios, and multiple regression analysis determined that decreased ratios of EPA/AA and DHA/AA, and male sex, current smoker status, increased body mass index and triglyceride levels, independently correlated with early ACS onset. Conversely, low-density and high-density lipoproteins, glycated hemoglobin, and hypertension did not correlate with early ACS onset. Subgroup analyses of male patients revealed that decreased ratios of EPA/AA and DHA/AA independently correlated with early ACS onset. Decreased EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios may be risk factors for early onset of ACS, suggesting that reduced EPA/AA and DHA/AA may represent targets for preventing ACS in Japanese young people.

  15. In vitro metabolism of fenofibric acid by carbonyl reducing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Malátková, Petra; Kanavi, Matthildi; Nobilis, Milan; Wsól, Vladimír

    2016-10-25

    Fenofibric acid is a hypolipidemic drug that is used as an active ingredient per se or is administered in the form of fenofibrate that releases fenofibric acid after absorption. The metabolism of fenofibric acid is mediated primarily by glucuronidation. However, the other part of fenofibric acid is excreted as reduced fenofibric acid. Enzymes responsible for the formation of reduced fenofibric acid as well as their subcellular localization have remained unknown until now. We have found that the predominant site of fenofibric acid reduction is the human liver cytosol, whereas liver microsomes reduced fenofibric acid to a lower extent and exhibited a lower affinity for this drug (Km > 1000 μM). Of nine carbonyl-reducing enzymes (CREs) tested, CBR1 exhibited the greatest activity for fenofibric acid reduction (CLint = 85.975 μl/mg protein/min). CBR1 predominantly formed (-)-enantiomers of reduced fenofibric acid similar to liver cytosol and in accordance with the in vivo data. AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1B1 were also identified as reductases of fenofibric acid but are expected to play only a minor role in fenofibric acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated. The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group. Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD. PMID:27977613

  17. Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Yunkyung; Haraguchi, Tomoaki; Iwanaga, Sumie; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Yukako; Mineo, Shigeru; Moriyama, Akiho; Inoue, Junji; Kato, Norihisa

    2009-09-23

    This study was performed to examine the effect of dietary polyphenols on fecal secondary bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the risk factors of colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats were fed a 30% beef tallow diet containing 0.5% polyphenols for 3 weeks. Dietary curcumin and caffeic acid significantly reduced the fecal concentration of deoxycholic acid. Dietary caffeic acid, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid significantly reduced fecal lithocholic acid. Fecal hyodeoxycholic acid, a metabolite of lithocholic acid, was markedly lowered by dietary curcumin, caffeic acid, catechin, and rutin. In experiment 2, rats were fed a 30 or 5% beef tallow diet with or without the addition of 0.5% curcumin. In the rats without receiving curcumin, the fecal level of deoxycholic acid was significantly higher in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Fecal deoxycholic acid was significantly reduced by dietary curcumin in the high-fat diets but not in the low-fat diets. The results suggest novel effects of some polyphenols favorable for colon health by reducing secondary bile acids in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  18. Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hormoz, Sahand

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of amino acid occurrence frequencies in proteins (composition) is not yet fully understood. We suggest that protein composition works alongside the genetic code to minimize impact of mutations on protein structure. First, we propose a novel method for estimating thermodynamic stability of proteins whose sequence is constrained to a fixed composition. Second, we quantify the average deleterious impact of substituting one amino acid with another. Natural proteome compositions are special in at least two ways: 1) Natural compositions do not generate more stable proteins than the average random composition, however, they result in proteins that are less susceptible to damage from mutations. 2) Natural proteome compositions that result in more stable proteins (i.e. those of thermophiles) are also tuned to have a higher tolerance for mutations. This is consistent with the observation that environmental factors selecting for more stable proteins also enhance the deleterious impact of mutations. PMID:24108121

  19. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net absorption in a linear fashion with increasing cholesterol concentration in the perfusion solutions. 1 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion induced by 6 mM oleic acid (P less than 0.005), but had no effect on fluid secretion induced by 6 mM linolenic acid. Glucose absorption was generally affected in a similar manner as water transport. In vitro, 1 mM cholesterol reduced monomer activity of 6 mM oleic acid to 72.3 +/- 0.9% of control and that of linolenic acid to 81.1 +/- 1.7% of control. Although statistically significant (P less than 0.001), the difference in the effects of cholesterol on monomer activities of the two fatty acids was rather small and it is unlikely that changes in monomer concentration of fatty acids and bile acids account for the protective effect of cholesterol. The in vivo observations point to a new physiological role for biliary cholesterol: the modification of the response of the small intestine to the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. PMID:7358850

  20. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex Combat Related Spine Trauma Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    health-related quality of life outcomes measures and perform a cost analysis based on and determined the use of tranexamic acid for blood loss...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0177 TITLE: Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex Combat-Related Spine Trauma...COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex

  1. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.T.; Dickie, J.P.; Hamerski, D.A.; Magnuson, J.K.; Anderson, J.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded ({sup 3}H) glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and ({sup 3}H)glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue.

  2. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed

    Gassner, G T; Dickie, J P; Hamerski, D A; Magnuson, J K; Anderson, J S

    1990-05-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB3H4 followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded [3H] glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and [3H]glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue.

  3. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, G T; Dickie, J P; Hamerski, D A; Magnuson, J K; Anderson, J S

    1990-01-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB3H4 followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded [3H] glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and [3H]glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue. PMID:2332401

  4. The assessment of coronary heart disease risk factors correlated with demographic and social data in post-coronary intervention patients in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Monika; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in Europe, accounting for over 4 million deaths each year. Smoking cigarettes, an unhealthy diet and no physical activity constitute important risk factors. Educational program was conducted among patients after coronary angioplasty. Data on patients' knowledge of risk factors of coronary heart disease, recommended behavior, secondary prevention methods, and side effects were collected and analyzed in conjunction with demographic and social factors. One questionnaire included details about 20 patients. The questionnaire included demographic data (gender, education, place of residence), epidemiological (height, weight, waist size), interview on coronary heart disease risk factors, medications and side effects. The educational program involved 19,316 patients above 18 years old after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The basic tool was a standardized questionnaire consisting of visit forms. Despite PCI, 20.5% of patients smoke cigarettes, more often men, younger, less educated. 35.7% of patients believe that limiting physical activity after successful coronary intervention is beneficial--more often older, lower educated, with higher body mass index, from smaller towns. 85% of patients (mainly women, younger, higher-educated, coming from bigger cities) claim to be aware which products are beneficial for the cardiovascular system and which have a negative influence. 8% of patients after PCI do not control their blood pressure at all--more often men, younger people with lower level of education and coming from smaller towns. 44% of patients happened to forget to take or ran out of some medications--more often those with lower level of education. It is essential to implement to clinical practice educational programs for post-coronary intervention patients. These patients are at highest risk of having cardiovascular events. Educational programs should be addressed to all post-coronary intervention patients

  5. Nitrilotriacetic acid: a novel reducing agent for synthesizing colloidal gold.

    PubMed

    Njagi, John I; Goia, Dan V

    2014-05-01

    We report for the first time that nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) is an effective reductant for the preparation of stable dispersions of uniform gold nanoparticles. The method described is capable of generating stable sols with a metal concentration as high as 1.5×10(-3)moldm(-3). The size of gold nanoparticles can be tuned from 10 to 160 nm by adjusting the stoichiometric excess of NTA. For a constant [Au]/[NTA] ratio the temperature affects the reduction kinetics but has little impact on the size of gold nanoparticles. The mechanisms of the reduction of Au(III) species and the formation and stabilization of gold nanoparticles are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  7. Influence of adjunct cultures on volatile free fatty acids in reduced-fat Edam cheeses.

    PubMed

    Tungjaroenchai, W; White, C H; Holmes, W E; Drake, M A

    2004-10-01

    The effects of the adjunct cultures Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Brevibacterium linens BL2, Lactobacillus helveticus LH212, and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272 on volatile free fatty acid production in reduced-fat Edam cheese were studied. Lipase activity evaluation using p-nitrophenyl fatty acid ester substrates indicated that L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis showed the highest activity among the 4 adjunct cultures. Full-fat and 33% reduced-fat control cheeses (no adjunct) were made along with 5 treatments of reduced-fat cheeses, which included individual, and a mixture of the adjunct cultures. Volatile free fatty acids of cheeses were analyzed using static headspace analysis with 4-bromofluorobenzene as an internal standard. Changes in volatile free fatty acid concentrations were found in headspace gas of cheeses after 3-and 6-mo ripening. Acetic acid was the most abundant acid detected throughout ripening. Full-fat cheese had the highest relative amount of propionic acid among the cheeses. Certain adjunct cultures had a definite role in lipolysis at particular times. Reduced-fat cheese with L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis at 3-mo showed the highest levels of butyric, isovaleric, n-valeric, iso-caproic, and n-caproic acid. Reduced-fat cheese with Lactobacillus reuteri at 6 mo produced the highest relative concentration of isocaproic, n-caproic, and heptanoic, and the highest relative concentration of total acids.

  8. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  9. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef.

  10. Reduced Acid Dissociation of Amino-Acids at the Surface of Water

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We use surface-specific intensity vibrational sum-frequency generation and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to probe the ionization state of the amino-acids l-alanine and l-proline at the air/water surface and in the bulk. The ionization state is determined by probing the vibrational signatures of the carboxylic acid group, representing the nondissociated acid form, and the carboxylate anion group, representing the dissociated form, over a wide range of pH values. We find that the carboxylic acid group deprotonates at a significantly higher pH at the surface than in the bulk. PMID:28177623

  11. Reduced Acid Dissociation of Amino-Acids at the Surface of Water.

    PubMed

    Strazdaite, Simona; Meister, Konrad; Bakker, Huib J

    2017-03-15

    We use surface-specific intensity vibrational sum-frequency generation and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to probe the ionization state of the amino-acids l-alanine and l-proline at the air/water surface and in the bulk. The ionization state is determined by probing the vibrational signatures of the carboxylic acid group, representing the nondissociated acid form, and the carboxylate anion group, representing the dissociated form, over a wide range of pH values. We find that the carboxylic acid group deprotonates at a significantly higher pH at the surface than in the bulk.

  12. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  13. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  14. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  15. Petite mutation in yeast. II. Isolation of mutants containing mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid of reduced size.

    PubMed

    Goldring, E S; Grossman, L I; Marmur, J

    1971-07-01

    A series of petite mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, generated after treatment for various times with ethidium bromide, was isolated, and the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid size for each member was estimated. It was found that, as the treatment time with ethidium bromide was increased, the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from the petite series was increasingly reduced in size.

  16. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in post-menopausal women >/= 50 years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate i...

  17. Ascorbic acid glucoside reduces neurotoxicity and glutathione depletion in mouse brain induced by nitrotriazole radiosensitazer.

    PubMed

    Cherdyntseva, Nadezda V; Ivanova, Anna A; Ivanov, Vladimir V; Cherdyntsev, Evgeny; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan; Kagiya, Tsutomu V

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G) to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g) were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 g/kg was per os administered to induce neurotoxicity at mice. Ascorbic acid glucoside was given 30 min before the sanazole administration. Serum ascorbic acid, brain glutathione level, as well as behavioral performance using open field apparatus were measured. Administration of high (non-therapeutic) doses of the nitrotriazole drug sanazole results in neurotoxicity in mice as evidenced from behavioral performance, emotional activity and depletion of the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, in the brain. The serum levels of ascorbic acid was also found reduced in high dose sanazole treated animals. Per os administration of ascorbic acid glucoside significantly reduced the neurotoxicity. This effect was associated with the prevention of glutathione depletion in mouse brain and restoring the ascorbic acid level in serum. Administration of ascorbic acid glucoside, but not ascorbic acid, before sanazole administration protected from sanazole-induced neurotoxicity by preventing the decrease in the brain reduced glutathione level and providing high level of ascorbic acid in plasma.

  18. Overexpression of salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase reduces salicylic acid-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeon Jong; Kim, Myeong Ae; Kim, Eun Hye; Song, Jong Tae; Jung, Choonkyun; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Kim, Jeong-Han; Seo, Hak Soo; Song, Sang Ik; Kim, Ju-Kon; Lee, Jong Seob; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

    2007-05-01

    We cloned a salicylic acid/benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene, OsBSMT1, from Oryza sativa. A recombinant OsBSMT1 protein obtained by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli exhibited carboxyl methyltransferase activity in reactions with salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and de-S-methyl benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (dSM-BTH), producing methyl salicylate (MeSA), methyl benzoate (MeBA), and methyl dSM-BTH (MeBTH), respectively. Compared to wild-type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsBSMT1 accumulated considerably higher levels of MeSA and MeBA, some of which were vaporized into the environment. Upon infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae or the fungal pathogen Golovinomyces orontii, transgenic plants failed to accumulate SA and its glucoside (SAG), becoming more susceptible to disease than wild-type plants. OsBSMT1-overexpressing Arabidopsis showed little induction of PR-1 when treated with SA or G. orontii. Notably, incubation with the transgenic plant was sufficient to trigger PR-1 induction in neighboring wild-type plants. Together, our results indicate that in the absence of SA, MeSA alone cannot induce a defense response, yet it serves as an airborne signal for plant-to-plant communication. We also found that jasmonic acid (JA) induced AtBSMT1, which may contribute to an antagonistic effect on SA signaling pathways by depleting the SA pool in plants.

  19. Effect of growth temperature on cellular fatty acids in sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Könneke, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2003-11-01

    The effect of growth temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied in 12 species belonging to eight genera including psychrophiles and mesophiles. Most of these species were of marine origin. The investigated SRB with the exception of four Desulfobacter species exhibited only a minor increase in the proportion of cis-unsaturated fatty acids (by < or = 5% per 10 degrees C) when the growth temperature was decreased; psychrophiles maintained their typically high content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids (around 75% of total fatty acids) nearly constant. The four Desulfobacter species, however, increased the proportion of cis-unsaturated among total fatty acids significantly (by > or =14% per 10 degrees C; measured in late growth phase) with decreasing growth temperature. The ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in Desulfobacter species changed not only with the growth temperature, but also with the growth state in batch cultures at constant temperature. Changes of cellular fatty acids were studied in detail with D. hydrogenophilus, the most psychrotolerant (growth range 0-35 degrees C) among the mesophilic SRB examined. Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus also formed cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid (a cyclopropane fatty acid) and 10-methylhexadecanoic acid. At low growth temperature (12 degrees C), the relative amount of these fatty acids was at least threefold lower; this questions the usefulness of 10-methylhexadecanoic acid as a reliable biomarker of Desulfobacter in cold sediments.

  20. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  1. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  3. Left Radial Versus Femoral Access for Coronary Angiography in Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Thomas F; Khan, Ali; Yen, Lu-Yin; Newcombe, Ruth; Humphreys, Hayley; El-Jack, Seif

    2016-03-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that coronary angiography of native coronary arteries via the radial artery results in reduced morbidity and mortality, when compared with a femoral approach. However, the efficacy and safety of the transradial approach in patients with coronary grafts is relatively unknown. We performed a retrospective audit of all patients with a history of previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery who underwent diagnostic angiography at our institution from 2008-2012. The primary efficacy endpoint was procedure time (minutes), while the secondary efficacy measure was patient radiation exposure (μGy/m²). There were 326 post-CABG patients studied during the defined period, with 254 via femoral approach and 72 via left radial artery. There was no significant difference between the two approaches in procedure time (37 minutes in radial group vs 35 minutes in femoral group; t-test, P=.43). There was also no difference in radiation exposure (7855 μGy/m² in femoral group vs 6825 μGy/m² in radial group; Satterthwaite t-test, P=.08). This study shows the validity of a left radial approach in patients who have undergone angiography post CABG. It suggests that transradial angiography can be safely performed in these patients, without significant increase in procedural time or radiation exposure.

  4. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  5. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (P<.04). The lower NK cell cytotoxicity in high folic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (P<.05). The difference in NK cell cytotoxicity between dietary groups was abolished when the splenocytes were supplemented with exogenous IL-10 prior to assessment of the NK cytotoxicity, suggesting that the reduced NK cell cytotoxicity of the high folic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

  6. The natural feed additive caprylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in market aged broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter causes human food-borne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products as a significant source of human infection. Reducing Campylobacter in the poultry intestinal tract would reduce contamination of poultry products. Caprylic acid, is a medium chain fatt...

  7. Therapeutic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Broiler Chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter causes human food-borne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human infection. Reducing Campylobacter in the poultry intestinal tract would reduce contamination of poultry products. Caprylic acid, a medium chain fatt...

  8. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  9. Comparison between liquid and solid acids catalysts on reducing sugars conversion from furfural residues via pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keying; Ma, Baojun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Wanyi

    2014-09-01

    Liquid sulphuric acid is adopted and compared with carbon-based sulfonated solid acids (coal tar-based and active carbon-based) for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of liquid acid are at 4% of sulphuric acid, 25:1 of liquid and solid ratio, 175°C of reaction temperature and 120 min of reaction time. The reducing sugar yields are reached over 60% on liquid acid via NaOH/H2O2, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasonic pretreatments, whereas only over 30% on solid acids. The TOFs (turnover number frequency) via NaOH/H2O2 pretreatments are 0.093, 0.020 and 0.023 h(-1) for liquid sulphuric acid, coal tar-based and active carbon-based solid acids catalysts, respectively. Considering the efficiency, cost and environment factors, the liquid and solid acids have their own advantages of potential commercial application values.

  10. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduces urinary oxalate excretion in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Michael; Guirl, Michael J; Santa Ana, Carol A; Porter, Jack L; Neimark, Sidney; Hofmann, Alan F; Fordtran, John S

    2003-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) have steatorrhea, in part because of bile acid malabsorption that causes decreased bile acid secretion into the duodenum and consequent fat maldigestion. In SBS patients with colon in continuity, luminal calcium forms calcium fatty acid soaps rather than precipitating as insoluble calcium oxalate. Soluble oxalate is hyperabsorbed by the colon leading to hyperoxaluria and an increased risk for renal calcium oxalate stones and deposits. The authors hypothesized that oral ingestion of conjugated bile acids would increase fat absorption and thereby decrease calcium fatty acid soap formation and oxalate hyperabsorption. The effect of conjugated bile acid replacement therapy (9 g/d) on fecal fat excretion and urine oxalate excretion was measured in an appropriate patient, utilizing the metabolic balance technique. The effects of chronic bile acid replacement therapy on oxalate excretion and nutritional status also were measured in a 3-month outpatient study. Natural conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduced fecal fat excretion from 119 to 79 g/d (Delta40 g/d), and urinary oxalate excretion from 87 to 64 mg/d (966 to 710 micromol/d; Delta23 mg/d). Cholylsarcosine, a synthetic conjugated bile acid, had similar but less powerful effects. During a 3-month outpatient trial of natural conjugated bile acids (9 g/d), urine oxalate decreased to normal levels (27 mg/d) in association with weight gain, decreased hunger, and decreased hyperphagia. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduced fecal fat excretion, reduced urinary oxalate excretion, and improved nutritional status in a patient with SBS with colon in continuity, hyperoxaluria, and oxalate nephrolithiasis. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  11. The stability of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in stored blood specimens.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-06-01

    The long-term stability of the iso-α-acids, and three structurally similar but chemically altered iso-α-acids (known as 'reduced iso-α-acids' and consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-iso-α-acid groups) were investigated in whole blood. Pools of blank blood spiked with the four beer-specific ingredient congener groups at two different concentration levels were stored at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C; and extracted in duplicate in weeks 1, 3, 5 and 8, using a previously published method. A loss of 15% of the initial concentration was considered to indicate possible instability and losses greater than 30% demonstrated significant losses. The individual analytes within the four iso-α-acid groups were also measured to determine which iso-α-acids were subject to greater degradation and were responsible for the overall group instability. All four iso-α-acid groups showed significant losses after 8 weeks of storage under room temperature conditions in particularly the natural iso-α-acid group where major losses were observed (96% and 85% losses for low and high concentrations, respectively). Some degradation in all iso-α-acid groups were seen at 4°C samples predominantly due to the 'n' analogs of the groups showing an increased instability in blood. The -20°C storage conditions resulted in minimal changes in concentrations of all analytes. Higher than frozen storage temperatures can result in substantial changes on the stability of the iso-α-acid type groups in blood. The aim of this study was to highlight the stabilities of the IAA analytes in order to assist in the interpretation of IAA in stored blood specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Michelle A.; Petersen, Kristina S.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk. PMID:28635680

  13. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Michelle A; Petersen, Kristina S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-06-21

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.

  14. [Results of the use of the counter-pulsation balloon in experimental post coronary oclussion cardiogenic shock in closed thorax].

    PubMed

    Malpartida, F; Muguerza, I; Caro, D M

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of the production of cardiogenic shock together with the results of its treatment by means of the intraaortic balloon was carried out. Cardiogenic shock was produced in dogs with closed thorax and spontaneous respiration. In 13 of the 21 dogs studied, the production of acute myocardial infarction by means of selective embolism of the left circumflex artery permitted the reproduction of a model of cardiogenic shock. Embolism was produced by injecting metalic mercury through a double catheter. Six of the 8 remaining dogs died due to accidental introduction of mercury in the anterior descending coronary artery which produced irreversible ventricular fibrillation. The other 2 died due to rupture of the ascending aorta during the maneuveres to place the coronarygraphy catheter. The 13 dogs with cardiogenic shock were treated with intraaortic balloon pumping during 3-4 hours. The left ventricular systolic pressure fell from 128 +/- 12.07 to 124 +/- 4.65 mm. Hg. The cardiac index increased by 42%. These findings confirm the fact that intraaortic balloon pumping lessens the after load. The fall of the telediastolic pressure by 20% was an index of the lessening or the preload. The aortic telediastolic pressure rose by a mean value of 32.21 mm. Hg. This raises the coronary perfusion pressure thus limiting the extension or reducing the size of the infarction. A frank reduction of the electrographic subepicardiac lesion was observed after using intraaortic balloon pumping. The mean aortic pressure only rose by 8%, the central venous pressure remained unchanged and the increase in diuresis was not estimable. The maximum dP/dt was unaltered and the Vmax. rose 17%. Two dogs were left alive after the experiment and lived for 3 and 12 days respectively. To conclude the results obtained permit us to indicate that intraaortic balloon pumping when used in dogs with this standard type of cardiogenic shock produces an important reduction of the after load, a

  15. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  16. Np(V) reduction by humic acid: contribution of reduced sulfur functionalities to the redox behavior of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Schmeide, K; Sachs, S; Bernhard, G

    2012-03-01

    The role of sulfur-containing functional groups in humic acids for the Np(V) reduction in aqueous solution has been studied with the objective to specify individual processes contributing to the overall redox activity of humic substances. For this, humic acid model substances type M1-S containing different amounts of sulfur (1.9, 3.9, 6.9 wt.%) were applied. The sulfur functionalities in these humic acids are dominated by reduced-sulfur species, such as thiols, dialkylsulfides and/or disulfides. The Np(V) reduction behavior of these humic acids has been studied in comparison to that of the sulfur-free humic acid type M1 at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 under anaerobic conditions by means of batch experiments. For Np redox speciation in solution, solvent extraction and ultrafiltration were applied. In addition, redox potentials of the sample solutions were monitored. At pH 5.0, both rate and extent of Np(V) to Np(IV) reduction were found to increase with increasing sulfur content of the humic acids. At pH 7.0 and 9.0, sulfur functional groups had only a slight influence on the reduction behavior of humic acid toward Np(V). Thus, in addition to quinoid moieties and non-quinoid phenolic OH groups, generally acknowledged as main redox-active sites in humic substances, sulfur functional groups have been identified as further redox-active moieties of humic substances being active especially in the slightly acidic pH range as shown for Np(V). Due to the low sulfur content of up to 2 wt.% in natural humic substances, their contribution to the total reducing capacity is smaller than that of the other redox-active functional groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of reduced fat milks as influenced by the incorporation of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Achanta, K; Boeneke, C A; Aryana, K J

    2007-01-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in the prevention of neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida and anencephaly), heart defects, facial clefts, urinary abnormalities, and limb deficiencies. Milk and milk products serve as a potential source for folic acid fortification because of the presence of folate-binding proteins that seem to be involved in folate bioavailability. Although milk is not a good source of folic acid, fortification could help in the prevention of the above-mentioned defects. The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical characteristics of reduced fat milks fortified with folic acid. Reduced fat milks were prepared using 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the recommended dietary allowance of 400 microg of folic acid. Treatments included addition of folic acid at these levels before and after pasteurization. Color, pH, fat, protein, viscosity, folic acid concentration, folate-binding protein concentration, folate-binding protein profile, standard plate count, and coliform counts were determined on d 1, 7, 14, and 21. A consumer acceptability test was conducted on d 7. Data from the consumer panel were analyzed using ANOVA (PROC GLM) with means separation to determine the differences among treatments. Data obtained from the color, pH, fat, protein, viscosity, folic acid concentration, folate-binding protein concentration, standard plate count, and coliform counts were analyzed using the GLM with a repeated measure in time. Significant differences were determined at P < 0.05 using Tukey's Studentized Range Test. There were no differences in the electrophoretic mobility of folate-binding protein in the samples. The concentration of folic acid was significantly higher in reduced fat milks fortified with folic acid after pasteurization compared with the treatments in which folic acid was added before pasteurization. The consumer panelists did not find any significant differences in flavor, appearance, or texture of folic acid fortified reduced fat

  18. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid elevate femur calcium and reduce zinc content in piglets.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Weiler, Hope A

    2006-10-01

    Specific dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and long chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) elevate femur calcium content and enhance calcium balance. Mother's milk is associated with enhanced calcium balance and contains LCPUFAs; arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of AA and DHA on calcium metabolism and other bone minerals during infancy is unknown. Thus, piglets received one of four formulas (15 d): control or with AA:DHA (0.5:0.1 g, 1.0:0.2 g, or 2.0:0.4 g/100 g of fat). Calcium absorption, femur mineral composition, and urinary mineral excretion. Main effects identified using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis conducted using Duncan's multiple range test. Significant effects of diet were observed in femur calcium and zinc content, but not calcium absorption, urinary mineral excretion, femur ash weight, femur phosphorus, or femur magnesium content. The piglets receiving AA:DHA as 1.0:0.2 g/100 g of fat had 1.9% higher mg calcium/g of ash, but 8.6% lower mug zinc/g of ash compared with control. Thus, AA:DHA in a ratio of 5:1 does not affect mineral accretion, but AA plus DHA, in amounts similar to the upper limit of human milk, might be detrimental to bone mineralization over time due to lower zinc.

  19. Acid reducing agents to neonates – lack of evidence and guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson, Stina; Eksborg, Staffan; Andersson, Åsa; Nydert, Per; Grahnquist, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical practice, i.e. the frequency of use and the treatment strategies, for acid reducing drugs to neonates in a Swedish hospital. Methods Retrospective reviews of charts and interviews with nurses at the neonatal wards of Karolinska University Hospital were performed to identify difficulties that might occur with drug administration. All patients admitted over a 2-month period were included. Main outcome measure were the number of patients treated with acid reducing drugs and the dosages. Results Nine out of 215 patients (4.2%) received an acid reducing drug. Patients treated with acid reducing drugs had significantly lower birth weight, lower gestational age and longer duration of hospitalization. Eight of the patients were treated with omeprazole. One of these patients started treatment with omeprazole but continued later on with ranitidine. One patient was exclusively treated with ranitidine. The doses of omeprazole (intravenous or oral administration) were within the range 0.16–1.26 mg/kg/day. Conclusions A wide variation in treatment regimens of acid reducing drugs is given to newborn infants. The percentage of treated children was much lower than earlier reports from the US and UK. No conclusions can be drawn as to whether the doses and dosing intervals used give sufficient acid suppression, since the effect of the therapy was not recorded. The present study is only retrospective and data are not truly comparable with other studies. Further studies are therefore warranted to evaluate effective doses and pharmacokinetics of acid reducing drugs in newborn infants. PMID:27536424

  20. Energy absorption is reduced with oleic acid supplements in human short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Compher, Charlene W; Kinosian, Bruce P; Rubesin, Stephen E; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Metz, David C

    2009-01-01

    Oleic acid premeal supplements have been described as a method to trigger the ileal brake and thus lengthen transit time and the opportunity for nutrient absorption. The aims of this study were to determine whether oleic acid supplements would lengthen transit time and improve absorption of nutrients in study participants with short bowel syndrome as well as affect diarrhea or patient weight. A double-blind, controlled, random-order crossover trial was conducted in 8 study participants with longstanding and severe short bowel syndrome, employing blue food color appearance, breath hydrogen testing, and radio-opaque markers as measures of transit time. Absorption of energy, protein, fat, and fluid was conducted by classic nutrient balance methods. Diarrhea was estimated by daily stool weight and number of bowel actions. Although 8 patients were enrolled, only 7 completed the study. Transit time was not significantly different between oleic acid and placebo treatment, although peptide YY levels trended higher with the oleic acid treatment. Energy absorption was reduced 14% by oleic acid, significantly more than the 3% reduction by placebo. Fat, protein, and fluid absorption was not changed significantly. Neither diarrhea nor patient body weight was changed by oleic acid. Energy absorption is reduced by oleic acid supplements in severe short bowel syndrome. The study may have lacked power to determine whether oleic acid affects diarrhea or body weight.

  1. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  2. Supplementation of coated butyric acid in the feed reduces colonization and shedding of Salmonella in poultry.

    PubMed

    Van Immerseel, F; Boyen, F; Gantois, I; Timbermont, L; Bohez, L; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R

    2005-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids have been widely used as feed additives to control Salmonella in poultry. Data on the use of butyric acid in poultry are lacking. In this study, powder form and coated butyric acid were compared in their ability to reduce Salmonella colonization of ceca and internal organs shortly after infection of young chickens with Salmonella enteritidis. In the first trial, 4 groups of 25 specific pathogen free layer chickens were given feed either supplemented with powder form butyric acid, coated butyric acid, a combination of powder form and coated butyric acid (all groups received a total of 0.63 g of butyric acid/kg) or nonsupplemented feed. The specific pathogen free layer chickens were orally infected with 10(6) cfu of S. enteritidis. Coated butyric acid significantly decreased cecal colonization 3 d post-infection compared with control chickens, and powder form butyric acid had no effect. To study long-term shedding and colonization of Salmonella in broilers given coated butyric acid as feed additive (0.63 g of active product butyric acid/kg), 10 Ross broiler chickens were infected at d 5 with 10(5) cfu of S. enteritidis and housed together with 40 noninfected broilers. A control group received nonsupplemented feed. The group of broilers receiving coated butyric acid had a significantly lower number of broilers shedding Salmonella bacteria, but cecal colonization at slaughter age was equal for both groups. In conclusion, butyric acid decreases cecal colonization shortly after infection, decreases fecal shedding, and as a consequence, decreases environmental contamination by S. enteritidis-infected broilers. However, complete elimination can probably only be achieved with a combined approach using both hygienic measures and different protection measures, as the broilers still carried S. enteritidis bacteria in the ceca at slaughter age, although at enrichment level.

  3. Tranexamic acid as an aid to reducing blood transfusion requirements in gastric and duodenal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    von Holstein, C C; Eriksson, S B; Källén, R

    1987-01-01

    A prospective randomised double blind study examined the effect of the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid compared with placebo in 154 patients bleeding from verified benign lesions in the stomach or duodenum or both. Three out of 72 patients receiving tranexamic acid underwent emergency surgery compared with 15 out of 82 given placebo (p = 0.010). Nineteen patients receiving placebo rebled during their admission as compared with 10 in the active treatment group (p = 0.097). Blood transfusion requirements were significantly reduced by tranexamic acid (p = 0.018). Side effects occurred in six patients, of which an uncomplicated deep venous thrombosis was the most severe. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood transfusion requirement and need for emergency surgery in patients bleeding from a benign gastric or duodenal lesion. PMID:3101804

  4. Reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, An; Pfelzer, Nina; Zuijderwijk, Robbert; Brickwedde, Anja; van Zeijl, Cora; Punt, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid producer (Li et al., Fungal Genet Bio 48: 602-611, 2011). After some initial steps in production optimization in the previous research (Li et al., BMC biotechnol 12: 57, 2012), this research aims at modifying host strains and fermentation conditions to further improve itaconic acid production. Expression of two previously identified A. terreus genes encoding putative organic acid transporters (mttA, mfsA) increased itaconic acid production in an A. niger cis-aconitate decarboxylase expressing strain. Surprisingly, the production did not increase further when both transporters were expressed together. Meanwhile, oxalic acid was accumulated as a by-product in the culture of mfsA transformants. In order to further increase itaconic acid production and eliminate by-product formation, the non-acidifying strain D15#26 and the oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (oahA) deletion strain AB 1.13 ∆oahA #76 have been analyzed for itaconic acid production. Whereas cadA expression in AB 1.13 ∆oahA #76 resulted in higher itaconic acid production than strain CAD 10.1, this was not the case in strain D15#26. As expected, oxalic acid production was eliminated in both strains. In a further attempt to increase itaconic acid levels, an improved basal citric acid-producing strain, N201, was used for cadA expression. A selected transformant (N201CAD) produced more itaconic acid than strain CAD 10.1, derived from A. niger strain AB1.13. Subsequently, we have focused on the influence of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) on itaconic acid production. Interestingly, reduced D.O. levels (10-25 %) increased itaconic acid production using strain N201 CAD. Similar results were obtained in strain AB 1.13 CAD + HBD2

  5. Reduced amino acid transport in skeletal muscle caused by a circulating factor during endotoxemia.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, B W; Hasselgren, P O; James, J H; Hummel, R P; Rigel, D F; Fischer, J E

    1990-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether reduced amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle during endotoxemia is due to associated hypotension or is caused by a factor present in plasma. Three series of experiments were performed. In the first series of experiments, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, and amino acid uptake in incubated soleus muscles were measured after intravenous injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats (40 to 60 g). Amino acid transport was measured by determining intracellular uptake of [3H]-alpha-amino-isobutyric acid (AIB) during 2 hours of incubation. In the second series of experiments, hypotension was induced by bleeding and muscle amino acid uptake was measured. In the third series of experiments, whole plasma or a low molecular weight fraction (less than 10,000 d) of plasma from endotoxin-injected rats was added in vitro to incubated muscles and amino acid uptake was determined. One hour after injection of endotoxin, MAP was reduced from 80 +/- 2 mmHg to 54 +/- 4 mmHg (p less than 0.05). AIB uptake was reduced by 20% (p less than 0.05) 2 hours after endotoxin injection. When MAP was maintained at 50 mmHg for 1 hour by bleeding, no changes in muscle AIB uptake were noted. When plasma obtained from rats 2 hours after endotoxin injection was added to incubated soleus muscles, AIB uptake was reduced by 22%. This effect was duplicated by a fraction of endotoxic plasma containing substances with a molecular weight less than 10,000 d. The present results suggest that reduced muscle amino acid uptake during endotoxemia is not due to associated hypotension, but may be caused by a circulating factor(s) with a molecular weight less than 10,000 d. PMID:2178567

  6. Bile Acids Reduce Prion Conversion, Reduce Neuronal Loss, and Prolong Male Survival in Models of Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Leonardo M.; Campeau, Jody; Norman, Grant; Kalayil, Marian; Van der Merwe, Jacques; McKenzie, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) into its aberrant infectious form (PrPSc). There is no treatment available for these diseases. The bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) have been recently shown to be neuroprotective in other protein misfolding disease models, including Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases, and also in humans with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we studied the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds in prion disease. We demonstrated that TUDCA and UDCA substantially reduced PrP conversion in cell-free aggregation assays, as well as in chronically and acutely infected cell cultures. This effect was mediated through reduction of PrPSc seeding ability, rather than an effect on PrPC. We also demonstrated the ability of TUDCA and UDCA to reduce neuronal loss in prion-infected cerebellar slice cultures. UDCA treatment reduced astrocytosis and prolonged survival in RML prion-infected mice. Interestingly, these effects were limited to the males, implying a gender-specific difference in drug metabolism. Beyond effects on PrPSc, we found that levels of phosphorylated eIF2α were increased at early time points, with correlated reductions in postsynaptic density protein 95. As demonstrated for other neurodegenerative diseases, we now show that TUDCA and UDCA may have a therapeutic role in prion diseases, with effects on both prion conversion and neuroprotection. Our findings, together with the fact that these natural compounds are orally bioavailable, permeable to the blood-brain barrier, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for use in humans, make these compounds promising alternatives for the treatment of prion diseases. IMPORTANCE Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are transmissible to humans and other mammals. There are no disease-modifying therapies available, despite decades

  7. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate treatment of lamb breast to reduce bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A J; Acuff, G R; Lucia, L M; Savell, J W

    2001-09-01

    Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate (TSP) were evaluated for the ability to reduce Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts (APCs) on lamb breasts that were inoculated with a lamb fecal paste. A 90-s water rinse was applied followed by either a 9-s (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, a 60-s (55 degrees C) 12% TSP dip, or a combined treatment of both lactic acid and TSP treatments. Lactic acid reduced E. coli and APCs by 1.6 log10/cm2, and TSP caused a 1.8-log10/cm2 reduction in E. coli and a 0.7-log10/cm2 reduction in APCs. Combined reductions by the lactic acid spray followed by the TSP dip were 1.8 and 1.5 log10/cm2 for E. coli and APCs, respectively. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate, used alone or in combination, were effective in reducing numbers of E. coli and could be useful as pathogen intervention steps in lamb slaughter processing.

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative blood loss in pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Navil F; Zurakowski, David; Brustowicz, Robert M; Bacsik, Julianne; Sullivan, Lorna J; Shapiro, Frederic

    2005-04-01

    Excessive bleeding often occurs during pediatric scoliosis surgery and is attributed to numerous factors, including accelerated fibrinolysis. The authors hypothesized that administration of tranexamic acid would reduce bleeding and transfusion requirements during scoliosis surgery. Forty-four patients scheduled to undergo elective spinal fusion were randomly assigned to receive either 100 mg/kg tranexamic acid before incision followed by an infusion of 10 mg . kg . h during surgery (tranexamic acid group) or 0.9% saline (placebo group). General anesthesia was administered according to a standard protocol. Blood loss, transfusion requirements, coagulation parameters, and complications were assessed. In the tranexamic acid group, blood loss was reduced by 41% compared with placebo (1,230 +/- 535 vs. 2,085 +/- 1,188 ml; P < 0.01). The amount of blood transfused did not differ between groups (615 +/- 460 vs. 940 +/- 718 ml; P = 0.08). Administration of tranexamic acid was a multivariate predictor of blood loss, as was American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status and preoperative platelet count. No apparent adverse drug effects occurred in any patient. Intraoperative administration of tranexamic acid significantly reduces blood loss during spinal surgery in children with scoliosis.

  9. Sulfasalazine reduces bile acid induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells and perfused rat livers

    PubMed Central

    Rust, C; Bauchmuller, K; Bernt, C; Vennegeerts, T; Fickert, P; Fuchsbichler, A; Beuers, U

    2006-01-01

    Background Bile acid induced apoptosis in hepatocytes can be antagonised by nuclear factor κB (NFκB) dependent survival pathways. Sulfasalazine modulates NFκB in different cell types. We aimed to determine the effects of sulfasalazine and its metabolites sulfapyridine and 5‐aminosalicylic acid (5‐ASA) on bile acid induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Methods Apoptosis was determined by caspase assays and immunoblotting, NFκB activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter gene assays, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorometrically, bile secretion gravimetrically, and bile acid uptake radiochemically and by gas chromatography in HepG2‐Ntcp cells and isolated perfused rat livers. Results Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA 75 µmol/l) induced apoptosis was reduced by sulfasalazine dose dependently (1–1000 µmol/l) in HepG2‐Ntcp cells whereas its metabolites 5‐ASA and sulfapyridine had no effect. Sulfasalazine significantly reduced GCDCA induced activation of caspases 9 and 3. In addition, sulfasalazine activated NFκB and decreased GCDCA induced generation of ROS. Bile acid uptake was competitively inhibited by sulfasalazine. In perfused rat livers, GCDCA (25 µmol/l) induced liver injury and extensive hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly reduced by simultaneous administration of 100 µmol/l sulfasalazine: lactate dehydrogenase and glutamate‐pyruvate transaminase activities were reduced by 82% and 87%, respectively, and apoptotic hepatocytes were observed only occasionally. GCDCA uptake was reduced by 45 (5)% when sulfasalazine was coadministered. However, when 50% of GCDCA (12.5 µmol/l) was administered alone, marked hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury were again observed, questioning the impact of reduced GCDCA uptake for the antiapoptotic effect of sulfasalazine. Conclusion Sulfasalazine is a potent inhibitor of GCDCA induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and in the intact liver. PMID:16322111

  10. Ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of human embryonic fibroblast by reducing DNA and mitochondrial damages.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won-Sang; Park, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Hong-Jun; Kim, Min-Ju; Oh, Soo-Jin; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Jaebong; Kim, Sung Chan; Lee, Jae-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has been reported to extend replicative life span of human embryonic fibroblast (HEF). Since the detailed molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has not been investigated, we attempted to elucidate. Continuous treatment of HEF cells with ascorbic acid (at 200 microM) from 40 population doubling (PD) increased maximum PD numbers by 18% and lowered SA-beta-gal positive staining, an aging marker, by 2.3 folds, indicating that ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of HEF cells. Ascorbic acid treatment lowered DCFH by about 7 folds and Rho123 by about 70%, suggesting that ascorbic acid dramatically decreased ROS formation. Ascorbic acid also increased aconitase activity, a marker of mitochondrial aging, by 41%, indicating that ascorbic acid treatment restores age-related decline of mitochondrial function. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased G1 population up to 12%. Further western blot analysis showed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased levels of p53, phospho-p53 at ser 15, and p21, indicating that ascorbic acid relieved senescence-related G1 arrest. Analysis of AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites showed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased AP site formation by 35%. We also tested the effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment, as an additional oxidative stress. Continuous treatment of 20 microM of hydrogen peroxide from PD 40 of HEF cells resulted in premature senescence due to increased ROS level, and increased AP sites. Taken together, the results suggest that ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of HEF cells by reducing mitochondrial and DNA damages through lowering cellular ROS.

  11. Enrichment and Isolation of Rumen Bacteria That Reduce trans- Aconitic Acid to Tricarballylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James B.

    1985-01-01

    Bacteria from the bovine rumen capable of reducing trans-aconitate to tricarballylate were enriched in an anaerobic chemostat containing rumen fluid medium and aconitate. After 9 days at a dilution rate of 0.07 h−1, the medium was diluted and plated in an anaerobic glove box. Three types of isolates were obtained from the plates (a crescent-shaped organism, a pleomorphic rod, and a spiral-shaped organism), and all three produced tricarballylate in batch cultures that contained glucose and trans-aconitate. In glucose-limited chemostats (0.10 h−1), trans-aconitate reduction was associated with a decrease in the amount of reduced products formed from glucose. The crescent-shaped organism produced less propionate, the pleomorphic rod produced less ethanol, and the spiral made less succinate and possibly H2. Aconitate reduction by the pleomorphic rod and the spiral organism was associated with a significant increase in cellular dry matter. Experiments with stock cultures of predominant rumen bacteria indicated that Selenomonas ruminantium, a species taxonomically similar to the crescent-shaped isolate, was an active reducer of trans-aconitate. Strains of Bacteroides ruminicola, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Megasphaera elsdenii produced little if any tricarballylate. Wolinella succinogenes produced some tricarballylate. Based on its stability constant for magnesium (Keq = 115), tricarballylate could be a factor in the hypomagnesemia that leads to grass tetany. Images PMID:16346691

  12. Drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sze May; Francini, Angelo J

    2012-04-18

    Malabsorption of fat and protein contributes to poor nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. Impaired pancreatic function may also result in increased gastric acidity, leading in turn to heartburn, peptic ulcers and the impairment of oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. The administration of gastric acid-reducing agents has been used as an adjunct to pancreatic enzyme therapy to improve absorption of fat and gastro-intestinal symptoms in people with cystic fibrosis. It is important to establish the evidence regarding potential benefits of drugs that reduce gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis. To assess the effect of drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity for: nutritional status; symptoms associated with increased gastric acidity; fat absorption; lung function; quality of life and survival; and to determine if any adverse effects are associated with their use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals, abstract books and conference proceedings.Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 15 February 2012. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials involving agents that reduce gastric acidity compared to placebo or a comparator treatment. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Thirty-eight trials were identified from the searches. Sixteen trials, with 256 participants, were suitable for inclusion. Seven trials were limited to children and three trials enrolled only adults. Meta-analysis was not performed. However, one trial found that drug therapies that reduce gastric acidity improved gastro-intestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain; seven trials reported significant improvement in measures of fat malabsorption; and two trials reported no significant improvement in nutritional status. Only one trial reported measures

  13. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  14. Glycotargeting: the preparation of glyco-amino acids and derivatives from unprotected reducing sugars.

    PubMed

    Monsigny, M; Quétard, C; Bourgerie, S; Delay, D; Pichon, C; Midoux, P; Mayer, R; Roche, A C

    1998-02-01

    Lectins are present on the surface of many cells. Many lectins actively recycle from membrane to endosomes and efficiently take up glycoconjugates in a sugar-dependent manner. On this basis, glycoconjugates, specially those obtained by chemical means, are good candidates as carriers of drugs, oligonucleotides or genes. In this paper, we present a panel of methods suitable to transform unprotected reducing oligosaccharides into glycosynthons designed to be easily linked to therapeutic agents. All the glycosynthons presented here are glycosylamines or derivatives, mainly glyco-amino acids or glycopeptides. Glycosylamines are easy to obtain, but they are very labile in slightly acidic or neutral medium; they must be stabilized, by acylation for instance. The coupling efficiency of a reducing sugar with ammonia as well as an alkylamine or an arylamine is higher at high temperature, however, because of the Amadori rearrangement, special conditions have to be selected to prepare the expected glycosylamine derivative with a high yield. Glycosylamines are easily acylated by N-protected amino acids, or by halogeno acids which can then be transformed into amino acids. Alternatively, unprotected reducing oligosaccharides may very efficiently be transformed into N-glycosyl-amino acids and then protected by N-acylation. With a glutamyl derivative having both the alpha-amino and the gamma-carboxylic groups free, the coupling and the acylation, which is intramolecular, are roughly quantitative. N-oligosaccharyl-amino acid derivatives are interesting glycosynthons, because their sugar moiety bears the specificity towards membrane lectins while the amino acid part has the capacity to easily substitute a therapeutic agent.

  15. Humic Acid-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Van Trump, J. Ian; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thrash, J. Cameron; Weber, Karrie A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Coates, John D.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates the prevalence, phylogenetic diversity, and physiology of nitrate-reducing microorganisms capable of utilizing reduced humic acids (HA) as electron donors in agricultural soils. Most probable number (MPN) enumeration of agricultural soils revealed large populations (104 to 106 cells g−1 soil) of microorganisms capable of reducing nitrate while oxidizing the reduced HA analog 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AH2DS) to its corresponding quinone. Nitrate-dependent HA-oxidizing organisms isolated from agricultural soils were phylogenetically diverse and included members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Advective up-flow columns inoculated with corn plot soil and amended with reduced HA and nitrate supported both HA oxidation and enhanced nitrate reduction relative to no-donor or oxidized HA controls. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene-based high-density oligonucleotide microarray (PhyloChip) indicated that reduced HA columns supported the development of a bacterial community enriched with members of the Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Betaproteobacteria relative to the no-donor control and initial inoculum. This study identifies a previously unrecognized role for HA in stimulating denitrification processes in saturated soil systems. Furthermore, this study indicates that reduced humic acids impact soil geochemistry and the indigenous bacterial community composition. PMID:21750120

  16. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-05

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Oxalic Acid Treatment on Sediment Arsenic Concentrations and Lability under Reducing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ross, James M.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. PMID:26970042

  18. Characterization of Streptococcus oligofermentans sucrose metabolism demonstrates reduced pyruvic and lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xu-Dong; Yue, Lin; Gao, Xue-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Streptococcus (S.) oligofermentans is a newly identified bacteria with a yet to be defined mechanism of sucrose metabolism that results in acid production. This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of S. oligoferm-entans glucose metaolism. The S. oligofermentans LMG21532, Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 38 and the S. mutans UA140 were used to characterize sucrose metabolism by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid production. Continuous dynamics and high performance capillary electrophoresis were used to determine LDH activity and lactic acid production, respectively, from bacteria collected at 0, 10 and 30 minutes after cultured in 10% sucrose. These analyses demonstrated that LDH activity of the three bacterial strains examined remained stable but significantly different throughout the sucrose fermentation process. The S. oligofermentans LDH activity ((0.61 ± 0.05) U/mg) was significantly lower than that of L. fermentum ((52.91 ± 8.97) U/mg). In addition, the S. oligofermentans total lactate production ((0.048 ± 0.021) mmol/L) was also significantly lower than that of L. fermentum ((0.958 ± 0.201) mmol/L). Although the S. oligofermentans LDH production was almost double of that produced by S. mutans ((0.32 ± 0.07) U/mg), lactic acid production was approximately one sixth that of S. mutans ((0.296 ± 0.058) mmol/L). Additional tests examining pyruvic acid production (the LDH substrate) demonstrated that lactic acid concentrations correlated with pyruvic acid production. That is, pyruvic acid production by S. oligofermentans was undetectable following sucrose incubation, however, (0.074 ± 0.024) and (0.175 ± 0.098) mmol/L pyruvic acid were produced by S. mutans and L. fermentum, respectively. S. oligofermentans is incapable of fermenting carbohydrates to produce enough pyruvic acid, which results in reduced lactic acid production.

  19. Functional improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reduce volatile acidity in wine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zongli; Walkey, Christopher J; Madilao, Lufiani L; Measday, Vivien; Van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2013-08-01

    Control of volatile acidity (VA) is a major issue for wine quality. In this study, we investigated the production of VA by a deletion mutant of the fermentation stress response gene AAF1 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentations were carried out in commercial Chardonnay grape must to mimic industrial wine-making conditions. We demonstrated that a wine yeast strain deleted for AAF1 reduced acetic acid levels in wine by up to 39.2% without increasing the acetaldehyde levels, revealing a potential for industrial application. Deletion of the cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6 also reduced acetic acid levels dramatically, but increased the acetaldehyde levels by 41.4%, which is not desired by the wine industry. By comparison, ALD4 and the AAF1 paralog RSF2 had no effects on acetic acid production in wine. Deletion of AAF1 was detrimental to the growth of ald6Δ and ald4Δald6Δ mutants, but had no effect on acetic acid production. Overexpression of AAF1 dramatically increased acetic acid levels in wine in an Ald6p-dependent manner, indicating that Aaf1p regulates acetic acid production mainly via Ald6p. Overexpression of AAF1 in an ald4Δald6Δ strain produced significantly more acetic acid in wine than the ald4Δald6Δ mutant, suggesting that Aaf1p may also regulate acetic acid synthesis independently of Ald4p and Ald6p. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of Organic Acids by Probiotic Lactobacilli Can Be Used to Reduce Pathogen Load in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Lu, Xiaonan; Duong, Tri; Larson, Charles L.; Call, Douglas R.; Shah, Devendra H.; Konkel, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus can be used to reduce the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in food animals, and therefore reduce the risk of foodborne illness to consumers. As a model system, we examined the mechanism of protection conferred by Lactobacillus species to inhibit C. jejuni growth in vitro and reduce colonization in broiler chickens. Possible mechanisms for the reduction of pathogens by lactobacilli include: 1) stimulation of adaptive immunity; 2) alteration of the cecal microbiome; and, 3) production of inhibitory metabolites, such as organic acids. The Lactobacillus species produced lactic acid at concentrations sufficient to kill C. jejuni in vitro. We determined that lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus disrupted the membrane of C. jejuni, as judged by biophotonics. The spectral features obtained using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used to accurately predict bacterial viability and differentiate C. jejuni samples according to lactic acid treatment. FT-IR spectral features of C. jejuni and Lactobacillus grown in co-culture revealed that the metabolism was dominated by Lactobacillus prior to the killing of C. jejuni. Based on our results, the development of future competitive exclusion strategies should include the evaluation of organic acid production. PMID:22962594

  1. Production of organic acids by probiotic lactobacilli can be used to reduce pathogen load in poultry.

    PubMed

    Neal-McKinney, Jason M; Lu, Xiaonan; Duong, Tri; Larson, Charles L; Call, Douglas R; Shah, Devendra H; Konkel, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus can be used to reduce the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in food animals, and therefore reduce the risk of foodborne illness to consumers. As a model system, we examined the mechanism of protection conferred by Lactobacillus species to inhibit C. jejuni growth in vitro and reduce colonization in broiler chickens. Possible mechanisms for the reduction of pathogens by lactobacilli include: 1) stimulation of adaptive immunity; 2) alteration of the cecal microbiome; and, 3) production of inhibitory metabolites, such as organic acids. The Lactobacillus species produced lactic acid at concentrations sufficient to kill C. jejuni in vitro. We determined that lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus disrupted the membrane of C. jejuni, as judged by biophotonics. The spectral features obtained using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used to accurately predict bacterial viability and differentiate C. jejuni samples according to lactic acid treatment. FT-IR spectral features of C. jejuni and Lactobacillus grown in co-culture revealed that the metabolism was dominated by Lactobacillus prior to the killing of C. jejuni. Based on our results, the development of future competitive exclusion strategies should include the evaluation of organic acid production.

  2. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  3. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  4. The Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Reducing Child Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transler, Catherine; Eilander, Ans; Mitchell, Siobhan; van de Meer, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To review the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: Peer-reviewed experimental literature published from 1980 to Mai 2009 is consulted (Psychinfo, Medline, and resulting reference lists). Results: Placebo-controlled studies with ADHD or hyperactive children show no effects on…

  5. The Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Reducing Child Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transler, Catherine; Eilander, Ans; Mitchell, Siobhan; van de Meer, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To review the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: Peer-reviewed experimental literature published from 1980 to Mai 2009 is consulted (Psychinfo, Medline, and resulting reference lists). Results: Placebo-controlled studies with ADHD or hyperactive children show no effects on…

  6. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  7. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  8. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Johan A; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violet low) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells.

  9. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P < .01). Of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms, only the APSS for heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P < .05). APSS correlated with the development of heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P < .05 for heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obeticholic acid reduces bacterial translocation and inhibits intestinal inflammation in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Úbeda, María; Lario, Margaret; Muñoz, Leticia; Borrero, María-José; Rodríguez-Serrano, Macarena; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana-María; Del Campo, Rosa; Lledó, Lourdes; Pastor, Óscar; García-Bermejo, Laura; Díaz, David; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; Albillos, Agustín

    2016-05-01

    In advanced cirrhosis, gut bacterial translocation is the consequence of intestinal barrier disruption and leads to bacterial infection. Bile acid abnormalities in cirrhosis could play a role in the integrity of the intestinal barrier and the control of microbiota, mainly through the farnesoid X receptor. We investigated the long-term effects of the farnesoid X receptor agonist, obeticholic acid, on gut bacterial translocation, intestinal microbiota composition, barrier integrity and inflammation in rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis with ascites. Cirrhotic rats received a 2-week course of obeticholic acid or vehicle starting once ascites developed. We then determined: bacterial translocation by mesenteric lymph node culture, ileum expression of antimicrobial peptides and tight junction proteins by qPCR, fecal albumin loss, enteric bacterial load and microbiota composition by qPCR and pyrosequencing of ileum mucosa-attached contents, and intestinal inflammation by cytometry of the inflammatory infiltrate. Obeticholic acid reduced bacterial translocation from 78.3% to 33.3% (p<0.01) and upregulated the expression of the farnesoid X receptor-associated gene small heterodimer partner. Treatment improved ileum expression of antimicrobial peptides, angiogenin-1 and alpha-5-defensin, tight junction proteins zonulin-1 and occludin, and reduced fecal albumin loss and liver fibrosis. Enteric bacterial load normalized, and the distinctive mucosal microbiota of cirrhosis was reduced. Gut immune cell infiltration was reduced and inflammatory cytokine and Toll-like receptor 4 expression normalized. In ascitic cirrhotic rats, obeticholic acid reduces gut bacterial translocation via several complementary mechanisms at the intestinal level. This agent could be used as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent bacterial infection in cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A conjugated linoleic acid supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Lock, A L; Rovai, M; Gipson, T A; de Veth, M J; Bauman, D E

    2008-09-01

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing trans-10, cis-12 for reducing milk fat synthesis has been well described in dairy cows and sheep. Studies on lactating goats, however, remain inconclusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement (LE-CLA) on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in dairy goats. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats in late lactation were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design (14-d treatment periods separated by 14-d intervals). Does were fed a total mixed ration of Bermuda grass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to 3 treatments: A) unsupplemented (control), B) supplemented with 30 g/d of LE-CLA (low dose; CLA-1), and C) supplemented with 60 g/d of LE-CLA (high dose; CLA-2). Milk yield, dry matter intake, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment. Compared with the control, milk fat yield was reduced 8% by the CLA-1 treatment and 21% by the CLA-2 treatment, with milk fat content reduced 5 and 18% by the CLA-1 and CLA-2 treatments, respectively. The reduction in milk fat yield was due to decreases in both de novo fatty acid synthesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09, and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the control, CLA-1, and CLA-2 treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the 2 levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and dairy sheep. Dose-response comparisons, however, suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in dairy goats compared with dairy cows and dairy sheep.

  12. Folic acid therapy reduces serum uric acid in hypertensive patients: a substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

    PubMed

    Qin, Xianhui; Li, Youbao; He, Mingli; Tang, Genfu; Yin, Delu; Liang, Min; Wang, Binyan; Nie, Jing; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Hou, Fan Fan

    2017-04-01

    Background: The effect of folic acid supplementation on uric acid (UA) concentrations is still inconclusive.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of folic acid therapy in reducing serum UA in hypertensive patients.Design: A total of 15,364 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with a single tablet that contained 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7685) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7679). The main outcome was the change in serum UA, which was defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. Secondary outcomes were as follows: 1) controlled hyperuricemia (UA concentration <357 μmol/L after treatment) and 2) new-onset hyperuricemia in participants with normal UA concentrations (<357 μmol/L).Results: After a median of 4.4 y of treatment, the mean ± SD UA concentration increased by 34.7 ± 72.5 μmol/L in the enalapril-alone group and by 30.7 ± 71.8 μmol/L in the enalapril-folic acid group, which resulted in a mean group difference of -4.0 μmol/L (95% CI: -6.5, -1.6 μmol/L; P = 0.001). Furthermore, compared with enalapril alone, enalapril-folic acid treatment showed an increase in controlled hyperuricemia (30.3% compared with 25.6%; OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.70) and a decrease in new-onset hyperuricemia (15.0% compared with 16.3%; OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.99). A greater beneficial effect was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (P-interaction = 0.07) or higher concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) (P-interaction = 0.02) at baseline. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse relation (P < 0.001) between the reduction of tHcy and the change in UA concentrations.Conclusions: Enalapril-folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, can significantly reduce the magnitude of the increase of UA concentrations in hypertensive adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Low auxotrophy-complementing amino acid concentrations reduce yeast chronological life span.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pedro; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Ludovico, Paula; Rodrigues, Fernando; Leão, Cecília

    2007-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, interventions resembling caloric restriction, either by reduction of glucose or non-essential amino acid content in the medium, prolong life span and retard aging. Here we have examined the role of auxotrophy-complementing amino acid supplementation of S. cerevisiae strains in determining yeast chronological life span and stress resistance. The results obtained from cells cultured in standard amino acid concentrations revealed a reduced final biomass yield and premature aging phenotypes. These included shorter life span and indicators of oxidative stress, together with a G2/M cell cycle arrest and the appearance of a sub-G0/G1 population pointing to the occurrence of a specific cell death programme under starvation of essential amino acids. In order to overcome this starvation, five times higher amino acid concentrations were supplied to the medium as has already been commonly used by few laboratories. Such cultures reached more than five-fold higher final biomass yield in stationary phase and the early aging phenotypes were abrogated. Furthermore, in a long-lived yeast strain lacking TOR1, there was no positive effect of amino acid supplementation on longevity. On the contrary, amino acid supply had a positive effect on chronological life span of RAS2 deleted cells. This study may provide novel insights into the role of essential nutrients and their effect on aging process and raises the warning that the positive effects of caloric restriction on life span maybe restricted to non-essential nutrients. Moreover, the severe consequences on cell physiology, life span and stress resistance induced by essential amino acid imbalances presents a note of caution for those still using standard amino acid concentrations for studies with auxotrophic yeast strains.

  14. Lipin-2 reduces proinflammatory signaling induced by saturated fatty acids in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Valdearcos, Martín; Esquinas, Esperanza; Meana, Clara; Peña, Lucía; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Balsinde, Jesús; Balboa, María A

    2012-03-30

    Lipin-2 is a member of the lipin family of enzymes, which are key effectors in the biosynthesis of lipids. Mutations in the human lipin-2 gene are associated with inflammatory-based disorders; however, the role of lipin-2 in cells of the immune system remains obscure. In this study, we have investigated the role of lipin-2 in the proinflammatory action of saturated fatty acids in murine and human macrophages. Depletion of lipin-2 promotes the increased expression of the proinflammatory genes Il6, Ccl2, and Tnfα, which depends on the overstimulation of the JNK1/c-Jun pathway by saturated fatty acids. In contrast, overexpression of lipin-2 reduces the release of proinflammatory factors. Metabolically, the absence of lipin-2 reduces the cellular content of triacylglycerol in saturated fatty acid-overloaded macrophages. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a protective role for lipin-2 in proinflammatory signaling mediated by saturated fatty acids that occurs concomitant with an enhanced cellular capacity for triacylglycerol synthesis. The data provide new insights into the role of lipin-2 in human and murine macrophage biology and may open new avenues for controlling the fatty acid-related low grade inflammation that constitutes the sine qua non of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  15. Candida zemplinina can reduce acetic acid produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sweet wine fermentations.

    PubMed

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2012-03-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ~0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response.

  16. Ascorbic acid, catalase and chlorpromazine reduce cryopreservation-induced damages to crossbred bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K P; Kumar, S; Meur, S K; Kumaresan, A

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ascorbic acid, catalase, chlorpromazine and their combinations in reducing the cryodamages to crossbred bull (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) spermatozoa. A total of 32 ejaculates (eight each from four bulls) were diluted in Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender. Each ejaculate was split into six parts (five treatment and one control). Treatment groups included 10 mm ascorbic acid, 0.1 mm chlorpromazine, 200 IU/ml catalase, 10 mm ascorbic acid + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine or 200 IU/ml catalase + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine in the extender. Fluorescent probes (Fluorescein isothiocyanate--Pisum sativum agglutinin + Propidium iodide) were used for the assessment of spermatozoa viability and acrosomal status. The proportion of acrosome intact live (AIL), acrosome intact dead, acrosome reacted live and acrosome reacted dead sperm was assessed in fresh, equilibrated and frozen-thawed semen. The functional status of the sperm was assessed using hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test (HOSST). Activities of acrosin and hyaluronidase enzyme were also determined. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed based on the melonaldehyde (MDA) production. In cryopreserved semen, the values of AIL spermatozoa, HOSST response, hyaluronidase and acrosin activity were reduced by 53%, 47%, 34% and 54%, respectively from their initial values in fresh semen. However, MDA level was threefold higher in the frozen-thawed sperm compared with fresh sperm. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motility, viability, HOSST response, retention of hyaluonidase and acrosin and reduction in MDA was recorded in ascorbic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine and catalase + chlorpromazine incorporated groups. The percentage of AIL sperm was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in ascorbic acid, catalase and ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine incorporated groups compared with the control. Chlorpromazine alone did not improve the post-thaw semen quality but when combined

  17. An environment-friendly preparation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets via amino acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhi; Li, Lidong; Guo, Lin

    2011-08-12

    Chemically modified graphene has been studied in many applications due to its excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Among the chemically modified graphenes, reduced graphene oxide is the most important for its structure and properties, which are similar to pristine graphene. Here, we introduce an environment-friendly approach for preparation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets through the reduction of graphene oxide that employs L-cysteine as the reductant under mild reaction conditions. The conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets produced in this way increases by about 10(6) times in comparison to that of graphene oxide. This is the first report about using amino acids as a reductant for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, and this procedure offers an alternative route to large-scale production of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for applications that require such material.

  18. Targeting acid sphingomyelinase reduces cardiac ceramide accumulation in the post-ischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Klevstig, M; Ståhlman, M; Lundqvist, A; Scharin Täng, M; Fogelstrand, P; Adiels, M; Andersson, L; Kolesnick, R; Jeppsson, A; Borén, J; Levin, MC

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide accumulation is known to accompany acute myocardial ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease is unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how ceramides accumulate in the ischemic heart and to determine if cardiac function following ischemia can be improved by reducing ceramide accumulation. To investigate the association between ceramide accumulation and heart function, we analyzed myocardial left ventricle biopsies from subjects with chronic ischemia and found that ceramide levels were higher in biopsies from subjects with reduced heart function. Ceramides are produced by either de novo synthesis or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by acid and/or neutral sphingomyelinase. We used cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes to investigate these pathways and showed that acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than neutral sphingomyelinase activity or de novo sphingolipid synthesis was important for hypoxia-induced ceramide accumulation. We also used mice with a partial deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (Smpd1+/- mice) to investigate if limiting ceramide accumulation under ischemic conditions would have a beneficial effect on heart function and survival. Although we showed that cardiac ceramide accumulation was reduced in Smpd1+/- mice 24 h after an induced myocardial infarction, this reduction was not accompanied by an improvement in heart function or survival. Our findings show that accumulation of cardiac ceramides in the post-ischemic heart is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. However, targeting ceramide accumulation in the ischemic heart may not be a beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:26930027

  19. Detection of folic acid protein in human serum using reduced graphene oxide electrodes modified by folic-acid.

    PubMed

    He, Lijie; Wang, Qian; Mandler, Daniel; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-01-15

    The detection of disease markers is considered an important step for early diagnosis of cancer. We design in this work a novel electrochemical sensing platform for the sensitive and selective detection of folic acid protein (FP). The platform is fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) onto a gold electrode and post-functionalization of rGO with folic acid. Upon FP binding, a significant current decrease can be measured using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Using this scheme, a detection limit of 1pM is achieved. Importantly, the method also allows the detection of FP in serum being thus an appealing approach for the sensitive detection of biomarkers in clinical samples.

  20. Substrate specificity of human ABCC4 (MRP4)-mediated cotransport of bile acids and reduced glutathione.

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Hofmann, Alan F; Keppler, Dietrich

    2006-04-01

    The multidrug resistance protein ABCC4 (MRP4), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, mediates ATP-dependent unidirectional efflux of organic anions out of cells. Previous studies showed that human ABCC4 is localized to the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and mediates, among other substrates, the cotransport of reduced glutathione (GSH) with bile acids. In the present study, using inside-out membrane vesicles, we demonstrated that human ABCC4 in the presence of physiological concentrations of GSH has a high affinity for the taurine and glycine conjugates of the common natural bile acids as well as the unconjugated bile acid cholate. Chenodeoxycholyltaurine and chenodeoxycholylglycine were the GSH cosubstrates with the highest affinities for ABCC4, with K(m) values of 3.6 and 5.9 microM, respectively. Ursodeoxycholyltaurine and ursodeoxycholylglycine were cotransported together with GSH by ABCC4 with K(m) values of 7.8 and 12.5 microM, respectively, but no transport of ursodeoxycholate and deoxycholate was observed. The simultaneous transport of labeled GSH and cholyltaurine or cholylglycine was demonstrated in double-labeled cotransport experiments with a bile acid-to-GSH ratio of approximately 1:22. K(m) values of the bile acids for ABCC4 were in a range similar to those reported for the canalicular bile salt export pump ABCB11. Under physiological conditions, the sinusoidal ABCC4 may compete with canalicular ABCB11 for bile acids and thereby play a key role in determining the hepatocyte concentration of bile acids. In cholestatic conditions, ABCC4 may become a key pathway for efflux of bile acids from hepatocytes into blood.

  1. Acid-Tolerant Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Play a Major Role in Iron Cycling in Acidic Iron Rich Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, K. A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change drives drying and acidification of many rivers and lakes. Abundant sedimentary iron in these systems oxidizes chemically and biologically to form iron-ox(yhydrox)ide crusts and "hardpans". Given generally high sulfate concentrations, the mobilization and cycling of iron in these environments can be strongly influenced by bacterial sulfate reduction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) induce reductive dissolution of oxidized iron phases by producing the reductant bisulfide as a metabolic product. These environmentally ubiquitous microbes also recycle much of the fixed carbon in sediment-hosted microbial mat communities. With prevalent drying, the buffering capacity for protons liberated from iron oxidation is exceeded, and the activity of sulfate-reducers is restricted to those species capable of tolerating low pH (and generally highly saline, i.e. sulfate-rich) conditions. These species will sustain the recycling of iron from more crystalline phases to more bioavailable species, as well as act as the only source of bisulfide for photosynthesizing microbial communities. The phylogeny and physiology of acid-tolerant SRB is therefore important to Fe, S and C cycling in iron-rich sedimentary environments, particularly those on a geochemical trajectory towards acidification. Previous studies have shown that these SRB species tend to be highly novel. We studied two distinct environments along a geochemical continuum towards acidification. In both settings, iron redox transformations exert a major, if not controlling, influence on reduction potential. An acidified, iron- rich tidal marsh receiving acid-mine drainage (San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) contained abundant textural evidence for reductive dissolution of Fe(III) in sediments with pH values varying from 2.4 - 3.8. From these sediments, full-length novel dsrAB gene sequences from acid-tolerant SRB were recovered, and sulfur isotope profiles reflected biological fractionation of sulfur under even the most

  2. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data.

  3. Folic Acid Therapy Reduces the First Stroke Risk Associated With Hypercholesterolemia Among Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xianhui; Li, Jianping; Spence, J David; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youbao; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan; Sun, Ningling; Chen, Fang; Guo, Jingxuan; Yin, Delu; Sun, Liming; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Cai, Yefeng; Shi, Xiuli; Ye, Ping; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Shuiping; Chen, Mao; Gao, Chuanyu; Kong, Xiangqing; Hou, Fan Fan; Huang, Yining; Huo, Yong

    2016-11-01

    We sought to determine whether folic acid supplementation can independently reduce the risk of first stroke associated with elevated total cholesterol levels in a subanalysis using data from the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial), a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. A total of 20 702 hypertensive adults without a history of major cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of an enalapril 10-mg and a folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. For participants not receiving folic acid treatment (enalapril-only group), high total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL) was an independent predictor of first stroke when compared with low total cholesterol (<200 mg/dL; 4.0% versus 2.6%; hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.97; P=0.001). Folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of first stroke among participants with high total cholesterol (4.0% in the enalapril-only group versus 2.7% in the enalapril-folic acid group; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.84; P<0.001; number needed to treat, 78; 95% confidence interval, 52-158), independent of baseline folate levels and other important covariates. By contrast, among participants with low total cholesterol, the risk of stroke was 2.6% in the enalapril-only group versus 2.5% in the enalapril-folic acid group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.30; P=0.982). The effect was greater among participants with elevated total cholesterol (P for interaction=0.024). Elevated total cholesterol levels may modify the benefits of folic acid therapy on first stroke. Folic acid supplementation reduced the risk of first stroke associated with elevated total cholesterol by 31% among hypertensive adults without a history of major cardiovascular diseases. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2016

  4. Reduced Diaphragm Excursion During Reflexive Citric Acid Cough Test in Subjects With Subacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Min; Park, Geun-Young; Yoo, Yeonji; Sohn, Donggyun; Jang, YongJun; Im, Sun

    2017-09-12

    Diaphragm excursion is limited during respiratory maneuvers after a stroke. How the diaphragm is limited during reflexive coughs and affects the effectiveness of cough in stroke patients is unclear. This study aimed to measure reflexive cough strength by cough peak flow (CPF) induced by citric acid nebulization (2.8 mol/L), record diaphragm excursions during reflexive coughs in stroke subjects at risk of silent aspiration, and compare these values with those of stroke subjects without risk of aspiration or dysphagia. Twenty-one subjects with subacute stroke (mean stroke onset, 13.6 d) at risk of silent aspiration (penetration-aspiration scale, 8) and 21 stroke subjects without dysphagia or aspiration (controls) were included. Diaphragmatic excursions were assessed using real-time sonography in all subjects; the main outcome measure was reflexive CPF induced by citric acid nebulization. The median (interquartile range) values of citric acid-induced CPF values were significantly more reduced in the 21 subjects with silent aspiration (45 [0-83] L/min) than in the control subjects (97 [66-162] L/min) (P = .004). Diaphragmatic excursions during the reflexive coughs were also significantly reduced (P < .001), although both groups had a similar range in the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and level of disability, as measured by the modified Barthel index. Citric acid-induced CPF was significantly correlated with the number of generated coughs (rs = 0.69), voluntary cough CPF (rs = 0.85), and degree of diaphragm excursion on both sides (rs = 0.50 [hemiplegic] and rs = 0.55 [nonhemiplegic]) but not correlated with the degree of hemiparesis, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, or modified Barthel index scores. The 6-month follow up revealed that 7 subjects in group A experienced aspiration pneumonia. Stroke subjects at risk of silent aspiration showed reduced CPF and more limited diaphragm excursion during the citric acid

  5. Retinoic Acid Receptor β2 Agonists Restore Glycemic Control In Diabetes and Reduce Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Trasino, Steven E.; Tang, Xiao-Han; Jessurun, Jose; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Retinoids (vitamin A (retinol), and structurally related molecules) possess metabolic modulating properties, prompting new interest in their role in the treatment of diabetes and fatty liver disease, but little is known about the effects of specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists in these diseases. Materials and Methods Synthetic agonists for retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 were administered to wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D). Results We demonstrate that administration of synthetic agonists for the retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 to either wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) or to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D) reduces hyperglycemia, peripheral insulin resistance, and body weight. Furthermore, RARβ2 agonists dramatically reduce steatosis, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys of obese, diabetic mice. RARβ2 agonists also lower levels of mRNAs involved in lipogenesis, such as SREBP1 and FASN (fatty acid synthase), and increase mRNAs that mediate mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, such as CPT1α, in these organs. RARβ2 agonists lower triglyceride levels in these organs, and in muscle. Conclusions Collectively, our data show that orally active, rapidly acting, high affinity pharmacological agonists for RARβ2 improve the diabetic phenotype while reducing lipid levels in key insulin target tissues. We suggest that RARβ2 agonists should be useful drugs for T2D therapy and for treatment of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26462866

  6. Non-adsorbing macromolecules promote endothelial adhesion of erythrocytes with reduced sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Koo, Stephanie; Heng, Li Tze; Meiselman, Herbert J; Neu, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal adhesion of red blood cells (RBCs) to vascular endothelium is often associated with reduced levels of sialic acids on RBC membranes and with elevated levels of pro-adhesive plasma proteins. However, the synergistic effects of these two factors on the adhesion are not clear. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that macromolecular depletion interaction originating from non-adsorbing macromolecules can promote the adhesion of RBCs with reduced sialic acid content to the endothelium. RBCs are treated with neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from their surface followed by the evaluation of their deformability, zeta potential and membrane proteins. The adhesion of these enzyme-treated RBCs to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) is studied in the presence of 70 or 500kDa dextran with a flow chamber assay. Our results demonstrate that removal of sialic acids from RBC surface can induce erythrocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and that such adhesion is significantly enhanced in the presence of high-molecular weight dextran. The adhesion-promoting effect of dextran exhibits a strong dependence on dextran concentration and molecular mass, and it is concluded to originate from macromolecular depletion interaction. These results suggest that elevated levels of non-adsorbing macromolecules in plasma might play a significant role in promoting endothelial adhesion of erythrocytes with reduced sialic acids. Our findings should therefore be of great value in understanding abnormal RBC-EC interactions in pathophysiological conditions (e.g., sickle cell disease and diabetes) and after blood transfusions. © 2013.

  7. Is there any role of acid reducing gastric surgery in peptic ulcer perforation?

    PubMed

    Nivatvongs, Supanit

    2005-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is known to be the prime factor of peptic ulcer disease as well as NSAID usage. Although medical treatment of the bacteria can eliminate the problem for more than 90% of the infected people but the cost of treatment is high then acid reducing gastric surgery still has a definite role. The prevalence of H. pylori in peptic ulcer perferation is still unknown also whether vagotomy and gastrectomy could eradicate H. pylori. Now laparoscopic surgery especially the simple repair of the perforation has became routinely used in many part of the world. So acid reducing gastric surgery is a good choice in chronic user of NSAID and also an option for people who have H. pylori infection.

  8. Reduced nitrification and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in acidic soil amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zong, Haiying; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Adding biochar into soils has potential to manipulate soil nitrification process due to its impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, however, the exact mechanisms underlying the alteration of nitrification process in soils are still not clear. Nitrification in an acidic orchard soil amended with peanut shell biochar (PBC) produced at 400 °C was investigated. Nitrification was weakened by PBC addition due to the decreased NH4(+)-N content and reduced ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) abundance in PBC-amended soils. Adding phenolic compounds (PHCs) free biochar (PBC-P) increased the AOB abundance and the DGGE band number, indicating that PHCs remaining in the PBC likely reduced AOB abundance and diversity. However, PBC addition stimulated rape growth and increased N bioavailability. Overall, adding PBC could suppress the nitrification process and improve N bioavailability in the agricultural soils, and thus possibly mitigate the environmental negative impacts and improving N use efficiency in the acidic soils added with N fertilizer.

  9. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The administration of folic acid reduces intravascular oxidative stress in diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nilima; Angelini, Gianni D; Jeremy, Jamie Y

    2008-06-01

    There is evidence that plasma homocysteine augments angiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Although lowering homocysteine with folic acid improves endothelial function, the precise mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. To study this area further, the effect of administration of folic acid to diabetic rabbits on intraaortic oxidative stress was studied by assessing the formation of superoxide (O(2)(-)), 8-isoprostane F(2alpha) (8-IPF(2alpha)), and prostacyclin (as 6-keto-PGF(1alpha)) as well as acetylcholine-stimulated relaxation and gp47(phox) content. Nonketotic diabetes mellitus was induced in New Zealand rabbits with alloxan, and low- and high-dose folic acid was administered daily for 1 month. Rabbits were killed, aortae were excised, and rings were prepared. Rings were mounted in an organ bath, and relaxation was elicited with acetylcholine. The O(2)(-) release was measured spectrophotometrically; the gp47(phox) expression, by Western blotting; and the 8-IPF(2alpha) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) formation, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Blood was collected for measurement of homocysteine, red blood cell folate, and glucose. In aortae from the diabetic rabbits, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly impaired compared with that in untreated controls. The O(2)(-) release, p47(phox) expression, and 8-IPF(2alpha) formation were all enhanced and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) formation was reduced compared with controls. All these effects were reversed by both low- and high-dose folic acid. Plasma total homocysteine was reduced by high-dose, but not low-dose, folic acid. Red blood cell folate was elevated in both groups. The improvement of endothelial function in patients receiving folic acid may be due to inhibition of nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH) oxidase expression and therefore conservation of nitric oxide and prostacyclin bioavailability, 2 vasculoprotective factors.

  11. ω-3 Fatty Acids Reduce Chemotherapy-Induced Hematological Toxicity by Bone Marrow Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kohei; Miyata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-07-01

    ω-3 Fatty acids exert several benefits during chemotherapy, such as preventing intestinal mucosal damage and improving response to chemotherapy. However, little is known about the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on chemotherapy-induced hematological toxicities. Mice that had consumed either an ω-3-rich or an ω-3-poor diet for 2 weeks were intraperitoneally administered cisplatin. The resultant changes in blood cell count, bone marrow cell count, and cytokine levels in bone marrow supernatant were analyzed. The effect of ω-3 fatty acids on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to cisplatin was also examined. Although peripheral blood cell counts decreased after cisplatin treatment in both groups of mice, the decrease in white blood cell count was significantly lower in mice that consumed the ω-3-rich diet. The decrease in bone marrow cells after cisplatin treatment was also reduced in mice that consumed the ω-3-rich diet. Levels of stem cell factor (SCF) and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) were significantly higher in bone marrow supernatants from mice that consumed the ω-3-rich diet. The rate of apoptosis in PBMCs (after exposure to cisplatin) cultured in medium containing ω-3 fatty acids was significantly lower than in PBMCs cultured in control medium. ω-3-Rich diets reduced chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in mice. This may be the result of increased numbers of bone marrow cells due to higher levels of SCF and FGF-1 in the bone marrow.

  12. Pretreatment of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes In Vitro With Ethacrynic Acid Reduces Sulfur Mustard Cytotoxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...Ethacrynic Acid Reduces 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sulfur Mustard Toxicity 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Gross, CL, Nipwoda, MT, Nealley

  13. Reduced rat plasma lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid level as a biomarker of aristolochic acid-induced renal and adipose dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Yoko; Yamakawa, Syougo; Bingjun, Cheng; Ishihara, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Tokumura, Akira

    2016-07-15

    Food products and diet pills containing aristolochic acid (AA) are responsible for a rapid progression of nephropathy associated with reduced body weight in human beings. In this study, we investigated the relationship of dietary NaCl and lysophospholipid (LPL) plasma levels to body weight gain in AA-treated rats. Male rats receiving a salt-deficient chow, normal salt chow or high salt chow were injected intraperitoneally daily with AA for 15days. Body weight, visceral fat mass, food intake, levels of LPL in plasma and its synthesized enzyme were investigated. Body weight gain, visceral fat mass and daily food intake were smaller in AA-treated rats than those of control rats, regardless of dietary salt concentration. AA treatment decreased plasma levels of major lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) molecular species in rats fed the normal or high-salt chow but not the salt-deficient chow, whereas both the plasma lysophospholipase D activity and kidney mRNA level of autotaxin of AA-treated rats fed chow with defined salt concentrations were lower than those of control rats. Plasma levels of major molecular species of lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) in AA-treated rat groups fed chow with defined salt concentrations were lower than those of control rats. Plasma levels of LPG and LPA seem to be relevant to the reduced body weight gain and fat mass due to AA treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2017-07-21

    A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants/children of those pregnancies suggest protective associations, but the findings are inconsistent. Fish oil provision to pregnant women is associated with immunologic changes in cord blood. Studies performed to date indicate that provision of fish oil during pregnancy may reduce sensitisation to common food allergens and reduce prevalence and severity of atopic eczema in the first year of life, with a possible persistence until adolescence. A recent study reported that fish oil consumption in pregnancy reduces persistent wheeze and asthma in the offspring at ages 3 to 5 years. Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease.

  16. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel P; Monteiro, Mariana C; Ribeiro-Alves, Mirna; Donangelo, Carmen M; Trugo, Luiz C

    2005-03-09

    The iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The influence on FRAP due to the degree of roasting (light, medium, and dark), species (Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta), and caffeine content (regular and decaffeinated) was investigated using ground and soluble coffee samples. The concentration of specific chlorogenic acids and caffeine in the beverages was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and related to FRAP using Pearson correlation coefficients. All measurements were expressed per unit of soluble solids. Beverages prepared with ground coffee had, on average, 27% higher FRAP values than those prepared with soluble coffee (p < 0.05). In the former beverages, FRAP of C. robusta samples was significantly higher (on average, 50.3%) when compared to that of C. arabica samples, and FRAP values decreased with increasing degree of roasting (p < 0.05). A strong correlation (r > 0.91) was found between FRAP and the total content of chlorogenic acids, particularly that of the caffeoylquinic acid isomers. The iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages was not influenced by caffeine.

  17. Retinoic acid receptor β2 agonists restore glycaemic control in diabetes and reduce steatosis.

    PubMed

    Trasino, S E; Tang, X-H; Jessurun, J; Gudas, L J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists in diabetes and fatty liver disease. Synthetic agonists for RARβ2 were administered to wild-type (wt) mice in a model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D). We show that administration of synthetic agonists for RARβ2 to either wt mice in a model of HFD-induced T2D or to ob/ob and db/db mice reduces hyperglycaemia, peripheral insulin resistance and body weight. Furthermore, RARβ2 agonists dramatically reduce steatosis, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas and kidneys of obese, diabetic mice. RARβ2 agonists also lower levels of mRNAs involved in lipogenesis, such as sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase, and increase mRNAs that mediate mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, such as CPT1α, in these organs. RARβ2 agonists lower triglyceride levels in these organs, and in muscle. Collectively, our data show that orally active, rapid-acting, high-affinity pharmacological agonists for RARβ2 improve the diabetic phenotype while reducing lipid levels in key insulin target tissues. We suggest that RARβ2 agonists should be useful drugs for T2D therapy and for treatment of hepatic steatosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sze May; Franchini, Angelo J

    2014-07-13

    Malabsorption of fat and protein contributes to poor nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. Impaired pancreatic function may also result in increased gastric acidity, leading in turn to heartburn, peptic ulcers and the impairment of oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. The administration of gastric acid-reducing agents has been used as an adjunct to pancreatic enzyme therapy to improve absorption of fat and gastro-intestinal symptoms in people with cystic fibrosis. It is important to establish the evidence regarding potential benefits of drugs that reduce gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis. To assess the effect of drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity for: nutritional status; symptoms associated with increased gastric acidity; fat absorption; lung function; quality of life and survival; and to determine if any adverse effects are associated with their use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals, abstract books and conference proceedings.Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 17 March 2014. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials involving agents that reduce gastric acidity compared to placebo or a comparator treatment. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. The searches identified 39 trials; 17 of these, with 273 participants, were suitable for inclusion, but the number of trials assessing each of the different agents was small. Seven trials were limited to children and four trials enrolled only adults. Meta-analysis was not performed, 14 trials were of a cross-over design and we did not have the appropriate information to conduct comprehensive meta-analyses. The included trials were generally not reported adequately enough to allow judgements on risk of bias.However, one trial found that drug therapies

  19. Drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sze May; Moore, Helen S

    2016-08-22

    Malabsorption of fat and protein contributes to poor nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. Impaired pancreatic function may also result in increased gastric acidity, leading in turn to heartburn, peptic ulcers and the impairment of oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. The administration of gastric acid-reducing agents has been used as an adjunct to pancreatic enzyme therapy to improve absorption of fat and gastro-intestinal symptoms in people with cystic fibrosis. It is important to establish the evidence regarding potential benefits of drugs that reduce gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effect of drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity for: nutritional status; symptoms associated with increased gastric acidity; fat absorption; lung function; quality of life and survival; and to determine if any adverse effects are associated with their use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals, abstract books and conference proceedings.Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 12 May 2016. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials involving agents that reduce gastric acidity compared to placebo or a comparator treatment. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. The searches identified 39 trials; 17 of these, with 273 participants, were suitable for inclusion, but the number of trials assessing each of the different agents was small. Seven trials were limited to children and four trials enrolled only adults. Meta-analysis was not performed, 14 trials were of a cross-over design and we did not have the appropriate information to conduct comprehensive meta-analyses. All the trials were run in single centres and duration ranged from five days to six months. The

  20. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  1. Evidence that the beta-acids fraction of hops reduces central GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Zanoli, P; Zavatti, M; Rivasi, M; Brusiani, F; Losi, G; Puia, G; Avallone, R; Baraldi, M

    2007-01-03

    Humulus lupulus (hops) is traditionally used as a tranquilizing herbal remedy. Here, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of hop beta-acids on central nervous system function. Oral administration of beta-acids (5-10mg/kg) in rats produced an increased exploratory activity in the open field, a reduction in the pentobarbital hypnotic activity and a worsening of picrotoxin-induced seizures. When dosed at 10mg/kg, beta-acids increased, in the elevated plus maze, open arm entries reducing in parallel those in closed arms. In the forced swimming test, we observed a reduction in the immobility time that could suggest an antidepressant-like activity. Electrophysiological studies performed on cerebellar granule cells in culture showed that the beta-acids fraction decreased GABA-evoked current in a dose-dependent way. The effect was not inhibited by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788. Benzodiazepine receptors involvement was also excluded by [(3)H]-Ro 15-1788 binding assay. In conclusion, the behavioral effects of beta-acids fraction could be explained by a reduction in the GABAergic activity although we cannot rule out the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems.

  2. Hyaluronic acid as a molecular filter and friction-reducing lubricant in the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Anniko, M; Arnold, W

    1995-01-01

    Immunofluorescence for hyaluronic acid occurred intracellularly in morphologically highly specialized areas in the adult human inner ear, for instance in the cuticular plates of all types of hair cells, at the apposition between outer hair cells and Deiter's cell bodies and in the near-surface area of Hensen's cells. The cytoskeletal organization in these regions is characterized by tightly packed filamentous proteins. Under physiological stimulus these regions undergo micromechanical change, either actively moving (force generation) or passively vibrating with changes in elasticity. Hyaluronic acid might therefore act as a friction-reducing molecular lubricant. In the lateral wall of the cochlea an accumulation of hyaluronic acid occurred in the loose connective tissue of the spiral ligament, in particular close to the stria vascularis. Due to its complex molecular network, hyaluronic acid offers considerable resistance to bulk flow of water and may exclude molecules. The basal cell region of the stria vascularis is thus given additional support to minimize (seal?) the stria vascularis towards all other areas except the endolymphatic space. Here, hyaluronic acid could act as a molecular filter.

  3. Trans Fatty Acids Induce Vascular Inflammation and Reduce Vascular Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naomi G.; Pham, Matilda; Rizzo, Norma O.; Cheng, Andrew M.; Maloney, Ezekiel; Kim, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from ruminant-derived—dairy products and meat) on endothelial NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO) production. Human endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Elaidic (trans-C18:1 (9 trans)), Linoelaidic (trans-C18:2 (9 trans, 12 trans)), and Transvaccenic (trans-C18:1 (11 trans)) for 3 h. Both Elaidic and Linoelaidic acids were associated with increasing NF-κB activation as measured by IL-6 levels and phosphorylation of IκBα, and impairment of endothelial insulin signaling and NO production, whereas Transvaccenic acid was not associated with these responses. We also measured superoxide production, which has been hypothesized to be necessary in fatty acid-dependent activation of NF-κB. Both Elaidic acid and Linoelaidic acid are associated with increased superoxide production, whereas Transvaccenic acid (which did not induce inflammatory responses) did not increase superoxide production. We observed differential activation of endothelial superoxide production, NF-κB activation, and reduction in NO production by different C18 isomers suggesting that the location and number of trans double bonds effect endothelial NF-κB activation. PMID:22216328

  4. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = -0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.792, -0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = -0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.667, -0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration in the

  6. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  7. Dual action by fumaric acid esters synergistically reduces adhesion to human endothelium.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Johanna; Herich, Sebastian; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Chasan, Achmet I; Wettschureck, Nina; Gross, Catharina C; Loser, Karin; Zarbock, Alexander; Roth, Johannes; Klotz, Luisa; Wiendl, Heinz; Schwab, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is prescribed against relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigated the effects of DMF and monomethyl fumarate (MMF), its metabolite in vivo, at the (inflamed) blood-brain barrier (BBB). Effects of fumaric acid esters were analyzed using primary human brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in combination with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from DMF-treated MS patients. MMF-binding to brain endothelium cells leads to activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-induced downregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). This might be mediated via the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), a known molecular target of MMF, as we could demonstrate its expression and regulation on HBMECs. DMF treatment in vivo led to a strongly reduced expression of VCAM-1's ligand very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) by selectively reducing integrin high-expressing memory T cells of MS patients, potentially due to inhibition of their maturation by reduced trans-localization of NFκB. DMF-mediated VCAM-1 downregulation on the endothelial side and reduction in T cells with a migratory phenotype on the lymphocyte side result in a synergistic reduction in T-cell adhesion to activated endothelium and, therefore, to reduced BBB transmigration in the setting of MS.

  8. Salicylic acid mediates the reduced growth of lignin down-regulated plants

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Escamilla-Trevino, Luis; Jackson, Lisa A.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Down-regulation of the enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leads to strongly reduced lignin levels, reduced recalcitrance of cell walls to sugar release, but severe stunting of the plants. Levels of the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA) are inversely proportional to lignin levels and growth in a series of transgenic alfalfa plants in which lignin biosynthesis has been perturbed at different biosynthetic steps. Reduction of SA levels by genetically blocking its formation or causing its removal restores growth in HCT–down-regulated Arabidopsis, although the plants maintain reduced lignin levels. SA-mediated growth inhibition may occur via interference with gibberellic acid signaling or responsiveness. Our data place SA as a central component in growth signaling pathways that either sense flux into the monolignol pathway or respond to secondary cell-wall integrity, and indicate that it is possible to engineer plants with highly reduced cell-wall recalcitrance without negatively impacting growth. PMID:22123972

  9. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI). Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU) and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1). RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg) had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05). Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization. PMID:28773534

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reduce hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Westman, Ola; Nordén, Marcus; Larsson, Maria; Johansson, Jessica; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Hollert, Henner; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread fused-ring contaminants formed during incomplete combustion of almost all kind of organic materials from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Some PAHs have been shown to be carcinogenic to humans, and a wide range of PAHs are found in wildlife all around the globe including avian species. The purpose of this project was to assess the effects of a standard mixture of 16 PAHs (United States Environmental Protection Agency) on the hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The hepatic β-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-(3)H]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. Treated groups were divided into groups of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 mg PAHs/kg egg weight. The hepatic β-oxidation was reduced after exposure in ovo to the 16 PAHs mixture compared to control. The mechanisms causing reduced fatty acid oxidation in the present study are unclear, however may be due to deficient membrane structure, the functionality of enzymes controlling the rate of fatty acid entering into the mitochondria, or complex pathways connected to endocrine disruption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a PAH-caused reduction of hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in avian embryos has been observed. The implication of this finding on risk assessment of PAH exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces visceral and ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in chronic severe hypertriacylglycerolemia.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Hana; Hüttl, Martina; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Bratova, Miriam; Kazdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic health effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is one of the principal polyunsaturated fatty acids, are controversial and still not fully accepted. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CLA on adiposity, ectopic lipid accumulation, and insulin-resistant states in a metabolic syndrome model of non-obese hereditary rats with hypertriacylglycerolmia (HHTg). Groups of adult male HHTg rats were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (70% sucrose) with a 2% mixture of CLA isomers, or with the same amount of sunflower oil (control group) for 2 mo. CLA supplementation decreased body weight gain (P < 0.05) and visceral adipose tissue weight (P < 0.01), and distinctively reduced serum triacylglycerols (P < 0.01) and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver, heart, muscle, and aorta. CLA-treated rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity in the adipose (P < 0.01), a higher release of fatty acids (P < 0.001), and increased adiponectin secretion (P < 0.01).In the skeletal muscle, CLA supplementation was associated with increased glucose oxidation (P < 0.01) and an elevated anti-inflammatory index (P < 0.05), according to phospholipid fatty acid composition. In the liver, CLA reduced the oxidized form of glutathione and elevated the activity of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes. Results suggest that CLA supplementation may protect against HHTg-induced dyslipidemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and insulin resistance. Increased glucose oxidation in the skeletal muscle as well as adiponectin secretion may play a role in the mechanism of the CLA action. Results suggest that CLA could reduce the negative consequences of HHTg and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid; Schulz, Richard; Günther, Andreas; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lijun; Roth, Joachim; Seeger, Werner; Kang, Jing X.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory potency. Objectives: To determine whether the ability of fat-1 mice to endogenously convert n-6 to n-3 FA, and thus generate an increased ratio of n-3 to n-6 FA, impacts experimental ALI. Methods: We investigated ALI induced by intratracheal instillation of endotoxin in fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice, assessing leukocyte numbers, protein concentration, and prostaglandin and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as free FA in plasma, and lung ventilator compliance. Body temperature and motor activity of mice—markers of sickness behavior—were also recorded. Measurements and Main Results: In ALI, fat-1 mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and thromboxane B2 levels in lavage fluid compared with WT mice. Free AA levels were increased in the plasma of WT mice in response to endotoxin, whereas EPA and DHA were increased in the fat-1 group. Ventilator compliance was significantly improved in fat-1 mice. Body temperature and motor activity were decreased in ALI. fat-1 Mice recovered body temperature and motor activity faster. Conclusions: fat-1 Mice exhibited reduced features of ALI and sickness behavior. Increasing the availability of n-3 FA may thus be beneficial in critically ill patients with ALI. PMID:19136374

  13. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees.

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces glial cell activation in an animal model of acute neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a neuroprotective agent in different animal models of stroke and neurological diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of TUDCA in the central nervous system (CNS) remain unknown. Methods The acute neuroinflammation model of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C57BL/6 adult mice was used herein. Immunoreactivity against Iba-1, GFAP, and VCAM-1 was measured in coronal sections in the mice hippocampus. Primary cultures of microglial cells and astrocytes were obtained from neonatal Wistar rats. Glial cells were treated with proinflammatory stimuli to determine the effect of TUDCA on nitrite production and activation of inducible enzyme nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NFκB luciferase reporters. We studied the effect of TUDCA on transcriptional induction of iNOS and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA as well as induction of protein expression and phosphorylation of different proteins from the NFκB pathway. Results TUDCA specifically reduces microglial reactivity in the hippocampus of mice treated by icv injection of LPS. TUDCA treatment reduced the production of nitrites by microglial cells and astrocytes induced by proinflammatory stimuli that led to transcriptional and translational diminution of the iNOS. This effect might be due to inhibition of the NFκB pathway, activated by proinflammatory stimuli. TUDCA decreased in vitro microglial migration induced by both IFN-γ and astrocytes treated with LPS plus IFN-γ. TUDCA inhibition of MCP-1 expression induced by proinflammatory stimuli could be in part responsible for this effect. VCAM-1 inmunoreactivity in the hippocampus of animals treated by icv LPS was reduced by TUDCA treatment, compared to animals treated with LPS alone. Conclusions We show a triple anti-inflammatory effect of TUDCA on glial cells: i

  15. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces glial cell activation in an animal model of acute neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Yanguas-Casás, Natalia; Barreda-Manso, M Asunción; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo

    2014-03-19

    Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a neuroprotective agent in different animal models of stroke and neurological diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of TUDCA in the central nervous system (CNS) remain unknown. The acute neuroinflammation model of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C57BL/6 adult mice was used herein. Immunoreactivity against Iba-1, GFAP, and VCAM-1 was measured in coronal sections in the mice hippocampus. Primary cultures of microglial cells and astrocytes were obtained from neonatal Wistar rats. Glial cells were treated with proinflammatory stimuli to determine the effect of TUDCA on nitrite production and activation of inducible enzyme nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NFκB luciferase reporters. We studied the effect of TUDCA on transcriptional induction of iNOS and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA as well as induction of protein expression and phosphorylation of different proteins from the NFκB pathway. TUDCA specifically reduces microglial reactivity in the hippocampus of mice treated by icv injection of LPS. TUDCA treatment reduced the production of nitrites by microglial cells and astrocytes induced by proinflammatory stimuli that led to transcriptional and translational diminution of the iNOS. This effect might be due to inhibition of the NFκB pathway, activated by proinflammatory stimuli. TUDCA decreased in vitro microglial migration induced by both IFN-γ and astrocytes treated with LPS plus IFN-γ. TUDCA inhibition of MCP-1 expression induced by proinflammatory stimuli could be in part responsible for this effect. VCAM-1 inmunoreactivity in the hippocampus of animals treated by icv LPS was reduced by TUDCA treatment, compared to animals treated with LPS alone. We show a triple anti-inflammatory effect of TUDCA on glial cells: i) reduced glial cell activation, ii

  16. Folic acid administration reduces neointimal thickening, augments neo-vasa vasorum formation and reduces oxidative stress in saphenous vein grafts from pigs used as a model of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis There is evidence that plasma homocysteine augments vein graft failure and that it augments both micro- and macro-angiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is therefore suggested that homocysteine may augment vein graft thickening, a major cause of vein graft failure, in diabetic patients, as well as impairing adaptive growth of a new vasa vasorum, possibly through overproduction of superoxide. In order to test these proposals, the effect of folic acid administration, which lowers plasma homocysteine, on vein graft thickening and microvessel density was studied in pigs used as a model of diabetes. Methods Non-ketotic hyperglycaemia was induced in Landrace pigs by intravenous injection of streptozotocin, and folic acid was fed daily for 1 month. Vein grafts were excised and the thickness of the neointima and media and microvessel density were assessed by planimetry and superoxide formation. Results Plasma total homocysteine was significantly reduced by folic acid in both control and diabetic pigs, whereas glucose was unchanged. Compared with controls, diabetic pigs showed increased neointimal thickness and superoxide formation and decreased adventitial microvessel density. Folic acid reduced neointimal thickness and superoxide formation and augmented microvessel density in diabetic but not in control pigs. Conclusions Folic acid administration reduces neointimal thickening, augments vasa vasorum neoformation and reduces oxidative stress in saphenous vein grafts from diabetic pigs. Folic acid may therefore be particularly effective in reducing vein graft failure in diabetic patients. PMID:20182861

  17. Reducing the Dietary Acid Load: How a More Alkaline Diet Benefits Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Passey, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that a low-protein diet will slow progression of chronic kidney disease although studies have not always supported this belief. The accepted practice is that 60% to 70% of protein comes from high biological value (HBV) protein, but this limits patient choice and patients struggle to follow the diet. When a diet with only 30% HBV protein was trialed, there was a significant increase in serum bicarbonate, and patients preferred the diet. The dietary advice given in predialysis clinics was changed. HBV protein was restricted to approximately 50% of total protein, bread and cereal foods were allowed freely, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) were encouraged. Patients who followed the diet have seen a slowing of progression and occasionally regression of their renal function. Both observations and scientific literature indicate that this is because of a reduction in the acid content of the diet. When foods are metabolized, most proteins produce acid, and most F&V produce alkali. A typical 21(st)-century diet produces 50 to 100 mEq H(+) per day which the kidney is challenged to excrete. Acid is excreted with phosphate and is limited to about 45 mEq H(+) per day. With chronic kidney disease, this falls progressively to below 20 mEq H(+) per day. Historically, ammonium excretion was believed to be excretion of acid (NH3(+) + H(+) → NH4(+)), but it is now understood to be a by-product in the neutralization of acid by glutamine. The remaining acid is neutralized or stored within the body. Bone and muscle are lost in order to neutralize the acid. Acid also accumulates within cells, and serum bicarbonate falls. The author postulates that reducing the acid load through a low-protein diet with greater use of vegetable proteins and increased F&V intake will slow progression or occasionally improve renal function while maintaining the nutritional status of the individual. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Vitamin D reduces musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Atteritano, Marco; Basile, Giorgio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The acute-phase response (APR) is a frequent occurrence after infusion of zoledronic acid and is caused by activation of γδ T cells. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells, and vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this prospective study was to test the effect of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on the incidence of APR and intensity of pain in women undergoing infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis. 60 women were enrolled and randomized into two groups. At baseline, 30 women received an oral bolus of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU), while another 30 women received placebo. On day 5 both groups were treated with a single infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) and received a daily supplementation of calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Patients were clinically evaluated and inflammatory markers were assayed before zoledronic acid administration and every 24 h for the following 2 days. The onset of APR has been defined by the occurrence of fever or at least one of the typical symptoms, such as musculoskeletal pain after zoledronic acid infusion. Intensity of pain was measured by a one-dimensional scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). APR developed in 66.6% of patients, with no significant difference between groups. The vitamin group experienced less musculoskeletal pain [median 1 (0-4) vs. 2 (1-8), P < 0.05] and exhibited lower inflammatory markers (P < 0.005 vs. placebo). Our data demonstrate that cholecalciferol at a dose of 300,000 IU reduces the intensity of musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. The Synthesis of [gamma]-Aminobutyric Acid in Response to Treatments Reducing Cytosolic pH.

    PubMed

    Crawford, L. A.; Bown, A. W.; Breitkreuz, K. E.; Guinel, F. C.

    1994-03-01

    [gamma]-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis (L-glutamic acid + H+ -> GABA + CO2) is rapidly stimulated by a variety of stress conditions including hypoxia. Recent literature suggests that GABA production and concomitant H+ consumption ameliorates the cytosolic acidification associated with hypoxia or other stresses. This proposal was investigated using isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells. Cell acidification was promoted using hypoxia, H+/L-glutamic acid symport, and addition of butyrate or other permeant weak acids. Sixty minutes of all three treatments stimulated the levels of both intracellular and extracellular GABA by values ranging from 100 to 1800%. At an external pH of 5.0, addition of 5 mM butyrate stimulated an increase in overall GABA level from 3.86 (0.56 [plus or minus] SE) to 20.4 (2.16 [plus or minus] SE) nmol of GABA/106 cell. Butyrate stimulated GABA levels by 200 to 300% within 15 s, and extracellular GABA was observed after 10 min. The acid load due to butyrate addition was assayed by measuring [14C]butyrate uptake. After 45 s of butyrate treatment, H+-consuming GABA production accounted for 45% of the imposed acid load. The cytosolic location of a fluorescent pH probe was confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. Spectrofluorimetry indicated that butyrate addition reduced cytosolic pH by 0.60 units with a half-time of approximately 2 s. The proposal that GABA synthesis ameliorates cytosolic acidification is supported by the data. The possible roles of H+ and Ca2+ in stimulating GABA synthesis are discussed.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harsharan Singh; Agrawal, Rahul; Sharma, Sandeep; Huo, Yi-Xin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS). DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.

  1. Formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces incidence of allergy in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Foiles, Amanda M; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Wick, Jo A; Scalabrin, Deolinda M F; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    Allergy has sharply increased in affluent Western countries in the last 30 years. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) may protect the immune system against development of allergy. We prospectively categorized illnesses by body system in a subset of 91 children from the Kansas City cohort of the DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) study who had yearly medical records through 4 years of age. As infants, they were fed either a control formula without LCPUFA (n = 19) or one of three formulas with LCPUFA from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (n = 72). Allergic illnesses in the first year were lower in the combined LCPUFA group compared to the control. LCPUFAs significantly delayed time to first allergic illness (p = 0.04) and skin allergic illness (p = 0.03) and resulted in a trend to reduced wheeze/asthma (p = 0.1). If the mother had no allergies, LCPUFAs reduced the risk of any allergic diseases (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.56, p = 0.0.001) and skin allergic diseases (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.93, p = 0.04). In contrast, if the mother had allergies, LCPUFAs reduced wheezing/asthma (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.9, p = 0.02). LCPUFA supplementation during infancy reduced the risk of skin and respiratory allergic diseases in childhood with effects influenced by maternal allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates.

  3. Formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces incidence of allergy in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foiles, Amanda M.; Kerling, Elizabeth H.; Wick, Jo A.; Scalabrin, Deolinda M.F.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergy has sharply increased in affluent Western countries in the last 30 years. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) may protect the immune system against development of allergy. Methods We prospectively categorized illnesses by body system in a subset of 91 children from the Kansas City cohort of the DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) study who had yearly medical records through 4 years of age. As infants, they were fed either a control formula without LCPUFA (n=19) or one of three formulas with LCPUFA from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (n=72). Results Allergic illnesses in the first year were lower in the combined LCPUFA group compared to the control. LCPUFAs significantly delayed time to first allergic illness (p=0.04) and skin allergic illness (p=0.03); and resulted in a trend to reduced wheeze/asthma (p=0.1). If the mother had no allergies, LCPUFAs reduced the risk of any allergic diseases (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.56, p=0.0.001) and skin allergic diseases (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.93, p=0.04). In contrast, if the mother had allergies, LCPUFAs reduced wheezing/asthma (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.9, p = 0.02). Conclusions LCPUFA supplementation during infancy reduced the risk of skin and respiratory allergic diseases in childhood with effects influenced by maternal allergies. PMID:26613373

  4. PseKRAAC: a flexible web server for generating pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yongchun; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yingli; Li, Guangpeng; Yan, Zhenhe; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The reduced amino acids perform powerful ability for both simplifying protein complexity and identifying functional conserved regions. However, dealing with different protein problems may need different kinds of cluster methods. Encouraged by the success of pseudo-amino acid composition algorithm, we developed a freely available web server, called PseKRAAC (the pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition). By implementing reduced amino acid alphabets, the protein complexity can be significantly simplified, which leads to decrease chance of overfitting, lower computational handicap and reduce information redundancy. PseKRAAC delivers more capability for protein research by incorporating three crucial parameters that describes protein composition. Users can easily generate many different modes of PseKRAAC tailored to their needs by selecting various reduced amino acids alphabets and other characteristic parameters. It is anticipated that the PseKRAAC web server will become a very useful tool in computational proteomics and protein sequence analysis.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed.

  6. Ascorbic acid and beta-carotene reduce stress-induced oxidative organ damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Esrefoglu, M; Akinci, A; Taslidere, E; Elbe, H; Cetin, A; Ates, B

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents for reducing stress-induced organ damage. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid and β-carotene on oxidative stress-induced cerebral, cerebellar, cardiac and hepatic damage using microscopy and biochemistry. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated control, stressed, stressed + saline, stressed + ascorbic acid and stressed + β-carotene. The rats in the stressed groups were subjected to starvation, immobilization and cold. The histopathological damage scores for the stressed and stressed + saline groups were higher than those of the control group for all organs examined. The histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels for the groups treated with antioxidants were lower than those for the stressed and stressed + saline groups. Mean tissue superoxide dismutase activities for groups that received antioxidants were higher than those for the stressed + saline group for most organs evaluated. Ascorbic acid and β-carotene can reduce stress-induced organ damage by both inhibiting lipid oxidation and supporting the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  7. Ascorbic acid reduces accumulation of (/sup 3/H)spiperone in mouse striatum in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Dorris, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    (/sup 3/H)Spiperone was administered to mice. In agreement with other published reports, 2 hr later the accumulation of tritium was three to four times greater in the corpus striatum than in the cerebellum. Ascorbic acid (100, 1000, 2000 mg/kg, ip, 30 min) reduced the 2-hr accumulation in the corpus striatum 16, 42, and 63%, respectively, with only the highest does producing any significant reduction in the cerebellum. The effect was still evident in striatum 18 hr after a single dose of 1000 mg/kg. Striatal minces taken from mice treated 1 or 2 hr earlier with ascorbic acid showed no reduction in (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding. However, preincubation of striatal minces for 2 hr with ascorbic acid (10/sup -3/ M) produced an 82% reduction in specific binding while not having any effect on nonspecific binding. While it cannot be certain that the reduction of striatal (/sup 3/H) spiperone concentrations after ascorbic acid in vivo was not a result of some nonspecific alteration in the pharmacokinetics of (/sup 3/H)spiperone, the in vitro observation strongly suggests that it resulted from an alteration of binding characteristics at the receptor level.

  8. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans.

  9. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  10. Role of sulfur-reducing bacteria in a wetland system treating acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Riefler, R Guy; Krohn, Jeremy; Stuart, Ben; Socotch, Cheryl

    2008-05-15

    This report describes a twenty month case study of a successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) treating a strong acid mine drainage (AMD) source in Coshocton County, Ohio. Prior to the commencement of the project, a large volume of black amorphous sludge had accumulated in several of the constructed wetlands. The sludge was found to be 43% organic, with very high concentrations of sulfur, iron, aluminum, and acidity. Based on several biological, physical, and chemical analyses, the sludge was determined to be an anaerobic biofilm with a large population of sulfur-reducing bacteria and a high mineral content due to the formation of iron sulfide and aluminum precipitates. On average the system performed well, generating 26 kg CaCO3/d of alkalinity and capturing 5.0 kg/d of iron and 1.7 kg/d of aluminum. Several simple performance analysis tools were presented in this work. By comparing the pollutant influent and effluent loading, it was determined that the SAPS was performing at capacity and over the past year increased effluent concentrations were due to increased influent loadings and not system deterioration. Further, by performing a detailed cell-by-cell loading analysis of multiple chemical components, the alkalinity generated by limestone dissolution and by sulfate reduction was determined. Interestingly, 61% of the alkalinity generation in the vertical flow wetlands was due to sulfur-reducing bacteria activity, indicating that sulfur-reducing bacteria may play a more significant role in SAPS than expected.

  11. Bioavailability of hop-derived iso-α-acids and reduced derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cattoor, Ko; Remon, Jean-Paul; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Bracke, Marc; De Keukeleire, Denis; Deforce, Dieter; Heyerick, Arne

    2011-07-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAA) and their reduced derivatives (dihydro-iso-α-acids (DHIAA) and tetrahydro-iso-α-acids (THIAA)) have been administered to Caco-2 cell monolayers (30, 60, and 120 μM) to investigate epithelial transport, in both absorptive and secretive directions. In addition, 25 mg kg(-1) IAA, DHIAA, and THIAA were applied to New Zealand white rabbits (±3-3.5 kg) in a single intravenous and oral dose. The most important pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max), half life, clearance, and AUC(0-∞)) and the absolute bioavailability were determined for each class of hop acid. The results from the in vitro Caco-2 study of IAA, DHIAA, and THIAA, showed a higher membrane permeability for IAA and THIAA, both in absorptive (P(appAB) range 1.6-5.6 × 10(-6) cm s(-1)) and secretive directions (P(appBA) range 5.7-16.3 × 10(-6) cm s(-1)), when compared to DHIAA. Factors limiting transport of DHIAA could include phase II metabolism. After oral and i.v. dosing to New Zealand white rabbits, the absolute bioavailability for IAA was determined to be 13.0%. The reduced derivatives reached higher bioavailabilities with 28.0% for DHIAA and 23.0% for THIAA. The area under curve AUC(0-∞) upon oral gavage for DHIAA and THIAA was 70.7 ± 48.4 μg h ml(-1) and 57.4 ± 9.0 μg h ml(-1), respectively, while that for IAA was 10.6 ± 5.3 μg h ml(-1). Phase I metabolism was indicated as the main factor limiting the bioavailability of IAA. Bioavailability of DHIAA is mostly influenced by phase-II metabolism as shown by enzymatic hydrolysis of plasma samples upon administration of DHIAA.

  12. The triacylglycerol preparation of conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Chae, S H; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Johnson, D; Maxim, J; Smith, S B

    2009-04-01

    It is proposed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) would depress the lipid oxidation caused by irradiation of cooked, aerobically stored ground beef patties. The free fatty acid (FFA-CLA) and triacylglycerol (TAG-CLA) preparations of CLA were added at 0%, 1%, 2%, or 4% during the grinding process. Patties were irradiated at 1.5-2.0kGy and frozen at -20°C. Subsequently, the patties were tempered to 4°C, cooked to 70°C and held at 4°C for 7d. Enrichment of ground beef with CLA increased the cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in ground beef patties, even after cooking. Weight loss (P=0.03) and percentage fat (P=0.05) were higher in irradiated beef patties than in control patties. Irradiation decreased the concentration of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in the ground beef by over 60% (P=0.07), whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (P=0.004) in irradiated beef patties than in control patties. The 1% concentration of added TAG-CLA reduced TBARS in irradiated ground beef patties, whereas 2% and 4% FFA-CLA depressed TBARS (CLA type×percentage interaction P=0.04). Irradiation increased the cardboard and painty aromatic attributes (P⩽0.05), and FFA-CLA preparation increased the painty aromatic attribute and afterburn aftertaste, but these effects were not observed with the TAG-CLA preparation (CLA type×treatment interaction P<0.04). Adding 1% TAG-CLA to ground beef during grinding can reduce lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties without the negative aftertastes associated with the FFA-CLA preparation.

  13. Trans-11 vaccenic acid reduces hepatic lipogenesis and chylomicron secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Wright, David C; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2009-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) is the predominant trans isomer in ruminant fat and a major precursor to the endogenous synthesis of cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animals. We have previously shown that 3-wk VA supplementation has a triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (JCR:LA-cp rats). The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effect (16 wk) of VA on lipid homeostasis in both the liver and intestine in obese JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma TG (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01), and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, as well as the serum haptoglobin concentration, were all lower in obese rats fed the VA diet compared with obese controls (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a decrease in the postprandial plasma apolipoprotein (apo)B48 area under the curve (P < 0.05) for VA-treated obese rats compared with obese controls. The hepatic TG concentration and the relative abundance of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase proteins were all lower (P < 0.05) in the VA-treated group compared with obese controls. Following acute gastrointestinal infusion of a VA-triolein emulsion in obese rats that had been fed the control diet for 3 wk, the TG concentration was reduced by 40% (P < 0.05) and the number of chylomicron (CM) particles (apoB48) in nascent mesenteric lymph was reduced by 30% (P < 0.01) relative to rats infused with a triolein emulsion alone. In conclusion, chronic VA supplementation significantly improved dyslipidemia in both the food-deprived and postprandial state in JCR:LA-cp rats. The appreciable hypolipidemic benefits of VA may be attributed to a reduction in both intestinal CM and hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathways.

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Rani, Shilpa; Sreenivasaiah, Pradeep Kumar; Kim, Jin Ock; Lee, Mi Young; Kang, Wan Seok; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun; Park, Woo Jin; Cho, Chunghee; Kim, Do Han

    2017-01-01

    Pressure overload in the heart induces pathological hypertrophy and is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Apoptosis and fibrosis signaling initiated by the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is known to contribute to these maladaptive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduction of ERS by a known chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) can attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Oral administration of TUDCA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) in the TUDCA-TAC group reduced ERS markers (GRP78, p-PERK, and p-eIf2α), compared to the Vehicle (Veh)-TAC group. TUDCA administration, for 4 weeks after TAC significantly reduced cardiac hypertrophy as shown by the reduced heart weight (HW) to BW ratio, and expression of hypertrophic marker genes (ANF, BNP, and α-SKA). Masson's trichrome staining showed that myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition were also significantly reduced in the TUDCA-TAC group. We also found that TUDCA significantly decreased expression of TGF-β signaling proteins and collagen isoforms. TUDCA administration also reduced cardiac apoptosis and the related proteins in the TUDCA-TAC group. Microarray analysis followed by gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis demonstrated that extracellular matrix genes responsible for hypertrophy and fibrosis, and mitochondrial genes responsible for apoptosis and fatty acid metabolism were significantly altered in the Veh-TAC group, but the alterations were normalized in the TUDCA-TAC group, suggesting potential of TUDCA in treatment of heart diseases related to pressure-overload.

  15. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shilpa; Sreenivasaiah, Pradeep Kumar; Kim, Jin Ock; Lee, Mi Young; Kang, Wan Seok; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun; Park, Woo Jin; Cho, Chunghee

    2017-01-01

    Pressure overload in the heart induces pathological hypertrophy and is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Apoptosis and fibrosis signaling initiated by the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is known to contribute to these maladaptive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduction of ERS by a known chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) can attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Oral administration of TUDCA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) in the TUDCA-TAC group reduced ERS markers (GRP78, p-PERK, and p-eIf2α), compared to the Vehicle (Veh)-TAC group. TUDCA administration, for 4 weeks after TAC significantly reduced cardiac hypertrophy as shown by the reduced heart weight (HW) to BW ratio, and expression of hypertrophic marker genes (ANF, BNP, and α-SKA). Masson's trichrome staining showed that myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition were also significantly reduced in the TUDCA-TAC group. We also found that TUDCA significantly decreased expression of TGF-β signaling proteins and collagen isoforms. TUDCA administration also reduced cardiac apoptosis and the related proteins in the TUDCA-TAC group. Microarray analysis followed by gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis demonstrated that extracellular matrix genes responsible for hypertrophy and fibrosis, and mitochondrial genes responsible for apoptosis and fatty acid metabolism were significantly altered in the Veh-TAC group, but the alterations were normalized in the TUDCA-TAC group, suggesting potential of TUDCA in treatment of heart diseases related to pressure-overload. PMID:28426781

  16. Hydroxyl radical formation upon oxidation of reduced humic acids by oxygen in the dark.

    PubMed

    Page, Sarah E; Sander, Michael; Arnold, William A; McNeill, Kristopher

    2012-02-07

    Humic acids (HAs) accept and donate electrons in many biogeochemical redox reactions at oxic/anoxic interfaces. The products of oxidation of reduced HAs by O(2) are unknown but are expected to yield reactive oxygen species, potentially including hydroxyl radical (·OH). To quantify the formation of ·OH upon oxidation of reduced HAs by O(2), three HAs were reduced electrochemically to well-defined redox states and were subsequently oxidized by O(2) in the presence of the ·OH probe terephthalate. The formation of ·OH upon oxidation increased with increasing extent of HA reduction. The yield of ·OH ranged from 42 to 160 mmol per mole of electrons donated by the reduced HA. The intermediacy of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the formation of ·OH was supported by enhancement of ·OH formation upon addition of exogenous H(2)O(2) sources and by the suppression of ·OH formation upon addition of catalase as a quencher of endogenous H(2)O(2). The formation of ·OH in the dark during oxidation of reduced HA represents a previously unknown source of ·OH formation at oxic/anoxic interfaces and may affect the biogeochemical and pollutant redox dynamics at these interfaces.

  17. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Kızılay, Zahir; Erken, Haydar Ali; Çetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Aktaş, Serdar; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I), and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions. PMID:27904499

  18. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Kızılay, Zahir; Erken, Haydar Ali; Çetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Aktaş, Serdar; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I), and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  19. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wen-yuan; Ye, Fang; Yang, Jun-lin

    2016-04-27

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery usually require prolonged operative times with extensive soft tissue dissection and significant perioperative blood loss, and allogeneic blood products are frequently needed. Methods to reduce the requirement for transfusion would have a beneficial effect on these patients. Although many previous studies have revealed the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spinal surgery, there is still a lack of agreement concerning the reduction of both blood loss and transfusion requirements of large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective of this study was to elevate the efficacy and safety of a large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a retrospective study designed with historical control group. One hundred thirty seven consecutive AIS patients who underwent surgery treatment with posterior spinal pedicle systems from August 2011 to March 2015 in our scoliosis center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, the TXA group and the historical recruited no TXA group (NTXA). Preoperative demographics, radiographic parameters, operative parameters, estimated blood loss (EBL), total irrigation fluid, number of patients requiring blood transfusion, mean drop of Hb (Pre-op Hb-Post-op Hb), haematocrit pre and post-surgery, mean volume of blood transfusion, hospitalization time, and adverse effect were recorded and compared. All the patients were successfully treated with satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes. There were 71 patients in the TXA group and 66 patients in the NTXA group. The preoperative demographics were homogeneity between two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant difference in average operative time between two groups (209 min vs 215 min, p >0.05). Number of patients in the TXA group showed a significant decrease in

  20. Enteric coating can lead to reduced antiplatelet effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Haastrup, Peter Fentz; Grønlykke, Thor; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-03-01

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Enteric-coated ASA has been developed to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. The consequences of enteric coating on pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of ASA have not systematically been assessed. This MiniReview demonstrates that data from clinical trials indicate that enteric coating can reduce the antiplatelet effect of ASA compared to plain ASA. This is possibly due to decreased bioavailability of ASA caused by prolonged solvation and absorption of the enteric-coated formulations. Therefore, low-dose enteric-coated ASA might not be bioequivalent to plain ASA, entailing the risk of insufficient cardiovascular prophylaxis.

  1. Treatment of acid mine drainage by sulfate reducing bacteria with iron in bench scale runs.

    PubMed

    Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In order to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) effectively using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals, Fe(0) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. When AMD was treated by SRB and Fe(0) at 25 °C, more than 61% of sulfate was removed and the effluent pH was improved from 2.75 to 6.20 during the operation. Cu(2+) was removed effectively with the removal efficiency at 99%, while only 86% of Fe(2+) was removed during the AMD treatment, without conspicuous change of Mn(2+) in the effluent in the process.

  2. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer: An Asian population study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated.The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group.Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD.

  3. Engineering reduced-immunogenicity enzymes for amino acid depletion therapy in cancer.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jason R; Panayiotou, Vasiliki; Agnello, Giulia; Georgiou, George; Stone, Everett M

    2012-01-01

    is Escherichia colil-asparaginase II (EcAII), which has been FDA-approved for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The use of engineered human enzymes, to which natural tolerance is likely to prevent recognition by the adaptive immune system, offers a novel approach for capitalizing on the promising strategy of systemic depletion of tumor-essential amino acids. In this work, we review several strategies that we have developed to: (i) reduce the immunogenicity of a nonhuman enzyme, (ii) engineer human enzymes for novel catalytic specificities, and (iii) improve the pharmacological characteristics of a human enzyme that exhibits the requisite substrate specificity for amino acid degradation but exhibits low activity and stability under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Regulatory Interventions to Reduce Intake of Artificial Trans–Fatty Acids: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Almíron-Roig, Eva; Monsivais, Pablo; Jebb, Susan A.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Griffin, Simon J.; Ogilvie, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of regulatory action to reduce levels of artificial trans–fatty acids (TFAs) in food. We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and EconLit (January 1980 to December 2012) for studies related to government regulation of food- or diet-related health behaviors from which we extracted the subsample of legislative initiatives to reduce artificial TFAs in food. We screened 38 162 articles and identified 14 studies that examined artificial TFA controls limiting permitted levels or mandating labeling. These measures achieved good compliance, with evidence of appropriate reformulation. Regulations grounded on maximum limits and mandated labeling can lead to reductions in actual and reported TFAs in food and appear to encourage food producers to reformulate their products. PMID:25602897

  5. Impact of regulatory interventions to reduce intake of artificial trans-fatty acids: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Vivien L; Almíron-Roig, Eva; Monsivais, Pablo; Jebb, Susan A; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David B

    2015-03-01

    We examined the impact of regulatory action to reduce levels of artificial trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in food. We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and EconLit (January 1980 to December 2012) for studies related to government regulation of food- or diet-related health behaviors from which we extracted the subsample of legislative initiatives to reduce artificial TFAs in food. We screened 38 162 articles and identified 14 studies that examined artificial TFA controls limiting permitted levels or mandating labeling. These measures achieved good compliance, with evidence of appropriate reformulation. Regulations grounded on maximum limits and mandated labeling can lead to reductions in actual and reported TFAs in food and appear to encourage food producers to reformulate their products.

  6. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  7. Sensitive and reliable ascorbic acid sensing by lanthanum oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Mogha, Navin Kumar; Sahu, Vikrant; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Masram, Dhanraj T

    2014-10-01

    A simple strategy for the detection and estimation of ascorbic acid (AA), using lanthanum oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (LO/RGO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, is reported. LO/RGO displays high catalytic activity toward the oxidation of AA, and the synergism between lanthanum oxide and reduced graphene oxide was attributed to the successful and efficient detection. Detection mechanism and sensing efficacy of LO/RGO nanocomposite are investigated by electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric results under optimal conditions show a linear response range from 14 to 100 μM for AA detection. Commercially available vitamin C tablets were also analyzed using the proposed LO/RGO sensor, and the remarkable recovery percentage (97.64-99.7) shows the potential application in AA detection.

  8. Importance of different physiological groups of iron reducing microorganisms in an acidic mining lake remediation experiment.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Katharina; Meier, Jutta; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin

    2009-05-01

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing microorganisms play an important role for alkalinity-generating processes in mining lakes with low pH. In the acidic mining lake 111 in Lusatia, Germany, a passive in situ remediation method was tested in a large scale experiment, in which microbial iron and sulfate reduction are stimulated by addition of Carbokalk (a mixture of the nonsugar compounds of sugar beets and lime) and straw. The treated surface sediment consisted of three layers of different pH and geochemical composition. The top layer was acidic and rich in Fe(III), the second and third layer both showed moderately acidic to circum-neutral pH values, but only the second was rich in organics, strongly reduced and sulfidic. Aim of the study was to elucidate the relative importance of neutrophilic heterotrophic, acidophilic heterotrophic, and acidophilic autotrophic iron-reducing microorganisms in each of the three layers. In order to distinguish between them, the effect of their respective characteristic electron donors acetate, glucose, and elemental sulfur on potential iron reduction rates was investigated. Limitation of iron reduction by the availability of Fe(III) was revealed by the addition of Fe(OH)(3). The three groups of iron-reducing microorganisms were quantified by most probable number (MPN) technique and their community composition was analyzed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In the acidic surface layer, none of the three electron donors stimulated iron reduction; acetate even had an inhibiting effect. In agreement with this, no decrease of the added electron donors was observed. Iron reduction rates were low in comparison to the other layers. Iron reduction in layers 2 and 3 was enhanced by glucose and acetate, accompanied by a decrease of these electron donors. Addition of elemental sulfur did not enhance iron reduction in either layer. Layer 2 exhibited the highest iron reduction rate (4.08 mmol dm(-3) d(-1)) and the highest cell numbers in MPN

  9. Acute Treatment with Lauric Acid Reduces Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Naiane Ferraz Bandeira; de Queiroz, Thyago Moreira; de Almeida Travassos, Rafael; Magnani, Marciane; de Andrade Braga, Valdir

    2017-04-01

    The effects of acute administration of lauric acid (LA), the most abundant medium-chain fatty acid of coconut oil, on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative stress were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intravenous doses of LA reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion (1, 3, 4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) in both SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats. LA (10(-8) to 3 × 10(-3) M) induced vasorelaxation in isolated superior mesenteric artery rings of SHR in the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 8) of functional endothelium [maximum effect (ME) = 104 ± 3 versus 103 ± 4%]. After exposure to KCl (60 mM), LA also induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation (n = 7) compared to that under Phe-induced contraction (ME = 113.5 + 5.1 versus 104.5 + 4.0%). Furthermore, LA-induced vasorelaxation in vessels contracted with S(-)-BayK8644 (200 nM), a L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist (ME = 91.4 + 4.3 versus 104.5 + 4.0%, n = 7). Lastly, LA (10(-3) M) reduced NADPH-dependent superoxide accumulation in the heart (18 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1 MLU/min/μg protein, n = 4, p < 0.05) and kidney (82 ± 3 versus 99 ± 4 MLU/min/μg protein, n = 4, p < 0.05). Our data show that LA reduces blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. In SHR, this effect might involve Ca(+2) channels in the resistance vessels and by its capability of reducing oxidative stress in heart and kidneys.

  10. Tranexamic acid given into the wound reduces postoperative blood loss by half in major orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Claus Danckert; Sørensen, Roger; Lange, Johan Emil; Riise, Rolf; Bjørnsen, Stine; Brosstad, Frank

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of locally applied tranexamic acid on postoperative blood loss and measures of fibrinolysis in drained blood. Prospective study. University hospital, Norway. 30 patients operated on for low back pain by screw fixation of the lumbar spine, 16 of who were randomised to be given topical tranexamic acid. Postoperative blood loss after 18 hours. Concentrations of plasmin/alpha2-antiplasmin (PAP) and D-dimer in arterial and drained blood at the time of wound closure and in drained blood after 1 hour. In the tranexamic group median (interquartile) blood loss was reduced by half from 525 (325-750) ml to 252 (127-465) ml, p = 0.02. In drained blood after one hour the increase in the concentration of PAP was 150 (109-170)% and D-dimer 150 (107-272)% in the tranexamic group compared with the control group where the increase in PAP was 320 (140-540)% and D-dimer 260 (161-670)%. Tranexamic acid applied in the wound inhibits blood loss by up to a half in major orthopaedic surgery probably because it prevents excessive fibrinolysis.

  11. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    DOE PAGES

    Beller, HR; Zhou, P; Jewell, TNM; ...

    2016-12-01

    © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H 2 S, while fixing CO 2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans to produce up to 52-fold more fatty acids than the wild-type strain when grown with thiosulfate and CO 2 . A modified thioesterase gene from E. coli ('tesA) was integrated into the T. denitrificans chromosome under the control of P kan or one of two native T. denitrificans promoters. The relative strengthmore » of the two native promoters as assessed by fatty acid production in engineered strains was very similar to that assessed by expression of the cognate genes in the wild-type strain. This proof-of-principle study suggests that engineering sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria to overproduce fatty acid-derived products merits consideration as a technology that could simultaneously produce renewable fuels/chemicals as well as cost-effectively remediate sulfide-contaminated wastewater.« less

  12. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, HR; Zhou, P; Jewell, TNM; Goh, EB; Keasling, JD

    2016-12-01

    © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H 2 S, while fixing CO 2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans to produce up to 52-fold more fatty acids than the wild-type strain when grown with thiosulfate and CO 2 . A modified thioesterase gene from E. coli ('tesA) was integrated into the T. denitrificans chromosome under the control of P kan or one of two native T. denitrificans promoters. The relative strength of the two native promoters as assessed by fatty acid production in engineered strains was very similar to that assessed by expression of the cognate genes in the wild-type strain. This proof-of-principle study suggests that engineering sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria to overproduce fatty acid-derived products merits consideration as a technology that could simultaneously produce renewable fuels/chemicals as well as cost-effectively remediate sulfide-contaminated wastewater.

  13. Traumatic Acid Reduces Oxidative Stress and Enhances Collagen Biosynthesis in Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Pankiewicz, Walentyn; Czerpak, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic acid (TA) is a plant hormone (cytokinin) that in terms of chemical structure belongs to the group of fatty acids derivatives. It was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris. TA activity and its influence on human cells and organism has not previously been the subject of research. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TA on collagen content and basic oxidative stress parameters, such as antioxidative enzyme activity, reduced glutathione, thiol group content, and lipid peroxidation in physiological conditions. The results show a stimulatory effect of TA on tested parameters. TA caused a decrease in membrane phospholipid peroxidation and exhibited protective properties against ROS production. It also increases protein and collagen biosynthesis and its secretion into the culture medium. The present findings reveal that TA exhibits multiple and complex activity in fibroblast cells in vitro. TA, with its activity similar to unsaturated fatty acids, shows antioxidant and stimulatory effects on collagen biosynthesis. It is a potentially powerful agent with applications in the treatment of many skin diseases connected with oxidative stress and collagen biosynthesis disorders.

  14. Capsaicin-desensitization to the human nasal mucosa selectively reduces pain evoked by citric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Geppetti, P; Tramontana, M; Del Bianco, E; Fusco, B M

    1993-01-01

    1. Kallidin (5-500 nmol), hypertonic saline (0.9-20% NaCl) or low pH medium (citric acid: pH 2.5-1) applied (50 microliters) to the human nasal mucosa produced a pain response (evaluated by a visual analogue scale) that was related to the concentration of the peptide, NaCl or hydrogen ions, respectively. 2. Application (50 microliters) of capsaicin (50 nmol) to the human nasal mucosa produced overt pain. After repeated administrations (once a day for 5-7 days) to one nostril this effect underwent almost complete desensitization, while in the contralateral nostril, treated with the vehicle, the response to capsaicin was unaffected. 3. The pain response produced in the human nasal mucosa by topical application (50 microliters) or kallidin (50-500 nmol), NaCl (10-20%) or citric acid (pH 1.5-1) solutions was then studied before and after local capsaicin desensitization. 4. The pain response to pH 1.5 or 1 citric acid was markedly reduced (by 60% and 75%, respectively) in the capsaicin-treated nostril. However, the pain response to 10% or 20% NaCl or the mild pain response to 50 or 500 nmol kallidin were unaffected by capsaicin pre-treatment. 5. The present results suggest that prolonged topical capsaicin treatment to the human nasal mucosa may lead to selective desensitization to certain algesic stimuli such as capsaicin itself and hydrogen ions. PMID:8443036

  15. Reduced Gut Acidity Induces an Obese-Like Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Kuo, Ping-Chang; Yeh, Sheng-Rong; Lin, Hung-Yu; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Horng-Dar; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify genes involved in stress and metabolic regulation, we carried out a Drosophila P-element-mediated mutagenesis screen for starvation resistance. We isolated a mutant, m2, that showed a 23% increase in survival time under starvation conditions. The P-element insertion was mapped to the region upstream of the vha16-1 gene, which encodes the c subunit of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. We found that vha16-1 is highly expressed in the fly midgut, and that m2 mutant flies are hypomorphic for vha16-1 and also exhibit reduced midgut acidity. This deficit is likely to induce altered metabolism and contribute to accelerated aging, since vha16-1 mutant flies are short-lived and display increases in body weight and lipid accumulation. Similar phenotypes were also induced by pharmacological treatment, through feeding normal flies and mice with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide) or proton pump inhibitor (PPI, lansoprazole) to suppress gut acid production. Our study may thus provide a useful model for investigating chronic acid suppression in patients. PMID:26436771

  16. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase Reduces Blastocyst Hatching through Regulation of the AKT Pathway in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. During oncogenesis, FASN plays a role in growth and survival rather than acting within the energy storage pathways. Here, the function of FASN during early embryonic development was studied using its specific inhibitor, C75. We found that the presence of the inhibitor reduced blastocyst hatching. FASN inhibition decreased Cpt1 expression, leading to a reduction in mitochondria numbers and ATP content. This inhibition of FASN resulted in the down-regulation of the AKT pathway, thereby triggering apoptosis through the activation of the p53 pathway. Activation of the apoptotic pathway also leads to increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and autophagy. In addition, the FASN inhibitor impaired cell proliferation, a parameter of blastocyst quality for outgrowth. The level of OCT4, an important factor in embryonic development, decreased after treatment with the FASN inhibitor. These results show that FASN exerts an effect on early embryonic development by regulating both fatty acid oxidation and the AKT pathway in pigs. PMID:28107461

  17. Phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide based fluorescence nano sensor for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Basiruddin, S K; Swain, Sarat K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene has emerged as promising tools for detection based application of biomolecules as it has high surface area with strong fluorescence quenching property. We have used the concept of fluorescent quenching property of reduced graphene oxide to the fluorescent probes which are close vicinity of its surface. In present work, we have synthesized fluorescent based nano-sensor consist of phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO-PBA) and di-ol modified fluorescent probe for detection of biologically important glucose molecules. This fluorescent graphene based nano-probe has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible, Photo-luminescence (PL) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Finally, using this PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano-sensor, we were able to detect glucose molecule in the range of 2 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL in aqueous solution of pH7.4.

  18. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-12-09

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼ 100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection.

  19. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25422427

  20. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyaluronic acid membrane for reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat uterine horn.

    PubMed

    Yarali, H; Zahradka, B F; Gomel, V

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) membrane in preventing or reducing intraperitoneal adhesion formation and reformation was evaluated in the rat uterine horn. Forty-seven Wistar rats were employed. Following a measured laser injury on the right uterine horn of each rat, HA membrane was applied to cover the site of injury in 20 (HA membrane group). No membrane was applied in another 20 (control group). The type and extent of adhesions were assessed at relaparotomy. Following microsurgical adhesiolysis at second-look laparotomy, the same animals were randomized to the HA membrane and control groups. The type and extent of adhesion reformation were evaluated at third-look laparotomy. Following a similar injury on the right uterine horn in another seven rats, HA membrane was applied on both uterine horns. A repeat laparotomy was performed three hours later to assess the status of the membrane. The type and extent of adhesion formation and reformation were comparable between the HA membrane and control groups. The HA membrane did not remain on the uterine horn and gelled rapidly. Hyaluronic acid membrane was ineffective in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat uterine horn.

  2. BASE COMPOSITION OF THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    SIGAL, N; SENEZ, J C; LEGALL, J; SEBALD, M

    1963-06-01

    Sigal, Nicole (Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne du CNRS, Marseille, France), Jacques C. Senez, Jean Le Gall, and Madeleine Sebald. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:1315-1318. 1963-The deoxyribonucleic acid constitution of several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been analytically determined. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c(3) and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0.54 to 0.59, and the other includes the halophilic or halotolerant strains with base ratio from 0.74 to 0.77. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin ("nigrificans" and "orientis") are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1.20 and 1.43, respectively.

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces apoptosis and protects against neurological injury after acute hemorrhagic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Cecilia M. P.; Solá, Susana; Nan, Zhenhong; Castro, Rui E.; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Low, Walter C.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2003-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, modulates cell death by interrupting classic pathways of apoptosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating acute neurological disorder, without effective treatment, in which a significant loss of neuronal cells is thought to occur by apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated whether TUDCA can reduce brain injury and improve neurological function after ICH in rats. Administration of TUDCA before or up to 6 h after stereotaxic collagenase injection into the striatum reduced lesion volumes at 2 days by as much as 50%. Apoptosis was ≈50% decreased in the area immediately surrounding the hematoma and was associated with a similar inhibition of caspase activity. These changes were also associated with improved neurobehavioral deficits as assessed by rotational asymmetry, limb placement, and stepping ability. Furthermore, TUDCA treatment modulated expression of certain Bcl-2 family members, as well as NF-κB activity. In addition to its protective action at the mitochondrial membrane, TUDCA also activated the Akt-1/protein kinase Bα survival pathway and induced Bad phosphorylation at Ser-136. In conclusion, reduction of brain injury underlies the wide-range neuroprotective effects of TUDCA after ICH. Thus, given its clinical safety, TUDCA may provide a potentially useful treatment in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and perhaps other acute brain injuries associated with cell death by apoptosis. PMID:12721362

  4. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces ER stress by regulating of Akt-dependent cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeo Min; Lee, Jun Hee; Yun, Seung Pil; Han, Yong-Seok; Yun, Chul Won; Lee, Hyun Jik; Noh, Hyunjin; Lee, Sei-Jung; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-01-01

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for regenerative medicine, ischemia-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces low MSC engraftment and limits their therapeutic efficacy. To overcome this, we investigated the protective effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid, on ER stress in MSCs in vitro and in vivo. In ER stress conditions, TUDCA treatment of MSCs reduced the activation of ER stress-associated proteins, including GRP78, PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, IRE1α, JNK, p38, and CHOP. In particular, TUDCA inhibited the dissociation between GRP78 and PERK, resulting in reduced ER stress-mediated cell death. Next, to explore the ER stress protective mechanism induced by TUDCA treatment, TUDCA-mediated cellular prion protein (PrPC) activation was assessed. TUDCA treatment increased PrPC expression, which was regulated by Akt phosphorylation. Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression also increased significantly in response to signaling through the TUDCA-Akt axis. In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, TUDCA-treated MSC transplantation augmented the blood perfusion ratio, vessel formation, and transplanted cell survival more than untreated MSC transplantation did. Augmented functional recovery following MSC transplantation was blocked by PrPC downregulation. This study is the first to demonstrate that TUDCA protects MSCs against ER stress via Akt-dependent PrPC and Akt-MnSOD pathway. PMID:28004805

  5. Ursolic Acid Reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Nitric Oxide Release in Human Alveolar A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zerin, Tamanna; Lee, Minjung; Jang, Woong Sik; Nam, Kung-Woo; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2015-07-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells have been functionally implicated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This study investigated the role of ursolic acid (UA)-a triterpenoid carboxylic acid with potent antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tuberculosis properties in mycobacterial infection of alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We observed that M. tuberculosis successfully entered A549 cells. Cytotoxi-city was mediated by nitric oxide (NO). A549 toxicity peaked along with NO generation 72 h after infection. The NO generated by mycobacterial infection in A549 cells was insufficient to kill mycobacteria, as made evident by the mycobacteria growth indicator tube time to detect (MGIT TTD) and viable cell count assays. Treatment of mycobacteria-infected cells with UA reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, NO generation, and eventually improved cell viability. Moreover, UA was found to quench the translocation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), from the cytosol to the nucleus in mycobacteria-infected cells. This study is the first to demonstrate the cytotoxic role of NO in the eradication of mycobacteria and the role of UA in reducing this cytotoxicity in A549 cells.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide/molecular imprinted polymer-organic thin film transistor for amino acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Nurul Farhanah AB.; Musa, Nur Hazwani; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Von Schleusingen, Mubaraq; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Derman, Nazree; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.

    2017-03-01

    This works reports the electrical performance of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)- organic thin film transistor (OTFT) for amino-acid detection, serine. These biomimetic sensors consider MIP as man-tailored biomimetic recognition sites that play an important role in signal transduction. MIP provides recognition sites compatible with serine molecules was developed by dispersing serine with methylacrylate acid (MAA) as functional monomer and Ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The imprinted polymeric were mixed with reduced graphene oxide to produced sensing layer for the sensor. RGO-MIP layer was introduced between source and drain of OTFT via spin coating as a detecting layer for serine molecules. RGO was introduced into MIP, to allow a highly conductive sensing material thus enhanced selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. By analyzing the electrical performance of the sensors, the performances of OTFT sensor enhanced with RGO/MIP interlayer and OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer when exposed to serine analyte were obtained. The results showed that there were remarkable shifts of drain current (ID) obtained from OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer after exposed to serine analyte. Moreover, the sensitivity of OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer was nearly higher than the OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer. Hence, it proved that RGO successfully enhanced the sensing performance of OTFT sensor.

  7. Red blood cell plasmalogens and docosahexaenoic acid are independently reduced in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Acar, Niyazi; Berdeaux, Olivier; Juaneda, Pierre; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Joffre, Corinne; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bretillon, Lionel; Bron, Alain M

    2009-12-01

    Among several theories involved in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the vascular theory considers the disease to be a consequence of reduced ocular blood flow associated with red blood cell abnormalities. Red blood cell membrane structure and function are influenced by their phospholipid composition. We investigated whether specific lipid entities that may affect the membrane physiology, namely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and plasmalogens, are modified in POAG and whether these potential variations are related to the stage of glaucoma. Blood samples were collected from 31 POAG patients and 10 healthy individuals. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp and Parrish classification. Lipids were extracted from red blood cell membranes and individual phospholipid species were quantified by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using triple quadrupole technology. POAG patients had reduced erythrocyte levels of phosphatidyl-choline (PC) carrying docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). POAG patients also displayed lower levels of choline plasmalogens (PlsC) carrying PUFAs other than DHA. These differences were greater as the severity of the disease increased. Linear regressions predicted that red blood cell PlsC levels would decrease years before clinical symptoms, whereas the levels of PC carrying DHA were linearly correlated to visual field loss. Our data demonstrate the selective loss of some individual phospholipid species in red blood cell membranes, which may partly explain their loss of flexibility in POAG.

  8. Acid retention with reduced glomerular filtration rate increases urine biomarkers of kidney and bone injury.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Donald E; Pruszynski, Jessica; Cai, Wendy; Simoni, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Diets high in acid of developed societies that do not cause metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease nevertheless appear to cause acid retention with associated morbidity, particularly in those with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Here we used a rat 2/3 nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease to study induction and maintenance of acid retention and its consequences on indicators of kidney and bone injury. Dietary acid was increased in animals eating base-producing soy protein with acid-producing casein and in casein-eating animals with added ammonium chloride. Using microdialysis to measure the kidney cortical acid content, we found that nephrectomized animals had greater acid retention than sham-operated animals when both ate the soy diet. Each increment in dietary acid further increased acid retention more in nephrectomized than in sham rats. Nephrectomized and sham animals achieved similar steady-state daily urine net acid excretion in response to increments in dietary acid but nephrectomized animals took longer to do so, contributing to greater acid retention that was maintained until the increased dietary acid was stopped. Acid retention was associated with increased urine excretion of both N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and deoxypyridinoline, greater in nephrectomized than control rats, consistent with kidney tubulointerstitial and bone matrix injury, respectively. Greater acid retention in nephrectomized than control animals was induced by a slower increase in urinary net acid excretion rate in response to the increment in dietary acid and also maintained until the dietary acid increment was stopped. Thus, acid retention increased biomarkers of kidney and bone injury in the urine, supporting untoward consequences to these two tissues.

  9. Aluminum toxicity risk reduction as a result of reduced acid deposition in Adirondack lakes and ponds.

    PubMed

    Michelena, Toby M; Farrell, Jeremy L; Winkler, David A; Goodrich, Christine A; Boylen, Charles W; Sutherland, James W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    In 1990, the US Congress amended the Clean Air Act (CAA) to reduce regional-scale ecosystem degradation from SO x and NO x emissions which have been responsible for acid deposition in regions such as the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. An ecosystem assessment project was conducted from 1994 to 2012 by the Darrin Fresh Water Institute to determine the effect of these emission reduction policies on aquatic systems. The project investigated water chemistry and biota in 30 Adirondack lakes and ponded waters. Although regulatory changes made in response to the 1990 CAA amendments resulted in a reduction of acid deposition within the Adirondacks, the ecosystem response to these reductions is complicated. A statistical analysis of SO4, pH, Al, and DOC data collected during this project demonstrates positive change in response to decreased deposition. The changes in water chemistry also have lowered the risk of Al toxicity to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchill]), which allowed the re-introduction of this species to Brooktrout Lake from which it had been extirpated. However, pH and labile aluminum (Alim) fluctuate and are not strongly correlated to changes in acid deposition. As such, toxicity to S. fontinalis also is cyclic and provides rationale for the difficulties inherent in re-establishing resident populations in impacted aquatic environments. Overall, aquatic ecosystems of the Adirondacks show a positive response to reduced deposition driven by changes in environmental policy, but the response is more complex and indicates an ecosystem-wide interaction between aquatic and watershed components of the ecosystem.

  10. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  11. Topical use of tea tree oil reduces the dermal absorption of benzoic acid and methiocarb.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming

    2006-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a complex mixture of terpene hydrocarbons. Intensive topical use of TTO in different cosmetics and investigations into its potential as an antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory agent has accentuated the need for studies on the toxicity of TTO. We have applied an experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells with human skin to study penetration characteristics of terpinen-4-ol and the way TTO affects the barrier integrity of the skin and the percutaneous penetration of two chemicals covering a range of solubilities from 0.03 g/l (methiocarb) to 3.0 g/l (benzoic acid). Through GC-MS analysis we identified the major constituents of TTO. In our experimental set-up with full-thickness skin, only the least lipophilic ingredients of TTO penetrated the skin. Barrier integrity was evaluated through measurement of percutaneous penetration of tritiated water. Data indicate that 1% TTO does not affect barrier conditions. The Kp value for tritiated water was increased significantly at 5% TTO, which demonstrate that the barrier integrity is affected at this relatively low concentration of TTO. The barrier integrity is, however, not seriously damaged, but our data indicate an initiated and concentration-dependent effect on the barrier integrity. TTO changed the penetration characteristics for benzoic acid as well as for methiocarb. The general effect was that TTO reduced the maximal flux. For methiocarb, the lag-time was also prolonged by increasing the TTO concentration in the donor phase to 5%. Thus, TTO reduced the overall amount of benzoic acid as well as methiocarb entering the receptor chamber.

  12. Boric Acid Reduces the Formation of DNA Double Strand Breaks and Accelerates Wound Healing Process.

    PubMed

    Tepedelen, Burcu Erbaykent; Soya, Elif; Korkmaz, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Boron is absorbed by the digestive and respiratory system, and it was considered that it is converted to boric acid (BA), which was distributed to all tissues above 90 %. The biochemical essentiality of boron element is caused by boric acid because it affects the activity of several enzymes involved in the metabolism. DNA damage repair mechanisms and oxidative stress regulation is quite important in the transition stage from normal to cancerous cells; thus, this study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of boric acid on DNA damage and wound healing in human epithelial cell line. For this purpose, the amount of DNA damage occurred with irinotecan (CPT-11), etoposide (ETP), doxorubicin (Doxo), and H2O2 was determined by immunofluorescence through phosphorylation of H2AX((Ser139)) and pATM((Ser1981)) in the absence and presence of BA. Moreover, the effect of BA on wound healing has been investigated in epithelial cells treated with these agents. Our results demonstrated that H2AX((Ser139)) foci numbers were significantly decreased in the presence of BA while wound healing was accelerated by BA compared to that in the control and only drug-treated cells. Eventually, the results indicate that BA reduced the formation of DNA double strand breaks caused by agents as well as improving the wound healing process. Therefore, we suggest that boric acid has important therapeutical effectiveness and may be used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress and wound healing process plays an important role.

  13. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid reduces nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in Suncus murinus

    PubMed Central

    Rock, E M; Kopstick, R L; Limebeer, C L; Parker, L A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We evaluated the anti-emetic and anti-nausea properties of the acid precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), and determined its mechanism of action in these animal models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the effect of THCA on lithium chloride- (LiCl) induced conditioned gaping (nausea-induced behaviour) to a flavour, and context (a model of anticipatory nausea) in rats, and on LiCl-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus. Furthermore, we investigated THCA's ability to induce hypothermia and suppress locomotion [rodent tasks to assess cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptor agonist-like activity], and measured plasma and brain THCA and THC levels. We also determined whether THCA's effect could be blocked by pretreatment with SR141716 (SR, a CB1 receptor antagonist). KEY RESULTS In rats, THCA (0.05 and/or 0.5 mg·kg−1) suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour and context; the latter effect blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR, but not by the 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635. In S. murinus, THCA (0.05 and 0.5 mg·kg−1) reduced LiCl-induced vomiting, an effect that was reversed with SR. A comparatively low dose of THC (0.05 mg·kg−1) did not suppress conditioned gaping to a LiCl-paired flavour or context. THCA did not induce hypothermia or reduce locomotion, indicating non-CB1 agonist-like effects. THCA, but not THC was detected in plasma samples. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS THCA potently reduced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in S. murinus, effects that were blocked by SR. These data suggest that THCA may be a more potent alternative to THC in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. PMID:23889598

  14. Retinoic acid reduces chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in an animal model and patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pedro, N.; Fernández-González- Aragón, M.C.; Saavedra-Pérez, D.; Campos-Parra, A.D.; Ríos-Trejo, M.Á.; Cerón-Lizárraga, T.; Martínez-Barrera, L.; Pineda, B.; Ordóñez, G.; Ortiz-Plata, A.; Granados-Soto, V.; Sotelo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an experimental animal model and in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized in 5 groups: group A, control; groups B and C, treated with cisplatin; and groups D and E, treated with paclitaxel. ATRA (20 mg/kg PO) was administered for 15 days in groups C and E. We evaluated neuropathy and nerve regeneration–related morphologic changes in sciatic nerve, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF), and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)–α and RAR-β expression. In addition, 95 patients with NSCLC under chemotherapy treatment were randomized to either ATRA (20 mg/m2/d) or placebo. Serum NGF, neurophysiologic tests, and clinical neurotoxicity were assessed. Results: The experimental animals developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration, associated with decreased NGF levels in peripheral nerves. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial changes and nerve morphology; this was associated with increased NGF levels and RAR-β expression. Patients treated with chemotherapy had clinical neuropathy and axonal loss assessed by neurophysiology, which was related to decreased NGF levels. ATRA reduced axonal degeneration demonstrated by nerve conduction velocity and clinical manifestations of neuropathy grades ≥2. Conclusions: ATRA reduced chemotherapy-induced experimental neuropathy, increased NGF levels, and induced RAR-β expression in nerve. In patients, reduction of NGF in serum was associated with the severity of neuropathy; ATRA treatment reduced the electrophysiologic alterations. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that ATRA improves nerve conduction in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Neurology® 2011;77:987–995 PMID:21865574

  15. Retinoic acid reduces chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in an animal model and patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Óscar; Hernández-Pedro, N; Fernández-González-Aragón, M C; Saavedra-Pérez, D; Campos-Parra, A D; Ríos-Trejo, M Á; Cerón-Lizárraga, T; Martínez-Barrera, L; Pineda, B; Ordóñez, G; Ortiz-Plata, A; Granados-Soto, V; Sotelo, J

    2011-09-06

    To evaluate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an experimental animal model and in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty male Wistar rats were randomized in 5 groups: group A, control; groups B and C, treated with cisplatin; and groups D and E, treated with paclitaxel. ATRA (20 mg/kg PO) was administered for 15 days in groups C and E. We evaluated neuropathy and nerve regeneration-related morphologic changes in sciatic nerve, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF), and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-α and RAR-β expression. In addition, 95 patients with NSCLC under chemotherapy treatment were randomized to either ATRA (20 mg/m(2)/d) or placebo. Serum NGF, neurophysiologic tests, and clinical neurotoxicity were assessed. The experimental animals developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration, associated with decreased NGF levels in peripheral nerves. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial changes and nerve morphology; this was associated with increased NGF levels and RAR-β expression. Patients treated with chemotherapy had clinical neuropathy and axonal loss assessed by neurophysiology, which was related to decreased NGF levels. ATRA reduced axonal degeneration demonstrated by nerve conduction velocity and clinical manifestations of neuropathy grades ≥2. ATRA reduced chemotherapy-induced experimental neuropathy, increased NGF levels, and induced RAR-β expression in nerve. In patients, reduction of NGF in serum was associated with the severity of neuropathy; ATRA treatment reduced the electrophysiologic alterations. This study provides Class II evidence that ATRA improves nerve conduction in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  16. A MapReduce approach to diminish imbalance parameters for big deoxyribonucleic acid dataset.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Sarwar; Ripon, Shamim Hasnat; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Santhi, V

    2016-07-01

    In the age of information superhighway, big data play a significant role in information processing, extractions, retrieving and management. In computational biology, the continuous challenge is to manage the biological data. Data mining techniques are sometimes imperfect for new space and time requirements. Thus, it is critical to process massive amounts of data to retrieve knowledge. The existing software and automated tools to handle big data sets are not sufficient. As a result, an expandable mining technique that enfolds the large storage and processing capability of distributed or parallel processing platforms is essential. In this analysis, a contemporary distributed clustering methodology for imbalance data reduction using k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classification approach has been introduced. The pivotal objective of this work is to illustrate real training data sets with reduced amount of elements or instances. These reduced amounts of data sets will ensure faster data classification and standard storage management with less sensitivity. However, general data reduction methods cannot manage very big data sets. To minimize these difficulties, a MapReduce-oriented framework is designed using various clusters of automated contents, comprising multiple algorithmic approaches. To test the proposed approach, a real DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) dataset that consists of 90 million pairs has been used. The proposed model reduces the imbalance data sets from large-scale data sets without loss of its accuracy. The obtained results depict that MapReduce based K-NN classifier provided accurate results for big data of DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of body weight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287

  18. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Pleiner, Johannes; Francesconi, Mario; Wolzt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been shown that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) improves endothelial function and oxidative stress in these patients. The present study investigated if ALA reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Plasma concentrations of ADMA, L-arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were determined in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with T2DM. Intravenous ALA (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) was administered daily for 3 weeks. ALA reduced ADMA while no change was observed with placebo (mean change -0.05 micromol/1[95% CI: -0.01; -0.09] vs. 0.01 micromol/1 [95% CI: -0.05; -0.03]; ANOVA p = 0.031). SDMA and L-arginine were not affected by ALA. In conclusion ALA treatment reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Long-term studies need to demonstrate if ALA may cause cardiovascular risk reduction.

  19. Effectiveness and costs of implementation strategies to reduce acid suppressive drug prescriptions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Hugo M; Hoes, Arno W; de Wit, Niek J

    2007-01-01

    Background Evaluation of evidence for the effectiveness of implementation strategies aimed at reducing prescriptions for the use of acid suppressive drugs (ASD). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies with a design according to research quality criteria and outcomes related to the effect of reduction of ASD medication retrieved from Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Outcome measures were the strategy of intervention, quality of methodology and results of treatment to differences of ASD prescriptions and costs. Results The intervention varied from a single passive method to multiple active interactions with GPs. Reports of study quality had shortcomings on subjects of data-analysis. Not all outcomes were calculated but if so rction of prescriptions varied from 8% up to 40% and the cost effectiveness was in some cases negative and in others positive. Few studies demonstrated good effects from the interventions to reduce ASD. Conclusion Poor quality of some studies is limiting the evidence for effective interventions. Also it is difficult to compare cost-effectiveness between studies. However, RCT studies demonstrate that active interventions are required to reduce ASD volume. Larger multi-intervention studies are necessary to evaluate the most successful intervention instruments. PMID:17983477

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-10-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice that is a model for postmenopausal women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice were fed with a high-fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared with OVX mice fed with a high-fat diet without CLA. Although CLA was effective in slowing down body weight gain of both sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these 2 groups of mice. Treatment with CLA did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an antiobesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women and that the antiobesity effect of CLA is not estrogen related.

  1. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  2. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  3. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  4. Chemoprevention with acetylsalicylic acid, vitamin D and calcium reduces risk of carcinogen-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, J; Raskov, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor. A total of 60 A/J mice were randomized to a normal diet, a diet with low calcium, or a chemoprevention diet with acetylsalicylic acid, 1-α 25(0H)2-vitamin D3 and calcium. In addition to the diet, mice received carcinogens by oral gavage for ten weeks. The chemoprevention diet significantly reduced the number of animals with tumors [1 vs. 13, (p<0.001)] and the median number (range) of tumors [0 (0-1) vs. 1 (0-4), (p<0.001)] compared to controls. No signs of toxicity in relation to the diets were observed. The chemoprevention diet had a protective effect against tumor development in the mouse lungs.

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces peridural fibrosis after laminectomy of lumbar vertebrae in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Miktat; Yildirim, Can Hakan; Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Huseyinoglu, Urfettin; Erdogan, Hakan; Akbasak, Aytac; Tasdemiroglu, Erol

    2012-07-01

    Peridural fibrosis is an inevitable healing process causing failed back surgery syndrome after lumbar spinal operations. In this study, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), reported to reduce fibrosis in liver, oral mucosa, and peritoneum, investigated as a potential candidate for prevention of peridural fibrosis. Twelve adult New Zealand white male rabbits were divided into control (n = 5) and ALA groups (n = 7). Laminectomy of lumbar spine was performed and ALA was applied on the exposed dura mater topically in ALA group. According to histological peridural grading, the ALA group (median grade 1) showed significantly less peridural fibrosis than the control group (median grade 3, p = 0.005). ALA is a promising substance in the prevention of peridural fibrosis, especially in early preoperative and postoperative period.

  6. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  7. Disrupting Protein Expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids Reduces Infection by Obligate Intracellular Rickettsia

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Rebecca S.; McClure, Jennifer C.; Kaur, Simran J.; Sears, Khandra T.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria’s ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:25781160

  8. Rutin inhibits oleic acid induced lipid accumulation via reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-03-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation within liver has been proposed to cause obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Rutin, a common dietary flavonoid that is consumed in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages, has various biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. However, a hypolipidemic effect of rutin on fatty liver disease has not been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Hepatocytes were treated with oleic acid (OA) containing with or without rutin to observe the lipid accumulation by Nile red stain. The result showed rutin suppressed OA-induced lipid accumulation and increased adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in hepatocytes. The expression of critical molecule involved in lipid synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), was attenuated in rutin-treated cells. Moreover, long-term incubation of rutin inhibited the transcriptions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase (ACC). Besides, we also found out the antioxidative effect of rutin by increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and antioxidative enzymes. Taken together, our findings suggest rutin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocyte.

  9. Characterization of nalidixic acid-resistant and fluoroquinolone-reduced susceptible Salmonella Typhimurium in swine.

    PubMed

    Lee, K E; Jung, J H; Jung, B Y; Park, Y H; Lee, Y H

    2011-04-01

    From 2001 to 2008, a total of 27 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were obtained from 930 swine. All 27 isolates were resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline. Seventeen isolates were multidrug resistant to more than three antimicrobial agents. Seven of these multidrug-resistant isolates were pentaresistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid. Among 27 isolates, 14 isolates (51.8 %) were nalidixic acid resistant (MIC, ≥128 μg/ml) and had reduced susceptibility to various quinolones (MIC, 0.125 to 2 μg/ml). When quinolone resistance-determining regions in the gyrA and gyrB genes of these isolates were sequenced, 13 isolates had Asp87→Tyr mutations and 1 isolate had Asp87→Gly mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, whereas no mutation was found in gyrB. Genes for qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were not detected by PCR with specific primers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA digested with Xba I showed two patterns suggesting a clonal spread of Salmonella Typhimurium in swine in Korea.

  10. Influence of 4-guanidinobutyric acid as coadsorbent in reducing recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhipan; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; O'Regan, Brian C; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-11-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline TiO(2) have been fabricated with an amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer [Ru (4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine) (4,4'-bis(p-hexyloxystyryl)-2,2'-bipyridine)(NCS)(2)], coded as K-19, and 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) as coadsorbent. The cells showed a approximately 50 mV increase in open-circuit voltage and a similar current in comparison with cells without GBA cografting. The performance of both types of devices was evaluated on the basis of their photocurrent-voltage characteristics, dark current measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and phototransient decay methods. The results indicate that GBA shifted the conduction band of TiO(2) toward a more negative potential and reduced the interfacial charge-transfer reaction from conduction band electrons to triiodide in the electrolyte (also known as the back reaction). In addition, the devices with GBA cografting showed an excellent stability with a power conversion efficiency of approximately 8% under simulated full sunlight (air mass 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)) during visible light soaking at 60 degrees C.

  11. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2016-05-05

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  12. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fish oil reduces cholesterol and arachidonic acid levels in plasma and lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic chicks.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Amalik, F; Linares, A; García-Peregrín, E

    2000-07-01

    The value of fish oil for prevention and/or treatment of human atherosclerosis has not been fully established. This study shows that replacement of saturated fat in young chick diet with menhaden oil produced a significant reversion of the hypercholesterolemia previously induced by coconut oil feeding. Fish oil also produced a clear decrease of plasma triacylglycerol levels. Coconut oil increased the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, while menhaden oil increased those of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3. Percentages of 20:4 n-6, 18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9 significantly decreased by fish oil addition to the diet. Total cholesterol, phospholipid and protein contents of high and low density lipoproteins increased by coconut oil feeding. When coconut oil was replaced by menhaden oil, total cholesterol was significantly reduced in high, low and very low density lipoproteins. All chemical components of VLDL were decreased by menhaden oil feeding. Our results show a strong hypocholesterolemic effect of menhaden oil when this fat was supplemented to hypercholesterolemic chicks. The clear decrease found in arachidonic acid content of chick plasma and lipoproteins may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil consumption by lowering the production of its derived eicosanoids.

  15. Retinoic acid reduces solvent-induced neuropathy and promotes neural regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Guadalupe; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Saavedra-Perez, David; Peña-Curiel, Omar; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Ordoñez, Graciela; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Sotelo, Julio; Arrieta, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    In humans, exposure to organic solvents (OS) is frequent in work activities or as a recreational inhalant, inducing severe neuropathy (secondary to demyelization of peripheral nerves). We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increases local content of neural growth factor (NGF), improving peripheral neuropathy of diverse origins. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ATRA on OS-induced peripheral neuropathy in experimental mice. Two simultaneous experiments were performed. The first one aimed to evaluate ATRA for the prevention of damage induced by OS, the second to test ATRA as an OS-induced neuropathy treatment. Nociceptive threshold latency and NGF concentration in serum and in peripheral nerves were determined. Morphological changes and evidence of sciatic nerve regeneration were evaluated. Mice exposed to OS developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration. ATRA diminished the effects of OS inhalation on sensorial changes and nerve morphology. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial and nerve morphological changes of OS-induced neuropathy, and this was associated with increased contents of NGF. Similar to previous experiences on diabetic and toxic neuropathy, ATRA reduced and partially reversed the peripheral neuropathy caused by OS exposure. These favorable effects apparently are due to local production of NGF induced by neural regeneration in response to the administration of retinoic acid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (> 99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (> 99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation using ZVI as sole electron-donor. PMID:26808248

  17. Ursolic acid and resveratrol synergize with chloroquine to reduce melanoma cell viability.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jacob J; Mancha-Ramirez, Anna; Malik, Gunjan; Wei, Sung-Jen; Kim, Dae Joon; Liang, Huiyun; Slaga, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is associated with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20% once metastasized. Malignant melanoma cells exhibit increased levels of autophagy, a process of intracellular digestion that allows cells to survive various stresses including chemotherapies, resulting in reduced patient survival. Autophagy can be inhibited by chemicals like chloroquine (CQ), which prevents fusion of autophagosomes to lysosomes, resulting in autophagosome accumulation in most systems. Here, we describe how tested CQ to see whether it could sensitize B16F10 metastatic mouse melanoma cells to the anticancer activities of the natural compounds ursolic acid (UA) and resveratrol (RES). CQ with UA or RES strongly and synergistically reduced the viability of B16F10 mouse melanoma and A375 human melanoma cells. Surprisingly, flow cytometry of acridine orange-stained cells showed that UA or RES in combination with CQ significantly reduced autophagosome levels. Western blotting analysis revealed that CQ plus UA or RES paradoxically increased LC3II, indicative of autophagosome accumulation. In addition, CQ plus RES synergistically decreased the levels of both autophagy initiator beclin-1 and autophagy supporter p62. These results indicate that CQ with UA or RES strongly and synergistically reduces the viability of B16F10 and A375 melanoma cells. However, studies on B16F10 cells have shown that the synergistic effect was not mediated by inhibition of autophagy induced by UA or RES. These compounds are well-tolerated in humans, and CQ has shown promise as an adjuvant therapy. These combinations may be valuable treatment strategies for melanoma.

  18. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress, acinar cell damage, and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Seyhun, Ersin; Malo, Antje; Schäfer, Claus; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Göke, Burkhard; Kubisch, Constanze H

    2011-11-01

    In acute pancreatitis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress prompts an accumulation of malfolded proteins inside the ER, initiating the unfolded protein response (UPR). Because the ER chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to inhibit the UPR in vitro, this study examined the in vivo effects of TUDCA in an acute experimental pancreatitis model. Acute pancreatitis was induced in Wistar rats using caerulein, with or without prior TUDCA treatment. UPR components were analyzed, including chaperone binding protein (BiP), phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase (pPERK), X-box binding protein (XBP)-1, phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (pJNK), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologues protein, and caspase 12 and 3 activation. In addition, pancreatitis biomarkers were measured, such as serum amylase, trypsin activation, edema formation, histology, and the inflammatory reaction in pancreatic and lung tissue. TUDCA treatment reduced intracellular trypsin activation, edema formation, and cell damage, while leaving amylase levels unaltered. The activation of myeloperoxidase was clearly reduced in pancreas and lung. Furthermore, TUDCA prevented caerulein-induced BiP upregulation, reduced XBP-1 splicing, and caspase 12 and 3 activation. It accelerated the downregulation of pJNK. In controls without pancreatitis, TUDCA showed cytoprotective effects including pPERK signaling and activation of downstream targets. We concluded that ER stress responses activated in acute pancreatitis are grossly attenuated by TUDCA. The chaperone reduced the UPR and inhibited ER stress-associated proapoptotic pathways. TUDCA has a cytoprotective potential in the exocrine pancreas. These data hint at new perspectives for an employment of chemical chaperones, such as TUDCA, in prevention of acute pancreatitis.

  19. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  20. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  1. Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-09-26

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  2. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  3. Efficiency and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in total shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuan-Xiu; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Li-Dong; Du, Guang-Yu; Sun, Xue-Gang; He, Sheng-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Embase (1980–2017.04, embase.com), Medline (1966–2017.04, medline.com), PubMed (1966–2017.04, pubmed.com), ScienceDirect (1985–2017.04, sciencedirect.com), and Web of Science (1950–2017.04, webofknowledge.com). Study which assessed the efficiency and safety of tranexamic acid in total shoulder arthroplasty was selected. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Results: In all, 484 patients from 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 non-RCTs were subjected to meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that there was less total blood loss (mean difference [MD] −172.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] −35.46 to −308.87, P = .01, d = 0.33) and transfusion rate (odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.91, P = .03, d = 0.29) in tranexamic acid groups compared with the control groups. There were no significant differences in duration of surgery (MD 0.02, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.22, P = .89, d = 0.19), length of stay (MD −0.06, 95% CI −0.26 to 0.14, P = .56, d = 0.20), or incidence of adverse effects such as deep venous thrombosis (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.33 to 4.00, P = .83, d = 0.53). Conclusion: Clinical application of tranexamic acid seemed to result in significant reductions in total blood loss, hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements following total shoulder arthroplasty. Moreover, no increased risk of the thrombotic events was identified. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required. PMID:28562553

  4. Comparison between intravenous and intra-articular regimens of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Raghav; Gulati, Anmol; Paul, Rajesh; Bhatty, Shiraj; Rajoli, Sreekanth Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug used widely to prevent bleeding. Its use in reducing bleeding during total knee arthroplasty surgery is well proven but there is no final consensus regarding the regimen. The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and intra-articular regimen of tranexamic acid during the total knee arthroplasty surgery. A total of 40 patients were received three doses of intravenous tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty surgery. Intra-articular tranexamic acid was used in 40 patients during the surgery. We concluded that intra-articular tranexamic acid is equally effective as three dose intravenous regimen in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty surgery.

  5. HIV-1 enhancing effect of prostatic acid phosphatase peptides is reduced in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Martellini, Julie A; Cole, Amy L; Svoboda, Pavel; Stuchlik, Olga; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X; Gangrade, Bhushan K; Sørensen, Ole E; Pohl, Jan; Cole, Alexander M

    2011-01-20

    We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called "SEVI" and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies in the presence of human SP. PAP-derived peptides were agitated to form SEVI and incubated in the presence or absence of SP. While PAP-derived peptides and SEVI alone were proviral, the presence of 1% SP ablated their proviral activity in several different anti-HIV-1 assays. The anti-HIV-1 activity of SP was concentration dependent and was reduced following filtration. Supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI incubated with diluted SP were degraded within hours, with SP exhibiting proteolytic activity at dilutions as high as 1:200. Sub-physiological concentrations of two prominent proteases of SP, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and matriptase, could degrade physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI. While human SP is a complex biological fluid, containing both antiviral and proviral factors, our results suggest that PAP peptides and SEVI may be subject to naturally occurring proteolytic components capable of reducing their proviral activity.

  6. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-03-24

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  8. Inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria by metal sulfide formation in bioremediation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Utgikar, Vivek P; Harmon, Stephen M; Chaudhary, Navendu; Tabak, Henry H; Govind, Rakesh; Haines, John R

    2002-02-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of sulfate and heavy metal ions can be treated by biological sulfate reduction. It has been reported that the effect of heavy metals on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be stimulatory at lower concentrations and toxic/inhibitory at higher concentrations. The quantification of the toxic/inhibitory effect of dissolved heavy metals is critical for the design and operation of an effective AMD bioremediation process. Serum bottle and batch reactor studies on metal toxicity to SRB indicate that insoluble metal sulfides can inhibit the SRB activity as well. The mechanism of inhibition is postulated to be external to the bacterial cell. The experimental data indicate that the metal sulfides formed due to the reaction between the dissolved metal and biogenic sulfide act as barriers preventing the access of the reactants (sulfate, organic matter) to the necessary enzymes. Scanning electron micrographs of the SRB cultures exposed to copper and zinc provide supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The SRB cultures retained their ability to effect sulfate reduction indicating that the metal sulfides were not lethally toxic to the SRB. This phenomenon of metal sulfide inhibition of the SRB has to be taken into account while designing a sulfate-reducing bioreator, and subsequently an efficient biotreatment strategy for AMD. Any metal sulfide formed in the bioreactor needs to be removed immediately from the system to maintain the efficiency of the process of sulfate reduction.

  9. Reducible hyaluronic acid-siRNA conjugate for target specific gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Park, Kitae; Yang, Jeong-A; Lee, Min-Young; Lee, Hwiwon; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2013-07-17

    Despite wide applications of polymer-drug conjugates, there are only a few polymer-siRNA conjugates like poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated siRNA. In this work, reducible hyaluronic acid (HA)-siRNA conjugate was successfully developed for target specific systemic delivery of siRNA to the liver. The conjugation of siRNA to HA made it possible to form a compact nanocomplex of siRNA with relatively nontoxic linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI). After characterization of HA-siRNA conjugate by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and gel electrophoresis, its complex formation with LPEI was investigated with a particle analyzer. The HA-siRNA/LPEI complex had a mean particle size of ca. 250 nm and a negative or neutral surface charge at physiological condition. The reducible HA-siRNA/LPEI complex showed a higher in vitro gene silencing efficiency than noncleavable HA-siRNA/LPEI complex. Furthermore, after systemic delivery, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) specific HA-siApoB/LPEI complex was target specifically delivered to the liver, which resulted in statistically significant reduction of ApoB mRNA expression in a dose dependent manner. The HA-siRNA conjugate can be effectively applied as a model system to the treatment of liver diseases using various siRNAs and relatively nontoxic polycations.

  10. Clustering of protein families into functional subtypes using Relative Complexity Measure with reduced amino acid alphabets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analysis can be used to divide a protein family into subfamilies in the absence of experimental information. Most phylogenetic analysis methods utilize multiple alignment of sequences and are based on an evolutionary model. However, multiple alignment is not an automated procedure and requires human intervention to maintain alignment integrity and to produce phylogenies consistent with the functional splits in underlying sequences. To address this problem, we propose to use the alignment-free Relative Complexity Measure (RCM) combined with reduced amino acid alphabets to cluster protein families into functional subtypes purely on sequence criteria. Comparison with an alignment-based approach was also carried out to test the quality of the clustering. Results We demonstrate the robustness of RCM with reduced alphabets in clustering of protein sequences into families in a simulated dataset and seven well-characterized protein datasets. On protein datasets, crotonases, mandelate racemases, nucleotidyl cyclases and glycoside hydrolase family 2 were clustered into subfamilies with 100% accuracy whereas acyl transferase domains, haloacid dehalogenases, and vicinal oxygen chelates could be assigned to subfamilies with 97.2%, 96.9% and 92.2% accuracies, respectively. Conclusions The overall combination of methods in this paper is useful for clustering protein families into subtypes based on solely protein sequence information. The method is also flexible and computationally fast because it does not require multiple alignment of sequences. PMID:20718947

  11. Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Peilin; Fujimoto, Katsuya; Bourguingnon, Lilly; Yukl, Steven; Deeks, Steven; Wong, Joseph K

    2014-10-01

    Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4(+) T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4(+) T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection.

  12. Niflumic acid reduces the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in rod photoreceptor cells.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T O; Yamada, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in newt rod photoreceptors. At 100 microM, NFA delayed the activation of I(h) induced by hyperpolarizing voltage pulses to -83 mV from a holding potential of -43 mV, and reduced the steady-state current. However, reduction by NFA was weakened when I(h) was activated by hyperpolarizing steps to -123 mV, suggesting that these effects were voltage-dependent. The suppressive effects of NFA on I(h) were accompanied by a negative shift in activation voltage. NFA also delayed the relaxation of I(h) tail currents, showing that this drug also inhibited deactivation of the current. The reversal potential and the fully activated conductance were not affected. These observations suggest that NFA reduces I(h) by modifying the gating kinetics of the underlying channels. The suppressive actions of NFA remained when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated, and the failure of suppression by NFA in inside-out patches suggests that the agent may act on the I(h) channel from the extracellular side. These results, obtained in rod photoreceptors, are consistent with similar effects of NFA on I(f) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that both currents share similar pharmacological properties.

  13. HIV-1 Enhancing Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Peptides Is Reduced in Human Seminal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Martellini, Julie A.; Cole, Amy L.; Svoboda, Pavel; Stuchlik, Olga; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X.; Gangrade, Bhushan K.; Sørensen, Ole E.; Pohl, Jan; Cole, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called “SEVI” and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies in the presence of human SP. PAP-derived peptides were agitated to form SEVI and incubated in the presence or absence of SP. While PAP-derived peptides and SEVI alone were proviral, the presence of 1% SP ablated their proviral activity in several different anti-HIV-1 assays. The anti-HIV-1 activity of SP was concentration dependent and was reduced following filtration. Supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI incubated with diluted SP were degraded within hours, with SP exhibiting proteolytic activity at dilutions as high as 1∶200. Sub-physiological concentrations of two prominent proteases of SP, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and matriptase, could degrade physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI. While human SP is a complex biological fluid, containing both antiviral and proviral factors, our results suggest that PAP peptides and SEVI may be subject to naturally occurring proteolytic components capable of reducing their proviral activity. PMID:21283773

  14. Oxalic acid: a prospective tool for reducing Varroa mite populations in package bees.

    PubMed

    Aliano, Nicholas P; Ellis, Marion D

    2009-08-01

    Numerous studies have investigated using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa mites in honey bee colonies. In contrast, techniques for treating package bees with OA have not been investigated. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol for using OA to reduce mite infestation in package bees. We made 97 mini packages of Varroa-infested adult bees. Each package contained 1,613 +/- 18 bees and 92 +/- 3 mites, and represented an experimental unit. We prepared a 2.8% solution of OA by mixing 35 g OA with 1 l of sugar water (sugar:water = 1:1; w:w). Eight treatments were assigned to the packages based on previous laboratory bioassays that characterized the acute contact toxicity of OA to mites and bees. We administered the treatments by spraying the OA solution directly on the bees through the mesh screen cage using a pressurized air brush and quantified mite and bee mortality over a 10-day period. Our results support applying an optimum volume of 3.0 ml of a 2.8% OA solution per 1,000 bees to packages for effective mite control with minimal adult bee mortality. The outcome of our research provides beekeepers and package bee shippers guidance for using OA to reduce mite populations in package bees.

  15. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on the engineering of industrial FAs, specifically hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) and conjugated polyenoic fatty acids (a-eleostearic acid, ESA), using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a m...

  16. Consumption of vitamin B(6) reduces fecal ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, a risk factor for colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Utama, Zaki; Suidasari, Sofya; Zhang, Peipei; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Ei; Kato, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) on the colonic luminal environment, growing male rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. Food intake and growth were unaffected by the dietary treatment. Supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) significantly reduced the production of a fecal secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (the most toxic secondary bile acid and a risk factor for colon cancer), and markedly reduced the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid (a less toxic secondary bile acid) in feces (p<0.05). Increasing dietary vitamin B(6) increased fecal mucin levels (a marker of intestinal barrier function) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) but did not affect fecal immunoglobulin A levels (an index of intestinal immune function). Cecal levels of organic acids were not significantly affected by supplemental dietary vitamin B(6). These results suggest the possibility that dietary vitamin B(6) affects the colonic luminal environment by altering the production of secondary bile acids and mucins.

  17. 78 FR 63476 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests To Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West Nile Virus From Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and... ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests to Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West Nile Virus From... donors of HCT/Ps, with recommendations for donor testing for West Nile Virus (WNV) using an FDA-licensed...

  18. Valproic acid and progestin inhibit lesion growth and reduce hyperalgesia in experimentally induced endometriosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maohua; Liu, Xishi; Zhang, Yuqiu; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2012-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that endometriosis is an epigenetic disease. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of valproic acid (VPA) and progesterone (P4) in a rat model of endometriosis on serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, hot plate and tail-flick latencies, lesion size, and body weight. We used 77 adult female rats, and endometriosis was induced by autotransplanting pieces of uterus (ENDO) or fat (SHAM) to the pelvic cavity. The BLANK group received no surgery. After 2 weeks, the ENDO group was further divided, randomly, into 5 groups, receiving, respectively, treatment with low- and high-dose VPA, P4 alone, VPA + P4, and no treatment. The SHAM rats received no treatment. The BLANK rats were further divided into 2 groups, one received VPA treatment and the other, no treatment. After 4 weeks, all rats were sacrificed. Response latency in hot plate and tail-flick tests, body weight, and serum TNF-α levels were measured before the surgery, before and after the treatment, along with lesion size. We found that induced endometriosis reduced response latency. ENDO rats receiving VPA and/or P4 treatment had significantly reduced lesion size as compared with untreated ones, and had significantly improved response to noxious thermal stimuli. They also had significantly increased weight gain. Serum TNF-α levels increased following surgery but eventually decreased regardless of treatment or not. In conclusion, VPA is well tolerated. Treatment with VPA significantly reduces lesion growth and improves sensitivity to nocifensive stimuli. The improvement is specific to endometriosis-induced hyperalgesia. Thus, histone deacetylase inhibitors may be a promising therapeutics for treating endometriosis.

  19. R-roscovitine reduces lung inflammation induced by lipoteichoic acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Duitman, Janwillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2012-09-25

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, -2, -5 and -7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We sought to investigate the effect of R-roscovitine on LTA-induced activation of cell lines with relevance for lung inflammation in vitro and on lung inflammation elicited by either LTA or viable S. pneumoniae in vivo. In vitro R-roscovitine enhanced apoptosis in PMNs and reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) production in MH-S (alveolar macrophage) and MLE-12/MLE-15 (respiratory epithelial) cell lines. In vivo R-roscovitine treatment reduced PMN numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during LTA-induced lung inflammation; this effect was reversed by inhibiting apoptosis. Postponed treatment with R-roscovitine (24 and 72 h) diminished PMN numbers in lung tissue during gram-positive pneumonia; this step was associated with a transient increase in pulmonary bacterial loads. R-roscovitine inhibits proinflammatory responses induced by the gram-positive stimuli LTA and S. pneumoniae. R-roscovitine reduces PMN numbers in lungs upon LTA administration by enhancing apoptosis. The reduction in PMN numbers caused by R-roscovitine during S. pneumoniae pneumonia may hamper antibacterial defense.

  20. R-roscovitine Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Lipoteichoic Acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Duitman, JanWillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, −2, −5 and −7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We sought to investigate the effect of R-roscovitine on LTA-induced activation of cell lines with relevance for lung inflammation in vitro and on lung inflammation elicited by either LTA or viable S. pneumoniae in vivo. In vitro R-roscovitine enhanced apoptosis in PMNs and reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) production in MH-S (alveolar macrophage) and MLE-12/MLE-15 (respiratory epithelial) cell lines. In vivo R-roscovitine treatment reduced PMN numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during LTA-induced lung inflammation; this effect was reversed by inhibiting apoptosis. Postponed treatment with R-roscovitine (24 and 72 h) diminished PMN numbers in lung tissue during gram-positive pneumonia; this step was associated with a transient increase in pulmonary bacterial loads. R-roscovitine inhibits proinflammatory responses induced by the gram-positive stimuli LTA and S. pneumoniae. R-roscovitine reduces PMN numbers in lungs upon LTA administration by enhancing apoptosis. The reduction in PMN numbers caused by R-roscovitine during S. pneumoniae pneumonia may hamper antibacterial defense. PMID:22692577

  1. Local Administration of Tranexamic Acid During Prostatectomy Surgery: Effects on Reducing the Amount of Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Pourfakhr, Pejman; Gatavi, Elham; Gooran, Shahram; Etezadi, Farhad; Khajavi, Mohamad Reza; Pourroustaei, Reza; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Najafi, Atabak

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the issues in prostatectomy surgery is bleeding. Although tranexamic acid (TRA) is an antifibrinolytic agent for reducing bleeding, controversies surround its use. Objectives In this study, the effect of local administration of TRA on reducing bleeding during prostatectomy surgery was evaluated. Methods A total of 186 patients who underwent prostatectomy surgery were assessed in this clinical trial study. Patients were divided randomly into two groups. After prostate removal, TRA (500 mg TRA with 5 mL total volume) to the intervention group and normal saline to the control group were sprayed with the same volume. At the end of surgery, the prescribed blood bags were measured and recorded. Hemoglobin and platelet levels were recorded 6 hours after the test. Moreover, the amounts of blood inside the blood bags in the first 24 hours, the second 24 hours, and the total length of hospital stay were recorded and compared in each group. Results By comparing the measured values before and after surgery, we found that the amounts of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet decreased. The mean blood loss in the intervention group was recorded at 340 mL and that in the control group was 515 mL. The maximum bleeding in the control group was almost twice as much as that in the intervention group. Blood loss in the intervention group with the administration of TRA was significantly lesser than that in the control group (P = 0.01). The decrease in platelet level in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P = 0.03). Conclusions The present study showed that local administration of TRA significantly reduces bleeding after prostatectomy surgery and is effective in preventing postoperative hemoglobin decrease. PMID:27896241

  2. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation does not reduce vulnerability to atrial fibrillation in remodeling atria.

    PubMed

    Ramadeen, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Leong-Poi, Howard; Hu, Xudong; Fujii, Hiroko; Van Krieken, Richard; Laurent, Gabriel; Holub, Bruce J; Bazinet, Richard P; Dorian, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Prophylactic supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF). The effect of PUFAs given after cardiac injury has occurred is unknown. To investigate using a model of pacing-induced cardiac injury, the time course of development of injury and whether it was altered by postinjury PUFAs. Sixty-five dogs were randomized to undergo simultaneous atrial and ventricular pacing (SAVP, 220 beats/min) for 0, 2, 7, or 14 days. Twenty-two dogs received PUFAs (850 mg/d) either prophylactically or after some pacing had occurred (postinjury). Electrophysiologic and echocardiographic measurements were taken at baseline and sacrifice. Atrial tissue samples were collected at sacrifice for histologic and molecular analyses. With no PUFAs, the inducibility of AF increased with pacing duration (P < .001). Postinjury PUFAs (started after 7 days of pacing) did not reduce the inducibility of AF after 14 days of pacing (9.3% ± 8.8% no PUFAs vs 9.7% ± 9.9% postinjury PUFAs; P = .91). Atrial myocyte size and fibrosis increased with pacing duration (P < .05). Postinjury PUFAs did not significantly attenuate the cell size increase after 14 days of pacing (no PUFAs 38% ± 30% vs postinjury PUFAs 19% ± 28%; P = .11). Similarly, postinjury PUFAs did not attenuate the increase in fibrosis after 14 days of pacing (no PUFAs 66% ± 51% vs postinjury PUFAs 63% ± 76%; P = .90). PUFA supplementation begun after cardiac injury has already occurred does not reduce atrial structural remodeling or vulnerability to AF. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Suitable Concentrations of Uric Acid Can Reduce Cell Death in Models of OGD and Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Ning; Lin, Shao-Peng; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability. After establishing models of OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) with HT22 and BV-2 cells, uric acid at a low concentration (50 μM) cannot improve cell viability and apoptosis, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during OGD/reoxygenation; a suitable concentration (300 μM) of uric acid can significantly improve cell viability and apoptosis, and reduce ROS production during OGD/reoxygenation; but a high concentration (1000 μM) of uric acid can further reduce cell viability and enhance ROS production. After establishing middle cerebral artery occlusion of male rats with suture method, damage and increase of ROS production in brain tissue could be seen, and after adding suitable concentration of uric acid, the degree of brain damage and ROS production was reduced. Therefore, different concentrations of uric acid should have different effect, and suitable concentrations of uric acid have neuroprotective effect, and this finding may provide guidance for study on the clinical curative effect of uric acid.

  4. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-04-01

    The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD.IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered. Here, we

  5. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD. IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered

  6. Medium-chain fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol by regulating the metabolism of bile acid in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xinsheng; Xu, Qing; Yang, Xueyan; Xue, Changyong

    2017-01-25

    those of in the control group (P < 0.05). Thus, MCFA increased the expression of LXR and ABCG8, enhanced CYP7A1 and CYP27A1 expression, decreased and SHP expression in the liver, thereby promoted liver bile acid synthesis and excretion. In addition MCFA increased the expression of ABCG5, ABCG8 and LXR in the small intestine, thereby inhibiting small intestinal bile acid absorption, increasing the concentrations of cholesterol and bile acid in bile and feces and reducing the level of serum cholesterol.

  7. Pretreatment of human epidermal keratinocytes in vitro with ethacrynic Acid reduces sulfur mustard cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gross, Clark L; Nipwoda, Mary T; Nealley, Eric W; Smith, William J

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent, profoundly cytotoxic, and a powerful vesicant. SM reacts quite extensively with glutathione (GSH) and forms GSH conjugates, which are presumably excreted through the mercapturic acid pathway in mammals. It is unknown whether any enzymes, such as the glutathione-S-transferases (GST), are involved in this detoxification of SM by the formation of conjugates. A prototypic inhibitor (ethacrynic acid, EAA) and a prototypic inducer (Oltipraz, OLT) of GSH-S-transferase, have been used as pretreatment compounds in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) to investigate the effect of enzyme levels on cytotoxicity following SM challenge from 50 muM to 300 muM. Pretreatment of HEK for 24 h with EAA doubled survival against 200 muM SM (36% viability in non-pretreated cells vs. 81% in EAA-pretreated cells) and quadrupled survival (17% viability in non-pretreated controls vs. 71% in EAA-pretreated cells), while OLT pretreatment had no effect on cytotoxicity at either SM dose. The role of GST in SM cytotoxicity could not be tested because of the lack of an effect on modulation of GST activities by these 2 drugs. Cellular levels of GSH were increased 250-300% over control values using EAA pretreatment, while OLT pretreatment did not lead to any increase in GSH. Pretreatment of HEK with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a known depleter of glutathione levels, reduced glutathione levels and increased cytotoxicity. This large increase in GSH appears to be solely responsible for the enhanced survivability of EAA-pretreated HEK.

  8. The effect of different dose regimens of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during hip surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thipparampall, Anil Kumar; Gurajala, Indira; Gopinath, R

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Antifibrinolytics may help bleeding in orthopaedic surgeries. The present study was undertaken to compare two dose regimens of tranexamic acid (TA) on perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing hip surgeries. Methods: In a prospective, randomised, controlled study, 59 patients scheduled for hip surgery were divided into Group C: receiving normal saline (n – 20), Group B: receiving single dose of TA (10 mg/kg) (n – 21), and Group I: receiving a bolus (10 mg/kg) plus infusion (1 mg/kg/h) of TA up to 4 h postoperatively (n – 18). Blood loss, haemoglobin and allogeneic blood transfusions were compared between the groups. For parametric data, P was calculated by ANOVA. Intergroup comparison was done by post hoc analysis with Bonferroni test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The intra-operative blood loss was lower in the patients who received TA (525 ± 150, 456 ± 156 and 400 ± 133 ml in Group C, B and I respectively; P = 0.05). The 6th hourly drain collection in Group I was lower than Group B and C (41 ± 18, 46 ± 14 and 31 ± 14 ml in Group C, B, and I respectively; P = 0.018). The blood loss at 24 h was less in groups receiving TA (146 ± 32, 120 ± 76, 107 ± 37 ml for Group C, B and I, respectively; P = 0.02). The requirement of blood transfusions was lower in Group I. Conclusions: A bolus of tranexamic acid followed by infusion is more useful than a single dose in decreasing perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing hip surgeries. It reduces allogenic blood transfusion without increasing risk of thromboembolic events. PMID:28405037

  9. Dietary hyperoxaluria is not reduced by treatment with lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperoxaluria either based on increased intestinal absorption of oxalate (enteric), or high oxalate intake (dietary), is a major risk factor of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Oxalate-degrading bacteria might have beneficial effects on urinary oxalate excretion resulting from decreased intestinal oxalate concentration and absorption. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were studied initially while consuming a diet normal in oxalate. Study participants were then placed on a controlled oxalate-rich diet for a period of 6 weeks. Starting with week 2 of the oxalate-rich diet, participants received 2.6 g/day of a lactic acid bacteria preparation for 5 weeks. Finally, subjects were examined 4 weeks after treatment while consuming again a normal-oxalate diet. Participants provided weekly 24-hour urine specimens. Analyses of blood samples were performed before and at the end of treatment. Results Urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly from 0.354 ± 0.097 at baseline to 0.542 ± 0.163 mmol/24 h under the oxalate-rich diet and remained elevated until the end of treatment, as did relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Plasma oxalate concentration was significantly higher after 5 weeks of treatment compared to baseline. Four weeks after treatment, urinary oxalate excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate fell to reach initial values. Conclusions Persistent dietary hyperoxaluria and increased plasma oxalate concentration can already be induced in healthy subjects without disorders of oxalate metabolism. The study preparation neither reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor plasma oxalate concentration. The preparation may be altered to select for lactic acid bacteria strains with the highest oxalate-degrading activity. PMID:24330782

  10. Desulfosporosinus acididurans sp. nov.: an acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from acidic sediments.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Hedrich, Sabrina; Ňancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D Barrie

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (M1(T), D, and E) were isolated from acidic sediments (White river and Tinto river) and characterized phylogenetically and physiologically. All three strains were obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming straight rods, stained Gram-negative and displayed variable motility during active growth. The pH range for growth was 3.8-7.0, with an optimum at pH 5.5. The temperature range for growth was 15-40 °C, with an optimum at 30 °C. Strains M1(T), D, and E used a wide range of electron donors and acceptors, with certain variability within the different strains. The nominated type strain (M1(T)) used ferric iron, nitrate, sulfate, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate (but not arsenate, sulfite, or fumarate) as electron acceptors, and organic acids (formate, lactate, butyrate, fumarate, malate, and pyruvate), alcohols (glycerol, methanol, and ethanol), yeast extract, and sugars (xylose, glucose, and fructose) as electron donors. It also fermented some substrates such as pyruvate and formate. Strain M1(T) tolerated up to 50 mM ferrous iron and 10 mM aluminum, but was inhibited by 1 mM copper. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genetic characteristics, strains M1(T), D, and E represent a novel species within the genus Desulfosporosinus, for which the name Desulfosporosinus acididurans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M1(T) (=DSM 27692(T) = JCM 19471(T)). Strain M1(T) was the first acidophilic SRB isolated, and it is the third described species of acidophilic SRB besides Desulfosporosinus acidiphilus and Thermodesulfobium narugense.

  11. Single-dose tranexamic acid reduces postoperative bleeding after coronary surgery in patients treated with aspirin until surgery.

    PubMed

    Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Wahba, Alexander; Bjella, Lise; Karevold, Asbjørn; Dale, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative bleeding after coronary artery bypass grafting. We evaluated the effects of a single dose of tranexamic acid given immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients treated with aspirin until the day before surgery. The study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Eighty patients were included and divided into two groups: one group received tranexamic acid 30 mg/kg, and one group received placebo (0.9% NaCl) as a bolus injection before CPB. Postoperative blood loss was recorded for 16 h. Transfusions of blood products were recorded for the whole hospital stay. Transfusions of packed red cells were given when the hematocrit value was less than 20% during CPB and less than 25% after surgery. The patients in the tranexamic acid group had significantly less postoperative bleeding compared with the patients in the placebo group (mean [SD]) (475 [274] mL versus 713 [243] mL; P < 0.001). An effective inhibition of fibrinolysis was found in patients receiving tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative bleeding in coronary artery bypass grafting patients treated with aspirin until the day before surgery. Continuation of aspirin medication until the day before coronary artery bypass grafting may increase postoperative bleeding. The administration of a single dose of tranexamic acid (30 mg/kg) immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass significantly reduced postoperative bleeding and inhibited fibrinolysis in these patients.

  12. Strategies to reduce short-chain organic acids and synchronously establish high-rate composting in acidic household waste.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Ove; Bøen, Anne S; Sørheim, Roald

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document whether addition of lime or increased amount of bulking agent would ensure, efficiently, a predictable composting process in acidic SSOW applicable in full scale plants. The results show that both lime addition and increasing the amount of bulking agent relative to waste support the development of high-rate respiration in composting. Both strategies are considered efficient in establishing desired microbial composting processes of acid household waste. Reduction in the content of different organic acids and loss on ignition were higher when more bulking agent was used compared with adding 5% lime to the acidic SSOW. Respiration was completely repressed in samples with 10% lime, where pH remained high. In addition fat and protein seem to degrade faster with increasing amount of bulking agent.

  13. β-Resorcylic Acid, a Phytophenolic Compound, Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Postharvest Poultry.

    PubMed

    Wagle, B R; Arsi, K; Upadhyay, A; Shrestha, S; Venkitanarayanan, K; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J

    2017-08-01

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this study investigated the potential of the phytophenolic compound β-resorcylic acid (BR) to reduce Campylobacter counts on postharvest poultry (chicken skin or meat). Four trials in total, two each on thigh skin or breast meat, were conducted in which chicken skin or meat samples (2 ± 0.1 g; 10 samples per treatment) were inoculated with 50 μL (∼10(6) CFU per sample) of a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni. After 30 min of attachment, inoculated samples were dipped in a 0, 0.5, 1, or 2% BR solution for 30 s immediately followed by vigorously vortexing the samples in Butterfield's phosphate diluent and plating the supernatant for Campylobacter enumeration. In addition, the effect of BR on the color of skin and meat samples was studied. Moreover, the change in the expression of survival and virulence genes of C. jejuni exposed to BR was evaluated. Data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (P < 0.05; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). All BR treatments significantly reduced Campylobacter populations on both chicken or meat samples by 1 to 3 log CFU/g compared with non-BR-treated washed controls. No significant difference in the lightness, redness, and yellowness of skin and meat samples was observed on exposure to BR wash (P > 0.05). Real-time PCR results revealed that BR treatment down-regulated expression of select genes coding for motility (motA, motB) and attachment (cadF, ciaB) in the majority of C. jejuni strains. Stress response genes (sodB, katA) were upregulated in C. jejuni S-8 (P < 0.05). Overall, our results suggest that BR could be effectively used as antimicrobial dip treatment during poultry processing for reducing Campylobacter on chicken

  14. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  15. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  16. Inhibition of ileal apical but not basolateral bile acid transport reduces atherosclerosis in apoE⁻/⁻ mice.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Haywood, Jamie; Dawson, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids induces hepatic bile acid synthesis, increases hepatic cholesterol demand, and increases clearance of apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Based on these effects, bile acid sequestrants have been used for many years to treat hypercholesterolemia and the associated atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of blocking ileal apical versus basolateral membrane bile acid transport on the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mouse models. ApoE(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-) mice deficient in the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) or apoE(-/-) mice deficient in the basolateral bile acid transporter (Ostα) were fed an atherogenic diet for 16 weeks. Bile acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, gene expression, and development of atherosclerosis were examined. Mice deficient in Asbt exhibited the classic response to interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, including significant reductions in hepatic and plasma cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic cholesteryl ester content. Ileal Fibroblast Growth Factor-15 (FGF15) expression was significantly reduced in Asbt(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice and was inversely correlated with expression of hepatic cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1). Ileal FGF15 expression was directly correlated with plasma cholesterol levels and aortic cholesterol content. In contrast, plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis development were not reduced in apoE(-/-) mice deficient in Ostα. Decreases in ileal FGF15, with subsequent increases in hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and bile acid synthesis appear to be necessary for the plasma cholesterol-lowering and atheroprotective effects associated with blocking intestinal bile acid absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p < 0.05 for all) were lower while total n-6 fatty acids were higher (p < 0.05) at 16-20th weeks of gestation in preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05 for all) were also lower in preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p < 0.05 for both) in preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  18. Reducing THMFP by H2O2/UV oxidation for humic acid of small molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Yen, Li Shuang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the merits of using H2O2/UV oxidation for reducing trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), colour, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of smaller molecular humic acid were investigated, especially the energy consumption based on EEO. The results show that THMFP decreases by increasing oxidation time, H2O2 dose and UV intensity. The reaction constant in descending order is kColour>kDOC>kTHMFP. Furthermore, EEO shows three trends. First, it decreases as H2O2 dose increases. That is, by increasing the amount of H2O2 dose, the electrical energy efficiency becomes better. Second, EEO,9 W>EEO,13 W, implying that higher UV power would result in a higher electrical energy efficiency. Third, EEO,THMFP>EEO,DOC>EEO,colour. That is, the electric energy efficiency is the best for colour removal, second for DOC removal, and third for THMFP reduction. The operation costs for 90% removal of colour, DOC, and THMFP are from 0.31 to 0.69, from 0.78 to 1.72, and from 1.11 to 2.29 US$/m3, respectively. However, reducing THMs to Taiwan's drinking water standard of 80 µg/L needs only 0.25-0.60 US$/m3. Therefore, the condition with UV of 9 W, H2O2 of 50 mg/L, and oxidation time of 23 min can be applied for THMs reduction as the cost is the smallest of 0.25 US$/m3, even lower than current Taiwan's drinking water price of 0.3 US$/m3.

  19. Late dosing with ethacrynic acid can reduce gentamicin concentration in perilymph and protect cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; McFadden, Sandra L; Browne, Richard W; Salvi, Richard J

    2003-11-01

    A key factor in the well-known interaction between ethacrynic acid (EA) and aminoglycoside antibiotics (AABs) is disruption of the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB), leading to rapid entry of EA and AABs into the cochlear fluids. The idea that the blood-labyrinthine fluid concentration gradient might be utilized in a protective manner was tested in the current experiment. We hypothesized that administering EA when gentamicin (GM) levels are higher in the cochlea than in the blood might actually reduce cochlear damage by permitting efflux of GM from the cochlear fluids into the bloodstream, down a concentration gradient and across a temporarily disrupted BLB. Guinea pigs received 1, 11, 14 or 20 injections of GM (125 mg/kg i.m.). Approximately half of the animals also received a single injection of EA (40 mg/kg i.v.) either concurrently or 12-18 h after the last GM injection. Concurrent injection of EA significantly increased GM concentration in serum and perilymph at all time points sampled (2.5, 5-8, and 12 h post injection). Compared to animals that received GM only, animals that received a delayed injection of EA had a significantly lower GM concentration in perilymph, lower thresholds of the compound action potential, and less outer hair cell loss. Collectively, the evidence suggests that EA can reduce GM ototoxicity if it is administered 12-18 h after GM, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The results may have implications for the clinical management of aminoglycoside ototoxicity in humans, as well as for understanding the mechanisms underlying AAB/EA interactions.

  20. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    PubMed Central

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-01-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0.08, 0.12, and 0.17 M NaCl, whereas the two peaks of the variant, with 0.01 and 0.06 M NaCl. The pH optimum and thermal denaturation at 57 degrees C were the same in all enzyme peaks of both isozymes. Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. The two isozymes shared antigenic identity and had similar Km's with maltose as substrate. Normal substrate saturation kinetics were observed with the common isozyme when glycogen was the substrate, but the variant produced an S-shaped saturation curve indicating a phase of negative and positive cooperativity at low and high glycogen concentrations, respectively. The activity of the variant was only 8.6% and 19.2% of the common isozyme when assayed with nonsaturating and saturating concentrations of glycogen, respectively. A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:6770674

  1. Soil solution response to experimentally reduced acid deposition in a forest ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Alewell, C.; Matzner, E.; Bredemeier, M.; Blanch, K.

    1997-05-01

    In order to measure and predict reversibility of soil solution acidification under experimentally reduced acid input, a manipulation study with artificial {open_quote}preindustrial{close_quote} throughfall was established. A roof was installed underneath the canopy in a Norway Spruce stand of the German Soiling area. Water failing onto the roof was adjusted to clean rain concentrations before redistribution. Soil solutions were collected with suction cup lysimeters at various depths and were analyzed for major ions. The response of soil solution chemistry in the upper soil (10 cm depth) to a reduction of N, SO{sub 4}, and H input was rapid. While NO{sub 3} concentration in deeper soil layers reached input levels after 2 yr of treatment, SO{sub 4} concentration in the seepage water at 1 m depth remained high relative to the reduced input due to a release of formerly stored S from the soil. Aluminum concentration followed a similar pattern as the SO{sub 4} concentrations. The ion concentrations in soil leachate were predicted reasonably well using the MAGIC model with the measured SO{sub 4} sorption isotherms and the throughfall fluxes as model input Although the parameters of the Langmuir isotherm had no significant influence to the prediction of SO{sub 4} concentration in the upper soil layer, they were crucial for the prediction of SO{sub 4} dynamics in deeper soil layers. The model predicted that the reversibility of soil acidification at the Soiling area is delayed for decades due to the release of soil SO{sub 4}. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse.

  3. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times.

  4. A High-Fat, High-Oleic Diet, But Not a High-Fat, Saturated Diet, Reduces Hepatic α-Linolenic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Content in Mice.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Murphy, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6) as a competitive inhibitor of α-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that a high SFA diet, compared to a high MUFA (oleic acid 18:1n-9) diet, reduces ALA conversion to long chain n-3 fatty acids. Mice were fed for 12 weeks on three diets: (1) a control, 16 % fat energy diet consisting of similar levels of SFA and MUFA (2) a 50 % fat energy high MUFA energy diet (35 % MUFA and 7 % SFA) or (3) a 50 % fat energy, high SFA energy diet (34 % SFA, 8 % MUFA). ALA and LNA content remained constant. Analysis of hepatic lipids demonstrated a selective reduction (40 %) in ALA but not LNA and a 35 % reduction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in the high MUFA mice compared to the other groups. Lower content of ALA was reflected in the neutral lipid fraction, while smaller levels of phospholipid esterified EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) were evident. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) content was elevated by the high SFA diet. Expression of Fads1 (Δ5 desaturase) and Fads2 (Δ6 desaturase) was elevated by the high MUFA and reduced by the high SFA diet. These data indicate that a high MUFA diet, but not a high SFA diet, reduces ALA metabolism and point to selective hepatic disposition of ALA versus LNA.

  5. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycyrrhizic Acid Reduces Heart Rate and Blood Pressure by a Dual Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kailash; Zaw, Aung Moe; Sekar, Revathi; Palak, Ahuja; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Chow, Billy K C

    2016-09-27

    Beta adrenergic receptors are crucial for their role in rhythmic contraction of heart along with their role in the pathological conditions such as tachycardia and high risk of heart failure. Studies report that the levels of beta-1 adrenergic receptor tend to decrease by 50%, whereas, the levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor remains constant during the risk of heart failure. Beta blockers-the antagonistic molecules for beta-adrenergic receptors, function by slowing the heart rate, which thereby allows the left ventricle to fill completely during tachycardia incidents and hence helps in blood pumping capacity of heart and reducing the risk of heart failure. In the present study, we investigate the potential of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a possible principal drug molecule for cardiac arrhythmias owing to its ability to induce reduction in the heart rate and blood pressure. We use in vitro and in silico approach to study GA's effect on beta adrenergic receptor along with an in vivo study to examine its effect on heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, we explore GA's proficiency in eliciting an increase in the plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide, which by dilating the blood vessel consequently, can be a crucial aid during the occurrence of a potential heart attack. Therefore, we propose GA as a potential principal drug molecule via its potential in modulating heart rate and blood pressure.

  7. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). OCA decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during TAA-administration and reversed fibrosis in established cirrhosis. Portal pressure decreased through reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance. This was paralleled by decreased expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines (transforming growth-factor β, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor) as well as markers of hepatic cell turn-over, by blunting effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1). In vitro, OCA inhibited both LSEC and Kupffer cell activation; while HSC remained unaffected. This related to NF-κB inhibition via up-regulated IκBα. In conclusion, OCA inhibits hepatic inflammation in toxic cirrhotic rats resulting in decreased HSC activation and fibrosis. PMID:27634375

  8. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  9. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm-1. These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future.

  10. Non-reducing trisaccharide fatty acid monoesters: novel detergents in membrane biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Pérez-Victoria, Francisco J; Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; García-Hernández, Raquel; Carvalho, Luis; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Morales, Juan C; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2011-03-01

    Three families of non-reducing trisaccharide fatty acid monoesters bearing C₁₀ to C₁₈ acyl chains have been prepared by enzymatic synthesis in organic media. Their critical micelle concentrations, determined by dye-inclusion measurements, cover a broad range from mM to μM. The new compounds are capable of dissolving phospholipid vesicles and have been characterized as detergents in membrane biochemistry. In a comparative screening test for solubilizing/extraction capacity under native conditions of an ABC transporter as model integral membrane protein, the novel detergents have shown an excellent behavior similar to other commercial carbohydrate-based detergents and in some cases even better than the commonly employed β-dodecylmaltoside. The new detergents are also efficient at extracting membrane proteins from different lipidic environments and are likewise compatible with common protein affinity chromatography purification. These compounds may also be used for the preparation of (proteo)liposomes by detergent removal, not only using the classical method of detergent adsorption on hydrophobic resins but also by enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester bond. These results show the new detergents as promising tools to expand the arsenal for membrane protein studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lignification in Transgenic Poplars with Extremely Reduced Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Jouanin, Lise; Goujon, Thomas; de Nadaï, Véronique; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Mila, Isabelle; Vallet, Christelle; Pollet, Brigitte; Yoshinaga, Arata; Chabbert, Brigitte; Petit-Conil, Michel; Lapierre, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic poplars (Populus tremula × Populus alba) were obtained by introduction of a sense homologous transgene encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) under the control either of the cauliflower mosaic virus double 35S promoter or of the eucalyptus cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase promoter. Although these constructs conferred a moderate overexpression of COMT in some lines, a transgenic line with the double 35S promoter was found where COMT activity in woody tissues was close to zero due to a gene-silencing phenomenon. For the first time in COMT down-regulated trees, this alteration substantially reduced lignin level in 6-month-old trees (17% decrease). Lignin structure was found to be strongly altered, with a two times higher content in condensed bonds, an almost complete lack of syringyl units, and the incorporation of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units to the most remarkable extent reported so far. Consistent with the higher cellulose content and with the higher condensation degree of the lignin, the impact of the transformation on the kraft-pulping performances of the poplar trees positively affected the pulp yield (10% relative increase), but made lignins less amenable to industrial degradations. PMID:10938354

  12. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Arterial Stiffness and Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Battson, Micah L; Lee, Dustin M; Jarrell, Dillon K; Hou, Shoufei; Ecton, Kayl E; Phan, Anna B; Gentile, Christopher L

    2017-09-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a potential mechanism contributing to diabetes and its comorbidities. However, the importance of ER stress in diabetic vascular dysfunction is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), on arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. Carotid and mesenteric artery endothelial function were assessed via ex vivo pressure myography, and arterial stiffness was measured by aortic pulse wave velocity. The effects of TUDCA were examined both acutely (ex vivo) and chronically (250 mg/kg/day; i.p., 4 weeks). Compared to control C57BL/6J mice, db/db (DB) mice did not display carotid artery endothelial dysfunction; however, mesenteric artery endothelial function was markedly impaired. Acute incubation and chronic administration of TUDCA improved endothelium-dependent dilation in DB mesenteric arteries, without affecting endothelium-independent dilation. Chronic TUDCA administration also reduced arterial stiffness and was associated with reductions in ER stress markers in aortic and perivascular adipose tissue. These results suggest that ER stress may represent a novel cause of, and therapeutic target for, diabetic vascular dysfunction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-14

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm(-1). These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future.

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T. )

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with (3H)inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers.

  15. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

  16. Lonicera hypoglauca inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Chang; Yang, Chen-Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2009-03-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, and is a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia. The ability of extracts of Lonicera hypoglauca (Caprifoliaceae) to inhibit XOD was investigated in this study. An ethanol extract (LH-crude) of the leaves of L. hypoglauca and its derived EtOAc soluble sub-fractions (LH-EA) significantly inhibited XOD activity, with IC50 values for LH-crude and LH-EA of 48.8 and 35.2 microg/mL. Moreover, LH-EA reduced serum urate levels IN VIVO in a potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mouse model, by 70.1% and 93.7% of the hyperuricemic untreated group at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg of LH-EA, respectively. Finally, we used bioactivity-guided fractionation to isolate a new bisflavonoid, loniceraflavone, which showed significant inhibition of XOD (IC50=0.85 microg/mL). These results suggest that L. hypoglauca and its extracts may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-hyperuricemia agent for clinical application.

  17. Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA) to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana). The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C) averted in 2007 International dollars ($). The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV) per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic argument can be made for

  18. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhengbin; Zhu, Jinzhou; Zhao, Xiaoran; Yang, Ke; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Fengru; Shen, Weifeng; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury interferes with the restoration of blood flow to ischemic myocardium. Oxidative stress-elicited apoptosis has been reported to contribute to I/R injury. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has anti-apoptotic activity as previously reported. Here, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of action of ATRA on myocardial I/R injury both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, ATRA reduced the size of the infarcted area (17.81±1.05% vs. 24.41±1.03%, P<0.05) and rescued cardiac function loss (ejection fraction 46.42±6.76% vs. 37.18±4.63%, P<0.05) after I/R injury. Flow-cytometric analysis and TUNEL assay demonstrated that the protective role of ATRA on myocardial I/R injury was related to its anti-apoptotic effects. The anti-apoptotic effects of ATRA were associated with partial inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and significantly less phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including p38, JNK, and ERK. Western blot analysis also revealed that ATRA pre-treatment increased a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) expression (0.65 ± 0.20 vs. 0.41±0.02 in vivo) and reduced the level of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) (0.38 ± 0.17 vs. 0.52 ± 0.11 in vivo). Concomitantly, the protective role of ATRA on I/R injury was not observed in RAGE-KO mice. The current results indicated that ATRA could prevent myocardial injury and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis after I/R effectively. One possible mechanism underlying these effects is that ATRA could increase ADAM10 expression and thus cleave RAGE, which is the main receptor up-stream of MAPKs in myocardial I/R injury, resulting in the down-regulation of MAPK signaling and protective role on myocardial I/R injury.

  19. Prepartum maternal diets supplemented with oilseeds alter the fatty acid profile in bovine neonatal plasma possibly through reduced placental expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 and fatty acid translocase.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J

    2016-12-12

    In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neonatal total n-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) declined, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total fat tended to decline following fat supplementation prepartum. Feeding of LA versus OLA prepartum tended to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA) expression, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) expression tended to be higher in OLA- than LA-fed cows. Expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression was lower in placental tissue of cows fed fat compared with control cows. Reduced total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA in neonates born of dams fed fat prepartum is likely due to changes in PPARs and reduced expression of placental FATP4 and FAT/CD36.

  20. Reducing saturated fatty acids in Arabidopsis seeds by expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans 16:0-specific desaturase.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Deirdre; Scheer, Barbara; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2013-05-01

    Plant oilseeds are a major source of nutritional oils. Their fatty acid composition, especially the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, has important effects on human health. Because intake of saturated fats is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, a goal of metabolic engineering is to develop oils low in saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the seeds of many oilseed crops and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We expressed FAT-5, a membrane-bound desaturase cloned from Caenorhabditis elegans, in Arabidopsis using a strong seed-specific promoter. The FAT-5 enzyme is highly specific to 16:0 as substrate, converting it to 16:1∆9; expression of fat-5 reduced the 16:0 content of the seed by two-thirds. Decreased 16:0 and elevated 16:1 levels were evident both in the storage and membrane lipids of seeds. Regiochemical analysis of phosphatidylcholine showed that 16:1 was distributed at both positions on the glycerolipid backbone, unlike 16:0, which is predominately found at the sn-1 position. Seeds from a plant line homozygous for FAT-5 expression were comparable to wild type with respect to seed set and germination, while oil content and weight were somewhat reduced. These experiments demonstrate that targeted heterologous expression of a desaturase in oilseeds can reduce the level of saturated fatty acids in the oil, significantly improving its nutritional value.

  1. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  2. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  3. Folic Acid Reduces Tau Phosphorylation by Regulating PP2A Methylation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miaoyan; Zou, Chen; Li, Mengyue; Huang, Guowei; Gao, Yuxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-04-19

    High incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice induced by STZ, at the age of 10 weeks, were administered with three levels of folic acid: folic acid-deficient diet, diet with normal folic acid content, and 120 μg/kg folic acid diet for 8 weeks. Levels of serum folate and blood glucose were monitored. Tau phosphorylation, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) methylation, and Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation were detected using Western blot. The S-adenosyl methionine:S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (SAM:SAH) in brain tissues was also determined. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA expression levels were detected using real-time PCR. Folic acid reduced tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 in the brain of diabetes mellitus (DM) mice. In addition, PP2A methylation and DNMT1 mRNA expression were significantly increased in DM mice post folic acid treatment. GSK-3β phosphorylation was not regulated by folic acid administration. Folic acid can reduce tau phosphorylation by regulating PP2A methylation in diabetic mice. These results support that folic acid can serve as a multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for treating diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Sensitivity of acid-adapted and acid-shocked Shigella flexneri to reduced pH achieved with acetic, lactic, and propionic acids.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, G L; Beuchat, L R

    2001-07-01

    Survival and growth characteristics of unadapted, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked Shigella flexneri 2a cells in acidified (pH 3.5 to 5.5) tryptic soy broth with 0.25% glucose (TSB) and tryptic soy agar (TSA) were determined. S. flexneri was grown at 37 degrees C for 18 h in tryptic soy broth without glucose (TSBNG) (unadapted) and TSBNG supplemented with 1% glucose (TSBG) (acid-adapted). Cells grown in TSBNG were acid shocked by adjusting 16-h cultures to pH 5.05 +/- 0.05 with lactic acid. Cells were then inoculated into TSB acidified with acetic, lactic, or propionic acids to pH 5.5, 4.5, or 3.5 and incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 h. The order of lethality at a given pH was lactic acid < acetic acid < propionic acid. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher numbers of acid-adapted cells, compared to acid-shocked and unadapted cells, were recovered from TSB acidified (pH 3.5) with lactic or acetic acids. None of the cells survived a 30-min exposure in TSB acidified with propionic acid to pH 3.5. When the three cell types were plated on TSA acidified with lactic, acetic, or propionic acids at pH < or = 4.5, < or = 5.5, and < or = 5.5, respectively, visible colonies were not detected. Viable unadapted, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells were, however, recovered from TSA acidified with all three acids at pH > or = 4.5. Acid-adapted and, to a lesser extent, acid-shocked cells survived at lower pH than did unadapted cells, indicating that prior exposure to mild acidic environment results in increased acid resistance. Survival of S. flexneri at a given pH was influenced by the type of acidulant used, a response characteristic exhibited by other gram-negative enteric pathogens.

  5. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  6. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95–1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61–1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51–0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004–1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241–5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248–0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:26288848

  7. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95-1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61-1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51-0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004-1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241-5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248-0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis.

  8. Bolus oral or continuous intestinal amino acids reduce hypothermia during anesthesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Akinobu; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Suwa, Kunio; Yamasaki, Fumiyasu; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yokoyama, Reiko; Yamashita, Koichi; Selldén, Eva

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that, with oral or intestinal administration of amino acids (AA), we may reduce hypothermia during general anesthesia as effectively as with intravenous AA. We, therefore, examined the effect of bolus oral and continuous intestinal AA in preventing hypothermia in rats. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane for induction and with propofol for maintenance. In the first experiment, 30 min before anesthesia, rats received one bolus 42 mL/kg of AA solution (100 g/L) or saline orally. Then for the next 3 h during anesthesia, they received 14 mL/kg/h of AA and/or saline intravenously. They were in 4 groups: I-A/A, both AA; I-A/S, oral AA and intravenous saline; I-S/A, oral saline and intravenous AA; I-S/S, both saline. In the second experiment, rats received 14 mL/kg/h duodenal AA and/or saline for 2 h. They were in 3 groups: II-A/S, duodenal AA and intravenous saline; II-S/A, duodenal saline and intravenous AA; II-S/S, both saline. Core body temperature was measured rectally. After the second experiment, serum electrolytes were examined. In both experiments, rectal temperature decreased in all groups during anesthesia. However, the decrease in rectal temperature was significantly less in groups receiving AA than in groups receiving only saline. In the second experiment, although there was no significant difference in the decrease in body temperature between II-A/S and II-S/A, Na(+) concentration was significantly lower in II-S/A. In conclusion, AA, administered orally or intestinally, tended to keep the body temperature stable during anesthesia without disturbing electrolyte balance. These results suggest that oral or enteral AA may be useful for prevention of hypothermia in patients.

  9. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  10. Acute murine colitis reduces colonic 5-aminosalicylic acid metabolism by regulation of N-acetyltransferase-2

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Alcántara, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy based on 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a preferred treatment for ulcerative colitis, but variable patient response to this therapy is observed. Inflammation can affect therapeutic outcomes by regulating the expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; its effect on 5-ASA metabolism by the colonic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzyme isoforms is not firmly established. We examined if inflammation affects the capacity for colonic 5-ASA metabolism and NAT enzyme expression. 5-ASA metabolism by colonic mucosal homogenates was directly measured with a novel fluorimetric rate assay. 5-ASA metabolism reported by the assay was dependent on Ac-CoA, inhibited by alternative NAT substrates (isoniazid, p-aminobenzoylglutamate), and saturable with Km (5-ASA) = 5.8 μM. A mouse model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis caused pronounced inflammation in central and distal colon, and modest inflammation of proximal colon, defined by myeloperoxidase activity and histology. DSS colitis reduced capacity for 5-ASA metabolism in central and distal colon segments by 52 and 51%, respectively. Use of selective substrates of NAT isoforms to inhibit 5-ASA metabolism suggested that mNAT2 mediated 5-ASA metabolism in normal and colitis conditions. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR identified that proximal and distal mucosa had a decreased mNAT2 protein-to-mRNA ratio after DSS. In conclusion, an acute colonic inflammation impairs the expression and function of mNAT2 enzyme, thereby diminishing the capacity for 5-ASA metabolism by colonic mucosa. PMID:24742986

  11. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca Veglio, Francesco

    2009-01-15

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  12. Dilinoleoyl-phosphatidic acid mediates reduced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle cells and mouse muscle.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, R; Mitchell, T W; Burchfield, J G; Pedersen, D J; Turner, N; Biden, T J; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2007-08-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is strongly associated with lipid oversupply, but the intracellular metabolites and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to identify the lipid intermediates through which the common unsaturated fatty acid linoleate causes defects in IRS-1 signalling in L6 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle. Cells were pre-treated with 1 mmol/l linoleate for 24 h. Subsequent insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and its association with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase were determined by immunoblotting. Intracellular lipid species and protein kinase C activation were modulated by overexpression of diacylglycerol kinase epsilon, which preferentially converts unsaturated diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, or by inhibition of lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase with lisofylline, which reduces phosphatidic acid synthesis. Phosphatidic acid species in linoleate-treated cells or muscle from insulin-resistant mice fed a safflower oil-based high-fat diet that was rich in linoleate were analysed by mass spectrometry. Linoleate pretreatment reduced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and p85 association. Overexpression of diacylglycerol kinase epsilon reversed the activation of protein kinase C isoforms by linoleate, but paradoxically further diminished IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, lisofylline treatment restored IRS-1 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry indicated that the dilinoleoyl-phosphatidic acid content increased from undetectable levels to almost 20% of total phosphatidic acid in L6 cells and to 8% of total in the muscle of mice fed a high-fat diet. Micelles containing dilinoleoyl-phosphatidic acid specifically inhibited IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis in L6 cells. These data indicate that linoleate-derived phosphatidic acid is a novel lipid species that contributes independently of protein kinase C to IRS-1 signalling defects in muscle cells in response to lipid

  13. PPARgamma agonist induced cardiac enlargement is associated with reduced fatty acid and increased glucose utilization in myocardium of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Edgley, Amanda J; Thalén, Pia G; Dahllöf, Björn; Lanne, Boel; Ljung, Bengt; Oakes, Nicholas D

    2006-05-24

    In toxicological studies, high doses of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists cause cardiac enlargement. To investigate whether this could be explained by a large shift from free fatty acid to glucose utilization by the heart, Wistar rats were treated for 2-3 weeks with a potent, selective PPARgamma agonist (X334, 3 micromol/kg/d), or vehicle. X334 treatment increased body-weight gain and ventricular mass. Treatment lowered plasma triglycerides by 61%, free fatty acid levels by 72%, insulin levels by 45%, and reduced total plasma protein concentration by 7% (indicating plasma volume expansion) compared to vehicle animals. Fasting plasma glucose levels were unaltered. To assess cardiac free fatty acid and glucose utilization in vivo we used simultaneous infusions of non-beta-oxidizable free fatty acid analogue, [9,10-(3)H](R)-2-bromopalmitate and [U-(14)C]2-deoxy-d-glucose tracers, which yield indices of local free fatty acid and glucose utilization. In anesthetized, 7 h fasted animals, left ventricular glucose utilization was increased to 182% while free fatty acid utilization was reduced by 28% (P<0.05) compared to vehicle. In separate studies we attempted to prevent the X334-induced hypolipidemia. Various dietary fat supplements were unsuccessful. By contrast, restricting the time during which the treated animals had access to food (promoting endogenous lipolysis), restored plasma free fatty acid from 27% to 72% of vehicle control levels and prevented the cardiac enlargement. Body-weight gain in these treated-food restricted rats was not different from vehicle controls. In conclusion, the cardiac enlargement caused by intense PPARgamma activation in normal animals is associated with marked changes in free fatty acid/glucose utilization and the enlargement can be prevented by restoring free fatty acid availability.

  14. Use of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant to reduce the content in gluconic acid of must obtained from rotten grapes.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Rafael A; Maestre, Oscar; Mauricio, Juan C; Moreno, Juan J

    2009-03-25

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe YGS-5 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 strains were used in order to develop an effective method for reducing the gluconic acid content of musts without altering the development of alcoholic fermentation or detracting from quality in the resulting wines. The best results in synthetic media were obtained by using a temperature of 24 degrees C and a sulfur dioxide rate below 100 mg/L under semiaerobic conditions. Sequential inoculation of the musts with YGS-5 first and fermentative G1 yeasts then reduced their gluconic acid content by 85% within 43 h; by contrast, simultaneous inoculation with YGS-5 and G1 provided a reduction of only 40%. The wines with the best sensory and analytical properties were obtained by sequentially inoculating the musts with YGS-5 and, once gluconic acid was removed, G1. The wine obtained by sequential inoculation without removing YGS-5 was that exhibiting the highest odorant activity value (OAV) for the volatile compounds in the floral odor series. A protocol for treating musts containing gluconic acid was developed and tested at the pilot plant scale. The treatment reduced the gluconic acid content by 70% within 46 h with no adverse effect on the analytical or sensory quality of the resulting wines.

  15. INNOVATIVE, IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid generation in abandoned mines is a widespread problem. There are a numberous quantity of abandoned mines in the west which have no power source, have limited physical accessibility and have limited remediation funds available. Acid is produced chemically, through pyritic min...

  16. INNOVATIVE, IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid generation in abandoned mines is a widespread problem. There are a numberous quantity of abandoned mines in the west which have no power source, have limited physical accessibility and have limited remediation funds available. Acid is produced chemically, through pyritic min...

  17. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  18. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kemse, Nisha G; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  19. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP(2) (also known as PIP(2))] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy.

  20. Ascorbic acid inhibits PMP22 expression by reducing cAMP levels.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ferdinand; Belin, Sophie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Micaleff, Joelle; Blin, Olivier; Fontés, Michel

    2007-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMT] syndrome is the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathy. CMT1A, which accounts for 50% of all CMT cases, usually results from triploidy of the PMP22 gene. Preclinical trials using an animal model show that disabled mice force-fed with high doses of ascorbic acid partially recover muscular strength after a few months of treatment, and suggest that high doses of ascorbic acid repress PMP22 expression. In this study, we demonstrated that ascorbic acid represses PMP22 gene expression by acting on intracellular cAMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity. This action is dose dependent and specific to ascorbic acid, since repression is not observed after treatment with other antioxidants. The new properties of ascorbic acid are discussed, along with the implications of these findings for CMT disease treatment.

  1. Efficacy of reducing sugar and phenol-sulfuric acid assays for analysis of soluble carbohydrates in feedstuffs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing sugar (RSA) and phenol–sulfuric acid (PSA) assays are commonly used to analyze water-soluble carbohydrates. However, questions have arisen as to their accuracy for measurement of feedstuffs with diverse carbohydrate profiles. This study evaluated the efficacy of RSA and PSA as they would co...

  2. Highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid using a reduced graphene oxide-supported AuPd nanoparticle catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinchun; Pachfule, Pradip; Chen, Yao; Tsumori, Nobuko; Xu, Qiang

    2016-03-18

    Highly dispersed AuPd alloy nanoparticles have been successfully immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using a facile non-noble metal sacrificial method, which exhibit the highest activity at 323 K (turnover frequency, 4840 h(-1)) for hydrogen generation without CO impurity from the formic acid/sodium formate system.

  3. Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets on reduced graphene oxide for formic acid electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Yan, Yucong; Chen, Wenlong; Khan, Yousaf; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2016-12-06

    Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets were generated on reduced graphene oxide and exhibited the substantially enhanced properties for the formic acid oxidation reaction. The combination of carbonyl groups formed on the surface of annealed graphene oxide and Br(-) ions played important roles in this synthesis.

  4. Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence. In the January issue of this journal, Johnston (1) includes our group’s recent analysis of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  5. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Correction to Rao J S, Kim H W, Kellom M, Greenstein D, Chen M, Kraft A D, Harry G J, Rapoport S I, Basselin M. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats. Journal of Neuroinflammation 8:101.

  6. Folic acid reduces adhesion molecules VCAM-1 expession in aortic of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Jian; Li, Yu-Shu; Feng, Yi-Bai; Gu, Xiang; Shi, Chun-Zhi

    2006-01-13

    To investigate effects of supplementation of folic acid on the expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 in the aortas of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Thirty male SD rats (200 +/- 20 g) were invided into 3 groups (n = 10 for each group): control group(Control), high Met group(Met) and Met plus Folate group(Met + Folate), fed. for 45 days. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with the high-methionine diet (140.68 +/- 36.87 micromol/L vs 6.47 +/- 1.10 micromol/L in control rats) an effect which was reduced by folate. Respectively, the aortic expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 at protein and mRNA levels were higher in the Met groups than those in the control groups or the Met + Folate groups. A high methionine diet for 45 days was sufficient to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. Folate supplementation prevented elevation of Hcy levels in the blood, and reduced expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1. Hyperhomocysteinemia is now regarded as one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebralvascular disorders.[Welch GN, Loscalzo J. Homocysteine and atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med 1998; 38(15):1042-50.] Several plausible mechanisms for Hcy-induecd atherosclerosis have been proposed. These include endothelial dysfunction, enhancement of oxidative stress, reduction in NO bioavailability, and augmentation of thrombus formation.[Holven KB, Holm T, Aukrust P, et al. Effect of folic acid treatment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitric oxide-derived end products in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects . Am J Med 2001;110(7):536-42; Guba SC, Fonseca V, Fink LM. Hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999;25(3):291-309.] However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unclear. Recent reports have suggested a role for inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.[Gerard C, Rollins BJ. Chemokines and disease. Nat Immunol 2001;2(2):108-15.] Dysfunction of endothelial cells is the key process promoting inflammatory reactions. On

  7. HIV-Protease Inhibitors Suppress Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Oxidation by Reducing CD36 and CPT-I Fatty Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Scott R.; Carper, Michael J.; Lei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Sheng; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Ramanadham, Sasanka

    2010-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and treatment with HIV-protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) is associated with dysregulated fatty acid and lipid metabolism. Enhanced lipolysis, increased circulating fatty acid levels, and hepatic and intramuscular lipid accumulation appear to contribute to insulin resistance in HIV-infected people treated with PI-based HAART. However, it is unclear whether currently prescribed HIV-PIs directly alter skeletal muscle fatty acid transport, oxidation, and storage. We find that ritonavir (r, 5 μmol/l) plus 20 μmol/l of atazanavir (ATV), lopinavir (LPV), or darunavir (DRV) reduce palmitate oxidation(16-21%) in differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Palmitate oxidation was increased following exposure to high fatty acid media but this effect was blunted when myotubes were pre-exposed to the HIV-PIs. However, LPV/r and DRV/r, but not ATV/r suppressed palmitate uptake into myotubes. We found no effect of the HIV-PIs on FATP1, FATP4, or FABPpm but both CD36/FAT and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) were reduced by all three regimens though ATV/r caused only a small decrease in CPT1, relative to LPV/r or DRV/r. In contrast, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 was increased by all 3 HIV-PIs. These findings suggest that HIV-PIs suppress fatty acid oxidation in murine skeletal muscle cells and that this may be related to decreases in cytosolic- and mitochondrial-associated fatty acid transporters. HIV-PIs may also directly impair fatty acid handling and partitioning in skeletal muscle, and this may contribute to the cluster of metabolic complications that occur in people living with HIV. PMID:20117238

  8. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    PubMed

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  9. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-10-10

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation.

  10. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E.; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A.; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation. PMID:27721373

  11. Supplementation of Saturated Long-chain Fatty Acids Maintains Intestinal Eubiosis and Reduces Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Torralba, Manolito; Tan, Justin; Embree, Mallory; Zengler, Karsten; Stärkel, Peter; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; DePew, Jessica; Loomba, Rohit; Ho, Samuel B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Nelson, Karen E.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Methods We used the Tsukamoto-French mouse model which involves continuous intragastric feeding of isocaloric diet or alcohol for 3 weeks. Bacterial DNA from the cecum was extracted for deep metagenomic sequencing. Targeted metabolomics assessed concentrations of saturated fatty acids in cecal contents. To maintain intestinal metabolic homeostasis, diets of ethanol-fed and control mice were supplemented with saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, amounts of lactobacilli, and saturated LCFA were measured in fecal samples of non-alcoholic individuals and patients with active alcohol abuse. Results Analyses of intestinal contents from mice revealed alcohol-associated changes to the intestinal metagenome and metabolome, characterized by reduced synthesis of saturated LCFA. Maintaining intestinal levels of saturated fatty acids in mice resulted in eubiosis, stabilized the intestinal gut barrier and reduced ethanol-induced liver injury. Saturated LCFA are metabolized by commensal Lactobacillus and promote their growth. Proportions of bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were lower in feces from patients with active alcohol abuse than controls. Total levels of LCFA correlated with those of lactobacilli in fecal samples from patients with active alcohol abuse but not in controls. Conclusion In humans and mice, alcohol causes intestinal dysbiosis, reducing the capacity of the microbiome to synthesize saturated LCFA and the proportion of Lactobacillus species. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might reduce ethanol

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces the Incidence of Early Afterdepolarizations Caused by Oxidative Stress in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenghang; Wen, Hairuo; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Allen, Charelle; Guillaume, Nancy; Xiao, Dandan; Huang, Chen; Zang, Weijin; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) may have beneficial effects in the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases, while controversies still remain regarding their anti-arrhythmic potential. It is not clear yet whether ω-3-PUFAs can suppress early afterdepolarizations (EADs) induced by oxidative stress. In the present study, we recorded action potentials using the patch-clamp technique in ventricular myocytes isolated from rabbit hearts. The treatment of myocytes with H2O2 (200 μM) prolonged AP durations and induced EADs, which were significantly suppressed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 10 or 25 μM; n = 8). To reveal the ionic mechanisms, we examined the effects of DHA on L-type calcium currents (ICa.L), late sodium (INa), and transient outward potassium currents (Ito) in ventricular myocytes pretreated with H2O2. H2O2 (200 μM) increased ICa.L by 46.4% from control (−8.4 ± 1.4 pA/pF) to a peak level (−12.3 ± 1.8 pA/pF, n = 6, p < 0.01) after 6 min of H2O2 perfusion. H2O2-enhanced ICa.L was significantly reduced by DHA (25 μM; −7.1 ± 0.9 pA/pF, n = 6, p < 0.01). Similarly, H2O2-increased the late INa (−3.2 ± 0.3 pC) from control level (−0.7 ± 0.1 pC). DHA (25 μM) completely reversed the H2O2-induced increase in late INa (to −0.8 ± 0.2 pC, n = 5). H2O2 also increased the peak amplitude of and the steady state Ito from 8.9 ± 1.0 and 2.16 ± 0.25 pA/pF to 12.8 ± 1.21 and 3.13 ± 0.47 pA/pF respectively (n = 6, p < 0.01, however, treatment with DHA (25 μM) did not produce significant effects on current amplitudes and dynamics of Ito altered by H2O2. In addition, DHA (25 μM) did not affect the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced by H2O2 in rabbit ventricular myocytes. These findings demonstrate that DHA suppresses exogenous H2O2-induced EADs mainly by

  13. Kynurenic acid is reduced in females and oral contraceptive users: Implications for depression.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Drevets, Wayne C; Teague, T Kent; Wurfel, Brent E; Mueller, Sven C; Bodurka, Jerzy; Dantzer, Robert; Savitz, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of depression is approximately 2-fold greater in women than men but the biological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. One potential mechanism that has been understudied is immune function, which is modulated by sex hormones and differs considerably between males and females. The immune-regulating kynurenine pathway previously has been implicated in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. In particular, a decreased ratio of neuroprotective (kynurenic acid; KynA) to neurotoxic (3-hydroxykynurenine; 3HK and quinolinic acid; QA) kynurenine pathway metabolites has been reported in several mood disorder subtypes. Yet there is a paucity of research investigating sex differences in the kynurenine pathway in the context of depression. Similarly, oral contraceptive (OC) use has been shown to be a risk factor for depression but to our knowledge this epidemiological relationship has not been considered within the framework of immune dysfunction. Here, we compared the concentrations of c-reactive protein (CRP) and kynurenine pathway metabolites in a combined sample of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and healthy controls (HC) comprising 130 men and 350 women. CRP was measured in a CLIA-certified hospital laboratory. Kynurenine metabolites were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Estradiol and progesterone were quantified with the Mesoscale Discovery (MSD) platform. After controlling for diagnosis, age, sex, BMI, analysis batch, and self-reported childhood trauma we found that women had significantly lower KynA/3HK and KynA/QA ratios than men, and that these results were driven by a decrease in KynA. There was no significant difference between males and females in the concentration of CRP. Further, women taking OC showed significantly higher levels of CRP and lower ratios of KynA/3HK and KynA/QA compared with women on no form of contraception. Moreover, among

  14. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion; Gahl, Anja; Scheeder, Martin R.L.; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika . E-mail: monika.leonhardt@inw.agrl.ethz.ch

    2005-12-16

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1{alpha} (CPT1{alpha}). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1{alpha} transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1{alpha} over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1{alpha}, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo.

  15. Foam-stabilizing effects and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids in lager beer.

    PubMed

    Kunimune, Takeshi; Shellhammer, Thomas H

    2008-09-24

    Foam-stabilizing properties and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids were investigated using an unhopped lager beer. Unhopped beer was dosed with iso-alpha-acid (Iso), rho-iso-alpha-acid (Rho), tetrahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Tetra), and hexahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Hexa), separately, over a range of concentrations from 2 to 10 ppm. A uniform foam was created by Inpack 2000 Flasher Head and was measured by a NIBEM Foam Stability Tester (NIBEM-TPH) followed by a NIBEM Cling Meter (NIBEM-CLM) to determine the relationship between the concentration and NIBEM-30 and the cling formation ability of each compound. The foam-stabilizing power was determined to be Tetra, Hexa, Iso, and Rho from the strongest to weakest. Linear regression models were created using the NIBEM-TPH data set, and on the basis of 95% confidence intervals, the foam stability of Tetra or Hexa became significantly larger than that of Iso when 2.4 or 4.2 ppm of Tetra or Hexa was used as a replacement for Iso, respectively. Cling formation patterns could be categorized into three groups: "ring", "mesh", and "powdery". The control beer had the lowest foam stability and did not yield any foam cling.

  16. Salicylic acid reduces the production of several potential virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with microbial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Mahesh B K; Zhu, Hua; Sankaridurg, Padmaja R; Willcox, Mark D P

    2006-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of contact-lens-related microbial keratitis. This bacterium is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, and even if the infection can be treated with antibiotics, damage to the cornea resulting from the combined effect of bacteria and host factors can lead to loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of salicylic acid on the production of potential virulence factors during the growth of P. aeruginosa. Bacterial cells were grown in a subinhibitory concentration of salicylic acid, and supernatants were collected and analyzed for presence of proteases by using zymography and hydrolysis of chromogenic substrates. The supernatants were also analyzed for the amount of acetylated homoserine lactones by using bacterial reporter strains. Pseudomonas cells from salicylic acid cultures were analyzed for their twitching and swimming motility as well as their ability to invade or cause the death of corneal epithelial cells. Growth in a subinhibitory concentration of salicylic acid resulted in a significant reduction in the number of bacterial cells and a reduction in the rate of the number of bacteria increasing during logarithmic growth, but the time to reach the stationary phase of growth was unchanged. These changes in growth pattern affected the amount of acylated homoserine lactones produced by P. aeruginosa 6294. Also affected by growth in salicylic acid was the ability of strain 6294 to show twitching or swimming motility. Salicylic acid also reduced the invasion of strain 6294 into corneal epithelial cells and the epithelial cell death caused by strain 6206. Furthermore, production of proteases by P. aeruginosa was significantly reduced by growth in salicylic acid. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that salicylic acid has a significant impact on several potential virulence factors of P. aeruginosa that may be involved in the production of microbial keratitis. These effects were probably

  17. Effectiveness of the compactness of clay and/or surface fines as a means of reducing acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, N.L.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    The question of compaction of soil to reduce infiltration and subsequent acid-mine drainage is examined. Plots were constructed to direct surface flow into flumes. The flumes drained through weirs equipped with flow meters. Percolate was collected from wells and tension lysimeters. Runoff, percolate, and vegetation was analyzed. The results indicate the best treatment to be a lush vegetative cover. The least disturbance of spoil surface reduces erosion and sedimentation and also reduces the introduction of unweathered toxic materials to the surface layer. Compaction of surface fines and/or impervious clay is not the answer to mine reclamation.

  18. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhe; He, Zhiyi; Deng, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Background Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA) may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist) was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01). Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01) but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01). UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a significant but partial neuroprotective effect. Conclusion UA can act as a PPARγ agonist to improve the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance, possibly by inhibiting the

  19. Reduced phytic Acid content does not have an adverse effect on germination of soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Raboy, V; Hudson, S J; Dickson, D B

    1985-09-01

    Altering the level of phytic acid phosphorus by nutritional means had no effect on the ability of soybean (Glycine max L. [Merr.], cv ;Williams 79') seeds to germinate under laboratory or greenhouse conditions. Dry matter moved out of the cotyledons at similar rates whether the germinating seeds initially contained low (0.19), medium (0.59), or high (1.00 milligram per seed) phytic acid phosphorus. Growth of roots and shoots from 3 to 9 days after planting was similar for seeds containing low and medium levels of phytic acid phosphorus. The medium level of phytic acid resembles that found in field-grown seed, so it is clear that soybean seeds normally contain a phosphorus reserve far above that needed for germination and early seedling growth.

  20. L-ascorbic acid addition to chitosan reduces body weight in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Young; Jun, Sung Chul; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan enhanced the reduction in body weight gain in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan would accelerate the reduction of body weight in humans, similar to the animal model. Overweight subjects administered chitosan with or without L-ascorbic acid for 8 weeks, were assigned to three groups: Control group (N=26, placebo, vehicle only), Chito group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan), and Chito-vita group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan plus 2 g/day L-ascorbic acid). The body weights and body mass index (BMI) of the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the Control group. The BMI of the Chito-vita group decreased significantly compared to the Chito group (Chito: -1.0 kg/m2 vs. Chito-vita: -1.6 kg/m2, p<0.05). The results showed that the chitosan enhanced reduction of body weight and BMI was accentuated by the addition of L-ascorbic acid. The fat mass, percentage body fat, body circumference, and skinfold thickness in the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased more than the Control group; however, these parameters were not significantly different between the three groups. Chitosan combined with L-ascorbic acid may be useful for controlling body weight.

  1. Formic acid as an alternative reducing agent for the catalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Kuy-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Bin; Cho, Misun; Ahn, Samyoung

    2013-08-01

    Formic acid was used for the nitrate reduction as a reductant in the presence of Pd:Cu/gamma-alumina catalysts. The surface characteristics of the bimetallic catalyst synthesized by wet impregnation were investigated by SEM, TEM-EDS. The metals were not distributed homogeneously on the surface of catalyst, although the total contents of both metals in particles agreed well with the theoretical values. Formic acid decomposition on the catalyst surface, its influence on solution pH and nitrate removal efficacy was investigated. The best removal of nitrate (50 ppm) was obtained under the condition of 0.75 g/L catalyst with Pd:Cu ratio (4:1) and two fold excess of formic acid. Formic acid decay patterns resembled those of nitrate removal, showing a linear relationship between k(f) (formic acid decay) and k (nitrate removal). Negligible amount of ammonia was detected, and no nitrite was detected, possibly due to buffering effect of bicarbonate that is in situ produced by the decomposition of formic acid, and due to the sustained release of H2 gas.

  2. Are Supplementation of Omega-3 and Ascorbic Acid Effective in Reducing Oxidative Stress and Depression among Depressed Shift Workers?

    PubMed

    Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khavanin, Ali; Zamanian, Zahra

    2016-05-10

    This study assessed the effect of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid alone and in combination on the level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA concentration), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and depression scores in depressed rotational shift workers in the Tehran Shahid Tondgoyan Oil refinery. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 136 men who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and had a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score ≥ 10 were selected. Among the participants, 33 received omega-3 fatty acid soft gel (1000 mg twice daily) with vitamin C (250 mg twice daily) (group 1), 31 took omega-3 fatty acid supplements and vitamin C placebo (group 2), 30 took omega-3 fatty acid supplement placebo and vitamin C (group 3), and 32 received omega-3 fatty acid supplement placebo and vitamin C placebo (group 4) for 2 months. Measured were serum MDA, TAC concentrations, and BDI scores at baseline and after 2 months. This study showed that the BDI score was reduced significantly in all 4 groups, however, the level of decrease was more in the omega-3 fatty acid (alone) supplementation group (mean 6.29 score decrease) (p < 0.001). MDA level decreased significantly in groups with omega-3 fatty acids (mean 0.78 μmol/L ± 1.64 μmol/L decrease) (p = 0.014) or vitamin C supplementation alone (mean 0.74 μmol/L ± 1.55 μmol/L decrease) (p = 0.014), but not in combination. Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids alone and not in combination with vitamin C had a better impact on depression and MDA level pronounced in depressed male shift workers.

  3. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An integrated algal sulphate reducing high rate ponding process for the treatment of acid mine drainage wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Rose, P D; Boshoff, G A; van Hille, R P; Wallace, L C; Dunn, K M; Duncan, J R

    1998-01-01

    Acid mine drainage pollution may be associated with large water volume flows and exceptionally long periods of time over which the drainage may require treatment. While the use and role of sulphate reducing bacteria has been demonstrated in active treatment systems for acid mine drainage remediation, reactor size requirement and the cost and availability of the carbon and electron donor source are factors which constrain process development. Little attention has focussed on the use of waste stabilisation ponding processes for acid mine drainage treatment. Wastewater ponding is a mature technology for the treatment of large water volumes and its use as a basis for appropriate reactor design for acid mine drainage treatment is described including high rates of sulphate reduction and the precipitation of metal sulphides. Together with the co-disposal of organic wastes, algal biomass is generated as an independent carbon source for SRB production. Treatment of tannery effluent in a custom-designed high rate algal ponding process, and its use as a carbon source in the generation and precipitation of metal sulphides, has been demonstrated through piloting to the implementation of a full-scale process. The treatment of both mine drainage and zinc refinery wastewaters are reported. A complementary role for microalgal production in the generation of alkalinity and bioadsorptive removal of metals has been utilised and an Integrated 'Algal Sulphate Reducing Ponding Process for the Treatment of Acidic and Metal Wastewaters' (ASPAM) has been described.

  5. Removal of hexenuronic acid by xylanase to reduce adsorbable organic halides formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuangxi; Wang, Shuangfei; Qin, Chengrong; Yao, Shuangquan; Ebonka, Johnbull Friday; Song, Xueping; Li, Kecheng

    2015-11-01

    Xylanase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp was investigated. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase and followed a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The ATR-FTIR and XPS were employed to determine the surface chemistry of the control pulp, xylanase treated and chlorine dioxide treated pulps. The hexenuronic acid (HexA) could obviously be reduced after xylanase pretreatment, and the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were reduced after chlorine dioxide bleaching. Compared to the control pulp, AOX could be reduced by 21.4-26.6% with xylanase treatment. Chlorine dioxide demand could be reduced by 12.5-22% to achieve the same brightness. The ATR-FTIR and XPS results showed that lignin and hemicellulose (mainly HexA) were the main source for AOX formation. Xylanase pretreatment could remove HexA and expose more lignin, which decreased the chlorine dioxide demand and thus reduced formation of AOX.

  6. Assessment of coronary ischaemia by myocardial perfusion dipyridamole stress technetium-99 m tetrofosmin, single-photon emission computed tomography, and coronary angiography in children with Kawasaki disease: pre- and post-coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mostafa S; Sayed, Ashraf O; Al Said, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease invasively assessed by coronary angiography. Evaluation of myocardial perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography may identify the haemodynamic significance of coronary lesions. To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole stress technetium-99 m tetrofosmin, single-photon emission computed tomography as a possible alternative to invasive coronary angiography for detection and follow-up of myocardial ischaemia in patients with Kawasaki disease, and pre- and post-coronary bypass grafting. Coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed on 21 patients who were classified into three groups - group I (stenosis), group II (giant aneurysms), and group III (small aneurysms). Of the 21 patients, 16 (groups I and II) patients with myocardial perfusion defects, who underwent coronary bypass grafting, were followed up with single-photon emission computed tomography. In group I, all patients had significant coronary stenosis and 100% of them had perfusion defects in the anterior and septal walls. In group II, all patients had giant aneurysms and 83% of them had inferior and inferolateral perfusion defects. In group III, all patients had small aneurysms and 100% of them had normal perfusion. Pre-coronary bypass grafting myocardial ischaemic defects disappeared in all patients after surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography were 94, 100, and 95%, respectively. Technetium-99 m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography can be applied as an accurate non-invasive diagnostic technique for detecting myocardial perfusion defects with coronary artery lesions, and to show improved or even normalised perfusion of the myocardium in patients after surgical revascularisation.

  7. Reduced alpha-lipoic acid synthase gene expression exacerbates atherosclerosis in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianwen; Xu, Longquan; Hiller, Sylvia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2012-07-01

    To study the effects of reduced lipoic acid gene expression on diabetic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice (Apoe(-/-)). Heterozygous lipoic acid synthase gene knockout mice (Lias(+/-)) crossed with Apoe(-/-) mice were used to evaluate the diabetic effect induced by streptozotocin on atherosclerosis in the aortic sinus of the heart. While diabetes markedly increased atherosclerotic plaque size in Apoe(-/-) mice, a small but significant effect of reduced expression of lipoic acid gene was observed in diabetic Lias(+/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. In the aortic lesion area, the Lias(+/-)Apoe(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased macrophage accumulation and cellular apoptosis than diabetic Lias(+/+)Apoe(-/-) littermates. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, and interleukin-6 were also higher. These abnormalities were accompanied with increased oxidative stress including a decreased ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes, increased systemic lipid peroxidation, and increased Gpx1 and MCP1 gene expression in the aorta. Decreased endogenous lipoic acid gene expression plays a role in development of diabetic atherosclerosis. These findings extend our understanding of the role of antioxidant in diabetic atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Individualized supplementation of folic acid according to polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) reduced pregnant complications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jing; Xu, Min; Xu, Mei; Yang, Yan; Lu, Wei; Yu, Xuemei; Ma, Jianlin; Pan, Jiakui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms of pregnant women in Jiaodong region in China, and to investigate whether folic acid supplementation affect the pregnancy complications. A total of 7,812 pregnant women from the Jiaodong region in Shandong province in China. By using Taqman-MGB, 2,928 pregnant women (case group) were tested for the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Folic acid metabolism ability was ranked at four levels and then pregnant women in different rank group were supplemented with different doses of folic acid. Their pregnancy complications were followed up and compared with 4,884 pregnant women without folic acid supplementation (control group) in the same hospital. The allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T were 49.1 and 50.9%; those of MTHFR A1298C were 80.2 and 19.8%, and those of MTRR A66G were 74.1 and 25.9%. After supplemented with folic acid, the complication rates in different age groups were significantly reduced, especially for gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and healthcare following gene polymorphism testing may be a powerful measure to decrease congenital malformations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces adiposity and increases markers of browning and inflammation in white adipose tissue of mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Martinez, Kristina; Reid, Tanya; Brown, J. Mark; Xi, Lin; Hixson, Lindsay; Hopkins, Robin; Starnes, Joseph; McIntosh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism by which conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat. Young male mice were fed three combinations of fatty acids at three doses (0.06%, 0.2%, and 0.6%, w/w) incorporated into AIN76 diets for 7 weeks. The types of fatty acids were linoleic acid (control), an equal mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA plus linoleic acid, and an equal isomer mixture of 10,12 plus cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA. Mice receiving the 0.2% and 0.6% dose of 10,12 CLA plus linoleic acid or the CLA isomer mixture had decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and increased incorporation of CLA isomers in epididymal WAT and liver. Notably, in mice receiving 0.2% of both CLA treatments, the mRNA levels of genes associated with browning, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), UCP1 protein levels, and cytochrome c oxidase activity, were increased in epididymal WAT. CLA-induced browning in WAT was accompanied by increases in mRNA levels of markers of inflammation. Muscle cytochrome c oxidase activity and BAT UCP1 protein levels were not affected by CLA treatment. These data suggest a linkage between decreased adiposity, browning in WAT, and low-grade inflammation due to consumption of 10,12 CLA. PMID:23401602

  10. Ursolic acid reduces prostate size and dihydrotestosterone level in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Jung, Da-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. The prevalence of BPH increases in an age-dependent manner. We investigated the protective effect of ursolic acid in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), for a period of four weeks. Ursolic acid was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose level of 5mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, before prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in the serum and prostate were also measured. BPH-induced animals displayed an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate. However, ursolic acid treatment resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight and testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, compared with BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also showed that ursolic acid treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that ursolic acid may effectively inhibit the development of BPH and it may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  11. Plasma HDL reduces nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides originating from oxidized LDL: a mechanism for its antioxidant ability.

    PubMed

    Kotosai, Mari; Shimada, Sachiko; Kanda, Mai; Matsuda, Namiko; Sekido, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Tokumura, Akira; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.

  12. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children.

  13. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption.

  14. Enumeration and characterization of iron(III)-reducing microbial communities from acidic subsurface sediments contaminated with uranium(VI).

    PubMed

    Petrie, Lainie; North, Nadia N; Dollhopf, Sherry L; Balkwill, David L; Kostka, Joel E

    2003-12-01

    Iron(III)-reducing bacteria have been demonstrated to rapidly catalyze the reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) from contaminated subsurface sediments. Thus, these organisms may aid in the development of bioremediation strategies for uranium contamination, which is prevalent in acidic subsurface sediments at U.S. government facilities. Iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures were initiated from pristine and contaminated (high in uranium, nitrate; low pH) subsurface sediments at pH 7 and pH 4 to 5. Enumeration of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria yielded cell counts of up to 240 cells ml(-1) for the contaminated and background sediments at both pHs with a range of different carbon sources (glycerol, acetate, lactate, and glucose). In enrichments where nitrate contamination was removed from the sediment by washing, MPN counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria increased substantially. Sediments of lower pH typically yielded lower counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in lactate- and acetate-amended enrichments, but higher counts were observed when glucose was used as an electron donor in acidic enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the highest positive MPN dilutions revealed that the predominant members of Fe(III)-reducing consortia from background sediments were closely related to members of the Geobacteraceae family, whereas a recently characterized Fe(III) reducer (Anaeromyxobacter sp.) and organisms not previously shown to reduce Fe(III) (Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus spp.) predominated in the Fe(III)-reducing consortia of contaminated sediments. Analysis of enrichment cultures by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Dominant members of the Fe(III)-reducing consortia were observed to be stable over several enrichment culture transfers by T-RFLP in conjunction with measurements of Fe(III) reduction activity and carbon substrate utilization. Enrichment

  15. Enumeration and Characterization of Iron(III)-Reducing Microbial Communities from Acidic Subsurface Sediments Contaminated with Uranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Lainie; North, Nadia N.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Balkwill, David L.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron(III)-reducing bacteria have been demonstrated to rapidly catalyze the reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) from contaminated subsurface sediments. Thus, these organisms may aid in the development of bioremediation strategies for uranium contamination, which is prevalent in acidic subsurface sediments at U.S. government facilities. Iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures were initiated from pristine and contaminated (high in uranium, nitrate; low pH) subsurface sediments at pH 7 and pH 4 to 5. Enumeration of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria yielded cell counts of up to 240 cells ml−1 for the contaminated and background sediments at both pHs with a range of different carbon sources (glycerol, acetate, lactate, and glucose). In enrichments where nitrate contamination was removed from the sediment by washing, MPN counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria increased substantially. Sediments of lower pH typically yielded lower counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in lactate- and acetate-amended enrichments, but higher counts were observed when glucose was used as an electron donor in acidic enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the highest positive MPN dilutions revealed that the predominant members of Fe(III)-reducing consortia from background sediments were closely related to members of the Geobacteraceae family, whereas a recently characterized Fe(III) reducer (Anaeromyxobacter sp.) and organisms not previously shown to reduce Fe(III) (Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus spp.) predominated in the Fe(III)-reducing consortia of contaminated sediments. Analysis of enrichment cultures by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Dominant members of the Fe(III)-reducing consortia were observed to be stable over several enrichment culture transfers by T-RFLP in conjunction with measurements of Fe(III) reduction activity and carbon substrate utilization. Enrichment

  16. Evaluation and management of patients with recurrent peptic ulcer disease after acid-reducing operations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Turnage, Richard H; Sarosi, George; Cryer, Byron; Spechler, Stuart; Peterson, Walter; Feldman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This systematic review examines the evidence for commonly employed strategies of managing patients with recurrent ulcer disease after acid-reducing operations. Particular attention is given to recent evidence relating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ulcer recurrence after operative therapy. MEDLINE word searches of the literature from 1966 to 2001 identified 895 articles that cross-reference the terms "peptic ulcer disease (PUD)," "surgery," and "recurrence." Articles were selected for systematic review of evidence relating incomplete vagotomy, NSAIDs, and H. pylori to postoperative ulcer recurrence and evidence supporting common medical and surgical strategies. The relationship between incomplete vagotomy and recurrent ulcer disease is suggested by randomized controlled trials and well-designed prospective case series. The evidence that NSAID use is an important pathogenic factor in recurrent ulcer disease includes the relationship between NSAIDs and primary PUD, the occurrence of NSAID-induced ulcers in patients taking proton pump inhibitors, and case series demonstrating virulent ulcer disease in patients taking aspirin despite prior acid-reducing operations. The relationship between H. pylori infection and postoperative ulcer recurrence remains uncertain despite multiple controlled trials and well-designed case series that have documented high rates of H. pylori infection in postoperative patients. The initial management of patients with recurrent ulcer disease after acid-reducing operations consists of a protein pump inhibitor or a histamine-2 receptor antagonist and antibiotics directed at H. pylori, if present. Evidence for this regimen includes prospective randomized trials demonstrating the efficacy of cimetidine in healing ulcers after acid-reducing operations and prospective, randomized studies documenting the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor antagonists and protein pump inhibitors in the management

  17. High Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in fat-1 Mice Reduce Inflammatory Pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; Hong, Jinpyo; Hsu, Tzung Min; Chung, Woosuk; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Sun Yeul

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our findings suggest that elevated omega-3 PUFA levels inhibit NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn and modulate inflammatory pain transmission by regulating signal transmission at the spinal dorsal horn, leading to the attenuation of chemically induced inflammatory pain.

  18. Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: substitution of glutamic acid 553 with aspartic acid drastically reduces toxicity and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, C M; Collier, R J

    1987-01-01

    Glutamic acid 553 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) has been identified by photoaffinity labeling as a residue within the NAD binding site (S.F. Carroll and R.J. Collier, J. Biol. Chem. 262:8707-8711, 1987). To explore the function of Glu-553 we used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to replace this residue with Asp in cloned ETA and expressed the mutant gene in Escherichia coli K-12. ADP-ribosylation activity of Asp-553 ETA in cell extracts was about 1,800-fold lower and toxicity for mouse L-M929 fibroblasts was at least 10,000-fold lower than that of the wild-type toxin. Extracts containing Asp-553 ETA inhibited the cytotoxicity of authentic ETA on L-M929 fibroblasts, suggesting that the mutant toxin competes for ETA receptors. The results indicate that Glu-553 is crucial for ADP-ribosylation activity and, consequently, cytotoxicity of ETA. Substitution or deletion of this residue may be a route to new ETA vaccines. Images PMID:2889718

  19. Zoledronic Acid in Reducing Clinical Fracture and Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Kenneth W.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Magaziner, Jay S.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Pieper, Carl F.; Mautalen, Carlos; Hyldstrup, Lars; Recknor, Chris; Nordsletten, Lars; Moore, Kathy A.; Lavecchia, Catherine; Zhang, Jie; Mesenbrink, Peter; Hodgson, Patricia K.; Abrams, Ken; Orloff, John J.; Horowitz, Zebulun; Eriksen, Erik Fink; Boonen, Steven

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mortality is increased after a hip fracture, and strategies that improve outcomes are needed. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1065 patients were assigned to receive yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (at a dose of 5 mg), and 1062 patients were assigned to receive placebo. The infusions were first administered within 90 days after surgical repair of a hip fracture. All patients received supplemental vitamin D and calcium. The median follow-up was 1.9 years. The primary end point was a new clinical fracture. RESULTS The rates of any new clinical fracture were 8.6% in the zoledronic acid group and 13.9% in the placebo group, a 35% risk reduction (P = 0.001); the respective rates of a new clinical vertebral fracture were 1.7% and 3.8% (P = 0.02), and the respective rates of new nonvertebral fractures were 7.6% and 10.7% (P = 0.03). In the safety analysis, 101 of 1054 patients in the zoledronic acid group (9.6%) and 141 of 1057 patients in the placebo group (13.3%) died, a reduction of 28% in deaths from any cause in the zoledronic-acid group (P = 0.01). The most frequent adverse events in patients receiving zoledronic acid were pyrexia, myalgia, and bone and musculoskeletal pain. No cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported, and no adverse effects on the healing of fractures were noted. The rates of renal and cardiovascular adverse events, including atrial fibrillation and stroke, were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS An annual infusion of zoledronic acid within 90 days after repair of a low-trauma hip fracture was associated with a reduction in the rate of new clinical fractures and improved survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00046254.) PMID:17878149

  20. Reduced-energy cranberry juice increases folic acid and adiponectin and reduces homocysteine and oxidative stress in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simão, Tathiana Name Colado; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Venturini, Danielle; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Miglioranza, Lúcia Helena Silva; Dichi, Isaias

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises pathological conditions that include insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia, which favour the development of CVD. Some reports have shown that cranberry ingestion reduces cardiovascular risk factors. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of this fruit in subjects with the MetS. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of reduced-energy cranberry juice consumption on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with the MetS, and to verify the effects of cranberry juice concomitantly on homocysteine and adiponectin levels in patients with the MetS. For this purpose, fifty-six individuals with the MetS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n 36) and cranberry-treated group (n 20). After consuming reduced-energy cranberry juice (0·7 litres/d) containing 0·4mg folic acid for 60 d, the cranberry-treated group showed an increase in adiponectin (P=0·010) and folic acid (P=0·033) and a decrease in homocysteine (P<0·001) in relation to baseline values and also in comparison with the controls (P<0·05). There was no significant change in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1 and IL-6. In relation to oxidative stress measurements, decreased (P<0·05) lipoperoxidation and protein oxidation levels assessed by advanced oxidation protein products were found in the cranberry-treated group when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of cranberry juice for 60 d was able to improve some cardiovascular risk factors. The present data reinforce the importance of the inverse association between homocysteine and adiponectin and the need for more specifically designed studies on MetS patients.

  1. Does oral lansoprazole really reduce gastric acidity in VLBW premature neonates?

    PubMed

    Tham, Sock Ying; Rogers, Ian M; Samuel, K F; Singh, A; Ong, King Kok

    2012-06-01

    Premature neonates of very low birth weight (VLBW) whose treatment required the use of naso-gastric tube feeding were investigated. 10 infants suspected of having GERD (gastroesophageal reflux) received oral lansoprazole therapy by tube administration. 9 other infants formed a control group. In the treated group a fasting pH was determined before treatment and again after 7 days treatment. The control group was similarly assessed at an interval of 7 days. Despite acid reduction, the post-treatment pH mean of 1.31 would continue to pose a threat to the esophageal mucosa. The physiology of neonatal acid secretion is discussed to explain these findings.

  2. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  3. Higher docosahexaenoic acid, lower arachidonic acid and reduced lipid tolerance with high doses of a lipid emulsion containing 15% fish oil: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Rita; Savini, Sara; Biagetti, Chiara; Bellagamba, Maria P; Marchionni, Paolo; Pompilio, Adriana; Cogo, Paola E; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2014-12-01

    Lipid emulsions containing fish oil, as source of long chain omega 3 fatty acids, have recently became available for parenteral nutrition in infants, but scanty data exist in extremely low birth weight preterms. The objective of this study was to compare plasma fatty acids and lipid tolerance in preterm infants receiving different doses of a 15% fish oil vs. a soybean oil based lipid emulsion. Preterm infants (birth weight 500-1249 g) were randomized to receive parenteral nutrition with MOSF (30% Medium-chain triglycerides, 25% Olive oil, 30% Soybean oil, 15% Fish oil) or S (S, 100% Soybean oil) both at two levels of fat intake: 2.5 or 3.5 g kg(-1) d(-1), named 2.5Fat and 3.5Fat respectively. Plasma lipid classes and their fatty acid composition were determined on postnatal day 7 and 14 by gas chromatography together with routine biochemistry. We studied 80 infants. MOSF infants had significantly higher plasma phospholipid Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic and lower Arachidonic acid. Plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and free cholesterol were all significantly higher in the MOSF-3.5Fat group, while cholesterol esters were lower with MOSF than with S. The area under the curve of total bilirubin was significantly lower with MOSF than with S. The use of a lipid emulsion with 15% FO resulted in marked changes of plasma long-chain fatty acids. Whether the benefits of increasing Docosahexaenoic acid outweigh the potential negative effect of reduced Arachidonic acid should be further studied. MOSF patients exhibited reduced lipid tolerance at 3.5 g kg(-1) d(-1) fat intake. The trial was conducted between January 2008 and December 2012 so we had not registered it in a public trials registry as it is now required for trials that started after July 2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Beta-resorcylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading food borne illnesses globally, has been linked with high prevalence of this bacterium in retail chicken meat. Reduction of Campylobacter in poultry will greatly reduce the risk of this disease. Unfortunately, strategies employed to reduce Campylobacter in li...

  5. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  6. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight and regulates triglycerides in obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat

    2015-08-01

    To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  7. [Method for determining the acid-reducing capacity of antacid preparations].

    PubMed

    Chakŭrski, I; Dobrev, Kh; Dobreva, P

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of acid-binding ability of antacids, enabling the automatic reading of pH changes. Changes are provided for work with original gastric juice. The method allows the determination of individual dosage of antacid for each patient.

  8. Degradation of Opioids and Opiates During Acid Hydrolysis Leads to Reduced Recovery Compared to Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sitasuwan, Pongkwan; Melendez, Cathleen; Marinova, Margarita; Mastrianni, Kaylee R; Darragh, Alicia; Ryan, Emily; Lee, L Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Drug monitoring laboratories utilize a hydrolysis process to liberate the opiates from their glucuronide conjugates to facilitate their detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis have been reported as viable methods, with the former as a more effective process for recovering codeine-6-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. Here, we report concerns with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of opioids, including a significant loss of analytes and conversions of oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine. The acid-catalyzed reaction was monitored in neat water and patient urine samples by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight and tandem MS. These side reactions with acid hydrolysis may limit accurate quantitation due to loss of analytes, possibly lead to false positives, and poorly correlate with pharmacogenetic profiles, as cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP2D6) is often involved with oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine conversions. Enzymatic hydrolysis process using the purified, genetically engineered β-glucuronidase (IMCSzyme(®)) addresses many of these concerns and demonstrates accurate quantitation and high recoveries for oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone.

  9. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  10. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  11. Can ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E reduce symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Gumpricht, Eric; Rockway, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, and apraxia, are increasing worldwide and have a profound effect on the behaviors, cognitive skills, mood, and self-esteem of these children. Although the etiologies of these disorders are unclear, they often accompany genetic and biochemical abnormalities resulting in cognitive and communication difficulties. Because cognitive and neural development require essential fatty acids (particularly long-chain ω-3 fatty acids often lacking in mother's and children's diets) during critical growth periods, the potential behavior-modifying effects of these fatty acids as "brain nutrients" has attracted considerable attention. Additionally, there is compelling evidence for increased oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defenses, and neuroinflammation in these children. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific rationale based on cellular, experimental animal model, observational, and clinical intervention studies for incorporating the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E as complementary nutritional therapies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Should this nutritional combination correct key clinical or biochemical outcomes and/or improve behavioral patterns, it would provide a safe, complementary option for these children.

  12. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  13. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  14. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  15. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  16. Efficacy of oxalic acid to reduce Salmonella spp. at various states of poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The microbiological safety of fresh eviscerated poultry has continued to be a major concern of the consumer and the poultry industry due to the frequent foodborne illnesses caused by Salmonella spp. Oxalic acid (OA) was evaluated as an antimicrobial treatment at equivalent dip, scalding, and chillin...

  17. Reduced pulmonary blood flow in regions of injury 2 hours after acid aspiration in rats.

    PubMed

    Richter, Torsten; Bergmann, Ralf; Musch, Guido; Pietzsch, Jens; Koch, Thea

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration-induced lung injury can decrease gas exchange and increase mortality. Acute lung injury following acid aspiration is characterized by elevated pulmonary blood flow (PBF) in damaged lung areas in the early inflammation stage. Knowledge of PBF patterns after acid aspiration is important for targeting intravenous treatments. We examined PBF in an experimental model at a later stage (2 hours after injury). Anesthetized Wistar-Unilever rats (n = 5) underwent unilateral endobronchial instillation of hydrochloric acid. The PBF distribution was compared between injured and uninjured sides and with that of untreated control animals (n = 6). Changes in lung density after injury were measured using computed tomography (CT). Regional PBF distribution was determined quantitatively in vivo 2 hours after acid instillation by measuring the concentration of [(68)Ga]-radiolabeled microspheres using positron emission tomography. CT scans revealed increased lung density in areas of acid aspiration. Lung injury was accompanied by impaired gas exchange. Acid aspiration decreased the arterial pressure of oxygen from 157 mmHg [139;165] to 74 mmHg [67;86] at 20 minutes and tended toward restoration to 109 mmHg [69;114] at 110 minutes (P < 0.001). The PBF ratio of the middle region of the injured versus uninjured lungs of the aspiration group (0.86 [0.7;0.9], median [25%;75%]) was significantly lower than the PBF ratio in the left versus right lung of the control group (1.02 [1.0;1.05]; P = 0.016). The PBF pattern 2 hours after aspiration-induced lung injury showed a redistribution of PBF away from injured regions that was likely responsible for the partial recovery from hypoxemia over time. Treatments given intravenously 2 hours after acid-induced lung injury may not preferentially reach the injured lung regions, contrary to what occurs during the first hour of inflammation. Please see related article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-015-0014-z.

  18. Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Reduced Graphene Oxide-cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Heli, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the redox properties of drugs and their determination are performed by electrochemical techniques. Data obtained from electrochemical techniques are often correlated with molecular structure and pharmacological activity of drugs. In this regard, different modified electrodes were applied as sensors for quantification of different drugs. A nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide-cobalt hexacyanoferrate was synthesized by a simple precipitation route. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite comprised nanoparticles of cobalt hexacyanoferrate attached to the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. A nanocomposite-modified carbon paste electrode was then fabricated. It represented prominent activity toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid, and the kinetics of the electrooxidation process was evaluated. Finally, an amperometric method was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25901152

  19. Folic acid supplementation improves cognitive function by reducing the levels of peripheral inflammatory cytokines in elderly Chinese subjects with MCI

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fei; Wu, Tianfeng; Zhao, Jiangang; Song, Aili; Liu, Huan; Xu, Weili; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether folic acid supplementation would improve cognitive performance by reducing serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations. This RCT was performed in Tianjin, China. Participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomly assigned to the folic acid (400 μg/day) or conventional treatment groups. Neuropsychological tests were administered, and folate, homocysteine, vitamin B12, IL-6, TNF-α, Aβ-42, and Aβ-40 were measured at baseline and at 6- and 12-month time points.152 participants (folic acid: 77, conventional: 75) completed the trial. Significant improvements in folate (ηp2 = 0.703, P = 0.011), homocysteine (ηp2 = 0.644, P = 0.009), Aβ-42 (ηp2 = 0.687, P = 0.013), peripheral IL-6 (ηp2 = 0.477, P = 0.025), TNF-α (ηp2 = 0.709, P = 0.009) levels were observed in folic acid group compared with conventional group. Folic acid supplementation improved the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P = 0.028; effect size d = 0.153), Information (P = 0.031; d = 0.157) and Digit Span (P = 0.009; d = 0.172) scores at 12 months compared with conventional treatment. Based on these findings, daily oral administration of a 400-μg folic acid supplement to MCI subjects for 12 months can significantly improve cognitive performance and reduce peripheral inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:27876835

  20. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives.

  1. Novel conjugates of aspirin with phenolic acid as anti-inflammatory agents having significantly reduced gastrointestinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yichun; Geng, Meiyu; Li, Yingxia

    2010-04-01

    A series of novel conjugates of aspirin with natural phenolic acid antioxidants connected through a diol linker were designed and synthesized as potential bifunctional agents combining antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity. In general, the conjugates were found to be efficient antioxidants and many of them demonstrated much more potent anti-inflammatory activity than aspirin. Among them, 5a and 5b which bear the best anti-inflammatory activity exhibited significantly reduced ulcerogenic potency and toxicity compared to aspirin. However, it is evident that the anti-inflammatory activity of these dual-acting molecules in vivo, was not simply consistent with their antioxidant ability in vitro.

  2. Kojic acid reduces the cytotoxic effects of sulfur mustard on cultures containing human melanoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Smith, C N; Lindsay, C D

    2001-01-01

    In vivo experiments have shown that melanocytes are more sensitive than keratinocytes to the cytotoxic effects of sulfur mustard when it is applied topically to pig skin.1 It has been hypothesized that this is caused by the uncoupling of the melanogenic pathway by depletion of cellular glutathione, resulting in the uncontrolled production of cytotoxic quinone free-radical species by tyrosinase.2. In the present study, the feasibility of blocking the melanogenic pathway as a means of reducing the cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard was evaluated using kojic acid. Kojic acid is a topically applied depigmenting agent that exerts its effect by acting as a slow-binding, competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase.3 Preincubation of G361 pigmented melanoma cells and mixed cultures of G361 cells and SVK keratinocytes with 2.5 mM kojic acid resulted in significant increases in the viability of these cultures as determined by neutral red (NR) and gentian violet (GV) dye binding assays for up to 48 h following exposure to 50 microM sulfur mustard. The highest levels of protection were seen in the G361 cultures, with a 26.8% increase in culture viability (NR assay) compared with the sulfur-mustard-only controls at 24 h. Preincubation of SVK cells alone with kojic acid resulted in lower increases in viability (2.5% at 24 h by the NR assay). Inhibition of the melanogenic pathway reduces the sensitivity of cultures containing pigment cells to sulfur mustard.

  3. [Effect of reduced oxygen concentrations and hydrogen sulfide on the amino acid metabolism and mesenchymal cells proliferation].

    PubMed

    Plotnikova, L N; Berezovskii, V A; Veselskii, S P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hydrogen sulfide donor (10(-12) mol/l NaHS--I group) alone and together with the reduced oxygen concentrations (5% O2--II group, 3% O2--III group, 24 h) on the biological processes of human stem cells culture. It was shown that the cells proliferation by the third day of cultivation in I, II and III group decreased 1,7; 2,8 and 4,2 times. On the 4th day of culture proliferation inhibited in I, II and III group by 29; 33 and 54% compared to the control. Thus, adverse effects NaHS enhanced by reducing the oxygen concentration. It was established that in all experimental versions rapidly absorbed from the culture medium amino acids: cysteine and cystine, serine and aspartic acid, valine and tryptophan, proline and hydroxyproline, which are involved in the synthesis of proteins, in particular collagen. In the culture medium increased the concentration of free amino acids of the three factions: arginine, histidine and taurine; glycine and methionine; alanine and glutamine. We believe that in the applied concentration of hydrogen sulfide donor in conditions of low oxygen in a gaseous medium incubation inhibits the proliferation and alters the amino acid metabolism of human cells line 4BL.

  4. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  5. SCD5-induced oleic acid production reduces melanoma malignancy by intracellular retention of SPARC and cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Bellenghi, Maria; Puglisi, Rossella; Pedini, Francesca; De Feo, Alessandra; Felicetti, Federica; Bottero, Lisabianca; Sangaletti, Sabina; Errico, Maria Cristina; Petrini, Marina; Gesumundo, Cinzia; Denaro, Massimo; Felli, Nadia; Pasquini, Luca; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario Paolo; Carè, Alessandra; Mattia, Gianfranco

    2015-07-01

    A proper balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) is required for maintaining cell homeostasis. The increased demand of FAs to assemble the plasma membranes of continuously dividing cancer cells might unbalance this ratio and critically affect tumour outgrowth. We unveiled the role of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase SCD5 in converting saturated FAs into mono-unsaturated FAs during melanoma progression. SCD5 is down-regulated in advanced melanoma and its restored expression significantly reduced melanoma malignancy, both in vitro and in vivo, through a mechanism governing the secretion of extracellular matrix proteins, such as secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and collagen IV and of their proteases, such as cathepsin B. Enforced expression of SCD5 or supplementation of its enzymatic product, oleic acid, reduced the intracellular pH (pHe > pHi) and, in turn, vesicular trafficking across plasma membranes as well as melanoma dissemination. This intracellular acidification appears also to depend on SCD5-induced reduction of the C2 subunit of the vacuolar H(+) -ATPase, a proton pump whose inhibition changes the secretion profile of cancer cells. Our data support a role for SCD5 and its enzymatic product, oleic acid, in protection against malignancy, offering an explanation for the beneficial Mediterranean diet. Furthermore, SCD5 appears to functionally connect tumour cells and the surrounding stroma toward modification of the tumour microenvironment, with consequences on tumour spread and resistance to treatment.

  6. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  7. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K

    2003-09-01

    A series of four experiments was conducted to determine whether-shell quality during the late stages of egg production can be improved by using diets that are effective in reducing egg size. The experiments involved dietary manipulation of protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12. In experiment 1, reducing dietary protein in combination of reducing the dietary methionine and choline or this diet without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 resulted in reduced egg weight and improved shell quality. However, egg production also was drastically reduced. In experiment 2, reducing the dietary level of methionine, without adding supplemental choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality, but egg production was reduced as well. In this experiment reducing the dietary methionine without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. In experiment 3, reducing the dietary level of methionine and choline or reducing the dietary level of choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality without adverse effects on egg production. On the other hand, reducing dietary methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and supplemental choline reduced egg weight and improved shell quality but lowered egg production. In experiment 4, reducing dietary methionine together with reducing choline and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. The results of this series of experiments generally indicate that certain manipulations of the combination of methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 have the potential to reduce egg weight and improve shell quality without affecting egg production during the latter stages of the egg production cycle.

  8. Medroxyprogesterone - valproic acid - aspirin. MVA regime to reduce transfusion associated mortality in late-term hemoglobinopathies. Hypothesis and rationale.

    PubMed

    Altinoz, Meric A; Ozdilli, Kursat; Carin, Mahmut N; Gedikoglu, Gunduz

    2007-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) - a safe depot contraceptive - is shown previously to reduce painful crises of sickle cell anemia, which is parallel with the recent findings showing progesterone induction of fetal hemoglobin genes. This would be a way to reduce transfusions for late term thalassemia major and sickle cell-disease cases with no chances left for a stem cell transplantation. In these patients, transfusional hemosiderosis causes irreversible damage to many organs despite the available iron-chelating agents. Pharmacological strategies either target the conformal structure of the defective adult hemoglobin or aim to activate fetal hemoglobin concentrations. The only concern on MPA may be its thromboembolic risks, which may be uncoupled with agents acting both anti-coagulant and inductive on the blood oxygen-carrying affinity. Such agents could be valproic acid and aspirin. Valproic acid is being safely used to treat epilepsy and its histone acetylating function may lead its induction of fetal hemoglobin. Aspirin was shown to increase oxygen affinity of hemoglobin via acetylating lysine residues and its general acetylating activity on proteins such as histones makes it also an interesting candidate to activate fetal hemoglobin. We propose that combining MPA with clinically available doses of valproic acid and aspirin would be beneficial in terms of both reduced coagulation risks and increased oxygen affinity to decrease the transfusions and to improve the prognosis in late-phase hemoglobin disorders.

  9. Loss of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/aP2 Reduces Macrophage Inflammation Through Activation of SIRT3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongliang; Hertzel, Ann V.; Steen, Kaylee A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of proinflammatory macrophages plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Previous work using high fat-fed mice has shown that ablation of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4/aP2) in macrophages leads to an antiinflammatory state both in situ and in vivo, and the mechanism is linked, in part, to increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids and the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 2. Here, we show that loss of FABP4/aP2 in macrophages additionally induces sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and that monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1) lead to increased SIRT3 protein expression. Increased expression of SirT3 in FABP4/aP2 null macrophages occurs at the protein level with no change in SirT3 mRNA. When compared with controls, silencing of SIRT3 in Raw246.7 macrophages leads to increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. In contrast, loss of SIRT3 in FABP4/aP2-deficient macrophages attenuates the suppressed inflammatory signaling, reduced reactive oxygen species production, lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased fatty acid oxidation. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory phenotype of FABP4/aP2 null mice is mediated by increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids leading to the increased expression of both uncoupling protein 2 and SirT3. PMID:26789108

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; p<0.05) over the same temperature range, suggesting a more uniform maintenance of lipid dynamics despite the presence of cholesterol. These data indicate that EPA and DHA had different effects on membrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions. Copyright © 2016. Published

  11. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; de la Moureyre-Spire, Catherine; Weaver, Richard J; Guillouzo, André

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Method and compositions for reducing corrosion in the removal of acidic gases from gaseous mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    DuPart, M.S.; Cringle, D.C.; Oakes, B.D.

    1984-05-01

    A corrosion inhibited composition containing a gas conditioning solution such as an alkanol amine with water or with organic solvents and with small amounts of soluble thiocyanate compounds, soluble trivalent bismuth compounds with or without soluble divalent nickel or cobalt compounds. The compositions are useful to separate acid gases such as carbon dioxide from hydrocarbon feed streams in gas conditioning apparatus with minimum amounts of corrosion of the ferrous surfaces.

  13. Folic acid fortification prevents neural tube defects and may also reduce cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Jägerstad, Margaretha

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies ranges between 0.4 and 2/1000 pregnancies in EU. NTDs result in severe malformations and sometimes miscarriages. Children born with NTD suffer for the rest of their life of disability and chronic healthcare issues, and many women therefore choose termination of pregnancy if NTD is diagnosed prenatally. Women planning for pregnancy are recommended to eat 400 μg folic acid/d, whereas average figures across Europe indicate intakes of ∼250 μg/d for women of fertile age, a gap that could be bridged by implementation of folic acid fortification. The results of mandatory folic acid fortifications introduced in USA and Canada are a decrease between 25 and 45% of NTD pregnancies.   Evidence-based NTD prophylaxis is now practised in more than 60 countries worldwide. EU countries worry over possible cancer risks, but ignore a wealth of studies reporting decreasing cancer risks with folate intakes at recommended levels. Currently, there are indications of a U-shaped relationship, that is, higher cancer risks at low folate intakes (<150 μg/day) and highly elevated folate intakes (>1 mg/day), respectively. However neither the global World Cancer Research review nor EU's European Food Safety Authority report present data on increased cancer risk at physiological folate intake levels. Therefore, EU should act to implement folic acid fortification as NTD prophylaxis as soon as possible. © 2012 The Author/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Reduced macrophage selenoprotein expression alters oxidized lipid metabolite biosynthesis from arachidonic and linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Mattmiller, Sarah A; Carlson, Bradley A; Gandy, Jeff C; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2014-06-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation is an underlying etiology for multiple diseases and macrophages orchestrate inflammation largely through the production of oxidized fatty acids known as oxylipids. Previous studies showed that selenium (Se) status altered the expression of oxylipids and magnitude of inflammatory responses. Although selenoproteins are thought to mediate many of the biological effects of Se, the direct effect of selenoproteins on the production of oxylipids is unknown. Therefore, the role of decreased selenoprotein activity in modulating the production of biologically active oxylipids from macrophages was investigated. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were collected from wild-type and myeloid-cell-specific selenoprotein knockout mice to analyze oxylipid production by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as oxylipid biosynthetic enzyme and inflammatory marker gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Decreased selenoprotein activity resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase expression and decreased oxylipids with known anti-inflammatory properties such as arachidonic acid-derived lipoxin A₄ (LXA₄) and linoleic acid-derived 9-​oxo-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxoODE). Treating RAW 264.7 macrophages with LXA₄ or 9-oxoODE diminished oxidant-induced macrophage inflammatory response as indicated by decreased production of TNFα. The results show for the first time that selenoproteins are important for the balanced biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory oxylipids during inflammation. A better understanding of the Se-dependent control mechanisms governing oxylipid biosynthesis may uncover nutritional intervention strategies to counteract the harmful effects of uncontrolled inflammation due to oxylipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich formula reduces adhesion molecules in rats with experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ayman; Aziz, Moutaz; Hassan, Aktham; Mbodji, Khaly; Collasse, Elodie; Coëffier, Moïse; Bounoure, Frédéric; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2012-07-01

    The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in inflammatory bowel disease is focused on the effects on fish oil-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids. We speculated that a vegetal oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) might also inhibit colitis. Therefore, we evaluated whether dietary ALA would decrease the expression of adhesion molecules by inducing the protective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a rat colitis model. Colitis was induced at day 0 by an intrarectal injection of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS), whereas control rats received the vehicle. Rats were fed an ALA-rich formula 450 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, whereas the other colitic group (TNBS) and the control group were fed an isocaloric corn oil formula for 14 d (from day -7 to day 7). The colonic expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor A receptor-2 (VEGFR2), and HO-1 were studied by immunohistochemistry. The ALA-rich diet significantly decreased the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGFR-2 compared the TNBS group, but it did not affect the expression of HO-1. A vegetal ALA-rich formula decreases the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGFR-2 and independently of HO-1 in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. Further studies are required to evaluate its therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease as an alternative to fish oil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Reduced levels of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum carnitine in autistic children: relation to gastrointestinal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2015-02-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are common in autistic children. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carnitine are anti-inflammatory molecules and their deficiency may result in GI inflammation. The relationship between the increased frequency of GI manifestations and reduced levels of PUFAs and carnitine was not previously investigated in autistic patients. This study was the first to investigate plasma levels of PUFAs and serum carnitine in relation to GI manifestations in autistic children. Plasma levels of PUFAs (including linoleic, alphalinolenic, arachidonic "AA" and docosahexaenoic "DHA" acids) and serum carnitine were measured in 100 autistic children and 100 healthy-matched children. Reduced levels of serum carnitine and plasma DHA, AA, linolenic and linoleic acids were found in 66%, 62%, 60%, 43% and 38%, respectively of autistic children. On the other hand, 54% of autistic patients had elevated ω6/ω3 ratio. Autistic patients with GI manifestations (48%) had significantly decreased levels of serum carnitine and plasma DHA than patients without such manifestations. In addition, autistic patients with GI manifestations had significantly increased percentage of reduced serum carnitine (91.7%) and plasma DHA levels (87.5%) than patients without such manifestations (42.3% and 38.5%, respectively), (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001%, respectively). Reduced levels of plasma DHA and serum carnitine levels may be associated with the GI problems in some autistic patients. However, this is an initial report, studies are recommended to invesigate whether reduced levels of carnitine and DHA are a mere association or have a pathogenic role in GI problems in autistic patients.

  17. Facile synthesis of graphene from graphite using ascorbic acid as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijanto, Eko; Shoelarta, Shoerya; Subiyanto, Gatot; Rifki, Sadur

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has attracted a tremendous attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. However, a large scale production of this material is still an issue and subjected to intense research efforts. Here, we show a simple and green approach of the graphene synthesis from graphene oxide using ascorbic acid as reduction agent. A facile synthesis of graphene (rGO) through chemical oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) was described using modified Hummers method (Improved Tour Method/ITM). The ITM method does not produce toxic gas and the temperature of the oxidation is easily controlled using ice bath. The synthesized of graphene oxide was highly soluble and stable in water. The reduction of graphene oxide into graphene was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in mild condition. The combined ITM method and green reduction using ascorbic acid open the avenue of replacing hydrazine in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene and may be very important step for bulk production of graphene.

  18. Light avoidance reduces ascorbic acid accumulation in the peel of Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Citrus fruits are highly consumed worldwide and represent one of the most important sources of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, information about the molecular mechanisms regulating AsA accumulation in Citrus fruit and the effects of environmental factors is scarce. In this study we have investigated the effect of fruit shading on AsA content and the expression of AsA biosynthetic, degrading and recycling genes in fruits of different Citrus species. Immature-green fruits were covered at the end of the cell enlargement phase and AsA concentration in the flavedo declined and remained at low levels as compared with light-exposed fruits. Fruit shading marginally altered the expression of genes from the l-galactose pathway and this effect was variable in the four Citrus species. However, specific isoforms (GalUR8 or GalUR12) from the l-galacturonic acid pathway were significantly repressed paralleling the reduction in AsA concentration. No significant effect of shading was detected in transcription of genes of the myo-inositol and l-gulose pathways as well as recycling and degradation. Collectively, results indicate that light avoidance inhibited accumulation of AsA in the flavedo of Citrus fruits and suggest that the l-galacturonic acid pathway has a relevant contribution to AsA content in this tissue.

  19. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  20. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use.

  1. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  2. Snails from heavy-metal polluted environments have reduced sensitivity to carbon dioxide-induced acidity.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, Hugh; Cleary, David A; Marble, Aaron M; Phillips, Morgan V; Stoddard, Timothy J; Tuthill, Lara M; Winslow, James R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which increases water acidity. While marine acidification has received recent consideration, less attention has been paid to the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on freshwater systems-systems that often have low buffering potential. Since many aquatic systems are already impacted by pollutants such as heavy metals, we wondered about the added effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on freshwater organisms. We studied aquatic pulmonate snails (Physella columbiana) from both a heavy-metal polluted watershed and snails from a reference watershed that has not experienced mining pollution. We used gaseous CO2 to increase water acidity and we then measured changes in antipredatory behavior and also survival. We predicted a simple negative additive effect of low pH. We hypothesized that snails from metal-polluted environments would be physiologically stressed and impaired due to defense responses against heavy metals. Instead, snails from populations that acclimated or evolved in the presence of heavy metal mining pollution were more robust to acidic conditions than were snails from reference habitats. Snails from mining polluted sites seemed to be preadapted to a low pH environment. Their short-term survival in acidic conditions was better than snails from reference sites that lacked metal pollution. In fact, the 48 h survival of snails from polluted sites was so high that it did not significantly differ from the 24 h survival of snails from control sites. This suggests that the response of organisms to a world with rising anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels may be complex and difficult to predict. Snails had a weaker behavioral response to stressful stimuli if kept for 1 month at a pH that differed from their lake of origin. We found that snails raised at a pH of 5.5 had a weaker response (less of a decrease in activity) to concentrated heavy metals than did snails raised at their natal pH of

  3. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  4. BASE COMPOSITION OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA DEDUCED FROM BUOYANT DENSITY MEASUREMENTS IN CESIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Grady F.; Campbell, L. Leon; Postgate, John R.

    1964-01-01

    Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), L. Leon Campbell, and John R. Postgate. Base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria deduced from buoyant density measurements in cesium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:1073–1078. 1964.—The base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of sulfate-reducing bacteria was calculated from buoyant density measurements in CsCl. The sporulating sulfate-reducing bacteria fell into two groups: Desulfovibrio orientis with a DNA base composition of 42% guanine plus cytosine (G + C), and Clostridium nigrificans with a DNA base composition of 45% G + C. The mesophilic relative of C. nigrificans had a DNA base composition of 46% G + C. Thirty strains of nonsporulating sulfate-reducing bacteria called D. desulfuricans were studied. They fell into three groups as judged by DNA base composition: group I (11 strains), 60 to 62% G + C; group II (13 strains), 54 to 56% G + C; and group III (6 strains), 46 to 47% G + C. These data underline the need for a taxonomic revision of this group of microorganisms. PMID:5874533

  5. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  6. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  7. Reaction of thioacetals with triethylsilane in the presence of Lewis acids and reduced nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilyuk, B.A.; Mel'nitskii, I.A.; Golub, N.M.; Kiladze, T.K.; Kantor, E.A.; Rakhmankulov, D.L.

    1988-02-20

    1,1-Di(alkylthio)alkanes, 1,3-oxathiolanes, 1,3-dithiolanes, and ortho thioesters are cleaved by triethylsilane in the presence of catalytic amounts of zinc iodide or reduced nickel. In the presence of zinc iodide the acyclic dithioacetals and ortho thioester are converted into alkyl sulfides and triethyl(alkylthio)silanes by cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond. The analogs of the cyclic acetals are cleaved by triethylsilane only in the presence of reduced nickel, while regio-specific cleavage of the heterocycle at the carbon-oxygen bond is observed in 1,3-oxathiolanes. The cleavage of the 1,3-dithiolanes takes place by a more complicated mechanism with the formation of the disilyl ether of ethanedithiol, hexaethyldisilylthiane, and triethyl(alkylthio)silanes. The cyclic ortho thioester reacts with triethylsilane both at zinc iodide and at reduced nickel with the formation of the products from preferential cleavage of the exocyclic bond.

  8. Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Julia; Demmelmair, Hans; Hornstra, Gerard; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-02-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9 % v. +2.1 %, means), DGLA (+13.8 % v. +0.7 %) and DHA (+59.6 % v. +5.5 %), while there was no significant difference for ARA ( - 2.2 % v. - 5.9 %). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development.

  9. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P < 0.05) and those of HTGL were lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed docosahexaenoic acid, a major component of fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  10. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D; Browse, John

    2015-05-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies.

  11. Valproic acid and its congener propylisopropylacetic acid reduced the amount of soluble amyloid-β oligomers released from 7PA2 cells.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robin S B; Bate, Clive

    2017-09-22

    The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease suggests that synaptic degeneration and pathology is caused by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Subsequently, soluble Aβ oligomers cause the loss of synaptic proteins from neurons, a histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease that correlates with the degree of dementia. In this study, the production of toxic forms of Aβ was examined in vitro using 7PA2 cells stably transfected with human APP. We show that conditioned media from 7PA2 cells containing Aβ oligomers caused synapse degeneration as measured by the loss of synaptic proteins, including synaptophysin and cysteine-string protein, from cultured neurons. Critically, conditioned media from 7PA2 cells treated with valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid (VPA)) or propylisopropylacetic acid (PIA) did not cause synapse damage. Treatment with VPA or PIA did not significantly affect total Aβ42 concentrations; rather these drugs selectively reduced the concentrations of Aβ42 oligomers in conditioned media. In contrast, treatment significantly increased the concentrations of Aβ42 monomers in conditioned media. VPA or PIA treatment reduced the concentrations of APP within lipid rafts, membrane compartments associated with Aβ production. These effects of VPA and PIA were reversed by the addition of platelet-activating factor, a bioactive phospholipid produced following activation of phospholipase A2, an enzyme sensitive to VPA and PIA. Collectively these data suggest that VPA and PIA reduce Aβ oligomers through inhibition of phospholipase A2 and suggest a novel therapeutic approach to Alzheimer's treatment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood transfusion cost for primary total hip arthroplasty? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ryan N; Moskal, Joseph T; Capps, Susan G

    2015-02-01

    Peri-operative tranexamic acid (TXA) significantly reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and thus hospital costs are reduced. Before employing TXA in primary THA at our institution, facility costs were $286.90/THA for blood transfusion and required 0.45 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 19.87%). After incorporating TXA, the cost for intravenous application was $123.38/THA for blood transfusion and TXA medication and 0.07 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 4.39%) and the cost for topical application was $132.41/THA for blood transfusion and TXA and 0.14 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 12.86%). TXA has the potential to reduce the facility cost per THA and the man-hours/THA from blood transfusions.

  13. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids reduce cecal lesion scores in chickens infected with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Danforth, H D; Levander, O A

    1996-02-01

    Four experiments were run in which diets incorporating various levels of n-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) from fish (menhaden) oil or flax seed were tested for their abilities to reduce the severity of Eimeria tenella infections in young broiler chicks. The diets were fed from 1 d of age through 3 wk of age. Chickens were infected at 2 wk of age. Diets consisting of broiler starter ration supplemented with 2.5 to 10% fish oil, 10% flax seed oil, or 10% linseed oil significantly decreased cecal lesions and maintained weight gains as compared to unsupplemented diets. Light micrographs of ceca from chickens that consumed high n-3FA diets showed reduced parasite invasion and development. Short-term feeding of diets high in n-3FA to young chicks may be a practical method for reducing production losses from cecal coccidiosis.

  14. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  15. Cytoprotection of pyruvic acid and reduced beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide against hydrogen peroxide toxicity in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2003-05-01

    Elevated production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the central nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, ischemic reperfusion, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Pyruvic acid has a critical role in energy metabolism and a capability to nonenzymatically decarboxylate H2O2 into H2O. This study examined the effects of glycolytic regulation of pyruvic acid on H2O2 toxicity in murine neuroblastoma cells. Glycolytic energy substrates including D-(+)-glucose, D-(-) fructose and the adenosine transport blocker dipyridamole, were not effective in providing protection against H2O2 toxicity, negating energy as a factor. On the other hand, pyruvic acid completely prevented H2O2 toxicity, restoring the loss of ATP and cell viability. H2O2 toxicity was also attenuated by D-fructose 1,6 diphosphate (FBP), phospho (enol) pyruvate (PEP), niacinamide, beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-NAD+), and reduced form (beta-NADH). Both FBP and PEP exerted positive kinetic effects on pyruvate kinase (PK) activity. Interestingly, only pyruvic acid and beta-NADH exhibited powerful stoichiometric H2O2 antioxidant properties. Further, beta-NADH may exert positive effects on PK activity. Subsequent pyruvic acid accumulation can lead to the recycling of beta-NAD+ through lactate dehydrogenase and beta-NADH through glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. It was concluded from these studies that intracellular pyruvic acid and beta-NADH appear to act in concert through glycolysis, to enhance H2O2 intracellular antioxidant capacity in neuroblastoma cells. Future research will be required to examine whether similar effects are observed in primary neuronal culture or intact tissue.

  16. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice.

  18. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  19. Ergot alkaloids reduce rumen epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  20. Topical fluoride application is able to reduce acid susceptibility of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Cheng, Hui; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of topical fluoride application on the acid susceptibility of restorative materials. Four restorative materials were investigated in this study: 2 composite resins (Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Silorane), a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Extra), and a conventional glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus). The samples were treated once with 1 of 8 different fluoride solutions (TiF4, NaF, AmF, and SnF2, each at native pH or pH 4) for 3 min or remained untreated (control). The samples were then eroded by citric acid (pH 2.6) for 5 days (6×1 min daily). Erosive substance loss, surface topographic and compositional changes were investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, after fluoride pretreatment and after erosion. The results indicate high-concentrated AmF solution at native pH was effective in inhibiting erosion in the conventional glass-ionomer cement and polyacid-modified resin composite.

  1. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum.

  2. [Syndrome of bacterial overgrowth in patients with the reduced stomach acid secretion: some aspects of the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ardatskaia, M D; Loginov, V A; Minushkin, O N

    2014-01-01

    To study the frequency of occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in GERD patients with reduced stomach acid secretion receiving long-term PPI treatment, and patients with chronic atrophic gastritis with reduced stomach acid secretion, using the hydrogen breath test (HBT) and studies of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in various biological substrates; compare the obtained results. There were 100 people surveyed: 1 group consisted of 40 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (HG) with reduced stomach acid secretion; 2 group consisted of 60 patients of GERD in patients receiving PPI different duration (0-6 months, 6-12 months more than 12 months). All the patients were examined by a load of lactulose and research SCFA using gas-liquid chromatographic analysis (GC-analysis) in various biological substrates (duodenal secretion and feces). When performing HBT in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis frequency detection SIBO amounted to 57.5 per cent. In GERD patients receiving PPI SIBO was detected in 8.3% of cases (0-6 months of treatment), 21.7% (6-12 months of treatment), 61.6% (over 12 months). 15% of HG patients and 13.3% of GERD patients receiving PPI, with clinical manifestations of SIBO, the data turned out to be negative. The SCFA parameters in the duodenal secretion in patients with GERD during PPI therapy depending on the duration of the admission and in HG patients with reduced stomach acid secretion were studied, as well as in patients with clinical manifestations of SIBO depending on the data of HBT (+/-). We also studied SCFA parameters in patients with positive HBT results depending on time of registration of the increase of hydrogen concentration. It is established that the study of SCFA in the duodenal secretion is an important diagnostic SIBO test, which allows not only to detect increased activity of the microflora, but also to determine its tribal affiliation. In some cases, its information value exceeds the HBT. The study of

  3. The Potential Role of Systemic Buffers in Reducing Intratumoral Extracellular pH and Acid-Mediated Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ariosto S.; Yunes, Jose A.; Gillies, Robert J.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that the extracellular pH (pHe) in cancers is typically lower than that in normal tissue and that an acidic pHe promotes invasive tumor growth in primary and metastatic cancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that increased systemic concentrations of pH buffers reduce intratumoral and peritumoral acidosis and, as a result, inhibit malignant growth. Computer simulations are used to quantify the ability of systemic pH buffers to increase the acidic pHe of tumors in vivo and investigate the chemical specifications of an optimal buffer for such purpose. We show that increased serum concentrations of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) can be achieved by ingesting amounts that have been used in published clinical trials. Furthermore, we find that consequent reduction of tumor acid concentrations significantly reduces tumor growth and invasion without altering the pH of blood or normal tissues. The simulations also show that the critical parameter governing buffer effectiveness is its pKa. This indicates that NaHCO3, with a pKa of 6.1, is not an ideal intratumoral buffer and that greater intratumoral pHe changes could be obtained using a buffer with a pKa of ~7. The simulations support the hypothesis that systemic pH buffers can be used to increase the tumor pHe and inhibit tumor invasion. PMID:19276380

  4. The potential role of systemic buffers in reducing intratumoral extracellular pH and acid-mediated invasion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ariosto S; Yunes, Jose A; Gillies, Robert J; Gatenby, Robert A

    2009-03-15

    A number of studies have shown that the extracellular pH (pHe) in cancers is typically lower than that in normal tissue and that an acidic pHe promotes invasive tumor growth in primary and metastatic cancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that increased systemic concentrations of pH buffers reduce intratumoral and peritumoral acidosis and, as a result, inhibit malignant growth. Computer simulations are used to quantify the ability of systemic pH buffers to increase the acidic pHe of tumors in vivo and investigate the chemical specifications of an optimal buffer for such purpose. We show that increased serum concentrations of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) can be achieved by ingesting amounts that have been used in published clinical trials. Furthermore, we find that consequent reduction of tumor acid concentrations significantly reduces tumor growth and invasion without altering the pH of blood or normal tissues. The simulations also show that the critical parameter governing buffer effectiveness is its pK(a). This indicates that NaHCO(3), with a pK(a) of 6.1, is not an ideal intratumoral buffer and that greater intratumoral pHe changes could be obtained using a buffer with a pK(a) of approximately 7. The simulations support the hypothesis that systemic pH buffers can be used to increase the tumor pHe and inhibit tumor invasion.

  5. Tibolone Reduces Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Microglia Stimulated with Palmitic Acid through Mechanisms Involving Estrogen Receptor Beta.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lanussa, Oscar; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Baez-Jurado, Eliana; Zamudio, Jairo; Echeverria, Valentina; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Barreto, George E

    2017-09-25

    High concentrations of palmitic acid in plasma increase both the inflammation associated with obesity and the susceptibility to develop a neurodegenerative event. In the brain, the inflammatory response is mediated by activated microglial cells, which undergo morphological and biochemical changes and can directly affect cell viability. Recent evidence shows that the use of estrogenic compounds can control microglia-induced inflammation with promising results. In this study, we explored the actions of the synthetic steroid tibolone on BV-2 microglia cells stimulated with palmitic acid. Our results demonstrated that tibolone increased cell viability and reduced nuclear fragmentation and the production of reactive oxygen species, as well as preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects were accompanied by reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, upregulation of neuroglobin, and improved antioxidant defense. Furthermore, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibition partially dampened tibolone's protective actions in BV-2 cells stimulated with palmitic acid. In conclusion, tibolone protects BV-2 cells by a mechanism involving ERβ