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Sample records for acid residues conserved

  1. Conservation of cysteine residues in fungal histidine acid phytases.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Edward J; Ullah, Abul H J

    2005-03-11

    Amino acid sequence analysis of fungal histidine acid phosphatases displaying phytase activity has revealed a conserved eight-cysteine motif. These conserved amino acids are not directly associated with catalytic function; rather they appear to be essential in the formation of disulfide bridges. Their role is seen as being similar to another eight-cysteine motif recently reported in the amino acid sequence of nearly 500 plant polypeptides. An additional disulfide bridge formed by two cysteines at the N-terminus of all the filamentous ascomycete phytases was also observed. Disulfide bridges are known to increase both stability and heat tolerance in proteins. It is therefore plausible that this extra disulfide bridge contributes to the higher stability found in phytase from some Aspergillus species. To engineer an enhanced phytase for the feed industry, it is imperative that the role of disulfide bridges be taken into cognizance and possibly be increased in number to further elevate stability in this enzyme.

  2. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  3. Structure-function studies of nerve growth factor: functional importance of highly conserved amino acid residues.

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, C F; Hallböök, F; Ebendal, T; Persson, H

    1990-01-01

    Selected amino acid residues in chicken nerve growth factor (NGF) were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutated NGF sequences were transiently expressed in COS cells and the yield of NGF protein in conditioned medium was quantified by Western blotting. Binding of each mutant to NGF receptors on PC12 cells was evaluated in a competition assay. The biological activity was determined by measuring stimulation of neurite outgrowth from chick sympathetic ganglia. The residues homologous to the proposed receptor binding site of insulin (Ser18, Met19, Val21, Asp23) were substituted by Ala. Replacement of Ser18, Met19 and Asp23 did not affect NGF activity. Modification of Val21 notably reduced both receptor binding and biological activity, suggesting that this residue is important to retain a fully active NGF. The highly conserved Tyr51 and Arg99 were converted into Phe and Lys respectively, without changing the biological properties of the molecule. However, binding and biological activity were greatly impaired after the simultaneous replacement of both Arg99 and Arg102 by Gly. The three conserved Trp residues at positions 20, 75 and 98 were substituted by Phe. The Trp mutated proteins retained 15-60% of receptor binding and 40-80% of biological activity, indicating that the Trp residues are not essential for NGF activity. However, replacement of Trp20 significantly reduced the amount of NGF in the medium, suggesting that this residue may be important for protein stability. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2328722

  4. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Miller, Darcie J.; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins. PMID:26774272

  5. Mutagenesis of conserved amino acids of Helicobacter pylori fur reveals residues important for function.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; Gancz, Hanan; Benoit, Stéphane L; Evans, Sarah; Olsen, Cara H; Michel, Sarah L J; Maier, Robert J; Merrell, D Scott

    2010-10-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of the medically important pathogen Helicobacter pylori is unique in that it has been shown to function as a repressor both in the presence of an Fe2+ cofactor and in its apo (non-Fe2+-bound) form. However, virtually nothing is known concerning the amino acid residues that are important for Fur functioning. Therefore, mutations in six conserved amino acid residues of H. pylori Fur were constructed and analyzed for their impact on both iron-bound and apo repression. In addition, accumulation of the mutant proteins, protein secondary structure, DNA binding ability, iron binding capacity, and the ability to form higher-order structures were also examined for each mutant protein. While none of the mutated residues completely abrogated the function of Fur, we were able to identify residues that were critical for both iron-bound and apo-Fur repression. One mutation, V64A, did not alter regulation of any target genes. However, each of the five remaining mutations showed an effect on either iron-bound or apo regulation. Of these, H96A, E110A, and E117A mutations altered iron-bound Fur regulation and were all shown to influence iron binding to different extents. Additionally, the H96A mutation was shown to alter Fur oligomerization, and the E110A mutation was shown to impact oligomerization and DNA binding. Conversely, the H134A mutant exhibited changes in apo-Fur regulation that were the result of alterations in DNA binding. Although the E90A mutant exhibited alterations in apo-Fur regulation, this mutation did not affect any of the assessed protein functions. This study is the first for H. pylori to analyze the roles of specific amino acid residues of Fur in function and continues to highlight the complexity of Fur regulation in this organism.

  6. A conserved amino acid residue critical for product and substrate specificity in plant triterpene synthases

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Melissa; Thimmappa, Ramesha B.; Minto, Robert E.; Melton, Rachel E.; O’Maille, Paul E.; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes are structurally complex plant natural products with numerous medicinal applications. They are synthesized through an origami-like process that involves cyclization of the linear 30 carbon precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene into different triterpene scaffolds. Here, through a forward genetic screen in planta, we identify a conserved amino acid residue that determines product specificity in triterpene synthases from diverse plant species. Mutation of this residue results in a major change in triterpene cyclization, with production of tetracyclic rather than pentacyclic products. The mutated enzymes also use the more highly oxygenated substrate dioxidosqualene in preference to 2,3-oxidosqualene when expressed in yeast. Our discoveries provide new insights into triterpene cyclization, revealing hidden functional diversity within triterpene synthases. They further open up opportunities to engineer novel oxygenated triterpene scaffolds by manipulating the precursor supply. PMID:27412861

  7. Identification of Structural and Catalytic Classes of Highly Conserved Amino Acid Residues in Lysine 2,3-Aminomutase †

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dawei; Frey, Perry A.; Lepore, Bryan W.; Ringe, Dagmar; Ruzicka, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) from Clostridium subterminale SB4 catalyzes the interconversion of (S)-lysine and (S)-β-lysine by a radical mechanism involving coenzymatic actions of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a [4Fe-4S] cluster, and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP). The enzyme contains a number of conserved acidic residues and a cysteine and arginine-rich motif, that binds iron and sulfide in the [4Fe–4S] cluster. The results of activity and iron, sulfide, and PLP analysis of variants resulting from site-specific mutations of the conserved acidic residues and the arginine residues in the iron-sulfide binding motif indicate two classes of conserved residues of each type. Mutation of the conserved residues Arg134, Asp293, and Asp330 abolish all enzymatic activity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure, these residues bind the ε-aminium and α-carboxylate groups of (S)-lysine. However, among these residues only Asp293 appears to be important for stabilizing the [4Fe–4S] cluster. Members of a second group of conserved residues appear to stabilize the structure of LAM. Mutations of arginine residues 130, 135, and 136 and acidic residues Glu86, Asp165, Glu236, and Asp172 dramatically decrease iron and sulfide contents in the purified variants. Mutation of Asp96 significantly decreases iron and sulfide content. Variants in Arg130 or Asp172 display no detectable activity, whereas variants in the other positions display low to very low activities. Structural roles are assigned to this latter class of conserved amino acids. In particular, a network of hydrogen bonded interactions of Arg130, Glu86, Arg135 and the main chain carbonyl groups of Cys132 and Leu55 appears to stabilize the [4Fe–4S] cluster. PMID:17042481

  8. Identification of critical amino acid residues and functional conservation of the Neurospora crassa and Rattus norvegicus orthologues of neuronal calcium sensor-1.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Dibakar; Deka, Rekha; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2016-12-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of neuronal calcium sensor family of proteins consisting of an amino terminal myristoylation domain and four conserved calcium (Ca(2+)) binding EF-hand domains. We performed site-directed mutational analysis of three key amino acid residues that are glycine in the conserved site for the N-terminal myristoylation, a conserved glutamic acid residue responsible for Ca(2+) binding in the third EF-hand (EF3), and an unusual non-conserved amino acid arginine at position 175 in the Neurospora crassa NCS-1. The N. crassa strains possessing the ncs-1 mutant allele of these three amino acid residues showed impairment in functions ranging from growth, Ca(2+) stress tolerance, and ultraviolet survival. In addition, heterologous expression of the NCS-1 from Rattus norvegicus in N. crassa confirmed its interspecies functional conservation. Moreover, functions of glutamic acid at position 120, the first Ca(2+) binding residue among all the EF-hands of the R. norvegicus NCS-1 was found conserved. Thus, we identified three critical amino acid residues of N. crassa NCS-1, and demonstrated its functional conservation across species using the orthologue from R. norvegicus.

  9. The highly conserved aspartic acid residue between hypervariable regions 1 and 2 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 is important for early stages of virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W K; Essex, M; Lee, T H

    1995-01-01

    Between hypervariable regions V1 and V2 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 lies a cluster of relatively conserved residues. The contribution of nine charged residues in this region to virus infectivity was evaluated by single-amino-acid substitutions in an infectious provirus clone. Three of the HIV-1 mutants studied had slower growth kinetics than the wild-type virus. The delay was most pronounced in a mutant with an alanine substituted for an aspartic acid residue at position 180. This aspartic acid is conserved by all HIV-1 isolates with known nucleotide sequences. Substitutions with three other residues at this position, including a negatively charged glutamic acid, all affected virus infectivity. The defect identified in these mutants suggests that this aspartic acid residue is involved in the early stages of HIV-1 replication. PMID:7983752

  10. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  11. Phospho-N-Acetyl-Muramyl-Pentapeptide Translocase from Escherichia coli: Catalytic Role of Conserved Aspartic Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Adrian J.; Brandish, Philip E.; Gilbey, Andrea M.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.

    2004-01-01

    Phospho-N-acetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide translocase (translocase 1) catalyzes the first of a sequence of lipid-linked steps that ultimately assemble the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall. This essential enzyme is the target of several natural product antibiotics and has recently been the focus of antimicrobial drug discovery programs. The catalytic mechanism of translocase 1 is believed to proceed via a covalent intermediate formed between phospho-N-acetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide and a nucleophilic amino acid residue. Amino acid sequence alignments of the translocase 1 family and members of the related transmembrane phosphosugar transferase superfamily revealed only three conserved residues that possess nucleophilic side chains: the aspartic acid residues D115, D116, and D267. Here we report the expression and partial purification of Escherichia coli translocase 1 as a C-terminal hexahistidine (C-His6) fusion protein. Three enzymes with the site-directed mutations D115N, D116N, and D267N were constructed, expressed, and purified as C-His6 fusions. Enzymatic analysis established that all three mutations eliminated translocase 1 activity, and this finding verified the essential role of these residues. By analogy with the structural environment of the double aspartate motif found in prenyl transferases, we propose a model whereby D115 and D116 chelate a magnesium ion that coordinates with the pyrophosphate bridge of the UDP-N-acetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide substrate and in which D267 therefore fulfills the role of the translocase 1 active-site nucleophile. PMID:14996806

  12. Dissimilar roles of the four conserved acidic residues in the thermal stability of poly(A)-specific ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    He, Guang-Jun; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Divalent metal ions are essential for the efficient catalysis and structural stability of many nucleotidyl-transfer enzymes. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) belongs to the DEDD superfamily of 3'-exonucleases, and the active site of PARN contains four conserved acidic amino acid residues that coordinate two Mg(2+) ions. In this research, we studied the roles of these four acidic residues in PARN thermal stability by mutational analysis. It was found that Mg(2+) significantly decreased the rate but increased the aggregate size of the 54 kDa wild-type PARN in a concentration-dependent manner. All of the four mutants decreased PARN thermal aggregation, while the aggregation kinetics of the mutants exhibited dissimilar Mg(2+)-dependent behavior. A comparison of the kinetic parameters indicated that Asp28 was the most crucial one to the binding of the two Mg(2+) ions, while metal B might be more important in PARN structural stability. The spectroscopic and aggregation results also suggested that the alterations in the active site structure by metal binding or mutations might lead to a global conformational change of the PARN molecule.

  13. Identification of conserved amino acid residues critical for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase function in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, A; Craigie, R

    1992-01-01

    We have probed the structural organization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase protein by limited proteolysis and the functional organization by site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acid residues. A central region of the protein was relatively resistant to proteolysis. Proteins with altered amino acids in this region, or in the N-terminal part of the protein that includes a putative zinc-binding motif, were purified and assayed for 3' processing, DNA strand transfer, and disintegration activities in vitro. In general, these mutations had parallel effects on 3' processing and DNA strand transfer, suggesting that integrase may utilize a single active site for both reactions. The only proteins that were completely inactive in all three assays contained mutations at conserved amino acids in the central region, suggesting that this part of the protein may be involved in catalysis. In contrast, none of the mutations in the N-terminal region resulted in a protein that was inactive in all three assays, suggesting that this part of integrase may not be essential for catalysis. The disintegration reaction was particularly insensitive to these amino acid substitutions, indicating that some function that is important for 3' processing and DNA strand transfer may be dispensable for disintegration. Images PMID:1404595

  14. Identification of two conserved aspartic acid residues required for DNA digestion by a novel thermophilic Exonuclease VII in Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Larrea, Andres A.; Pedroso, Ilene M.; Malhotra, Arun; Myers, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Exonuclease VII was first identified in 1974 as a DNA exonuclease that did not require any divalent cations for activity. Indeed, Escherichia coli ExoVII was identified in partially purified extracts in the presence of EDTA. ExoVII is comprised of two subunits (XseA and XseB) that are highly conserved and present in most sequenced prokaryotic genomes, but are not seen in eukaryotes. To better understand this exonuclease family, we have characterized an ExoVII homolog from Thermotoga maritima. Thermotoga maritima XseA/B homologs TM1768 and TM1769 were co-expressed and purified, and show robust nuclease activity at 80°C. This activity is magnesium dependent and is inhibited by phosphate ions, which distinguish it from E. coli ExoVII. Nevertheless, both E. coli and T. maritima ExoVII share a similar putative active site motif with two conserved aspartate residues in the large (XseA/TM1768) subunit. We show that these residues, Asp235 and Asp240, are essential for the nuclease activity of T. maritima ExoVII. We hypothesize that the ExoVII family of nucleases can be sub-divided into two sub-families based on EDTA resistance and that T. maritima ExoVII is the first member of the branch that is characterized by EDTA sensitivity and inhibition by phosphate. PMID:18812402

  15. Conserved Amino Acid Residues of the NuoD Segment Important for Structure and Function of Escherichia coli NDH-1 (Complex I)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The NuoD segment (homologue of mitochondrial 49 kDa subunit) of the proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I/NDH-1) from Escherichia coli is in the hydrophilic domain and bears many highly conserved amino acid residues. The three-dimensional structural model of NDH-1 suggests that the NuoD segment, together with the neighboring subunits, constitutes a putative quinone binding cavity. We used the homologous DNA recombination technique to clarify the role of selected key amino acid residues of the NuoD segment. Among them, residues Tyr273 and His224 were considered candidates for having important interactions with the quinone headgroup. Mutant Y273F retained partial activity but lost sensitivity to capsaicin-40. Mutant H224R scarcely affected the activity, suggesting that this residue may not be essential. His224 is located in a loop near the N-terminus of the NuoD segment (Gly217–Phe227) which is considered to form part of the quinone binding cavity. In contrast to the His224 mutation, mutants G217V, P218A, and G225V almost completely lost the activity. One region of this loop is positioned close to a cytosolic loop of the NuoA subunit in the membrane domain, and together they seem to be important in keeping the quinone binding cavity intact. The structural role of the longest helix in the NuoD segment located behind the quinone binding cavity was also investigated. Possible roles of other highly conserved residues of the NuoD segment are discussed. PMID:25545070

  16. Conserved Aspartic Acid Residues Lining the Extracellular Loop I of Sodium-coupled Bile Acid Transporter ASBT Interact with Na+ and 7α-OH Moieties on the Ligand Cholestane Skeleton*

    PubMed Central

    Hussainzada, Naissan; Da Silva, Tatiana Claro; Zhang, Eric Y.; Swaan, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    Functional contributions of residues Val-99—Ser-126 lining extracellular loop (EL) 1 of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter were determined via cysteine-scanning mutagenesis, thiol modification, and in silico interpretation. Despite membrane expression for all but three constructs (S112C, Y117C, S126C), most EL1 mutants (64%) were inactivated by cysteine mutation, suggesting a functional role during sodium/bile acid co-transport. A negative charge at conserved residues Asp-120 and Asp-122 is required for transport function, whereas neutralization of charge at Asp-124 yields a functionally active transporter. D124A exerts low affinity for common bile acids except deoxycholic acid, which uniquely lacks a 7α-hydroxyl (OH) group. Overall, we conclude that (i) Asp-122 functions as a Na+ sensor, binding one of two co-transported Na+ ions, (ii) Asp-124 interacts with 7α-OH groups of bile acids, and (iii) apolar EL1 residues map to hydrophobic ligand pharmacophore features. Based on these data, we propose a comprehensive mechanistic model involving dynamic salt bridge pairs and hydrogen bonding involving multiple residues to describe sodium-dependent bile acid transporter-mediated bile acid and cation translocation. PMID:18508772

  17. Role of four conserved aspartic acid residues of EF-loops in the metal ion binding and in the self-assembly of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Duan, Lian; Sun, Tijian; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein closely related to the prototypical calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Four mutants (D37K, D73K, D110K and D146K) were created firstly to elucidate the importance of the first aspartic acid residues (Asp37, Asp73, Asp110 and Asp146) in the beginning of the four EF-loops of EoCen. Aromatic-sensitized Tb(3+) fluorescence indicates that the aspartic acid residues are very important for the metal-binding of EoCen, except for Asp73 (in EF-loop II). Resonance light scattering (RLS) measurements for different metal ions (Ca(2+) and Tb(3+)) binding proteins suggest that the order of four conserved aspartic acid residues for contributing to the self-assembly of EoCen is Asp37 > Asp146 > Asp110 > Asp73. Cross-linking experiment also exhibits that Asp37 and Asp146 play critical role in the self-assembly of EoCen. Asp37, in site I, which is located in the N-terminal domain, plays the most important role in the metal ion-dependent self-assembly of EoCen, and there is cooperativity between N-terminal and C-terminal domain (especially the site IV). In addition, the dependence of Tb(3+) induced self-assembly of EoCen and the mutants on various factors, including ionic strength and pH, were characterized using RLS. Finally, 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding, ionic strength and pH control experiments indicate that in the process of EoCen self-assembly, molecular interactions are mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces, and the hydrophobic interaction has the important status.

  18. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ivan H. W.; Chan, Kitti W. K.; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Jans, David A.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  19. Roles of Copper and a Conserved Aspartic Acid in the Autocatalytic Hydroxylation of a Specific Tryptophan Residue during Cysteine Tryptophylquinone Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Heather R; Sehanobish, Esha; Shiller, Alan M; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Davidson, Victor L

    2017-02-21

    The first posttranslational modification step in the biosynthesis of the tryptophan-derived quinone cofactors is the autocatalytic hydroxylation of a specific Trp residue at position C-7 on the indole side chain. Subsequent modifications are catalyzed by modifying enzymes, but the mechanism by which this first step occurs is unknown. LodA possesses a cysteine tryptophylquinone (CTQ) cofactor. Metal analysis as well as spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the mature and precursor forms of a D512A LodA variant provides evidence that copper is required for the initial hydroxylation of the precursor protein and that if alternative metals are bound, the modification does not occur and the precursor is unstable. It is shown that the mature native LodA also contains loosely bound copper, which affects the visible absorbance spectrum and quenches the fluorescence spectrum that is attributed to the mature CTQ cofactor. When copper is removed, the fluorescence appears, and when it is added back to the protein, the fluorescence is quenched, indicating that copper reversibly binds in the proximity of CTQ. Removal of copper does not diminish the enzymatic activity of LodA. This distinguishes LodA from enzymes with protein-derived tyrosylquinone cofactors in which copper is present near the cofactor and is absolutely required for activity. Mechanisms are proposed for the role of copper in the hydroxylation of the unactivated Trp side chain. These results demonstrate that the reason that the highly conserved Asp512 is critical for LodA, and possibly all tryptophylquinone enzymes, is not because it is required for catalysis but because it is necessary for CTQ biosynthesis, more specifically to facilitate the initial copper-dependent hydroxylation of a specific Trp residue.

  20. Functional importance of a pair of conserved glutamic acid residues and of Ca(2+) binding in the cbb(3)-type oxygen reductases from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hanlin; Han, Huazhi; Roh, Jung H; Hemp, James; Hosler, Jonathan P; Gennis, Robert B

    2012-09-18

    The cbb(3)-type cytochrome c oxidases are members of the family of heme-copper proton pumping respiratory oxygen reductases. The structure of the cbb(3)-type oxidase from Pseudomonas stutzeri reveals that, in addition to the six redox-active metal centers (two b-type hemes, three c-type hemes, and Cu(B)), the enzyme also contains at least one Ca(2+). The calcium bridges two propionate carboxyls at the interface between the low-spin heme b and the active-site heme b(3) and, in addition, is ligated to a serine in subunit CcoO and by a glutamate in subunit CcoN. The glutamate that is ligated to Ca(2+) is one of a pair of glutamic acid residues that has previously been suggested to be part of a proton exit pathway for pumped protons. In this work, mutations of these glutamates are investigated in the cbb(3)-type oxidases from Vibrio cholerae and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Metal analysis shows that each of these wild-type enzymes contains Ca(2+). Mutations of the glutamate expected to ligate the Ca(2+) in each of these enzymes (E126 in V. cholerae and E180 in R. sphaeroides) result in a loss of activity as well as a loss of Ca(2+). Mutations of the nearby glutamate (E129 in V. cholerae and E183 in R. sphaeroides) also resulted in a loss of oxidase activity and a loss of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the Ca(2+) is essential for assembly of the fully functional enzyme and that neither of the glutamates is likely to be part of a pathway for pumped protons within the cbb(3)-type oxygen reductases. A more likely role for these glutamates is the maintenance of the structural integrity of the active conformation of the enzyme.

  1. Non-local residue-residue contacts in proteins are more conserved than local ones.

    PubMed

    Noivirt-Brik, Orly; Hazan, Gershon; Unger, Ron; Ofran, Yanay

    2013-02-01

    Non-covalent residue-residue contacts drive the folding of proteins and stabilize them. They may be local-i.e. involve residues that are close in sequence, or non-local. It has been suggested that, in most proteins, local contacts drive protein folding by providing crucial constraints of the conformational space, thus allowing proteins to fold. We compared residues that are involved in local contacts to residues that are involved in non-local contacts and found that, in most proteins, residues in non-local contacts are significantly more conserved evolutionarily than residues in local contacts. Moreover, non-local contacts are more structurally conserved: a contact between positions that are distant in sequence is more likely to exist in many structural homologues compared with a contact between positions that are close in sequence. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of protein folding and may allow for better prediction of critical intra-chain contacts.

  2. Multiple ligand-binding properties of the lipocalin member chicken alpha1-acid glycoprotein studied by circular dichroism and electronic absorption spectroscopy: the essential role of the conserved tryptophan residue.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc; Matsunaga, Hisami; Bikádi, Zsolt; Haginaka, Jun

    2006-08-01

    Multiple ligand-binding properties of the 30-kDa chicken alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (cAGP), a member of the lipocalin protein family, were investigated for the first time by using circular dichroism (CD) and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy methods. By measuring induced CD (ICD) spectra, high-affinity binding (K(a) approximately 10(5)-10(6) M(-1)) of several drugs, dyes and natural compounds to cAGP was demonstrated including antimalarial agents (quinacrine, primaquine), phenotiazines (chlorpromazine, methylene blue), propranolol, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (ketoprofen, diclofenac), tamoxifen, diazepam, tacrine, dicoumarol, cationic dyes (auramine O, thioflavine T, ethidium bromide), benzo[a]pyrene, L-thyroxine, bile pigments (bilirubin, biliverdin), alkaloids (piperine, aristolochic acid), saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Analysis of the extrinsic CD spectra with the study of the covalently modified protein and CD displacement experiments revealed that a single Trp26 residue of cAGP conserved in the whole lipocalin family is part of the binding site, and it is essentially involved in the ligand-binding process via pi-pi stacking interaction resulting in the appearance of strong induced CD bands due to the non-degenerate intermolecular exciton coupling between the pi-pi* transitions of the stacked indole ring-ligand chromophore. The finding that cAGP is able to accommodate a broad spectrum of ligands belonging to different chemical classes suggests that its core beta-barrel cavity is unusually wide containing overlapping sub-sites. Significance of these new data in understanding of the ligand-binding properties of other lipocalins, especially that of human AGP, and potential practical applications are briefly discussed. Overall, cAGP serves as a simple, ultimate model to extend our knowledge on ligand-binding properties of lipocalins and to study the role of tryptophan residues in molecular recognition processes.

  3. Multiple Roles of a Conserved GAF Domain Tyrosine Residue in Cyanobacterial and Plant Phytochromes†

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Amanda J.; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Jang, Abigail Y.; Ernst, Lauren A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Duan, Yong; Lei, Hongxing; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2005-01-01

    The phytochrome family of red/far-red photoreceptors has been optimized to support photochemical isomerization of a bound bilin chromophore, a process that triggers a conformational change and modulates biochemical output from the surrounding protein scaffold. Recent studies have established that the efficiency of this photochemical process is profoundly altered by mutation of a conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr176) within the bilin-binding GAF domain of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 [Fischer, A. J., and Lagarias, J. C. (2004) Harnessing phytochrome’s glowing potential, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 17334–17339]. Here, we show that the equivalent mutation in plant phytochromes behaves similarly, indicating that the function of this tyrosine in the primary photochemical mechanism is conserved. Saturation mutagenesis of Tyr176 in Cph1 establishes that no other residue can support comparably efficient photoisomerization. The spectroscopic consequences of Tyr176 mutations also reveal that Tyr176 regulates the conversion of the porphyrin-like conformation of the bilin precursor to a more extended conformation. The porphyrin-binding ability of the Tyr176Arg mutant protein indicates that Tyr176 also regulates the ligand-binding specificity of apophytochrome. On the basis of the hydrogen-bonding ability of Tyr176 substitutions that support the nonphotochemical C15-Z,syn to C15-Z,anti interconversion, we propose that Tyr176 orients the carboxyl side chain of a conserved acidic residue to stabilize protonation of the bilin chromophore. A homology model of the GAF domain of Cph1 predicts a C5-Z,syn, C10-Z,syn, C15-Z,anti configuration for the chromophore and implicates Glu189 as the proposed acidic residue stabilizing the extended conformation, an interpretation consistent with site-directed mutagenesis of this conserved acidic residue. PMID:16285723

  4. Significance of conservative asparagine residues in the thermal hysteresis activity of carrot antifreeze protein.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dang-Quan; Liu, Bing; Feng, Dong-Ru; He, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Jin-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The approximately 24-amino-acid leucine-rich tandem repeat motif (PXXXXXLXXLXXLXLSXNXLXGXI) of carrot antifreeze protein comprises most of the processed protein and should contribute at least partly to the ice-binding site. Structural predictions using publicly available online sources indicated that the theoretical three-dimensional model of this plant protein includes a 10-loop beta-helix containing the approximately 24-amino-acid tandem repeat. This theoretical model indicated that conservative asparagine residues create putative ice-binding sites with surface complementarity to the 1010 prism plane of ice. We used site-specific mutagenesis to test the importance of these residues, and observed a distinct loss of thermal hysteresis activity when conservative asparagines were replaced with valine or glutamine, whereas a large increase in thermal hysteresis was observed when phenylalanine or threonine residues were replaced with asparagine, putatively resulting in the formation of an ice-binding site. These results confirmed that the ice-binding site of carrot antifreeze protein consists of conservative asparagine residues in each beta-loop. We also found that its thermal hysteresis activity is directly correlated with the length of its asparagine-rich binding site, and hence with the size of its ice-binding face. PMID:14531728

  5. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  6. Residual Distribution Schemes for Conservation Laws Via Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Abgrall, Remi; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a family of nonconservative numerical discretizations for conservation laws which retains the correct weak solution behavior in the limit of mesh refinement whenever sufficient order numerical quadrature is used. Our analysis of 2-D discretizations in nonconservative form follows the 1-D analysis of Hou and Le Floch. For a specific family of nonconservative discretizations, it is shown under mild assumptions that the error arising from non-conservation is strictly smaller than the discretization error in the scheme. In the limit of mesh refinement under the same assumptions, solutions are shown to satisfy an entropy inequality. Using results from this analysis, a variant of the "N" (Narrow) residual distribution scheme of van der Weide and Deconinck is developed for first-order systems of conservation laws. The modified form of the N-scheme supplants the usual exact single-state mean-value linearization of flux divergence, typically used for the Euler equations of gasdynamics, by an equivalent integral form on simplex interiors. This integral form is then numerically approximated using an adaptive quadrature procedure. This renders the scheme nonconservative in the sense described earlier so that correct weak solutions are still obtained in the limit of mesh refinement. Consequently, we then show that the modified form of the N-scheme can be easily applied to general (non-simplicial) element shapes and general systems of first-order conservation laws equipped with an entropy inequality where exact mean-value linearization of the flux divergence is not readily obtained, e.g. magnetohydrodynamics, the Euler equations with certain forms of chemistry, etc. Numerical examples of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows containing discontinuities together with multi-level mesh refinement are provided to verify the analysis.

  7. Conserved residues of the human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase mediate interactions with heme.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-08-19

    C-type cytochromes are distinguished by the covalent attachment of a heme cofactor, a modification that is typically required for its subsequent folding, stability, and function. Heme attachment takes place in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and, in most eukaryotes, is mediated by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS). HCCS is the primary component of the eukaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathway, known as System III. The catalytic function of HCCS depends on its ability to coordinate interactions between its substrates: heme and cytochrome c. Recent advancements in the recombinant expression and purification of HCCS have facilitated comprehensive analyses of the roles of conserved residues in HCCS, as demonstrated in this study. Previously, we proposed a four-step model describing HCCS-mediated cytochrome c assembly, identifying a conserved histidine residue (His154) as an axial ligand to the heme iron. In this study, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of 17 conserved residues in HCCS, and we provide evidence that the enzyme contains two heme-binding domains. Our data indicate that heme contacts mediated by residues within these domains modulate the dynamics of heme binding and contribute to the stability of the HCCS-heme-cytochrome c steady state ternary complex. While some residues are essential for initial heme binding (step 1), others impact the subsequent release of the holocytochrome c product (step 4). Certain HCCS mutants that were defective in heme binding were corrected for function by exogenous aminolevulinic acid (ALA, the precursor to heme). This chemical "correction" supports the proposed role of heme binding for the corresponding residues.

  8. Conserved Residues of the Human Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c Synthase Mediate Interactions with Heme

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    C-type cytochromes are distinguished by the covalent attachment of a heme cofactor, a modification that is typically required for its subsequent folding, stability, and function. Heme attachment takes place in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and, in most eukaryotes, is mediated by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS). HCCS is the primary component of the eukaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathway, known as System III. The catalytic function of HCCS depends on its ability to coordinate interactions between its substrates: heme and cytochrome c. Recent advancements in the recombinant expression and purification of HCCS have facilitated comprehensive analyses of the roles of conserved residues in HCCS, as demonstrated in this study. Previously, we proposed a four-step model describing HCCS-mediated cytochrome c assembly, identifying a conserved histidine residue (His154) as an axial ligand to the heme iron. In this study, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of 17 conserved residues in HCCS, and we provide evidence that the enzyme contains two heme-binding domains. Our data indicate that heme contacts mediated by residues within these domains modulate the dynamics of heme binding and contribute to the stability of the HCCS–heme–cytochrome c steady state ternary complex. While some residues are essential for initial heme binding (step 1), others impact the subsequent release of the holocytochrome c product (step 4). Certain HCCS mutants that were defective in heme binding were corrected for function by exogenous aminolevulinic acid (ALA, the precursor to heme). This chemical “correction” supports the proposed role of heme binding for the corresponding residues. PMID:25054239

  9. Improving the acidic stability of a methyl parathion hydrolase by changing basic residues to acidic residues.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Ping; Tian, Jian; Jiang, Huachen; Wu, Ningfeng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yunliu

    2012-06-01

    The acidic stability of a methyl parathion hydrolase (Ochr-MPH) was improved by selectively changing basic amino acids to acidic ones. Mutation sites were selected based on the position-specific amino acid replacement probabilities (more than or equal to 0.2) and the entropy of each site (more than or equal to 0.8). Three mutants (K208E, K277D, and K208E/K277D) were more stable than the wild-type (WT). Their half-lives at pH 5.0 were 64, 68, 65 min, respectively, whereas that of WT was 39 min. The acidic stability of proteins may therefore be improved by changing selected basic amino acid residues to acidic ones.

  10. Conserved aspartic acid 233 and alanine 231 are not required for poliovirus polymerase function in replicons

    PubMed Central

    Freistadt, Marion S; Eberle, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid polymerases have similar structures and motifs. The function of an aspartic acid (conserved in all classes of nucleic acid polymerases) in motif A remains poorly understood in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. We mutated this residue to alanine in a poliovirus replicon. The resulting mutant could still replicate, although at a reduced level. In addition, mutation A231C (also in motif A) yielded high levels of replication. Taken together these results show that poliovirus polymerase conserved residues D233 and A231 are not essential to poliovirus replicon function. PMID:17352827

  11. Three conserved histidine residues contribute to mitochondrial iron transport through mitoferrins.

    PubMed

    Brazzolotto, Xavier; Pierrel, Fabien; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2014-05-15

    Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms. In eukaryotes, it is mainly used in mitochondria for the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and haem group maturation. Iron is delivered into the mitochondrion by mitoferrins, members of the MCF (mitochondrial carrier family), through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, the yeast homologues of these proteins, Mrs3p (mitochondrial RNA splicing 3) and Mrs4p, were studied by inserting them into liposomes. In this context, they could transport Fe2+ across the proteoliposome membrane, as shown using the iron chelator bathophenanthroline. A series of amino acid-modifying reagents were screened for their effects on Mrs3p-mediated iron transport. The results of the present study suggest that carboxy and imidazole groups are essential for iron transport. This was confirmed by in vivo complementation assays, which demonstrated that three highly conserved histidine residues are important for Mrs3p function. These histidine residues are not conserved in other MCF members and thus they are likely to play a specific role in iron transport. A model describing how these residues help iron to transit smoothly across the carrier cavity is proposed and compared with the structural and biochemical data available for other carriers in this family.

  12. Functional analyses of carnivorous plant-specific amino acid residues in S-like ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Arai, Naoki; Nishimura, Emi; Kikuchi, Yo; Ohyama, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    Unlike plants with no carnivory, carnivorous plants seem to use S-like ribonucleases (RNases) as an enzyme for carnivory. Carnivorous plant-specific conserved amino acid residues are present at four positions around the conserved active site (CAS). The roles of these conserved amino acid residues in the enzymatic function were explored in the current study by preparing five recombinant variants of DA-I, the S-like RNase of Drosera adelae. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzymes revealed that among the four variants with a single mutation, the serine to glycine mutation at position 111 most negatively influenced the enzymatic activity. The change in the bulkiness of the amino acid residue side-chain seemed to be the major cause of the above effect. Modeling of the three dimensional (3D) structures strongly suggested that the S to G mutation at 111 greatly altered the overall enzyme conformation. The conserved four amino acid residues are likely to function in keeping the two histidine residues, which are essential for the cleavage of RNA strands, and the CAS in the most functional enzymatic conformation.

  13. Cardiolipin binds selectively but transiently to conserved lysine residues in the rotor of metazoan ATP synthases

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    The anionic lipid cardiolipin is an essential component of active ATP synthases. In metazoans, their rotors contain a ring of eight c-subunits consisting of inner and outer circles of N- and C-terminal α-helices, respectively. The beginning of the C-terminal α-helix contains a strictly conserved and fully trimethylated lysine residue in the lipid head-group region of the membrane. Larger rings of known structure, from c9-c15 in eubacteria and chloroplasts, conserve either a lysine or an arginine residue in the equivalent position. In computer simulations of hydrated membranes containing trimethylated or unmethylated bovine c8-rings and bacterial c10- or c11-rings, the head-groups of cardiolipin molecules became associated selectively with these modified and unmodified lysine residues and with adjacent polar amino acids and with a second conserved lysine on the opposite side of the membrane, whereas phosphatidyl lipids were attracted little to these sites. However, the residence times of cardiolipin molecules with the ring were brief and sufficient for the rotor to turn only a fraction of a degree in the active enzyme. With the demethylated c8-ring and with c10- and c11-rings, the density of bound cardiolipin molecules at this site increased, but residence times were not changed greatly. These highly specific but brief interactions with the rotating c-ring are consistent with functional roles for cardiolipin in stabilizing and lubricating the rotor, and, by interacting with the enzyme at the inlet and exit of the transmembrane proton channel, in participation in proton translocation through the membrane domain of the enzyme. PMID:27382158

  14. Mutagenesis of conserved active site residues of dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase enhances the accumulation of α-ketoglutarate in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (α-KG) is an important intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and has broad applications. The mitochondrial ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) complex catalyzes the oxidation of α-KG to succinyl-CoA. Disruption of KGDH, which may enhance the accumulation of α-KG theoretically, was found to be lethal to obligate aerobic cells. In this study, individual overexpression of dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (DLST), which serves as the inner core of KGDH, decreased overall activity of the enzyme complex. Furthermore, two conserved active site residues of DLST, His419, and Asp423 were identified. In order to determine whether these residues are engaged in enzyme reaction or not, these two conserved residues were individually mutated. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of the enzyme variants provided evidence that the catalytic reaction of DLST depended on residues His419 and Asp423. Overexpression of mutated DLST not only impaired balanced assembly of KGDH, but also disrupted the catalytic integrity of the enzyme complex. Replacement of the Asp423 residue by glutamate increased extracellular α-KG by 40 % to 50 g L(-1) in mutant strain. These observations uncovered catalytic roles of two conserved active site residues of DLST and provided clues for effective metabolic strategies for rational carbon flux control for the enhanced production of α-KG and related bioproducts.

  15. Evidence that the amino acid residue Cys117 of chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase is involved in its activity and structural stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wu, Qing-Yun; Sun, Yan-Li; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is crucial for AsA regeneration and essential for maintaining the reduced pool of AsA. And the amino acid residue C117 of chloroplastic MDAR is the conserved cysteine residue in MDAR isoforms. A series mutation of conserved amino acid residue cysteine117 (C117) was constructed to investigate its role in MDAR structural stability and activity. Our study revealed that mutation in this conserved residue could cause pronounced loss of activity and conformational changes. Spectroscopic experiments indicated that these mutations influenced transition from the molten globule intermediate to the native state in folding process. These results suggested that amino acid residue C117 played a relatively important role in keeping MDAR structural stability and activity.

  16. 40 CFR 180.289 - Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.289 Section 180.289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.289 Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established...

  17. 40 CFR 180.311 - Cacodylic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.311 Section 180.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.311 Cacodylic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for...

  18. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a...

  19. 40 CFR 180.289 - Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.289 Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established...

  20. 40 CFR 180.289 - Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.289 Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established...

  1. 40 CFR 180.289 - Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.289 Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established...

  2. 40 CFR 180.289 - Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.289 Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established...

  3. Demonstration of the functional role of conserved Glu-Arg residues in the Staphylococcus aureus ferrichrome transporter.

    PubMed

    Vinés, Enrique D; Speziali, Craig D; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-02-01

    The features that govern the interaction of ligand binding proteins with membrane permeases of cognate ABC transporters are largely unknown. Using sequence alignments and structural modeling based on the structure of the Escherichia coli BtuCD vitamin B12 transporter, we identified six conserved basic residues in the permease, comprised of FhuB and FhuG proteins, in the ferrichrome transporter of Staphylococcus aureus. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis we demonstrate that two of these residues, FhuB Arg-71 and FhuG Arg-61, play a more dominant role in transporter function than FhuB Arg-74 and Arg-311, and FhuG Arg-64 and Lys-306. Moreover, we show that at positions 71 and 61 in FhuB and FhuG, respectively, arginine cannot be substituted for lysine without loss of transporter function. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated the importance of conserved acidic residues in the ferrichrome binding protein, FhuD2. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that Glu-Arg salt bridges are critical for the interaction of the ligand binding protein with the transmembrane domains FhuB and FhuG. This hypothesis was further studied by "charge swapping" experiments whereby we constructed a S. aureus strain expressing FhuD2 with conserved residues Glu-97 and Glu-231 replaced by Arg and FhuB and FhuG with conserved basic residues Arg-71 and Arg-61, respectively, replaced by Glu. A strain containing this combination of substitutions restored partial function to the ferrichrome transporter. The results provide a direct demonstration of the functional importance of conserved basic residues on the extracellular surface of the ferrichrome permease in the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus.

  4. Two Conserved Cysteine Residues Are Required for the Masculinizing Activity of the Silkworm Masc Protein.

    PubMed

    Katsuma, Susumu; Sugano, Yudai; Kiuchi, Takashi; Shimada, Toru

    2015-10-23

    We have recently discovered that the Masculinizer (Masc) gene encodes a CCCH tandem zinc finger protein, which controls both masculinization and dosage compensation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In this study, we attempted to identify functional regions or residues that are required for the masculinizing activity of the Masc protein. We constructed a series of plasmids that expressed the Masc derivatives and transfected them into a B. mori ovary-derived cell line, BmN-4. To assess the masculinizing activity of the Masc derivatives, we investigated the splicing patterns of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) and the expression levels of B. mori IGF-II mRNA-binding protein, a splicing regulator of Bmdsx, in Masc cDNA-transfected BmN-4 cells. We found that two zinc finger domains are not required for the masculinizing activity. We also identified that the C-terminal 288 amino acid residues are sufficient for the masculinizing activity of the Masc protein. Further detailed analyses revealed that two cysteine residues, Cys-301 and Cys-304, in the highly conserved region among lepidopteran Masc proteins are essential for the masculinizing activity in BmN-4 cells. Finally, we showed that Masc is a nuclear protein, but its nuclear localization is not tightly associated with the masculinizing activity.

  5. Contributions of Conserved Residues at the Gating Interface of Glycine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Pless, Stephan A.; Leung, Ada W. Y.; Galpin, Jason D.; Ahern, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are chloride channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family. The interface between the ligand binding domain and the transmembrane domain of pLGICs has been proposed to be crucial for channel gating and is lined by a number of charged and aromatic side chains that are highly conserved among different pLGICs. However, little is known about specific interactions between these residues that are likely to be important for gating in α1 GlyRs. Here we use the introduction of cysteine pairs and the in vivo nonsense suppression method to incorporate unnatural amino acids to probe the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions of five highly conserved side chains near the interface, Glu-53, Phe-145, Asp-148, Phe-187, and Arg-218. Our results suggest a salt bridge between Asp-148 in loop 7 and Arg-218 in the pre-M1 domain that is crucial for channel gating. We further propose that Phe-145 and Phe-187 play important roles in stabilizing this interaction by providing a hydrophobic environment. In contrast to the equivalent residues in loop 2 of other pLGICs, the negative charge at Glu-53 α1 GlyRs is not crucial for normal channel function. These findings help decipher the GlyR gating pathway and show that distinct residue interaction patterns exist in different pLGICs. Furthermore, a salt bridge between Asp-148 and Arg-218 would provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the pathophysiologically relevant hyperekplexia, or startle disease, mutant Arg-218 → Gln. PMID:21835920

  6. Structural consequences of chromophore formation and exploration of conserved lid residues amongst naturally occurring fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Matthew H.; Li, Binsen; Shahid, Ramza; Peshkepija, Paola; Zimmer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods were used to generate the lowest energy conformations of the immature precyclized forms of the 28 naturally occurring GFP-like proteins deposited in the pdb. In all 28 GFP-like proteins, the beta-barrel contracts upon chromophore formation and becomes more rigid. Our prior analysis of over 260 distinct naturally occurring GFP-like proteins revealed that most of the conserved residues are located in the top and bottom of the barrel in the turns between the β-sheets (Ong et al. 2011) [1]. Structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations and the Anisotropic Network Model were used to explore the role of these conserved lid residues as possible folding nuclei. Our results are internally consistent and show that the conserved residues in the top and bottom lids undergo relatively less translational movement than other lid residues, and a number of these residues may play an important role as hinges or folding nuclei in the fluorescent proteins.

  7. A Highly Conserved gp120 Inner Domain Residue Modulates Env Conformation and Trimer Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shilei; Tolbert, William D.; Prévost, Jérémie; Pacheco, Beatriz; Coutu, Mathieu; Debbeche, Olfa; Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that highly conserved residues in the inner domain of gp120 are required for HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) transitions to the CD4-bound conformation (A. Finzi, S. H. Xiang, B. Pacheco, L. Wang, J. Haight, et al., Mol Cell 37:656–667, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2010.02.012; A. Desormeaux, M. Coutu, H. Medjahed, B. Pacheco, A. Herschhorn, et al., J Virol 87:2549–2562, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03104-12). Moreover, W69, a highly conserved residue located at the interface between layer 1 and layer 2 of the inner domain, was recently shown to be important for efficient Env recognition by CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies capable of potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (W. D. Tolbert, N. Gohain, M. Veillette, J. P. Chapleau, C. Orlandi, et al., 2016, Structure 24:697–709, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2016.03.005; S. Ding, M. Veillette, M. Coutu, J. Prevost, L. Scharf, et al., 2016, J Virol 90:2127–2134, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02779-15). We evaluated the contribution of the hydrophobicity of W69 to conformational changes of Env by replacing it with a series of residues with aliphatic or aromatic side chains of decreasing chain length. We have found that the hydrophobicity of residue 69 is important for Env processing, CD4 binding, and its transition to the CD4-bound conformation. The most deleterious effect was observed when W69 was replaced with alanine or glycine residues. However, the functions lost due to W69 mutations could be progressively restored with amino acids of increasing aliphatic chain length and fully recovered with residues bearing an aromatic ring. Interestingly, poor CD4 binding of W69A could be fully restored by introducing a compensatory mutation within layer 2 (S115W). Structural studies of HIV-1 gp120 coree W69A/S115W mutant bound to the CD4 peptide mimetic M48U1 and Fab of anti-cluster A antibody N60-i3 revealed no perturbations to the overall structure of the

  8. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  9. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  10. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  11. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  12. 40 CFR 180.180 - Orthoarsenic acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Orthoarsenic acid; tolerance for residues. 180.180 Section 180.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...

  13. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues.

    PubMed

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  15. 40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for residues of the plant growth regulator arsanilic acid , in or on the following food commodities in...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...

  16. 40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for residues of the plant growth regulator arsanilic acid , in or on the following food commodities in...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...

  17. 40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for residues of the plant growth regulator arsanilic acid , in or on the following food commodities in...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...

  18. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  19. Predicting RNA-binding residues from evolutionary information and sequence conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in post-transcriptional control of RNA. RBPs are designed to efficiently recognize specific RNA sequences after it is derived from the DNA sequence. To satisfy diverse functional requirements, RNA binding proteins are composed of multiple blocks of RNA-binding domains (RBDs) presented in various structural arrangements to provide versatile functions. The ability to computationally predict RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein can help biologists reveal important site-directed mutagenesis in wet-lab experiments. Results The proposed prediction framework named “ProteRNA” combines a SVM-based classifier with conserved residue discovery by WildSpan to identify the residues that interact with RNA in a RNA-binding protein. Although these conserved residues can be either functionally conserved residues or structurally conserved residues, they provide clues on the important residues in a protein sequence. In the independent testing dataset, ProteRNA has been able to deliver overall accuracy of 89.78%, MCC of 0.2628, F-score of 0.3075, and F0.5-score of 0.3546. Conclusions This article presents the design of a sequence-based predictor aiming to identify the RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein by combining machine learning and pattern mining approaches. RNA-binding proteins have diverse functions while interacting with different categories of RNAs because these proteins are composed of multiple copies of RNA-binding domains presented in various structural arrangements to expand the functional repertoire of RNA-binding proteins. Furthermore, predicting RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein can help biologists reveal important site-directed mutagenesis in wet-lab experiments. PMID:21143803

  20. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  1. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging.

  2. Mutations of Conserved Residues in the Major Homology Region Arrest Assembling HIV-1 Gag as a Membrane-Targeted Intermediate Containing Genomic RNA and Cellular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Motoko; Robinson, Bridget A.; Chutiraka, Kasana; Geary, Clair D.; Reed, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major homology region (MHR) is a highly conserved motif that is found within the Gag protein of all orthoretroviruses and some retrotransposons. While it is widely accepted that the MHR is critical for assembly of HIV-1 and other retroviruses, how the MHR functions and why it is so highly conserved are not understood. Moreover, consensus is lacking on when HIV-1 MHR residues function during assembly. Here, we first addressed previous conflicting reports by confirming that MHR deletion, like conserved MHR residue substitution, leads to a dramatic reduction in particle production in human and nonhuman primate cells expressing HIV-1 proviruses. Next, we used biochemical analyses and immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that conserved residues in the MHR are required after assembling Gag has associated with genomic RNA, recruited critical host factors involved in assembly, and targeted to the plasma membrane. The exact point of inhibition at the plasma membrane differed depending on the specific mutation, with one MHR mutant arrested as a membrane-associated intermediate that is stable upon high-salt treatment and other MHR mutants arrested as labile, membrane-associated intermediates. Finally, we observed the same assembly-defective phenotypes when the MHR deletion or conserved MHR residue substitutions were engineered into Gag from a subtype B, lab-adapted provirus or Gag from a subtype C primary isolate that was codon optimized. Together, our data support a model in which MHR residues act just after membrane targeting, with some MHR residues promoting stability and another promoting multimerization of the membrane-targeted assembling Gag oligomer. IMPORTANCE The retroviral Gag protein exhibits extensive amino acid sequence variation overall; however, one region of Gag, termed the major homology region, is conserved among all retroviruses and even some yeast retrotransposons, although the reason for this conservation remains poorly understood. Highly

  3. Electron microscopy of carbonaceous matter in Allende acid residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of characteristic diffuse ring diffraction patterns, much of the carbonaceous matter in a large suite of Allende acid residues has been identified as a variety of turbostratic carbon. Crystallites of this phase contain randomly stacked sp(2) hybridized carbon layers and diffraction patterns resemble those from carbon black and glassy carbon. Carbynes are probably absent, and are certainly restricted to less than 0.5% of these acid residues. The work of Ott et al. (1981) provides a basis for the possibility that turbostratic carbon is a carrier of noble gases, but an additional component - amorphous carbon - may be necessary to explain the high release temperatures of noble gases as well as the glassy character of many of the carbonaceous particles. Carbynes are considered to be questionable as important carriers of noble gases in the Allende acid residues.

  4. Protein engineering of selected residues from conserved sequence regions of a novel Anoxybacillus α-amylase

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Velayudhan; Janeček, Štefan; Chai, Kian Piaw; Shahir, Shafinaz; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Kian Mau

    2014-01-01

    The α-amylases from Anoxybacillus species (ASKA and ADTA), Bacillus aquimaris (BaqA) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (GTA, Pizzo and GtamyII) were proposed as a novel group of the α-amylase family GH13. An ASKA yielding a high percentage of maltose upon its reaction on starch was chosen as a model to study the residues responsible for the biochemical properties. Four residues from conserved sequence regions (CSRs) were thus selected, and the mutants F113V (CSR-I), Y187F and L189I (CSR-II) and A161D (CSR-V) were characterised. Few changes in the optimum reaction temperature and pH were observed for all mutants. Whereas the Y187F (t1/2 43 h) and L189I (t1/2 36 h) mutants had a lower thermostability at 65°C than the native ASKA (t1/2 48 h), the mutants F113V and A161D exhibited an improved t1/2 of 51 h and 53 h, respectively. Among the mutants, only the A161D had a specific activity, kcat and kcat/Km higher (1.23-, 1.17- and 2.88-times, respectively) than the values determined for the ASKA. The replacement of the Ala-161 in the CSR-V with an aspartic acid also caused a significant reduction in the ratio of maltose formed. This finding suggests the Ala-161 may contribute to the high maltose production of the ASKA. PMID:25069018

  5. The contrasting properties of conservation and correlated phylogeny in protein functional residue prediction

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Jonathan R; Jefferson, Emily R; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2008-01-01

    Background Amino acids responsible for structure, core function or specificity may be inferred from multiple protein sequence alignments where a limited set of residue types are tolerated. The rise in available protein sequences continues to increase the power of techniques based on this principle. Results A new algorithm, SMERFS, for predicting protein functional sites from multiple sequences alignments was compared to 14 conservation measures and to the MINER algorithm. Validation was performed on an automatically generated dataset of 1457 families derived from the protein interactions database SNAPPI-DB, and a smaller manually curated set of 148 families. The best performing measure overall was Williamson property entropy, with ROC0.1 scores of 0.0087 and 0.0114 for domain and small molecule contact prediction, respectively. The Lancet method performed worse than random on protein-protein interaction site prediction (ROC0.1 score of 0.0008). The SMERFS algorithm gave similar accuracy to the phylogenetic tree-based MINER algorithm but was superior to Williamson in prediction of non-catalytic transient complex interfaces. SMERFS predicts sites that are significantly more solvent accessible compared to Williamson. Conclusion Williamson property entropy is the the best performing of 14 conservation measures examined. The difference in performance of SMERFS relative to Williamson in manually defined complexes was dependent on complex type. The best choice of analysis method is therefore dependent on the system of interest. Additional computation employed by Miner in calculation of phylogenetic trees did not produce improved results over SMERFS. SMERFS performance was improved by use of windows over alignment columns, illustrating the necessity of considering the local environment of positions when assessing their functional significance. PMID:18221517

  6. CKAAPs DB: a conserved key amino acid positions database.

    PubMed

    Li, W W; Reddy, B V; Shindyalov, I N; Bourne, P E

    2001-01-01

    The Conserved Key Amino Acid Positions DataBase (CKAAPs DB) provides access to an analysis of structurally similar proteins with dissimilar sequences where key residues within a common fold are identified. The derivation and significance of CKAAPs starting from pairwise structure alignments is described fully in Reddy et al. [Reddy,B.V.B., Li,W.W., Shindyalov,I.N. and Bourne,P.E. (2000) PROTEINS:, in press]. The CKAAPs identified from this theoretical analysis are provided to experimentalists and theoreticians for potential use in protein engineering and modeling. It has been suggested that CKAAPs may be crucial features for protein folding, structural stability and function. Over 170 substructures, as defined by the Combinatorial Extension (CE) database, which are found in approximately 3000 representative polypeptide chains have been analyzed and are available in the CKAAPs DB. CKAAPs DB also provides CKAAPs of the representative set of proteins derived from the CE and FSSP databases. Thus the database contains over 5000 representative poly-peptide chains, covering all known structures in the PDB. A web interface to a relational database permits fast retrieval of structure-sequence alignments, CKAAPs and associated statistics. Users may query by PDB ID, protein name, function and Enzyme Classification number. Users may also submit protein alignments of their own to obtain CKAAPs. An interface to display CKAAPs on each structure from a web browser is also being implemented. CKAAPs DB is maintained by the San Diego Supercomputer Center and accessible at the URL http://ckaaps.sdsc.edu.

  7. Developments of entropy-stable residual distribution methods for conservation laws I: Scalar problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Farzad; Chizari, Hossain

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary developments of entropy-stable residual distribution methods for scalar problems. Controlling entropy generation is achieved by formulating an entropy conserved signals distribution coupled with an entropy-stable signals distribution. Numerical results of the entropy-stable residual distribution methods are accurate and comparable with the classic residual distribution methods for steady-state problems. High order accurate extensions for the new method on steady-state problems are also demonstrated. Moreover, the new method preserves second order accuracy on unsteady problems using an explicit time integration scheme. The idea of the multi-dimensional entropy-stable residual distribution method is generic enough to be extended to the system of hyperbolic equations, which will be presented in the sequel of this paper.

  8. Identification of conserved polar residues important for salt tolerance by the Na+/H+ exchanger of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Fliegel, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger is a ubiquitous protein that transports Na+ and H+ in opposite directions across cell membranes. In fission yeast, the Na+/H+ exchanger sod2 plays a major role in the removal of excess detrimental intracellular sodium. The effect of mutagenesis of conserved polar amino acids of sod2 was examined by expressing 10 different mutant forms of sod2 in sod2 deficient S. pombe and characterizing salt tolerance. Asp145, 266, 267, and Glu173 were critical for proper function of sod2. Asp241 had an intermediate effect on sod2 function while mutation of Asp178 did not impair sod2 function. Simultaneous mutation of the Asp266, 267 pair impaired sod2 function. Mutation of each individual residue demonstrated that both were critical for sod2 function. Conservative mutations (Asp to Glu) of Asp266 and 267 failed to restore sod2 function. The results suggest that acidic residues associated with transmembrane segments are important in function, possibly being important in binding and coordinating cations.

  9. Studies on the fusion peptide of a paramyxovirus fusion glycoprotein: roles of conserved residues in cell fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, C M; Lamb, R A

    1992-01-01

    The role of residues in the conserved hydrophobic N-terminal fusion peptide of the paramyxovirus fusion (F) protein in causing cell-cell fusion was examined. Mutations were introduced into the cDNA encoding the simian virus 5 (SV5) F protein, the altered F proteins were expressed by using an eukaryotic vector, and their ability to mediate syncytium formation was determined. The mutant F proteins contained both single- and multiple-amino-acid substitutions, and they exhibited a variety of intracellular transport properties and fusion phenotypes. The data indicate that many substitutions in the conserved amino acids of the simian virus 5 F fusion peptide can be tolerated without loss of biological activity. Mutant F proteins which were not transported to the cell surface did not cause cell-cell fusion, but all of the mutants which were transported to the cell surface were fusion competent, exhibiting fusion properties similar to or better than those of the wild-type F protein. Mutant F proteins containing glycine-to-alanine substitutions had altered intracellular transport characteristics, yet they exhibited a great increase in fusion activity. The potential structural implications of this substitution and the possible importance of these glycine residues in maintaining appropriate levels of fusion activity are discussed. Images PMID:1548771

  10. A Conserved Residue Cluster That Governs Kinetics of ATP-dependent Gating of Kir6.2 Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Roger S; Wright, Jordan D; Pless, Stephan A; Nunez, John-Jose; Kim, Robin Y; Li, Jenny B W; Yang, Runying; Ahern, Christopher A; Kurata, Harley T

    2015-06-19

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors. Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of ∼60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly modest effects on gating kinetics despite significant changes in ATP sensitivity and open probability. However, we identified a pair of highly conserved neighboring amino acids (Trp-68 and Lys-170) that control the rate of channel opening and inhibition in response to ATP. Paradoxically, mutations of Trp-68 or Lys-170 markedly slow the kinetics of channel opening (500 and 700 ms for W68L and K170N, respectively), while increasing channel open probability. Examining the functional effects of these residues using φ value analysis revealed a steep negative slope. This finding implies that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, which is potentially necessary to localize the ϵ-amine of Lys-170 in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Overall, our findings identify a discrete pair of highly conserved residues with an essential role for controlling gating kinetics of Kir channels.

  11. Analysis of Conserved Glutamate and Aspartate Residues in Drosophila Rhodopsin 1 and Their Influence on Spectral Tuning.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lijun; Farrell, David M; Fulton, Ruth M; Bagg, Eve E; Salcedo, Ernesto; Manino, Meridee; Britt, Steven G

    2015-09-04

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate invertebrate visual pigment absorption are poorly understood. Studies of amphioxus Go-opsin have demonstrated that Glu-181 functions as the counterion in this pigment. This finding has led to the proposal that Glu-181 may function as the counterion in other invertebrate visual pigments as well. Here we describe a series of mutagenesis experiments to test this hypothesis and to also test whether other conserved acidic amino acids in Drosophila Rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) may serve as the counterion of this visual pigment. Of the 5 Glu and Asp residues replaced by Gln or Asn in our experiments, none of the mutant pigments shift the absorption of Rh1 by more than 6 nm. In combination with prior studies, these results suggest that the counterion in Drosophila Rh1 may not be located at Glu-181 as in amphioxus, or at Glu-113 as in bovine rhodopsin. Conversely, the extremely low steady state levels of the E194Q mutant pigment (bovine opsin site Glu-181), and the rhabdomere degeneration observed in flies expressing this mutant demonstrate that a negatively charged residue at this position is essential for normal rhodopsin function in vivo. This work also raises the possibility that another residue or physiologic anion may compensate for the missing counterion in the E194Q mutant.

  12. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  13. Identification of the amino acid residues responsible for stable nucleosome formation by histone H3.Y.

    PubMed

    Kujirai, Tomoya; Horikoshi, Naoki; Xie, Yan; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-24

    Histone H3.Y is conserved among primates. We previously reported that exogenously produced H3.Y accumulates around transcription start sites, suggesting that it may play a role in transcription regulation. The H3.Y nucleosome forms a relaxed chromatin conformation with flexible DNA ends. The H3.Y-specific Lys42 residue is partly responsible for enhancing the flexibility of the nucleosomal DNA. To our surprise, we found that H3.Y stably associates with chromatin and nucleosomes in vivo and in vitro. However, the H3.Y residues responsible for its stable nucleosome incorporation have not been identified yet. In the present study, we performed comprehensive mutational analyses of H3.Y, and determined that the H3.Y C-terminal region including amino acid residues 124-135 is responsible for its stable association with DNA. Among the H3.Y C-terminal residues, the H3.Y Met124 residue significantly contributed to the stable DNA association with the H3.Y-H4 tetramer. The H3.Y M124I mutation substantially reduced the H3.Y-H4 association in the nucleosome. In contrast, the H3.Y K42R mutation affected the nucleosome stability less, although it contributes to the flexible DNA ends of the nucleosome. Therefore, these H3.Y-specific residues, Lys42 and Met124, play different and specific roles in nucleosomal DNA relaxation and stable nucleosome formation, respectively, in chromatin.

  14. Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Kanamoto, Shota; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2015-10-12

    In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. Here, we show in budding yeast that Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of the largest subunit (Orc1), both outside the aforementioned domains, are crucial for specific binding of ORC to origin DNA. These basic residues, which reside in a putative disordered domain, were dispensable for interaction with ATP and non-specific DNA sequences, suggesting a specific role in recognition. Consistent with this, both residues were required for origin binding of Orc1 in vivo. A truncated Orc1 polypeptide containing these residues solely recognizes ARS sequence with low affinity and Arg-367 residue stimulates sequence specific binding mode of the polypeptide. Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of Orc1 are highly conserved among eukaryotic ORCs, but not in eubacterial and archaeal orthologs, suggesting a eukaryote-specific mechanism underlying recognition of replication origins by ORC.

  15. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  16. Structural Conservation of Ligand Binding Reveals a Bile Acid-like Signaling Pathway in Nematodes*

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xiaoyong; Zhou, X. Edward; Melcher, Karsten; Motola, Daniel L.; Gelmedin, Verena; Hawdon, John; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Xu, H. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Bile acid-like molecules named dafachronic acids (DAs) control the dauer formation program in Caenorhabditis elegans through the nuclear receptor DAF-12. This mechanism is conserved in parasitic nematodes to regulate their dauer-like infective larval stage, and as such, the DAF-12 ligand binding domain has been identified as an important therapeutic target in human parasitic hookworm species that infect more than 600 million people worldwide. Here, we report two x-ray crystal structures of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum DAF-12 ligand binding domain in complex with DA and cholestenoic acid (a bile acid-like metabolite), respectively. Structure analysis and functional studies reveal key residues responsible for species-specific ligand responses of DAF-12. Furthermore, DA binds to DAF-12 mechanistically and is structurally similar to bile acids binding to the mammalian bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor. Activation of DAF-12 by cholestenoic acid and the cholestenoic acid complex structure suggest that bile acid-like signaling pathways have been conserved in nematodes and mammals. Together, these results reveal the molecular mechanism for the interplay between parasite and host, provide a structural framework for DAF-12 as a promising target in treating nematode parasitism, and provide insight into the evolution of gut parasite hormone-signaling pathways. PMID:22170062

  17. A conserved proline residue in Dothideomycete Avr4 effector proteins is required to trigger a Cf-4-dependent hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Mesarich, Carl H; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Beenen, Henriek G; Cordovez, Viviane; Guo, Yanan; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor; Bradshaw, Rosie E; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2016-01-01

    CfAvr4, a chitin-binding effector protein produced by the Dothideomycete tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, protects the cell wall of this fungus against hydrolysis by secreted host chitinases during infection. However, in the presence of the Cf-4 immune receptor of tomato, CfAvr4 triggers a hypersensitive response (HR), which renders the pathogen avirulent. Recently, several orthologues of CfAvr4 have been identified from phylogenetically closely related species of Dothideomycete fungi. Of these, DsAvr4 from Dothistroma septosporum also triggers a Cf-4-dependent HR, but CaAvr4 and CbAvr4 from Cercospora apii and Cercospora beticola, respectively, do not. All, however, bind chitin. To identify the region(s) and specific amino acid residue(s) of CfAvr4 and DsAvr4 required to trigger a Cf-4-dependent HR, chimeric and mutant proteins, in which specific protein regions or single amino acid residues, respectively, were exchanged between CfAvr4 and CaAvr4 or DsAvr4 and CbAvr4, were tested for their ability to trigger an HR in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transgenic for the Cf-4 immune receptor gene. Based on this approach, a single region common to CfAvr4 and DsAvr4 was determined to carry a conserved proline residue necessary for the elicitation of this HR. In support of this result, a Cf-4-dependent HR was triggered by mutant CaAvr4 and CbAvr4 proteins carrying an arginine-to-proline substitution at this position. This study provides the first step in deciphering how Avr4 orthologues from different Dothideomycete fungi trigger a Cf-4-dependent HR.

  18. Methodology for detecting residual phosphoric acid in polybenzoxazole fibers.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Su; Sieber, John; Guttman, Charles; Rice, Kirk; Flynn, Kathleen; Watson, Stephanie; Holmes, Gale

    2009-12-01

    Because of the premature failure of in-service soft-body armor containing the ballistic fiber poly[(benzo-[1,2-d:5,4-d']-benzoxazole-2,6-diyl)-1,4-phenylene] (PBO), the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a research program to investigate the reasons for this failure and to develop testing methodologies and protocols to ensure that these types of failures do not reoccur. In a report that focused on the stability of the benzoxazole ring that is characteristic of PBO fibers, Holmes, G. A.; Rice, K.; Snyder, C. R. J. Mater. Sci. 2006, 41, 4105-4116, showed that the benzoxazole ring was susceptible to hydrolytic degradation under acid conditions. Because of the processing conditions for the fibers, it is suspected by many researchers that residual phosphoric acid may cause degradation of the benzoxazole ring resulting in a reduction of ballistic performance. Prior to this work, no definitive data have indicated the presence of phosphoric acid since the residual phosphorus is not easily extracted and the processed fibers are known to incorporate phosphorus containing processing aids. Methods to efficiently extract phosphorus from PBO are described in this article. Further, characterization determined that the majority of the extractable phosphorus in PBO was attributed to the octyldecyl phosphate processing aid with some phosphoric acid being detected. Analysis by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of model PBO oligomers indicates that the nonextractable phosphorus is attached to the PBO polymer chain as a monoaryl phosphate ester. The response of model aryl phosphates to NaOH exposure indicates that monoaryl phosphate ester is stable to NaOH washes used in the manufacturing process to neutralize the phosphoric acid reaction medium and to extract residual phosphorus impurities.

  19. Computational analysis of conserved coil functional residues in the mitochondrial genomic sequences of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bulbul; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophyte is a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue of humans and other animals. The infection known as dermatophytosis, caused by members of the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton includes infection to the groin (tinea cruris), beard (tinea barbae), scalp (tinea capitis), feet (tinea pedis), glabrous skin (tinea corporis), nail (tinea unguium), and hand (tinea manuum). The identification of evolutionary relationship between these three genera of dermatophyte is epidemiologically important to understand their pathogenicity. Mitochondrial DNA evolves more rapidly than a nuclear DNA due to higher rate of mutation but is very less affected by genetic recombination, making it an important tool for phylogenetic studies. Thus, here we present a novel scheme to identify the conserved coil functional residues of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Protein coding sequences of the mitochondrial genome were aligned for their similar sequences and homology modelling was performed for structure and pocket identification. The results obtained from comparative analysis of the protein sequences revealed the presence of functionally active sites in all the species of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. However in Epidermophyton floccosum it was observed in three protein sequences of the five studied. The absence of these conserved coil functional residues in E. floccusum may be correlated with lesser infectivity of this organism. The functional residues identified in the present study could be responsible for the disease and thus can act as putative target sites for drug designing. PMID:28149055

  20. 77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated... residues of fatty ] acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated propoxylated on food or feed commodities. DATES:...

  1. XPS and STEM studies of Allende acid insoluble residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Clarke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on Allende acid residues obtained both before and after etching with hot HNO3 are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectra show predominantly carbonaceous material plus Fe-deficient chromite in both cases. The HNO3 oxidizes the carbonaceous material to some extent. The small chromites in these residues have a wide range of compositions somewhat paralleling those observed in larger Allende chromites and in Murchison chromites, especially in the high Al contents; however, they are deficient in divalent cations, which makes them metastable and indicates that they must have formed at relatively low temperatures. It is suggested that they formed by precipitation of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) from olivine at low temperature or during rapid cooling.

  2. Cob component of corn residue can be used as a biofuel feedstock with little impact on soil and water conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of corn residue as a biofuel feedstock raises a number of concerns related to soil and water conservation. Soil compaction, increased susceptibility for wind and water erosion, increased nutrient removal, and loss of soil organic matter are potential negative affects associated with residue remo...

  3. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  4. Conservation of acid waterlogged shipwrecks: nanotechnologies for de-acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, R.; Chelazzi, D.; Baglioni, P.

    2006-06-01

    Preservation of waterlogged wooden artifacts, and in particular ancient wrecks, is a challenge in cultural heritage conservation. Samples, from the Swedish warship Vasa, are under investigation in order to develop innovative methods for wood de-acidification and preservation. The Vasa represents a unique case in the study of ancient wrecks. In the past four years the problem of the acidity of wood emerged as a strong threat to its conservation. The production of sulphuric acid inside the ship wood might be the cause of both chemical damage through the acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and of physical damage of the wood’s pore structure, due to the crystallization of sulphate minerals in the wood pores. In this paper we show that wood acidity can be neutralized by the application of nanoparticles of alkaline-earth carbonates and/or hydroxides. The treatment provides an alkaline reservoir inside the wood. Nanoparticles absorbed in the wood from an alcoholic dispersion adhere to the wood wall and release hydroxyl ions leading to the wood neutralization. Oak and pine samples from the Vasa wreck were characterized and treated with alkaline magnesium or calcium nanoparticle dispersions in non-aqueous solvents. De-acidification was monitored by pH changes and thermal analysis, and all the treated samples were submitted to thermal artificial ageing in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. The results obtained opened a new perspective in wood conservation.

  5. Conservative and nonconservative inhibitors of gastric acid secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Ekblad, E.B.M.; Licko, V.

    1987-09-01

    Inhibitors of the initial step (H/sub 2/-antagonist) and of the final step (thiocyanate, SCN/sup -/; and nitrite, NO/sub 2//sup -/) were used to study the dynamics of acid secretion in isolated frog gastric mucosa. Tissues were mounted in flow-through chambers, and the acid secretion rate (SR) was recorded on a pH-stat microprocessor. Continuous presence of H/sub 2/-antagonist decreases the SR to a lower steady state, and on removal the SR returns to basal SR, causing a net loss of acid, the nonconservative effect. The amount of lost acid is a unique function of exposure, thus, independent of the patterns (pulses or steps) of inhibition. In contrast, continuous presence of SCN/sup -/ or NO/sub 2//sup -/ (below 3 mM) results in an undershoot in SR with a return to basal SR, whereas at higher concentrations there is not return. Removal of these inhibitors causes an overshoot in SR with return to basal SR. The rebound acid is equal to acid suppressed by NO/sub 2//sup -/ and low concentration of SCN/sup -/, resulting in no net loss of acid, the conservative effect, whereas at high concentrations of SCN/sup -/ there is an apparent loss of acid. In maximally secreting tissue the overshoot of SR is not observed. However, the acid is not lost, merely delayed. In resting tissue NO/sub 2//sup -/ also merely delays the exit of the acid produced in response to forskolin. The rebound acid is proposed to reside in a sequestered acid pool that is stable for at least 120 min. Results with NO/sub 2//sup -/ and SCN/sup -/ suggest an effect on a saturable exit enzyme, possibly the K/sup +/-H/sup +/-ATPase.

  6. Identification of Two Conserved Residues Involved in Copper Release from Chloroplast PIB-1-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Sautron, Emeline; Giustini, Cécile; Dang, ThuyVan; Moyet, Lucas; Salvi, Daniel; Crouzy, Serge; Rolland, Norbert; Catty, Patrice; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné

    2016-09-16

    Copper is an essential transition metal for living organisms. In the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, half of the copper content is localized in the chloroplast, and as a cofactor of plastocyanin, copper is essential for photosynthesis. Within the chloroplast, copper delivery to plastocyanin involves two transporters of the PIB-1-ATPases subfamily: HMA6 at the chloroplast envelope and HMA8 in the thylakoid membranes. Both proteins are high affinity copper transporters but share distinct enzymatic properties. In the present work, the comparison of 140 sequences of PIB-1-ATPases revealed a conserved region unusually rich in histidine and cysteine residues in the TMA-L1 region of eukaryotic chloroplast copper ATPases. To evaluate the role of these residues, we mutated them in HMA6 and HMA8. Mutants of interest were selected from phenotypic tests in yeast and produced in Lactococcus lactis for further biochemical characterizations using phosphorylation assays from ATP and Pi Combining functional and structural data, we highlight the importance of the cysteine and the first histidine of the CX3HX2H motif in the process of copper release from HMA6 and HMA8 and propose a copper pathway through the membrane domain of these transporters. Finally, our work suggests a more general role of the histidine residue in the transport of copper by PIB-1-ATPases.

  7. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed.

  8. Alanine substitution of conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail of herpes simplex virus gB can enhance or abolish cell fusion activity and viral entry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruel, Nancy . E-mail: n-ruel@northwestern.edu; Zago, Anna . E-mail: anna_zago@acgtinc.com; Spear, Patricia G. . E-mail: p-spear@northwestern.edu

    2006-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the four viral glycoproteins required for viral entry and cell fusion and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. Mutants of HSV type 2 gB were generated by substituting conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail with alanine or by deleting 41 amino acids from the C-terminus. Some of the mutations abolished cell fusion activity and also prevented transport of gB to the cell surface, identifying residues in the gB cytoplasmic tail that are critical for intracellular transport of this glycoprotein. These mutations also prevented production of infectious virus, possibly because the mutant forms of gB were not transported to the site of envelopment. Other mutations, particularly the deletion, significantly enhanced cell fusion activity. These mutations, as well as others described previously, identify regions of the gB cytoplasmic domain that modulate cell fusion activity.

  9. Three conserved C-terminal residues of influenza fusion peptide alter its behavior at the membrane interface.

    PubMed

    Worch, Remigiusz; Krupa, Joanna; Filipek, Alicja; Szymaniec, Anna; Setny, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    The N-terminal fragment of the viral hemagglutinin HA2 subunit is termed a fusion peptide (HAfp). The 23-amino acid peptide (HAfp1-23) contains three C-terminal W21-Y22-G23 residues which are highly conserved among serotypes of influenza A and has been shown to form a tight helical hairpin very distinct from the boomerang structure of HAfp1-20. We studied the effect of peptide length on fusion properties, structural dynamics, and binding to the membrane interface. We developed a novel fusion visualization assay based on FLIM microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). By means of molecular dynamics simulations and spectroscopic measurements, we show that the presence of the three C-terminal W21-Y22-G23 residues promotes the hairpin formation, which orients perpendicularly to the membrane plane and induces more disorder in the surrounding lipids than the less structured HAfp1-20. Moreover, we report cholesterol-enriched domain formation induced exclusively by the longer fusion peptide.

  10. Modular organization of residue-level contacts shape the selection pressure on individual amino acid sites of ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Saurav; Kundu, Sudip

    2017-02-22

    Understanding the molecular evolution of macromolecular complexes in the light of their structure, assembly and stability is of central importance. Here we address how the modular organization of native molecular contacts shapes the selection pressure on individual residue sites of ribosomal complexes. The bacterial ribosomal complex is represented as a residue contact network where nodes represent amino acid/nucleotide residues and edges represent their van der Waals interactions. We find statistically overrepresented native amino acid-nucleotide contacts (OaantC, one amino acid contacts one or multiple nucleotides, inter-nucleotide contacts are disregarded). Contact number is defined as the number of nucleotides contacted. Involvement of individual amino acids in OaantCs with smaller contact numbers is more random, while only a few amino acids significantly contribute to OaantCs with higher contact numbers. An investigation of structure, stability and assembly of bacterial ribosome depicts the involvement of these OaantCs in diverse biophysical interactions stabilizing the complex, including high-affinity protein-RNA contacts, inter-protein cooperativity, inter-subunit bridge, packing of multiple ribosomal RNA domains etc. Amino acid-nucleotide constituents of OaantCs with higher contact numbers are generally associated with significantly slower substitution rates compared to that of OaantCs with smaller contact numbers. This evolutionary rate heterogeneity emerges from the strong purifying selection pressure that conserves the respective amino acid physicochemical properties relevant to the stabilizing interaction with OaantC nucleotides. An analysis of relative molecular orientations of OaantC residues and their interaction energetics provides the biophysical ground of purifying selection conserving OaantC amino acid physicochemical properties.

  11. Residue Geometry Networks: A Rigidity-Based Approach to the Amino Acid Network and Evolutionary Rate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fokas, Alexander S.; Cole, Daniel J.; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) abstract the protein structure by recording the amino acid contacts and can provide insight into protein function. Herein, we describe a novel AAN construction technique that employs the rigidity analysis tool, FIRST, to build the AAN, which we refer to as the residue geometry network (RGN). We show that this new construction can be combined with network theory methods to include the effects of allowed conformal motions and local chemical environments. Importantly, this is done without costly molecular dynamics simulations required by other AAN-related methods, which allows us to analyse large proteins and/or data sets. We have calculated the centrality of the residues belonging to 795 proteins. The results display a strong, negative correlation between residue centrality and the evolutionary rate. Furthermore, among residues with high closeness, those with low degree were particularly strongly conserved. Random walk simulations using the RGN were also successful in identifying allosteric residues in proteins involved in GPCR signalling. The dynamic function of these residues largely remain hidden in the traditional distance-cutoff construction technique. Despite being constructed from only the crystal structure, the results in this paper suggests that the RGN can identify residues that fulfil a dynamical function. PMID:27623708

  12. Residue Geometry Networks: A Rigidity-Based Approach to the Amino Acid Network and Evolutionary Rate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokas, Alexander S.; Cole, Daniel J.; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-09-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) abstract the protein structure by recording the amino acid contacts and can provide insight into protein function. Herein, we describe a novel AAN construction technique that employs the rigidity analysis tool, FIRST, to build the AAN, which we refer to as the residue geometry network (RGN). We show that this new construction can be combined with network theory methods to include the effects of allowed conformal motions and local chemical environments. Importantly, this is done without costly molecular dynamics simulations required by other AAN-related methods, which allows us to analyse large proteins and/or data sets. We have calculated the centrality of the residues belonging to 795 proteins. The results display a strong, negative correlation between residue centrality and the evolutionary rate. Furthermore, among residues with high closeness, those with low degree were particularly strongly conserved. Random walk simulations using the RGN were also successful in identifying allosteric residues in proteins involved in GPCR signalling. The dynamic function of these residues largely remain hidden in the traditional distance-cutoff construction technique. Despite being constructed from only the crystal structure, the results in this paper suggests that the RGN can identify residues that fulfil a dynamical function.

  13. Highly conserved residues in the helical domain of dengue virus type 1 precursor membrane protein are involved in assembly, precursor membrane (prM) protein cleavage, and entry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Szu-Chia; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Zou, Gang; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Shi, Pei-Yong; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2014-11-28

    The envelope and precursor membrane (prM) proteins of dengue virus (DENV) are present on the surface of immature virions. During maturation, prM protein is cleaved by furin protease into pr peptide and membrane (M) protein. Although previous studies mainly focusing on the pr region have identified several residues important for DENV replication, the functional role of M protein, particularly the α-helical domain (MH), which is predicted to undergo a large conformational change during maturation, remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nine highly conserved MH domain residues in the replication cycle of DENV by site-directed mutagenesis in a DENV1 prME expression construct and found that alanine substitutions introduced to four highly conserved residues at the C terminus and one at the N terminus of the MH domain greatly affect the production of both virus-like particles and replicon particles. Eight of the nine alanine mutants affected the entry of replicon particles, which correlated with the impairment in prM cleavage. Moreover, seven mutants were found to have reduced prM-E interaction at low pH, which may inhibit the formation of smooth immature particles and exposure of prM cleavage site during maturation, thus contributing to inefficient prM cleavage. Taken together, these results are the first report showing that highly conserved MH domain residues, located at 20-38 amino acids downstream from the prM cleavage site, can modulate the prM cleavage, maturation of particles, and virus entry. The highly conserved nature of these residues suggests potential targets of antiviral strategy.

  14. Sequence of the canine herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene: taxon-preferred amino acid residues in the alphaherpesviral thymidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Rémond, M; Sheldrick, P; Lebreton, F; Foulon, T

    1995-12-01

    Multiple sequence alignments of evolutionarily related proteins are finding increasing use as indicators of critical amino acid residues necessary for structural stability or involved in functional domains responsible for catalytic activities. In the past, a number of alignments have provided such information for the herpesviral thymidine kinases, for which three-dimensional structures are not yet available. We have sequenced the thymidine kinase gene of a canine herpesvirus, and with a multiple alignment have identified amino acids preferentially conserved in either of two taxons, the genera Varicellovirus and Simplexvirus, of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Since some regions of the thymidine kinases show otherwise elevated levels of substitutional tolerance, these conserved amino acids are candidates for critical residues which have become fixed through selection during the evolutionary divergence of these enzymes. Several pairs with distinctive patterns of distribution among the various viruses occur in or near highly conserved sequence motifs previously proposed to form the catalytic site, and we speculate that they may represent interacting, co-ordinately variable residues.

  15. A Highly Conserved Residue in HIV-1 Nef Alpha Helix 2 Modulates Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron L.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Coutu, Mathieu; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; Arts, Eric J.; Finzi, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extensive genetic diversity is a defining characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and poses a significant barrier to the development of an effective vaccine. To better understand the impact of this genetic diversity on the HIV-1 pathogenic factor Nef, we compiled a panel of reference strains from the NIH Los Alamos HIV Database. Initial sequence analysis identified point mutations at Nef residues 13, 84, and 92 in subtype C reference strain C.BR92025 from Brazil. Functional analysis revealed impaired major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4 downregulation of strain C.BR92025 Nef, which corresponded to decreased protein expression. Metabolic labeling demonstrated that strain C.BR92025 Nef has a greater rate of protein turnover than subtype B reference strain B.JRFL that, on the basis of mutational analysis, is related to Nef residue A84. An alanine-to-valine substitution at position 84, located in alpha helix 2 of Nef, was sufficient to alter the rate of turnover of an otherwise highly expressed Nef protein. In conclusion, these findings highlight HIV-1 Nef residue A84 as a major determinant of protein expression that may offer an additional avenue to disrupt or mediate the effects of this key HIV-1 pathogenic factor. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Nef protein has been established as a key pathogenic determinant of HIV/AIDS, but there is little knowledge of how the extensive genetic diversity of HIV-1 affects Nef function. Upon compiling a set of subtype-specific reference strains, we identified a subtype C reference strain, C.BR92025, that contained natural polymorphisms at otherwise highly conserved residues 13, 84, and 92. Interestingly, strain C.BR92025 Nef displayed impaired Nef function and had decreased protein expression. We have demonstrated that strain C.BR92025 Nef has a higher rate of protein turnover than highly expressed Nef proteins and that this higher rate of protein turnover is due to an alanine-to-valine substitution

  16. Role of lysine and acidic amino acid residues on the insecticidal activity of Jackbean urease.

    PubMed

    Real-Guerra, Rafael; Carlini, Célia Regina; Stanisçuaski, Fernanda

    2013-09-01

    Canavalia ensiformis has three isoforms of urease: Jackbean urease (JBU), Jackbean urease II and canatoxin. These isoforms present several biological activities, independent from the enzymatic property, such as entomotoxicity and antifungal properties. The entomotoxic activity is a property of the whole protein, as well as of a 10 kDa peptide released by insect digestive enzymes. Here we have used chemical modification to observe the influence of lysines and acidic residues on JBU enzymatic and insecticidal activities. Chemical modification of lysine residues was performed with dimethylamine-borane complex and formaldehyde, and acidic residues were modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and ethylenediamine. Derivatized ureases, called JBU-Lys (lysine-modified) and JBU-Ac (acidic residues-modified), were assayed for their biochemical and insecticidal properties. Neither modification altered significantly the kinetic parameters analyzed, indicating that no residue critical for the enzyme activity was affected and that the modifications did not incur in any significant structural alteration. On the other hand, both modifications reduced the toxic activity of the native protein fed to Dysdercus peruvianus. The changes observed in the entomotoxic property of the derivatized proteins reflect alterations in different steps of JBU's toxicity towards insects. JBU-Ac is not susceptible to hydrolysis by insect digestive enzymes, hence impairing the release of toxic peptide(s), while JBU-Lys is processed as the native protein. On the other hand, the antidiuretic effect of JBU on Rhodnius prolixus is altered in JBU-Lys, but not in JBU-Ac. Altogether, these data emphasize the role of lysine and acidic residues on the insecticidal properties of ureases.

  17. Extracellular acidification exerts opposite actions on TREK1 and TREK2 potassium channels via a single conserved histidine residue.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Douguet, Dominique; Chatelain, Franck; Lazdunski, Michel; Lesage, Florian

    2009-08-25

    Mechanosensitive K(+) channels TREK1 and TREK2 form a subclass of two P-domain K(+) channels. They are potently activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in neuroprotection, anesthesia, and pain perception. Here, we show that acidification of the extracellular medium strongly inhibits TREK1 with an apparent pK near to 7.4 corresponding to the physiological pH. The all-or-none effect of pH variation is steep and is observed within one pH unit. TREK2 is not inhibited but activated by acidification within the same range of pH, despite its close homology with TREK1. A single conserved residue, H126 in TREK1 and H151 in TREK2, is involved in proton sensing. This histidine is located in the M1P1 extracellular loop preceding the first P domain. The differential effect of acidification, that is, activation for TREK2 and inhibition for TREK1, involves other residues located in the P2M4 loop, linking the second P domain and the fourth membrane-spanning segment. Structural modeling of TREK1 and TREK2 and site-directed mutagenesis strongly suggest that attraction or repulsion between the protonated side chain of histidine and closely located negatively or positively charged residues in P2M4 control outer gating of these channels. The differential sensitivity of TREK1 and TREK2 to external pH variations discriminates between these two K(+) channels that otherwise share the same regulations by physical and chemical stimuli, and by hormones and neurotransmitters.

  18. Standard test method for acidity of distillation residues or hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the qualitative determination of the acidity of the distillation residue from a gasoline. The sample of distillation residue or hydrocarbon liquid is shaken with water and the aqueous layer tested for acidity to methyl orange. Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid as part of the refining procedure. Obviously, any residual mineral acid in a petroleum product is undesirable. The absence of a positive indication in the test for acidity of the distillation residue or aqueous extract of a hydrocarbon liquid is an assurance of the care used in refining the fuel or solvent.

  19. Topologically Conserved Residues Direct Heme Transport in HRG-1-related Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Protchenko, Olga; Philpott, Caroline C.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans and human HRG-1-related proteins are conserved, membrane-bound permeases that bind and translocate heme in metazoan cells via a currently uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we show that cellular import of heme by HRG-1-related proteins from worms and humans requires strategically located amino acids that are topologically conserved across species. We exploit a heme synthesis-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant to model the heme auxotrophy of C. elegans and demonstrate that, under heme-deplete conditions, the endosomal CeHRG-1 requires both a specific histidine in the predicted second transmembrane domain (TMD2) and the FARKY motif in the C terminus tail for heme transport. By contrast, the plasma membrane CeHRG-4 transports heme by utilizing a histidine in the exoplasmic (E2) loop and the FARKY motif. Optimal activity under heme-limiting conditions, however, requires histidine in the E2 loop of CeHRG-1 and tyrosine in TMD2 of CeHRG-4. An analogous system exists in humans, because mutation of the synonymous histidine in TMD2 of hHRG-1 eliminates heme transport activity, implying an evolutionary conserved heme transport mechanism that predates vertebrate origins. Our results support a model in which heme is translocated across membranes facilitated by conserved amino acids positioned on the exoplasmic, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane regions of HRG-1-related proteins. These findings may provide a framework for understanding the structural basis of heme transport in eukaryotes and human parasites, which rely on host heme for survival. PMID:22174408

  20. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3'-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3'-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  1. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    PubMed Central

    Da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3′-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3′-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation. PMID:27091704

  2. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite...

  3. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite...

  4. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite...

  5. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite...

  6. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite...

  7. 40 CFR 180.325 - 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid... Tolerances § 180.325 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of the plant regulator 2-(m-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid from...

  8. Critical amino acid residues involved in the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Abuladze, Natalia; Azimov, Rustam; Newman, Debra; Sassani, Pakan; Liu, Weixin; Tatishchev, Sergei; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2005-06-15

    We have previously reported a topological model of the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC1) in which the cotransporter spans the plasma membrane 10 times with N- and C-termini localized intracellularly. An analysis of conserved amino acid residues among members of the SLC4 superfamily in both the transmembrane segments (TMs) and intracellular/extracellular loops (ILs/ELs) provided the basis for the mutagenesis approach taken in the present study to determine amino acids involved in NBC1-mediated ion transport. Using large-scale mutagenesis, acidic and basic amino acids putatively involved in ion transport mediated by the predominant variant of NBC1 expressed in the kidney (kNBC1) were mutated to neutral and/or oppositely charged amino acids. All mutant kNBC1 cotransporters were expressed in HEK-293T cells and the Na(+)-dependent base flux of the mutants was determined using intracellular pH measurements with 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Critical glutamate, aspartate, lysine, arginine and histidine residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were detected that were essential for kNBC1-mediated Na(+)-dependent base transport. In addition, critical phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine residues in TMs and ILs/ELs were detected. Furthermore, several amino acid residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were shown to be essential for membrane targeting. The data demonstrate asymmetry of distribution of kNBC1 charged amino acids involved in ion recognition in putative outward-facing and inward-facing conformations. A model summarizing key amino acid residues involved in kNBC1-mediated ion transport is presented.

  9. Critical amino acid residues involved in the electrogenic sodium–bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1-mediated transport

    PubMed Central

    Abuladze, Natalia; Azimov, Rustam; Newman, Debra; Sassani, Pakan; Liu, Weixin; Tatishchev, Sergei; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported a topological model of the electrogenic Na+–HCO3− cotransporter (NBC1) in which the cotransporter spans the plasma membrane 10 times with N- and C-termini localized intracellularly. An analysis of conserved amino acid residues among members of the SLC4 superfamily in both the transmembrane segments (TMs) and intracellular/extracellular loops (ILs/ELs) provided the basis for the mutagenesis approach taken in the present study to determine amino acids involved in NBC1-mediated ion transport. Using large-scale mutagenesis, acidic and basic amino acids putatively involved in ion transport mediated by the predominant variant of NBC1 expressed in the kidney (kNBC1) were mutated to neutral and/or oppositely charged amino acids. All mutant kNBC1 cotransporters were expressed in HEK-293T cells and the Na+-dependent base flux of the mutants was determined using intracellular pH measurements with 2′,7′-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Critical glutamate, aspartate, lysine, arginine and histidine residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were detected that were essential for kNBC1-mediated Na+-dependent base transport. In addition, critical phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine residues in TMs and ILs/ELs were detected. Furthermore, several amino acid residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were shown to be essential for membrane targeting. The data demonstrate asymmetry of distribution of kNBC1 charged amino acids involved in ion recognition in putative outward-facing and inward-facing conformations. A model summarizing key amino acid residues involved in kNBC1-mediated ion transport is presented. PMID:15817634

  10. Interfacial Partitioning of a Loop Hinge Residue Contributes to Diacylglycerol Affinity of Conserved Region 1 Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mikaela D.; Cole, Taylor R.; Igumenova, Tatyana I.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and novel isoenzymes of PKC are activated by the membrane-embedded second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) through its interactions with the C1 regulatory domain. The affinity of C1 domains to DAG varies considerably among PKCs. To gain insight into the origin of differential DAG affinities, we conducted high-resolution NMR studies of C1B domain from PKCδ (C1Bδ) and its W252Y variant. The W252Y mutation was previously shown to render C1Bδ less responsive to DAG (Dries, D. R., Gallegos, L. L., and Newton, A. C. (2007) A single residue in the C1 domain sensitizes novel protein kinase C isoforms to cellular diacylglycerol production. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 826–830) and thereby emulate the behavior of C1B domains from conventional PKCs that have a conserved Tyr at the equivalent position. Our data revealed that W252Y mutation did not perturb the conformation of C1Bδ in solution but significantly reduced its propensity to partition into a membrane-mimicking environment in the absence of DAG. Using detergent micelles doped with a paramagnetic lipid, we determined that both the residue identity at position 252 and complexation with diacylglycerol influence the geometry of C1Bδ-micelle interactions. In addition, we identified the C-terminal helix α1 of C1Bδ as an interaction site with the head groups of phosphatidylserine, a known activator of PKCδ. Taken together, our studies (i) reveal the identities of C1Bδ residues involved in interactions with membrane-mimicking environment, DAG, and phosphatidylserine, as well as the affinities associated with each event and (ii) suggest that the initial ligand-independent membrane recruitment of C1B domains, which is greatly facilitated by the interfacial partitioning of Trp-252, is responsible, at least in part, for the differential DAG affinities. PMID:25124034

  11. Mutation of aspartic acid residues in the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975.

    PubMed Central

    Song, D D; Jacques, N A

    1999-01-01

    The site-directed mutated fructosyltransferases (Ftfs) of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, D312E, D312S, D312N and D312K were all active at 37 degrees C, indicating that Asp-312 present in the 'sucrose box' was not the nucleophilic Asp residue responsible for the formation of a covalent fructosyl-enzyme intermediate required for enzyme activity. Analysis of the kinetic constants of the purified mutated forms of the enzyme showed that Asp-312 was most likely an essential amino acid involved in determining acceptor recognition and/or stabilizing a beta-turn in the protein. In contrast, when the Asp-397 of the Ftf present in the conserved triplet RDP motif of all 60 bacterial and plant family-32 glycosylhydrolases was mutated to a Ser residue, both sucrose hydrolysis and polymerization ceased. Tryptophan emission spectra confirmed that this mutation did not alter protein structure. Comparison of published data from other site-directed mutated enzymes implicated the Asp residue in the RDP motif as the one that may form a transient covalent fructosyl intermediate during the catalysis of sucrose by the Ftf of S. salivarius. PMID:10548559

  12. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2011-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the pyrolysis process in both peptides and protein tested. This suggests that pyrolysis-induced cleavage at aspartyl residues can be used as a rapid protein digestion procedure for the generation of sequence specific protein biomarkers. PMID:17388620

  13. Identification of acid-base catalytic residues of high-Mr thioredoxin reductase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Paul J; Arscott, L David; Ballou, David P; Becker, Katja; Williams, Charles H; Müller, Sylke

    2006-11-03

    High-M(r) thioredoxin reductase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfTrxR) contains three redox active centers (FAD, Cys-88/Cys-93, and Cys-535/Cys-540) that are in redox communication. The catalytic mechanism of PfTrxR, which involves dithiol-disulfide interchanges requiring acid-base catalysis, was studied by steady-state kinetics, spectral analyses of anaerobic static titrations, and rapid kinetics analysis of wild-type enzyme and variants involving the His-509-Glu-514 dyad as the presumed acid-base catalyst. The dyad is conserved in all members of the enzyme family. Substitution of His-509 with glutamine and Glu-514 with alanine led to TrxR with only 0.5 and 7% of wild type activity, respectively, thus demonstrating the crucial roles of these residues for enzymatic activity. The H509Q variant had rate constants in both the reductive and oxidative half-reactions that were dramatically less than those of wild-type enzyme, and no thiolateflavin charge-transfer complex was observed. Glu-514 was shown to be involved in dithiol-disulfide interchange between the Cys-88/Cys-93 and Cys-535/Cys-540 pairs. In addition, Glu-514 appears to greatly enhance the role of His-509 in acid-base catalysis. It can be concluded that the His-509-Glu-514 dyad, in analogy to those in related oxidoreductases, acts as the acid-base catalyst in PfTrxR.

  14. The amino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues, and the buried cysteine residue in ficin.

    PubMed

    Husain, S S; Lowe, G

    1970-04-01

    Ficin that had been prepared from the latex of Ficus glabrata by salt fractionation and chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose was completely and irreversibly inhibited with 1,3-dibromo[2-(14)C]acetone and then treated with N-(4-dimethylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl)maleimide in 6m-guanidinium chloride. After reduction and carboxymethylation of the labelled protein, it was digested with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Two radioactive peptides and two coloured peptides were isolated chromatographically and their sequences determined. The radioactive peptides revealed the amino acid sequences around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues and showed a high degree of homology with the omino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues in papain. The coloured peptides allowed the amino acid sequence around the buried cysteine residue in ficin to be determined.

  15. Potential of high residue conservation tillage to enhance water conservation and water use efficiency in corn production in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the adoption of its first Comprehensive State-wide Water Management Plan in early February 2008, Georgia is on course to drafting regionally-based water development and conservation plans. Conservation tillage-based crop production can be one of the management tools available for achieving...

  16. 40 CFR 180.297 - N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. 180.297 Section 180.297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.297 N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  17. 40 CFR 180.297 - N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. 180.297 Section 180.297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.297 N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  18. 40 CFR 180.297 - N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. 180.297 Section 180.297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.297 N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  19. 40 CFR 180.297 - N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. 180.297 Section 180.297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.297 N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  20. 40 CFR 180.297 - N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. 180.297 Section 180.297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.297 N-1-Naphthyl phthalamic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  1. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of HgcA and HgcB Reveals Amino Acid Residues Important for Mercury Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven D.; Bridou, Romain; Johs, Alexander; Parks, Jerry M.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Hurt, Richard A.; Brown, Steven D.; Podar, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by anaerobic microorganisms from inorganic mercury by a recently discovered pathway. A two-gene cluster, consisting of hgcA and hgcB, encodes two of the proteins essential for this activity. hgcA encodes a corrinoid protein with a strictly conserved cysteine proposed to be the ligand for cobalt in the corrinoid cofactor, whereas hgcB encodes a ferredoxin-like protein thought to be an electron donor to HgcA. Deletion of either gene eliminates mercury methylation by the methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Here, site-directed mutants of HgcA and HgcB were constructed to determine amino acid residues essential for mercury methylation. Mutations of the strictly conserved residue Cys93 in HgcA, the proposed ligand for the corrinoid cobalt, to Ala or Thr completely abolished the methylation capacity, but a His substitution produced measurable methylmercury. Mutations of conserved amino acids near Cys93 had various impacts on the methylation capacity but showed that the structure of the putative “cap helix” region harboring Cys93 is crucial for methylation function. In the ferredoxin-like protein HgcB, only one of two conserved cysteines found at the C terminus was necessary for methylation, but either cysteine sufficed. An additional, strictly conserved cysteine, Cys73, was also determined to be essential for methylation. This study supports the previously predicted importance of Cys93 in HgcA for methylation of mercury and reveals additional residues in HgcA and HgcB that facilitate the production of this neurotoxin. PMID:25724962

  2. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of HgcA and HgcB Reveals Amino Acid Residues Important for Mercury Methylation

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Steven D.; Bridou, Romain; Johs, Alexander; ...

    2015-02-27

    Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by anaerobic microorganisms from inorganic mercury by a recently discovered pathway. A two-gene cluster, consisting of hgcA and hgcB, encodes two of the proteins essential for this activity. hgcA encodes a corrinoid protein with a strictly conserved cysteine proposed to be the ligand for cobalt in the corrinoid cofactor, whereas hgcB encodes a ferredoxin-like protein thought to be an electron donor to HgcA. Deletion of either gene eliminates mercury methylation by the methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Here, site-directed mutants of HgcA and HgcB were constructed to determine amino acid residues essential formore » mercury methylation. Mutations of the strictly conserved residue Cys93 in HgcA, the proposed ligand for the corrinoid cobalt, to Ala or Thr completely abolished the methylation capacity, but a His substitution produced measurable methylmercury. Mutations of conserved amino acids near Cys93 had various impacts on the methylation capacity but showed that the structure of the putative “cap helix” region harboring Cys93 is crucial for methylation function. In the ferredoxin-like protein HgcB, only one of two conserved cysteines found at the C terminus was necessary for methylation, but either cysteine sufficed. An additional, strictly conserved cysteine, Cys73, was also determined to be essential for methylation. Ultimately, this study supports the previously predicted importance of Cys93 in HgcA for methylation of mercury and reveals additional residues in HgcA and HgcB that facilitate the production of this neurotoxin.« less

  3. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of HgcA and HgcB Reveals Amino Acid Residues Important for Mercury Methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven D.; Bridou, Romain; Johs, Alexander; Parks, Jerry M.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Hurt, Richard A.; Brown, Steven D.; Podar, Mircea; Wall, Judy D.

    2015-02-27

    Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by anaerobic microorganisms from inorganic mercury by a recently discovered pathway. A two-gene cluster, consisting of hgcA and hgcB, encodes two of the proteins essential for this activity. hgcA encodes a corrinoid protein with a strictly conserved cysteine proposed to be the ligand for cobalt in the corrinoid cofactor, whereas hgcB encodes a ferredoxin-like protein thought to be an electron donor to HgcA. Deletion of either gene eliminates mercury methylation by the methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Here, site-directed mutants of HgcA and HgcB were constructed to determine amino acid residues essential for mercury methylation. Mutations of the strictly conserved residue Cys93 in HgcA, the proposed ligand for the corrinoid cobalt, to Ala or Thr completely abolished the methylation capacity, but a His substitution produced measurable methylmercury. Mutations of conserved amino acids near Cys93 had various impacts on the methylation capacity but showed that the structure of the putative “cap helix” region harboring Cys93 is crucial for methylation function. In the ferredoxin-like protein HgcB, only one of two conserved cysteines found at the C terminus was necessary for methylation, but either cysteine sufficed. An additional, strictly conserved cysteine, Cys73, was also determined to be essential for methylation. Ultimately, this study supports the previously predicted importance of Cys93 in HgcA for methylation of mercury and reveals additional residues in HgcA and HgcB that facilitate the production of this neurotoxin.

  4. Conserved residues in Ycf54 are required for protochlorophyllide formation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hollingshead, Sarah; Bliss, Sophie; Baker, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Chlorophylls (Chls) are modified tetrapyrrole molecules, essential for photosynthesis. These pigments possess an isocyclic E ring formed by the Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethylester cyclase (MgPME–cyclase). We assessed the in vivo effects of altering seven highly conserved residues within Ycf54, which is required for MgPME–cyclase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis. Synechocystis strains harbouring the Ycf54 alterations D39A, F40A and R82A were blocked to varying degrees at the MgPME–cyclase step, whereas the A9G mutation reduced Ycf54 levels by ∼75%. Wild-type (WT) levels of the cyclase subunit CycI are present in strains with D39A and F40A, but these strains have lowered cellular Chl and photosystem accumulation. CycI is reduced by ∼50% in A9G and R82A, but A9G has no perturbations in Chl or photosystem accumulation, whilst R82A contains very little Chl and few photosystems. When FLAG tagged and used as bait in pulldown experiments, the three mutants D39A, F40A and R82A were unable to interact with the MgPME–cyclase component CycI, whereas A9G pulled down a similar level of CycI as WT Ycf54. These observations suggest that a stable interaction between CycI and Ycf54 is required for unimpeded Pchlide biosynthesis. Crystal structures of the WT, A9G and R82A Ycf54 proteins were solved and analysed to investigate the structural effects of these mutations. A loss of the local hydrogen bonding network and a reversal in the surface charge surrounding residue R82 are probably responsible for the functional differences observed in the R82A mutation. We conclude that the Ycf54 protein must form a stable interaction with CycI to promote optimal Pchlide biosynthesis. PMID:28008132

  5. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    DOE PAGES

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; ...

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue ismore » substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.« less

  6. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; Romao, Celia V.; Pinto, Liliana C.; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Todorovic, Smilja

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  7. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana F; Romão, Célia V; Pinto, Liliana C; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Lígia M; Todorovic, Smilja; Cabelli, Diane; Teixeira, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the -EKHVP- motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (-E23T24HVP-), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild-type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  8. Oxidation in Acidic Medium of Lignins from Agricultural Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labat, Gisele Aparecida Amaral; Gonçalves, Adilson Roberto

    Agricultural residues as sugarcane straw and bagasse are burned in boilers for generation of energy in sugar and alcohol industries. However, excess of those by-products could be used to obtain products with higher value. Pulping process generates cellulosic pulps and lignin. The lignin could be oxidized and applied in effluent treatments for heavy metal removal. Oxidized lignin presents very strong chelating properties. Lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse were obtained by ethanol-water pulping. Oxidation of lignins was carried out using acetic acid and Co/Mn/Br catalytical system at 50, 80, and 115 °C for 5 h. Kinetics of the reaction was accomplished by measuring the UV-visible region. Activation energy was calculated for lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse (34.2 and 23.4 kJ mol-1, respectively). The first value indicates higher cross-linked formation. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy data of samples collected during oxidation are very similar. Principal component analysis applied to spectra shows only slight structure modifications in lignins after oxidation reaction.

  9. Pyrolytic characteristics of biomass acid hydrolysis residue rich in lignin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqin; Wei, Zhiguo; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolytic characteristics of acid hydrolysis residue (AHR) of corncob and pinewood (CAHR, WAHR) were investigated using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a self-designed pyrolysis apparatus. Gasification reactivity of CAHR char was then examined using TGA and X-ray diffractometer. Result of TGA showed that thermal degradation curves of AHR descended smoothly along with temperature increasing from 150 °C to 850 °C, while a "sharp mass loss stage" for original biomass feedstock (OBF) was observed. Char yield from AHR (42.64-30.35 wt.%) was found to be much greater than that from OBF (26.4-19.15 wt.%). In addition, gasification reactivity of CAHR char was lower than that of corncob char, and there was big difference in micro-crystallite structure. It was also found that CAHR char reactivity decreased with pyrolysis temperature, but increased with pyrolysis heating rate and gasification temperature at 850-950 °C. Furthermore, CAHR char reactivity performed better under steam atmosphere than under CO2 atmosphere.

  10. Removal of acidic residues of the prodomain of PCSK9 increases its activity towards the LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Holla, Øystein L; Laerdahl, Jon K; Strøm, Thea Bismo; Tveten, Kristian; Cameron, Jamie; Berge, Knut Erik; Leren, Trond P

    2011-03-11

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the cell surface and mediates intracellular degradation of the LDLR. The amino-terminus of mature PCSK9, residues 31-53 of the prodomain, has an inhibitory effect on this function of PCSK9, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we have identified two highly conserved negatively charged segments (residues 32-40 and 48-50, respectively) within this part of the prodomain and performed deletions and substitutions to study their importance for degradation of the LDLRs. Deletion of the acidic residues of the longest negatively charged segment increased PCSK9's ability to degrade the LDLR by 31%, whereas a modest 8% increase was observed when these residues were mutated to uncharged amino acids. Thus, both the length and the charge of this part of the prodomain were important for its inhibitory effect. Deletion of the residues of the shorter second negatively charged segment only increased PCSK9's activity by 8%. Substitution of the amino acids of both charged segments to uncharged residues increased PCSK9's activity by 36%. These findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of residues 31-53 of the prodomain is due to the negative charge of this segment. The underlying mechanism could involve the binding of this peptide segment to positively charged structures which are important for PCSK9's activity. One possible candidate could be the histidine-rich C-terminal domain of PCSK9.

  11. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L-) domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX), is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF) reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA) and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively affects CA maturation and

  12. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Zhulin, Igor B; Stuckey, Jeanne A; DiRita, Victor J

    2009-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of Aer divided between two proteins, CetA (HAMP domain containing) and CetB (PAS domain containing). In this study, we found that the CetA HAMP domain differs significantly from that of Aer in the predicted secondary structure. Using similarity searches, we identified 55 pairs of HAMP/PAS proteins encoded by adjacent genes in a diverse group of microorganisms. We propose that these HAMP/PAS pairs form a new family of bipartite energy taxis receptors. Within these proteins, we identified nine residues in the HAMP domain and proximal signaling domain that are highly conserved, at least three of which are required for CetA function. Additionally, we demonstrated that CetA contributes to the invasion of human epithelial cells by C. jejuni, while CetB does not. This finding supports the hypothesis that members of HAMP/PAS pairs possess the capacity to act independently of each other in cellular traits other than energy taxis.

  13. tRNase Z Catalysis and Conserved Residues on the Carboxy Side of the His Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Karkashon, Shay; Hopkinson, Angela; Levinger, Louis

    2008-01-01

    tRNAs are transcribed as precursors and processed in a series of required reactions leading to aminoacylation and translation. The 3′ end trailer can be removed by the pre-tRNA processing endonuclease tRNase Z, an ancient, conserved member of the β-lactamase superfamily of metal-dependent hydrolases. The signature sequence of this family, the His domain (HxHxDH, Motif II), and histidines in Motifs III and V and aspartate in Motif IV contribute seven side chains for coordination of two divalent metal ions. We previously investigated the effects on catalysis of substitutions in Motif II, and in the PxKxRN loop and Motif I on the amino side of Motif II. Herein we present the effects of substitutions on the carboxy side of Motif II within Motifs III, IV, the HEAT and HST loops and Motif V. Substitution of the Motif IV aspartate reduces catalytic efficiency more than 10,000-fold. Histidines in Motif III, V and the HST loop are also functionally important. Strikingly, replacement of Glu in the HEAT loop with Ala reducesefficiency by ~1000-fold. Proximity and orientation of this Glu side chain relative to His in the HST loop and the importance of both residues for catalysis suggest that they function as a duo in a proton transfer at the final stage of reaction, characteristic of the tRNase Z class of RNA endonucleases. PMID:17655328

  14. Role of Conserved Proline Residues in Human Apolipoprotein A-IV Structure and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaodi; Walker, Ryan G.; Morris, Jamie; Davidson, W. Sean; Thompson, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-IV is a lipid emulsifying protein linked to a range of protective roles in obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It exists in several states in plasma including lipid-bound in HDL and chylomicrons and as monomeric and dimeric lipid-free/poor forms. Our recent x-ray crystal structure of the central domain of apoA-IV shows that it adopts an elongated helical structure that dimerizes via two long reciprocating helices. A striking feature is the alignment of conserved proline residues across the dimer interface. We speculated that this plays important roles in the structure of the lipid-free protein and its ability to bind lipid. Here we show that the systematic conversion of these prolines to alanine increased the thermodynamic stability of apoA-IV and its propensity to oligomerize. Despite the structural stabilization, we noted an increase in the ability to bind and reorganize lipids and to promote cholesterol efflux from cells. The novel properties of these mutants allowed us to isolate the first trimeric form of an exchangeable apolipoprotein and characterize it by small-angle x-ray scattering and chemical cross-linking. The results suggest that the reciprocating helix interaction is a common feature of all apoA-IV oligomers. We propose a model of how self-association of apoA-IV can result in spherical lipoprotein particles, a model that may have broader applications to other exchangeable apolipoprotein family members. PMID:25733664

  15. Conserved prosegment residues stabilize a late-stage folding transition state of pepsin independently of ground states.

    PubMed

    Dee, Derek R; Horimoto, Yasumi; Yada, Rickey Y

    2014-01-01

    The native folding of certain zymogen-derived enzymes is completely dependent upon a prosegment domain to stabilize the folding transition state, thereby catalyzing the folding reaction. Generally little is known about how the prosegment accomplishes this task. It was previously shown that the prosegment catalyzes a late-stage folding transition between a stable misfolded state and the native state of pepsin. In this study, the contributions of specific prosegment residues to catalyzing pepsin folding were investigated by introducing individual Ala substitutions and measuring the effects on the bimolecular folding reaction between the prosegment peptide and pepsin. The effects of mutations on the free energies of the individual misfolded and native ground states and the transition state were compared using measurements of prosegment-pepsin binding and folding kinetics. Five out of the seven prosegment residues examined yielded relatively large kinetic effects and minimal ground state perturbations upon mutation, findings which indicate that these residues form strengthened and/or non-native contacts in the transition state. These five residues are semi- to strictly conserved, while only a non-conserved residue had no kinetic effect. One conserved residue was shown to form native structure in the transition state. These results indicated that the prosegment, which is only 44 residues long, has evolved a high density of contacts that preferentially stabilize the folding transition state over the ground states. It is postulated that the prosegment forms extensive non-native contacts during the process of catalyzing correct inter- and intra-domain contacts during the final stages of folding. These results have implications for understanding the folding of multi-domain proteins and for the evolution of prosegment-catalyzed folding.

  16. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  17. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  18. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  19. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  20. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  1. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production.

  2. Dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding amino acid residues in proteins.

    PubMed

    Ponnuraj, Karthe; Saravanan, Konda Mani

    2017-04-01

    A protein can interact with DNA or RNA molecules to perform various cellular processes. Identifying or analyzing DNA/RNA binding site amino acid residues is important to understand molecular recognition process. It is quite possible to accurately model DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues in experimental protein-DNA/RNA complex by using the electron density map whereas, locating/modeling the binding site amino acid residues in the predicted three dimensional structures of DNA/RNA binding proteins is still a difficult task. Considering the above facts, in the present work, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding site amino acid residues by using a classical Ramachandran map. We have computed backbone dihedral angles of non-DNA/RNA binding residues and used as control dataset to make a comparative study. The dihedral angle preference of DNA and RNA binding site residues of twenty amino acid type is presented. Our analysis clearly revealed that the dihedral angles (φ, ψ) of DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues prefer to occupy (-89° to -60°, -59° to -30°) bins. The results presented in this paper will help to model/locate DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues with better accuracy.

  3. Allosteric Inhibition of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylases is Determined by a Single Amino Acid Residue in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Takeya, Masahiro; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is an important enzyme for CO2 fixation and primary metabolism in photosynthetic organisms including cyanobacteria. The kinetics and allosteric regulation of PEPCs have been studied in many organisms, but the biochemical properties of PEPC in the unicellular, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have not been clarified. In this study, biochemical analysis revealed that the optimum pH and temperature of Synechocystis 6803 PEPC proteins were 7.3 and 30 °C, respectively. Synechocystis 6803 PEPC was found to be tolerant to allosteric inhibition by several metabolic effectors such as malate, aspartate, and fumarate compared with other cyanobacterial PEPCs. Comparative sequence and biochemical analysis showed that substitution of the glutamate residue at position 954 with lysine altered the enzyme so that it was inhibited by malate, aspartate, and fumarate. PEPC of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was purified, and its activity was inhibited in the presence of malate. Substitution of the lysine at position 946 (equivalent to position 954 in Synechocystis 6803) with glutamate made Anabaena 7120 PEPC tolerant to malate. These results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of PEPC in cyanobacteria is determined by a single amino acid residue, a characteristic that is conserved in different orders. PMID:28117365

  4. Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Hsueh; Wang, Gen-Shuch; Tung, Hsin-hsin

    2011-11-01

    It is quite rare to find biodegradation in rapid sand filtration for drinking water treatment. This might be due to frequent backwashes and low substrate levels. High chlorine concentrations may inhibit biofilm development, especially for plants with pre-chlorination. However, in tropical or subtropical regions, bioactivity on the sand surface may be quite significant due to high biofilm development--a result of year-round high temperature. The objective of this study is to explore the correlation between biodegradation and chlorine concentration in rapid sand filters, especially for the water treatment plants that practise pre-chlorination. In this study, haloacetic acid (HAA) biodegradation was found in conventional rapid sand filters practising pre-chlorination. Laboratory column studies and field investigations were conducted to explore the association between the biodegradation of HAAs and chlorine concentrations. The results showed that chlorine residual was an important factor that alters bioactivity development. A model based on filter influent and effluent chlorine was developed for determining threshold chlorine for biodegradation. From the model, a temperature independent chlorine concentration threshold (Cl(threshold)) for biodegradation was estimated at 0.46-0.5mgL(-1). The results imply that conventional filters with adequate control could be conducive to bioactivity, resulting in lower HAA concentrations. Optimizing biodegradable disinfection by-product removal in conventional rapid sand filter could be achieved with minor variation and a lower-than-Cl(threshold) influent chlorine concentration. Bacteria isolation was also carried out, successfully identifying several HAA degraders. These degraders are very commonly seen in drinking water systems and can be speculated as the main contributor of HAA loss.

  5. Hexameric RSF1010 helicase RepA: the structural and functional importance of single amino acid residues

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelin, Günter; Niedenzu, Timo; Lurz, Rudi; Saenger, Wolfram; Lanka, Erich

    2003-01-01

    In the known monoclinic crystals the 3-dimensional structure of the hexameric, replicative helicase RepA encoded by plasmid RSF1010 shows 6-fold rotational symmetry. In contrast, in the cubic crystal form at 2.55 Å resolution described here RepA has 3-fold symmetry and consists of a trimer of dimers. To study structure–function relationships, a series of repA deletion mutants and mutations yielding single amino acid exchanges were constructed and the respective gene products were analyzed in vivo and in vitro. Hexamerization of RepA occurs via the N-terminus and is required for NTP hydrolysis. The C-terminus is essential both for the interaction with the replication machinery and for the helicase activity. Functional analyses of RepA variants with single amino acid exchanges confirmed most of the predictions that were based on the published 3-dimensional structure. Of the five motifs conserved in family 4 helicases, all residues conserved in RepA and T7 gp4 helicases participate in DNA unwinding. Residues K42, E76, D77, D139 and H178, proposed to play key roles in catalyzing the hydrolysis of NTPs, are essential for RepA activity. Residue H178 of motif H3 couples nucleotide consumption to DNA strand separation. PMID:14530440

  6. The conserved Lysine69 residue plays a catalytic role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tuberculosis aroE-encoded shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the forth reaction in the shikimate pathway. Structural and functional studies indicate that Lysine69 may be involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding in M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Investigation of the kinetic properties of mutant enzymes can bring important insights about the role of amino acid residues for M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Findings We have performed site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding measurements and molecular modeling for both the wild-type M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase and the K69A mutant enzymes. The apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase were determined; the catalytic constant value for the wild-type enzyme (50 s-1) is 68-fold larger than that for the mutant K69A (0.73 s-1). There was a modest increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for DHS (K69A = 76 μM; wild-type = 29 μM) and NADPH (K69A = 30 μM; wild-type = 11 μM). The equilibrium dissociation constants for wild-type and K69A mutant enzymes are 32 (± 4) μM and 134 (± 21), respectively. Conclusion Our results show that the residue Lysine69 plays a catalytic role and is not involved in substrate binding for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. These efforts on M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase catalytic mechanism determination should help the rational design of specific inhibitors, aiming at the development of antitubercular drugs. PMID:19917104

  7. Leucine residues in conserved region of 33K protein of bovine adenovirus - 3 are important for binding to major late promoter and activation of late gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Vikas; Islam, Azharul; Ayalew, Lisanework E; Tikoo, Suresh K

    2015-09-01

    The L6 region of bovine adenovirus 3 (BAdV-3) encode 33K (spliced) and 22K (unspliced) proteins. Earlier, anti-33K serum detected five major and three minor proteins in BAdV-3 infected cells. Here, we demonstrate that anti-sera raised against L6-22K protein detected two proteins of 42 and 37 kDa in BAdV-3 infected cells and one protein of 42 kDa in transfected cells expressing splice-site variant 22K protein (pC.22K containing substituted splice acceptor/donor sequence). Unlike 22K, 33K stimulated the transcription from the major late promoter (MLP) by binding to the downstream sequence elements (DE). Analysis of the variant proteins demonstrated that amino acids 201-240 of the conserved C-terminus of 33K containing the potential leucine zipper and RS repeat are required for the activation of MLP. Furthermore, amino acid substitution analysis demonstrated that unlike arginine residues of RS repeat, the leucine residues (217, 224, 232 and 240) of the conserved leucine zipper appear required for the binding of 33K to the MLP.

  8. Conserved active site residues limit inhibition of a copper-containing nitrite reductase by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Tocheva, Elitza I; Eltis, Lindsay D; Murphy, Michael E P

    2008-04-15

    The interaction of copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 ( AfNiR) with each of five small molecules was studied using crystallography and steady-state kinetics. Structural studies revealed that each small molecule interacted with the oxidized catalytic type 2 copper of AfNiR. Three small molecules (formate, acetate and nitrate) mimic the substrate by having at least two oxygen atoms for bidentate coordination to the type 2 copper atom. These three anions bound to the copper ion in the same asymmetric, bidentate manner as nitrite. Consistent with their weak inhibition of the enzyme ( K i >50 mM), the Cu-O distances in these AfNiR-inhibitor complexes were approximately 0.15 A longer than that observed in the AfNiR-nitrite complex. The binding mode of each inhibitor is determined in part by steric interactions with the side chain of active site residue Ile257. Moreover, the side chain of Asp98, a conserved residue that hydrogen bonds to type 2 copper-bound nitrite and nitric oxide, was either disordered or pointed away from the inhibitors. Acetate and formate inhibited AfNiR in a mixed fashion, consistent with the occurrence of second acetate binding site in the AfNiR-acetate complex that occludes access to the type 2 copper. A fourth small molecule, nitrous oxide, bound to the oxidized metal in a side-on fashion reminiscent of nitric oxide to the reduced copper. Nevertheless, nitrous oxide bound at a farther distance from the metal. The fifth small molecule, azide, inhibited the reduction of nitrite by AfNiR most strongly ( K ic = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mM). This ligand bound to the type 2 copper center end-on with a Cu-N c distance of approximately 2 A, and was the only inhibitor to form a hydrogen bond with Asp98. Overall, the data substantiate the roles of Asp98 and Ile257 in discriminating substrate from other small anions.

  9. Conserved Active Site Residues Limit Inhibition of a Copper-Containing Nitrite By Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tocheva, E.I.; Eltis, L.D.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-05-26

    The interaction of copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 ( AfNiR) with each of five small molecules was studied using crystallography and steady-state kinetics. Structural studies revealed that each small molecule interacted with the oxidized catalytic type 2 copper of AfNiR. Three small molecules (formate, acetate and nitrate) mimic the substrate by having at least two oxygen atoms for bidentate coordination to the type 2 copper atom. These three anions bound to the copper ion in the same asymmetric, bidentate manner as nitrite. Consistent with their weak inhibition of the enzyme ( K i >50 mM), the Cu-O distances in these AfNiR-inhibitor complexes were approximately 0.15 A longer than that observed in the AfNiR-nitrite complex. The binding mode of each inhibitor is determined in part by steric interactions with the side chain of active site residue Ile257. Moreover, the side chain of Asp98, a conserved residue that hydrogen bonds to type 2 copper-bound nitrite and nitric oxide, was either disordered or pointed away from the inhibitors. Acetate and formate inhibited AfNiR in a mixed fashion, consistent with the occurrence of second acetate binding site in the AfNiR-acetate complex that occludes access to the type 2 copper. A fourth small molecule, nitrous oxide, bound to the oxidized metal in a side-on fashion reminiscent of nitric oxide to the reduced copper. Nevertheless, nitrous oxide bound at a farther distance from the metal. The fifth small molecule, azide, inhibited the reduction of nitrite by AfNiR most strongly ( K ic = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mM). This ligand bound to the type 2 copper center end-on with a Cu-N c distance of approximately 2 A, and was the only inhibitor to form a hydrogen bond with Asp98. Overall, the data substantiate the roles of Asp98 and Ile257 in discriminating substrate from other small anions.

  10. Conserved residues in RF-NH₂ receptor models identify predicted contact sites in ligand-receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Bass, C; Katanski, C; Maynard, B; Zurro, I; Mariane, E; Matta, M; Loi, M; Melis, V; Capponi, V; Muroni, P; Setzu, M; Nichols, R

    2014-03-01

    Peptides in the RF-NH2 family are grouped together based on an amidated dipeptide C terminus and signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to influence diverse physiological functions. By determining the mechanisms underlying RF-NH2 signaling targets can be identified to modulate physiological activity; yet, how RF-NH2 peptides interact with GPCRs is relatively unexplored. We predicted conserved residues played a role in Drosophila melanogaster RF-NH2 ligand-receptor interactions. In this study D. melanogaster rhodopsin-like family A peptide GPCRs alignments identified eight conserved residues unique to RF-NH2 receptors. Three of these residues were in extra-cellular loops of modeled RF-NH2 receptors and four in transmembrane helices oriented into a ligand binding pocket to allow contact with a peptide. The eighth residue was unavailable for interaction; yet its conservation suggested it played another role. A novel hydrophobic region representative of RF-NH2 receptors was also discovered. The presence of rhodopsin-like family A GPCR structural motifs including a toggle switch indicated RF-NH2s signal classically; however, some features of the DMS receptors were distinct from other RF-NH2 GPCRs. Additionally, differences in RF-NH2 receptor structures which bind the same peptide explained ligand specificity. Our novel results predicted conserved residues as RF-NH2 ligand-receptor contact sites and identified unique and classic structural features. These discoveries will aid antagonist design to modulate RF-NH2 signaling.

  11. Phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization: results of field trials.

    PubMed

    Malusà, E; Tosi, L

    2005-06-01

    The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. Phosphorous acid residues were found in apples after application of foliar P fertilizers. Concentrations of the residues ranged between 0.02 and 14 mg kg(-1) depending on the phosphorous acid content in the fertilizer used and the plant size and yield. The treatments induced an accumulation of the residue in the course of the experiments, which in some cases reached a level exceeding the maximum limit set by EU legislation. Residues were also detected in other plant organs, i.e., roots and buds. Plants treated with Fosetyl-Al contained phosphorous acid residues in their fruits and buds two years after the suspension of the treatment, suggesting a long-term persistence of the substance in plant storage organs. A second experiment, involving treatment of trees with seven foliar fertilizers of different composition, also induced accumulation of phosphorous acid residues in fruits. It is concluded that a wide array of foliar products containing phosphorous acid, even as a minor component, could mimic the residue effect of phosphonate fungicide treatments.

  12. Identification of Conserved Residues in Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 That Modulate Virus Dependence on CD81 and SRB1 Entry Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Muriel; Sarrazin, Stéphane; Montserret, Roland; Descamps, Véronique; Baumert, Thomas F.; Duverlie, Gilles; Séron, Karin; Penin, François

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In spite of the high variability of its sequence, hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 contains several conserved regions. In this study, we explored the structural and functional features of the highly conserved E2 segment from amino acid (aa) 502 to 520, which had been proposed as a fusion peptide and shown to strongly overlap a potential conserved neutralizing epitope. For this purpose, we used reverse genetics to introduce point mutations within this region, and we characterized the phenotypes of these mutants in the light of the recently published structure of E2. The functional analyses showed that their phenotypes are in agreement with the positions of the corresponding residues in the E2 crystal structure. In contrast, our data ruled out the involvement of this region in membrane fusion, and they indicate that alternative conformations would be necessary to expose the potential neutralizing epitope present in this segment. Of particular interest, we identified three specific mutations (Y507L, V514A, and V515A) located within this neutralizing epitope which only mildly reduced infectivity and showed no assembly defect. These mutations modulated HCV dependence on the viral receptor SRB1, and/or they also modulated virion sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, their characterization also showed that amino acids Y507, V514, and V515 contribute to E2 interaction with HCV receptor CD81. In conclusion, our data show that the highly conserved E2 segment from aa 502 to 520 plays a key role in cell entry by influencing the association of the viral particle with coreceptors and neutralizing antibodies. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 exhibit sequence variability. However, some segments of the envelope proteins are highly conserved, suggesting that these sequences play a key role at some steps of the HCV life cycle. In this work, we characterized the function and structure of a highly conserved E2 region

  13. Conserved Cysteine Residue in the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Confers Redox Regulation of the DNA- Binding Activity in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Alison A.; Klausner, Richard D.; Howley, Peter M.

    1992-08-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame encodes three proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. These polypeptides share a carboxyl-terminal domain with a specific DNA-binding activity; through this domain the E2 polypeptides form dimers. In this study, we demonstrate the inhibition of E2 DNA binding in vitro by reagents that oxidize or otherwise chemically modify the free sulfydryl groups of reactive cysteine residues. However, these reagents had no effect on DNA-binding activity when the E2 polypeptide was first bound to DNA, suggesting that the free sulfydryl group(s) may be protected by DNA binding. Sensitivity to sulfydryl modification was mapped to a cysteine residue at position 340 in the E2 DNA-binding domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. Replacement of this residue with other amino acids abrogated the sensitivity to oxidation-reduction changes but did not affect the DNA-binding property of the E2 protein. These results suggest that papillomavirus DNA replication and transcriptional regulation could be modulated through the E2 proteins by changes in the intracellular redox environment. Furthermore, a motif consisting of a reactive cysteine residue carboxyl-terminal to a lysine residue in a basic region of the DNA-binding domain is a feature common to a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins that, like E2, are subject to redox regulation. Thus, posttranslational regulation of the activity of these proteins by the intracellular redox environment may be a general phenomenon.

  14. Single aromatic residue location alters nucleic acid binding and chaperone function of FIV nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Wei; Naiyer, Nada; Fichtenbaum, Eric; Qualley, Dominic F.; McCauley, Micah J.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus that infects domestic cats, and is an excellent animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is critical for replication in both retroviruses. FIV NC has several structural features that differ from HIV-1 NC. While both NC proteins have a single conserved aromatic residue in each of the two zinc fingers, the aromatic residue on the second finger of FIV NC is located on the opposite C-terminal side relative to its location in HIV-1 NC. In addition, whereas HIV-1 NC has a highly charged cationic N-terminal tail and a relatively short C-terminal extension, the opposite is true for FIV NC. To probe the impact of these differences on the nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone properties of FIV NC, we carried out ensemble and single-molecule assays with wild-type (WT) and mutant proteins. The ensemble studies show that FIV NC binding to DNA is strongly electrostatic, with a higher effective charge than that observed for HIV-1 NC. The C-terminal basic domain contributes significantly to the NA binding capability of FIV NC. In addition, the non-electrostatic component of DNA binding is much weaker for FIV NC than for HIV-1 NC. Mutation of both aromatic residues in the zinc fingers to Ala (F12A/W44A) further increases the effective charge of FIV NC and reduces its non-electrostatic binding affinity. Interestingly, switching the location of the C-terminal aromatic residue to mimic the HIV-1 NC sequence (N31W/W44A) reduces the effective charge of FIV NC and increases its non-electrostatic binding affinity to values similar to HIV-1 NC. Consistent with the results of these ensemble studies, single-molecule DNA stretching studies show that while WT FIV NC has reduced stacking capability relative to HIV-1 NC, the aromatic switch mutant recovers the ability to intercalate between the DNA bases. Our results demonstrate that altering the position of a single aromatic

  15. 40 CFR 180.311 - Cacodylic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... million Expiration/Revocation Date Cotton, undelinted seed 2.8 1/1/12 (b) Section 18 emergency...

  16. Conversion of Undaria pinnatifida residue to glycolic acid with recyclable methylamine in low temperature hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongxing; Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng

    2017-03-01

    The conversion of Undaria pinnatifida residue to glycolic acid was carried out using methylamine as catalyst by hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature. GC-MS and HPLC were used to identify the composition of bio-oil and liquid products which provide the knowledge of the chemical reaction pathways of the hydrothermal liquefaction. The main liquid product was organic acid which contained glycolic acid, lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid. And the major organic acid was glycolic acid with the highest yield of 46.52% or 33.98% of dry biomass. Methylamine promoted the dissolution of cellulose from Undaria pinnatifida residue, and significantly improved the yield of glycolic acid. The mechanism of HTL was investigated and the results show that the carbocation C3 was attacked by methylamine molecule which led to the high yield of glycolic acid. In addition, the recovery of methylamine was studied and the highest recovery rate reached 99.28%.

  17. A conserved acidic patch in the Myb domain is required for activation of an endogenous target gene and for chromatin binding

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Emily Ray; Ko, Dennis; Chen, Carolyn; Lipsick, Joseph S

    2008-01-01

    The c-Myb protein is a transcriptional regulator initially identified by homology to the v-Myb oncoprotein, and has since been implicated in human cancer. The most highly conserved portion of the c-Myb protein is the DNA-binding domain which consists of three imperfect repeats. Many other proteins contain one or more Myb-related domains, including a number of proteins that do not bind directly to DNA. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of diverse classes of Myb-related domains and discovered a highly conserved patch of acidic residues common to all Myb-related domains. These acidic residues are positioned in the first of three alpha-helices within each of the three repeats that comprise the c-Myb DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, these conserved acidic residues are present on a surface of the protein which is distinct from that which binds to DNA. Alanine mutagenesis revealed that the acidic patch of the third c-Myb repeat is essential for transcriptional activity, but neither for nuclear localization nor DNA-binding. Instead, these acidic residues are required for efficient chromatin binding and interaction with the histone H4 N-terminal tail. PMID:18840288

  18. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  19. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  20. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  1. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  2. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv.

    PubMed

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C

    2001-02-01

    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  3. Minimal promoter systems reveal the importance of conserved residues in the B-finger of human transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy E; Glaser, Bryan T; Foley, Katherine M; Burton, Zachary F; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-11

    The "B-finger" of transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is highly conserved and believed to play a role in the initiation process. We performed alanine substitutions across the B-finger of human TFIIB, made change-of-charge mutations in selected residues, and substituted the B-finger sequence from other organisms. Mutant proteins were examined in two minimal promoter systems (containing only RNA polymerase II, TATA-binding protein, and TFIIB) and in a complex system, using TFIIB-immunodepleted HeLa cell nuclear extract (NE). Mutations in conserved residues located on the sides of the B-finger had the greatest effect on activity in both minimal promoter systems, with mutations in residues Glu-51 and Arg-66 eliminating activity. The double change-of-charge mutant (E51R:R66E) did not show activity in either minimal promoter system. Mutations in the nonconserved residues at the tip of the B-finger did not significantly affect activity. However, all of the mutations in the B-finger showed at least 25% activity in the HeLa cell NE. Chimeric proteins, containing B-finger sequences from species with conserved residues on the side of the B-finger, showed wild-type activity in a minimal promoter system and in the HeLa cell NE. However, chimeric proteins whose sequence showed divergence on the sides of the B-finger had reduced activity. Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) partially restored activity of the inactive mutants in the minimal promoter system, suggesting that TFIIF in HeLa cell NE helps to rescue the inactive mutations by interacting with either the B-finger or another component of the initiation complex that is influenced by the B-finger.

  4. Functional analysis of amino acid residues essential for activity in the Na+/H+ exchanger of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Dibrov, P; Young, P G; Fliegel, L

    1998-06-09

    We identified amino acid residues important for activity of sod2, the Na+/H+ antiporter of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We mutated all eight His residues of sod2 into Arg. Only His367-->Arg affected function and resulted in complete inability of sod2 to allow growth of S. pombe in LiCl-containing medium. Mutant S. pombe (H367R) could not expel sodium in acidic (pH 4.0) medium and were defective in their ability to alkalinize external medium. When His367 was replaced by Asp, sodium export of S. pombe was suppressed at acidic pH while the sodium-dependent proton influx at pH 6.1 was increased compared to wild type. We also mutated three residues conserved in putative membrane regions of various eukaryotic and prokaryotic Na+/H+ exchangers. S. pombe containing Asp241-->Asn and Asp266, 267-->Asn mutations had greatly impaired growth in LiCl-containing medium. In addition, sodium-dependent proton influx at external pH 6. 1 was impaired. Sodium export from S. pombe cells at external pH 4.0 was also almost completely abolished by the D266,267N mutation; however, the D241N mutant protein retained almost normal Na+ export. The results demonstrate that His367, Asp241, and Asp266,267 are important in the function of the eukaryotic Na+/H+ exchanger sod2.

  5. Conserved residues in Lassa fever virus Z protein modulate viral infectivity at the level of the ribonucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles.

  6. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.T.; Dickie, J.P.; Hamerski, D.A.; Magnuson, J.K.; Anderson, J.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded ({sup 3}H) glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and ({sup 3}H)glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue.

  7. 40 CFR 180.155 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established for the combined residues of the plant growth regulator 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and its... ammonium, sodium, or potassium salts, ethyl ester, and acetamide in or on food commodities as...

  8. Peanut residue carbon and nitrogen mineralization under simulated conventional and conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residue management is an important aspect of crop production systems. Availability of plant residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates during decomposition. Cooperative Extension currently recommends 22-67 kg N ha-1 credit to subsequent crops following peanut (Ar...

  9. Prediction of nucleic acid binding probability in proteins: a neighboring residue network based score.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-06-23

    We describe a general binding score for predicting the nucleic acid binding probability in proteins. The score is directly derived from physicochemical and evolutionary features and integrates a residue neighboring network approach. Our process achieves stable and high accuracies on both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins and illustrates how the main driving forces for nucleic acid binding are common. Because of the effective integration of the synergetic effects of the network of neighboring residues and the fact that the prediction yields a hierarchical scoring on the protein surface, energy funnels for nucleic acid binding appear on protein surfaces, pointing to the dynamic process occurring in the binding of nucleic acids to proteins.

  10. The conserved cis-Pro39 residue plays a crucial role in the proper positioning of the catalytic base Asp38 in ketosteroid isomerase from Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gyu Hyun; Cha, Sun-Shin; Yun, Young Sung; Oh, Yun Hee; Hong, Bee Hak; Lee, Heung-Soo; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2003-01-01

    KSI (ketosteroid isomerase) from Comamonas testosteroni is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyses the allylic isomerization of Delta5-3-ketosteroids to their conjugated Delta4-isomers at a reaction rate equivalent to the diffusion-controlled limit. Based on the structural analysis of KSI at a high resolution, the conserved cis-Pro39 residue was proposed to be involved in the proper positioning of Asp38, a critical catalytic residue, since the residue was found not only to be structurally associated with Asp38, but also to confer a structural rigidity on the local active-site geometry consisting of Asp38, Pro39, Val40, Gly41 and Ser42 at the flexible loop between b-strands B1 and B2. In order to investigate the structural role of the conserved cis-Pro39 residue near the active site of KSI, Pro39 was replaced with alanine or glycine. The free energy of activation for the P39A and P39G mutants increased by 10.5 and 16.7 kJ/mol (2.5 and 4.0 kcal/mol) respectively, while DG(U)H2O (the free-energy change for unfolding in the absence of urea at 25.00+/-0.02 degrees C) decreased by 31.0 and 35.6 kJ/mol (7.4 and 8.5 kcal/mol) respectively, compared with the wild-type enzyme. The crystal structure of the P39A mutant in complex with d-equilenin [d-1,3,5(10),6,8-estrapentaen-3-ol-17-one], a reaction intermediate analogue, determined at 2.3 A (0.23 nm) resolution revealed that the P39A mutation significantly disrupted the proper orientations of both d-equilenin and Asp38, as well as the local active-site geometry near Asp38, which resulted in substantial decreases in the activity and stability of KSI. Upon binding 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid, the fluorescence intensities of the P39A and P39G mutants were increased drastically, with maximum wavelengths blue-shifted upon binding, indicating that the mutations might alter the hydrophobic active site of KSI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the conserved cis-Pro39 residue plays a crucial role in the proper

  11. Effect of temperature on iron leaching from bauxite residue by sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Rong; Zeng, Kai; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Bauxite residue, as solid waste from alumina production, contains mainly hematite [Fe2O3]. Kinetic study of iron leaching of bauxite residue by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The results have been obtained as following: (i) Temperature play an important role in iron leaching from bauxite residue. Higher temperature is favor of Fe(III) leaching from bauxite residue. (ii) The leaching process is applicable to the intra-particle diffusion model and the apparent activation energy of model of leaching is found to be 17.32 kJ/mol.

  12. Entropy reduction in unfolded peptides (and proteins) due to conformational preferences of amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Toal, Siobhan E

    2014-11-07

    As established by several groups over the last 20 years, amino acid residues in unfolded peptides and proteins do not exhibit the unspecific random distribution as assumed by the classical random coil model. Individual amino acid residues in small peptides were found to exhibit different conformational preferences. Here, we utilize recently obtained conformational distributions of guest amino acid residues in GxG peptides to estimate their conformational entropy, which we find to be significantly lower than the entropy of an assumed random coil like distribution. Only at high temperature do backbone entropies approach random coil like values. We utilized the obtained backbone entropies of the investigated amino acid residues to estimate the loss of conformational entropy caused by a coil → helix transition and identified two subsets of amino acid residues for which the thus calculated entropy losses correlate well with the respective Gibbs energy of helix formation obtained for alanine based host-guest systems. Calculated and experimentally derived entropic losses were found to be in good agreement. For most of the amino acid residues investigated entropic losses derived from our GxG distributions correlate very well with corresponding values recently obtained from MD simulations biased by conformational propensities derived from truncated coil libraries. Both, conformational entropy and the entropy of solvation exhibit a strong, residue specific temperature dependence, which can be expected to substantially affect the stability of unfolded states. Altogether, our results provide strong evidence for the notion that conformational preferences of amino acid residues matter with regard to the thermodynamics of peptide and protein folding.

  13. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiheido, Hirokazu Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  14. Core Amino Acid Residues in the Morphology-Regulating Protein, Mms6, for Intracellular Magnetite Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Ayana; Narumiya, Kaori; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Arakaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms produce finely tuned biomineral architectures with the aid of biomineral-associated proteins. The functional amino acid residues in these proteins have been previously identified using in vitro and in silico experimentation in different biomineralization systems. However, the investigation in living organisms is limited owing to the difficulty in establishing appropriate genetic techniques. Mms6 protein, isolated from the surface of magnetite crystals synthesized in magnetotactic bacteria, was shown to play a key role in the regulation of crystal morphology. In this study, we have demonstrated a defect in the specific region or substituted acidic amino acid residues in the Mms6 protein for observing their effect on magnetite biomineralization in vivo. Analysis of the gene deletion mutants and transformants of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 expressing partially truncated Mms6 protein revealed that deletions in the N-terminal or C-terminal regions disrupted proper protein localization to the magnetite surface, resulting in a change in the crystal morphology. Moreover, single amino acid substitutions at Asp123, Glu124, or Glu125 in the C-terminal region of Mms6 clearly indicated that these amino acid residues had a direct impact on magnetite crystal morphology. Thus, these consecutive acidic amino acid residues were found to be core residues regulating magnetite crystal morphology. PMID:27759096

  15. Effects of advanced oxidation pretreatment on residual aluminum control in high humic acid water purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Li, Hua; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaochang

    2011-01-01

    Due to the formation of disinfection by-products and high concentrations of Al residue in drinking water purification, humic substances are a major component of organic matter in natural waters and have therefore received a great deal of attention in recent years. We investigated the effects of advanced oxidation pretreatment methods usually applied for removing dissolved organic matters on residual Al control. Results showed that the presence of humic acid increased residual Al concentration notably. With 15 mg/L of humic acid in raw water, the concentrations of soluble aluminum and total aluminum in the treated water were close to the quantity of Al addition. After increasing coagulant dosage from 12 to 120 mg/L, the total-Al in the treated water was controlled to below 0.2 mg/L. Purification systems with ozonation, chlorination, or potassium permanganate oxidation pretreatment units had little effects on residual Al control; while UV radiation decreased Al concentration notably. Combined with ozonation, the effects of UV radiation were enhanced. Optimal dosages were 0.5 mg O3/mg C and 3 hr for raw water with 15 mg/L of humic acid. Under UV light radiation, the combined forces or bonds that existed among humic acid molecules were destroyed; adsorption sites increased positively with radiation time, which promoted adsorption of humic acid onto polymeric aluminum and Al(OH)3(s). This work provides a new solution for humic acid coagulation and residual Al control for raw water with humic acid purification.

  16. Mutation in aspartic acid residues modifies catalytic and haemolytic activities of Bacillus cereus sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, H; Tameishi, K; Yamada, A; Tomita, M; Matsuo, Y; Nishikawa, K; Ikezawa, H

    1995-01-01

    Four aspartic acid residues (Asp126, Asp156, Asp233 and Asp295) of Bacillus cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase) in the conservative regions were changed to glycine by in vitro mutagenesis, and the mutant SMases [D126G (Asp126-->Gly etc.), D156G, D233G and D295G] were produced in Bacillus brevis 47, a protein-producing strain. The sphingomyelin (SM)-hydrolysing activity of D295G was completely abolished and those of D126G and D156G were reduced by more than 80%, whereas that of D233G was not so profoundly affected. Two mutant enzymes (D126G and D156G) were purified and characterized further. The hydrolytic activities of D126G and D156G toward four phosphocholine-containing substrates with different hydrophobicities, SM, 2-hexadecanoylamino-4-nitrophenylphosphocholine(HNP), lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and p-nitro-phenylphosphocholine (p-NPPC), were compared with those of the wild-type. The activity of D126G toward water-soluble p-NPPC was comparable with that of the wild-type. On the other hand, D156G catalysed the hydrolysis of hydrophilic substrates such as HNP and p-NPPC more efficiently (> 4-fold) than the wild-type. These results suggested that Asp126 and Asp156, located in the highly conserved region, may well be involved in a substrate recognition process rather than catalytic action. Haemolytic activities of the mutant enzymes were found to be parallel with their SM-hydrolysing activities. Two regions, including the C-terminal region containing Asp295, were found to show considerable sequence identity with the corresponding regions of bovine pancreatic DNase I. Structural predictions indicated structural similarity between SMase and DNase I. An evolutionary relationship based on the catalytic function was suggested between the structures of these two phosphodiesterases. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7639690

  17. Mutations in a Conserved Domain of E. coli MscS to the Most Conserved Superfamily Residue Leads to Kinetic Changes.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hannah R; Blount, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli (E. coli) the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance, MscS, gates in response to membrane tension created from acute external hypoosmotic shock, thus rescuing the bacterium from cell lysis. E. coli MscS is the most well studied member of the MscS superfamily of channels, whose members are found throughout the bacterial and plant kingdoms. Homology to the pore lining helix and upper vestibule domain of E. coli MscS is required for inclusion into the superfamily. Although highly conserved, in the second half of the pore lining helix (TM3B), E. coli MscS has five residues significantly different from other members of the superfamily. In superfamilies such as this, it remains unclear why variations within such a homologous region occur: is it tolerance of alternate residues, or does it define functional variance within the superfamily? Point mutations (S114I/T, L118F, A120S, L123F, F127E/K/T) and patch clamp electrophysiology were used to study the effect of changing these residues in E. coli MscS on sensitivity and gating. The data indicate that variation at these locations do not consistently lead to wildtype channel phenotypes, nor do they define large changes in mechanosensation, but often appear to effect changes in the E. coli MscS channel gating kinetics.

  18. On the distribution of amino acid residues in transmembrane alpha-helix bundles.

    PubMed Central

    Samatey, F A; Xu, C; Popot, J L

    1995-01-01

    The periodic distribution of residues in the sequence of 469 putative transmembrane alpha-helices from eukaryotic plasma membrane polytopic proteins has been analyzed with correlation matrices. The method does not involve any a priori assumption about the secondary structure of the segments or about the physicochemical properties of individual amino acid residues. Maximal correlation is observed at 3.6 residues per period, characteristic of alpha-helices. A scale extracted from the data describes the propensity of the various residues to lie on the same or on opposite helix faces. The most polar face of transmembrane helices, presumably that buried in the protein core, shows a strong enrichment in aromatic residues, while residues likely to face the fatty acyl chains of lipids are largely aliphatic. PMID:7753846

  19. Solvent accessibility, residue charge and residue volume, the three ingredients of a robust amino acid substitution matrix.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Hani; Katanforoush, Ali; Torabi, Noorossadat; Najafabadi, Hamed Shateri

    2007-04-21

    Cost measure matrices or different amino acid indices have been widely used for studies in many fields of biology. One major criticism of these studies might be based on the unavailability of an unbiased and yet effective amino acid substitution matrix. Throughout this study we have devised a cost measure matrix based on the solvent accessibility, residue charge, and residue volume indices. Performed analyses on this novel substitution matrix (i.e. solvent accessibility charge volume (SCV) matrix) support the uncontaminated nature of this matrix regarding the genetic code. Although highly similar to a number of previously available cost measure matrices, the SCV matrix results in a more significant optimality in the error-buffering capacity of the genetic code when compared to many other amino acid substitution matrices. Besides, a method to compare an SCV-based scoring matrix with a number of widely used matrices has been devised, the results of which highlights the robustness of this matrix in protein family discrimination.

  20. An entropy-residual shock detector for solving conservation laws using high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yu; See, Yee Chee; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript is concerned with the detection of shock discontinuities in the solution of conservation laws for high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods. A shock detector based on the entropy residual is proposed to distinguish smooth and non-smooth parts of the solution. The numerical analysis shows that the proposed entropy residual converges if the true solution is smooth and sufficiently regularized in space and time. To precisely localize discontinuities of different natures, an approach is developed that dynamically sets the threshold on the detection function, such that the detection criterion retains its sensitivity to the characteristics of the local solution. The implementation is conducted in an entropy-bounded discontinuous Galerkin framework, and numerical tests confirm the convergence property of the entropy-residual formulation and the effectiveness of the thresholding procedure. This shock detector is combined with an artificial viscosity scheme for shock stabilization. Comparison with other detectors is performed to demonstrate the excellent performance of the entropy-residual based shock detector for a wide range of problems on regular and triangular grids.

  1. Effects on general acid catalysis from mutations of the invariant tryptophan and arginine residues in the protein tyrosine phosphatase from Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Hoff, R H; Hengge, A C; Wu, L; Keng, Y F; Zhang, Z Y

    2000-01-11

    General acid catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) is accomplished by a conserved Asp residue, which is brought into position for catalysis by movement of a flexible loop that occurs upon binding of substrate. With the PTPase from Yersinia, we have examined the effect on general acid catalysis caused by mutations to two conserved residues that are integral to this conformation change. Residue Trp354 is at a hinge of the loop, and Arg409 forms hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions with the phosphoryl group of substrates. Trp354 was mutated to Phe and to Ala, and residue Arg409 was mutated to Lys and to Ala. The four mutant enzymes were studied using steady state kinetics and heavy-atom isotope effects with the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The data indicate that mutation of the hinge residue Trp354 to Ala completely disables general acid catalysis. In the Phe mutant, general acid catalysis is partially effective, but the proton is only partially transferred in the transition state, in contrast to the native enzyme where proton transfer to the leaving group is virtually complete. Mutation of Arg409 to Lys has a minimal effect on the K(m), while this parameter is increased 30-fold in the Ala mutant. The k(cat) values for R409K and for R409A are about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that for the native enzyme. General acid catalysis is rendered inoperative by the Lys mutation, but partial proton transfer during catalysis still occurs in the Ala mutant. Structural explanations for the differential effects of these mutations on movement of the flexible loop that enables general acid catalysis are presented.

  2. Optimization of acid hydrolysis from the hemicellulosic fraction of Eucalyptus grandis residue using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Canettieri, Eliana Vieira; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; de Carvalho, João Andrade; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically and with dilute or concentrate mineral acids. The present study used dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst for hydrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis residue. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the hydrolysis process in a 1.4 l pilot-scale reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature and residue/acid solution ratio on the hemicellulose removal and consequently on the production of sugars (xylose, glucose and arabinose) as well as on the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid). This study was based on a model composition corresponding to a 2(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the hydrolysis conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylose extraction from hemicellulose of residue. The considered optimum conditions were: H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.65%, temperature of 157 degrees C and residue/acid solution ratio of 1/8.6 with a reaction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, 79.6% of the total xylose was removed and the hydrolysate contained 1.65 g/l glucose, 13.65 g/l xylose, 1.55 g/l arabinose, 3.10 g/l acetic acid, 1.23 g/l furfural and 0.20 g/l 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

  3. Residue management increases fallow water conservation and yield deficit irrigated crops grown in rotation with wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage (NT) residue management provides cover to increase precipitation capture compared with disk tillage (DT) or in the absence of a cover crop. Therefore, NT has the potential to reduce irrigation withdrawals from the declining Ogallala Aquifer. In a 4-year study, we quantified DT and NT effe...

  4. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  5. Amino acid residues Leu135 and Tyr236 are required for RNA binding activity of CFIm25 in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos A; Soto-Sanchez, Jacqueline; Ramirez-Moreno, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2015-08-01

    Pre-mRNA 3' end processing in the nucleus is essential for mRNA stability, efficient nuclear transport, and translation in eukaryotic cells. In Human, the cleavage/polyadenylation machinery contains the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25), which specifically recognizes two UGUA elements and regulates the assembly of polyadenylation factors, poly(A) site selection and polyadenylation. In Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, EhCFIm25 has been reported as a RNA binding protein that interacts with the Poly(A) Polymerase. Here, we follow-up with the study of EhCFIm25 to characterize its interaction with RNA. Using in silico strategy, we identified Leu135 and Tyr236 in EhCFIm25 as conserved amino acids among CFIm25 homologues. We therefore generated mutant EhCFIm25 proteins to investigate the role of these residues for RNA interaction. Results showed that RNA binding activity was totally abrogated when Leu135 and Tyr236 were replaced with Ala residue, and Tyr236 was changed for Phe. In contrast, RNA binding activity was less affected when Leu135 was substituted by Thr. Our data revealed for the first time -until we know-the functional relevance of the conserved Leu135 and Tyr236 in EhCFIm25 for RNA binding activity. They also gave some insights about the possible chemical groups that could be interacting with the RNA molecule.

  6. 75 FR 1773 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acid in or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acid in or... establishment of a regulation for residues of the plant growth regulator, polymeric polyhydroxy acid, in or on... polymeric polyhydroxy acid in or on all food commodities. EPA has determined that the pesticide...

  7. Molecular dynamics studies unravel role of conserved residues responsible for movement of ions into active site of DHBPS

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Ranajit Nivrutti; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Singh, Balvinder

    2017-01-01

    3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (DHBPS) catalyzes the conversion of D-ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P) to L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate in the presence of Mg2+. Although crystal structures of DHBPS in complex with Ru5P and non-catalytic metal ions have been reported, structure with Ru5P along with Mg2+ is still elusive. Therefore, mechanistic role played by Mg2+ in the structure of DHBPS is poorly understood. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations of DHBPS-Ru5P complex along with Mg2+ have shown entry of Mg2+ from bulk solvent into active site. Presence of Mg2+ in active site has constrained conformations of Ru5P and has reduced flexibility of loop-2. Formation of hydrogen bonds among Thr-108 and residues - Gly-109, Val-110, Ser-111, and Asp-114 are found to be critical for entry of Mg2+ into active site. Subsequent in silico mutations of residues, Thr-108 and Asp-114 have substantiated the importance of these interactions. Loop-4 of one monomer is being proposed to act as a “lid” covering the active site of other monomer. Further, the conserved nature of residues taking part in the transfer of Mg2+ suggests the same mechanism being present in DHBPS of other microorganisms. Thus, this study provides insights into the functioning of DHBPS that can be used for the designing of inhibitors. PMID:28079168

  8. Molecular dynamics studies unravel role of conserved residues responsible for movement of ions into active site of DHBPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Ranajit Nivrutti; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Singh, Balvinder

    2017-01-01

    3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (DHBPS) catalyzes the conversion of D-ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P) to L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate in the presence of Mg2+. Although crystal structures of DHBPS in complex with Ru5P and non-catalytic metal ions have been reported, structure with Ru5P along with Mg2+ is still elusive. Therefore, mechanistic role played by Mg2+ in the structure of DHBPS is poorly understood. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations of DHBPS-Ru5P complex along with Mg2+ have shown entry of Mg2+ from bulk solvent into active site. Presence of Mg2+ in active site has constrained conformations of Ru5P and has reduced flexibility of loop-2. Formation of hydrogen bonds among Thr-108 and residues - Gly-109, Val-110, Ser-111, and Asp-114 are found to be critical for entry of Mg2+ into active site. Subsequent in silico mutations of residues, Thr-108 and Asp-114 have substantiated the importance of these interactions. Loop-4 of one monomer is being proposed to act as a “lid” covering the active site of other monomer. Further, the conserved nature of residues taking part in the transfer of Mg2+ suggests the same mechanism being present in DHBPS of other microorganisms. Thus, this study provides insights into the functioning of DHBPS that can be used for the designing of inhibitors.

  9. A microalgae residue based carbon solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobo; Li, Dianhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yuanming; Huang, Weiya; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae is recognized as one of the best solutions to deal with the energy crisis issues. However, after the oil extraction from the microalgae, the microalgae residue was generally discarded or burned. Here a novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from microalgae residue by in situ hydrothermal partially carbonization were synthesized. The obtained catalyst was characterized and subjected to both the esterification of oleic acid and transesterification of triglyceride to produce biodiesel. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity and can be regenerated while its activity can be well maintained after five cycles.

  10. "Opening" the ferritin pore for iron release by mutation of conserved amino acids at interhelix and loop sites.

    PubMed

    Jin, W; Takagi, H; Pancorbo, B; Theil, E C

    2001-06-26

    Ferritin concentrates, stores, and detoxifies iron in most organisms. The iron is a solid, ferric oxide mineral (< or =4500 Fe) inside the protein shell. Eight pores are formed by subunit trimers of the 24 subunit protein. A role for the protein in controlling reduction and dissolution of the iron mineral was suggested in preliminary experiments [Takagi et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18685-18688] with a proline/leucine substitution near the pore. Localized pore disorder in frog L134P crystals coincided with enhanced iron exit, triggered by reduction. In this report, nine additional substitutions of conserved amino acids near L134 were studied for effects on iron release. Alterations of a conserved hydrophobic pair, a conserved ion pair, and a loop at the ferritin pores all increased iron exit (3-30-fold). Protein assembly was unchanged, except for a slight decrease in volume (measured by gel filtration); ferroxidase activity was still in the millisecond range, but a small decrease indicates slight alteration of the channel from the pore to the oxidation site. The sensitivity of reductive iron exit rates to changes in conserved residues near the ferritin pores, associated with localized unfolding, suggests that the structure around the ferritin pores is a target for regulated protein unfolding and iron release.

  11. Improving homology modeling of G-protein coupled receptors through multiple-template derived conserved inter-residue interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Rajan; Heim, Andrew J.; Li, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    Evidenced by the three-rounds of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) Dock competitions, improving homology modeling methods of helical transmembrane proteins including the GPCRs, based on templates of low sequence identity, remains an eminent challenge. Current approaches addressing this challenge adopt the philosophy of "modeling first, refinement next". In the present work, we developed an alternative modeling approach through the novel application of available multiple templates. First, conserved inter-residue interactions are derived from each additional template through conservation analysis of each template-target pairwise alignment. Then, these interactions are converted into distance restraints and incorporated in the homology modeling process. This approach was applied to modeling of the human β2 adrenergic receptor using the bovin rhodopsin and the human protease-activated receptor 1 as templates and improved model quality was demonstrated compared to the homology model generated by standard single-template and multiple-template methods. This method of "refined restraints first, modeling next", provides a fast and complementary way to the current modeling approaches. It allows rational identification and implementation of additional conserved distance restraints extracted from multiple templates and/or experimental data, and has the potential to be applicable to modeling of all helical transmembrane proteins.

  12. Effect of the secondary structure of carbohydrate residues of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) on the local dynamics of Trp residues.

    PubMed

    Albani, Jihad René

    2004-01-01

    We studied in this work the relation between the secondary structure of the carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein and the local motions of Trp residues of the protein. We measured for this purpose the fluorescence emission intensity and anisotropy of the Trp residues between -46 and +30 degrees of the sialylated and asialylated protein. Our results indicate that, in both forms, the global profile of the emission intensity with temperature shows that Trp residues display static and collisional interaction with the neighboring amino acids. However, the profile of the asialylated form is more structured than that observed for the sialylated protein. The Y-plot analysis of the emission-anisotropy results indicated that the frictional resistance to rotation of the surface Trp residue is less important in the sialylated protein than in the asialylated form. This result is in good agreement with the fact that, in the asialylated conformation, the carbohydrate residues are closer to the protein surface than in the sialylated form, thereby increasing the contact of the surface Trp residue with the neighboring amino acids. Also, the interaction between the carbohydrate residues and the surface Trp residue contributes to the modification of the frictional resistance to rotation of the fluorophore.

  13. Evaluation of microwave-accelerated residue-specific acid cleavage for proteomic applications.

    PubMed

    Swatkoski, Stephen; Gutierrez, Peter; Wynne, Colin; Petrov, Alexey; Dinman, Jonathan D; Edwards, Nathan; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-02-01

    Microwave-accelerated proteolysis using acetic acid has been shown to occur specifically on either or both sides of aspartic acid residues. This chemical cleavage has been applied to ovalbumin and several model peptides to test the effect on some of the more common post-translational modifications. No oxidation of methionine or cysteine was observed; however, hydrolysis of phosphate groups proceeds at a detectable rate. Acid cleavage was also extended to the yeast ribosome model proteome, where it provided information on 74% of that proteome. Aspartic acid occurs across the proteome with approximately half the frequency of the combined occurrence of the trypsin residues lysine and arginine, and implications of this are considered.

  14. Modification of amino acid residues in carious dentin matrix.

    PubMed

    Kleter, G A; Damen, J J; Buijs, M J; Ten Cate, J M

    1998-03-01

    The Maillard reaction between sugar and protein has been postulated as the cause for the browning and arrestment of caries lesions. This reaction has been implicated as the cause for decreased degradability of collagen in vivo. The aim of the present study was to verify the occurrence of the reaction in vivo. Carious and sound dentin samples were taken from extracted human teeth and analyzed for the fluorescence characteristic of the Maillard reaction and oxidation and, by HPLC, for Maillard products. In addition, physiological cross-links were analyzed by HPLC. Oxidation- and Maillard reaction-related fluorescence increased in collagenase digests from carious dentin. Advanced Maillard products (carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine) increased, whereas furosine, a marker for the initial reaction, was not observed consistently. This implies no direct addition of sugars to protein, but rather the addi-tion of smaller metabolites and glycoxidation products. In addition, the physiological cross-links hydroxylysinonorleucine and dihydroxylysinonorleucine decreased in carious dentin. Also for hydroxylysylpyridinoline, a decrease was observed, but not consistently. In conclusion, the caries process modifies amino acids in dentin collagen, which can lead to increased resistance against proteolysis and ultimately to caries arrestment.

  15. Revised Backbone-Virtual-Bond-Angle Potentials to Treat the l- and d-Amino Acid Residues in the Coarse-Grained United Residue (UNRES) Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Continuing our effort to introduce d-amino-acid residues in the united residue (UNRES) force field developed in our laboratory, in this work the Cα ··· Cα ··· Cα backbone-virtual-bond-valence-angle (θ) potentials for systems containing d-amino-acid residues have been developed. The potentials were determined by integrating the combined energy surfaces of all possible triplets of terminally blocked glycine, alanine, and proline obtained with ab initio molecular quantum mechanics at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level to calculate the corresponding potentials of mean force (PMFs). Subsequently, analytical expressions were fitted to the PMFs to give the virtual-bond-valence potentials to be used in UNRES. Alanine represented all types of amino-acid residues except glycine and proline. The blocking groups were either the N-acetyl and N′,N′-dimethyl or N-acetyl and pyrrolidyl group, depending on whether the residue next in sequence was an alanine-type or a proline residue. A total of 126 potentials (63 symmetry-unrelated potentials for each set of terminally blocking groups) were determined. Together with the torsional, double-torsional, and side-chain-rotamer potentials for polypeptide chains containing d-amino-acid residues determined in our earlier work (Sieradzan et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2012, 8, 4746), the new virtual-bond-angle (θ) potentials now constitute the complete set of physics-based potentials with which to run coarse-grained simulations of systems containing d-amino-acid residues. The ability of the extended UNRES force field to reproduce thermodynamics of polypeptide systems with d-amino-acid residues was tested by comparing the experimentally measured and the calculated free energies of helix formation of model KLALKLALxxLKLALKLA peptides, where x denotes any d- or l- amino-acid residue. The obtained results demonstrate that the UNRES force field with the new potentials reproduce the changes of free energies of helix formation upon d

  16. Charged extracellular residues, conserved throughout a G-protein-coupled receptor family, are required for ligand binding, receptor activation, and cell-surface expression.

    PubMed

    Hawtin, Stuart R; Simms, John; Conner, Matthew; Lawson, Zoe; Parslow, Rosemary A; Trim, Julie; Sheppard, Andrew; Wheatley, Mark

    2006-12-15

    For G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in general, the roles of extracellular residues are not well defined compared with residues in transmembrane helices (TMs). Nevertheless, extracellular residues are important for various functions in both peptide-GPCRs and amine-GPCRs. In this study, the V(1a) vasopressin receptor was used to systematically investigate the role of extracellular charged residues that are highly conserved throughout a subfamily of peptide-GPCRs, using a combination of mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Of the 13 conserved charged residues identified in the extracellular loops (ECLs), Arg(116) (ECL1), Arg(125) (top of TMIII), and Asp(204) (ECL2) are important for agonist binding and/or receptor activation. Molecular modeling revealed that Arg(125) (and Lys(125)) stabilizes TMIII by interacting with lipid head groups. Charge reversal (Asp(125)) caused re-ordering of the lipids, altered helical packing, and increased solvent penetration of the TM bundle. Interestingly, a negative charge is excluded at this locus in peptide-GPCRs, whereas a positive charge is excluded in amine-GPCRs. This contrasting conserved charge may reflect differences in GPCR binding modes between peptides and amines, with amines needing to access a binding site crevice within the receptor TM bundle, whereas the binding site of peptide-GPCRs includes more extracellular domains. A conserved negative charge at residue 204 (ECL2), juxtaposed to the highly conserved disulfide bond, was essential for agonist binding and signaling. Asp(204) (and Glu(204)) establishes TMIII contacts required for maintaining the beta-hairpin fold of ECL2, which if broken (Ala(204) or Arg(204)) resulted in ECL2 unfolding and receptor dysfunction. This study provides mechanistic insight into the roles of conserved extracellular residues.

  17. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  18. Progesterone binding to the tryptophan residues of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R

    2006-11-06

    Binding studies between progesterone and alpha1-acid glycoprotein allowed us to demonstrate that the binding site of progesterone contains one hydrophobic tryptophan residue and that the structure of the protein is not altered upon binding. The data obtained at saturated concentrations of progesterone clearly reveal the type of interaction at physiological levels.

  19. The role of a conserved proline residue in mediating conformational changes associated with voltage gating of Cx32 gap junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Ri, Y; Ballesteros, J A; Abrams, C K; Oh, S; Verselis, V K; Weinstein, H; Bargiello, T A

    1999-01-01

    We have explored the role of a proline residue located at position 87 in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of gap junctions in the mechanism of voltage-dependent gating of connexin32 (Cx32). Substitution of this proline (denoted Cx32P87) with residues G, A, or V affects channel function in a progressive manner consistent with the expectation that a proline kink (PK) motif exists in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of this connexin. Mutations of the preceding threonine residue T86 to S, A, C, V, N, or L shift the conductance-voltage relation of wild-type Cx32, such that the mutated channels close at smaller transjunctional voltages. The observed shift in voltage dependence is consistent with a reduction in the open probability of the mutant hemichannels at a transjunctional voltage (Vj) of 0 mV. In both cases in which kinetics were examined, the time constants for reaching steady state were faster for T86N and T86A than for wild type at comparable voltages, suggesting that the T86 mutations cause the energetic destabilization of the open state relative to the other states of the channel protein. The structural underpinnings of the observed effects were explored with Monte Carlo simulations. The conformational space of TM2 helices was found to differ for the T86A, V, N, and L mutants, which produce a less bent helix ( approximately 20 degrees bend angle) compared to the wild type, which has a approximately 37 degrees bend angle. The greater bend angle of the wild-type helix reflects the propensity of the T86 residue to hydrogen bond with the backbone carbonyl of amino acid residue I82. The relative differences in propensity for hydrogen bonding of the mutants relative to the wild-type threonine residue in the constructs we studied (T86A, V, N, L, S, and C) correlate with the shift in the conductance-voltage relation observed for T86 mutations. The data are consistent with a structural model in which the open conformation of the Cx32 channel corresponds to

  20. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  1. The role of a conserved tyrosine residue in high-potential iron sulfur proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Iwagami, S. G.; Creagh, A. L.; Haynes, C. A.; Borsari, M.; Felli, I. C.; Piccioli, M.; Eltis, L. D.

    1995-01-01

    Conserved tyrosine-12 of Ectothiorhodospira halophila high-potential iron sulphur protein (HiPIP) iso-I was substituted with phenylalanine (Y12F), histidine (Y12H), tryptophan (Y12W), isoleucine (Y12I), and alanine (Y12A). Variants Y12A and Y12I were expressed to reasonable levels in cells grown at lower temperatures, but decomposed during purification. Variants Y12F, Y12H, and Y12W were substantially destabilized with respect to the recombinant wild-type HiPIP (rcWT) as determined by differential scanning calorimetry over a pH range of 7.0-11.0. Characterization of the Y12F variant by NMR indicates that the principal structural differences between this variant and the rcWT HiPIP result from the loss of the two hydrogen bonds of the Tyr-12 hydroxyl group with Asn-14 O delta 1 and Lys-59 NH, respectively. The effect of the loss of the latter interaction is propagated through the Lys-59/Val-58 peptide bond, thereby perturbing Gly-46. The delta delta GDapp of Y12F of 2.3 kcal/mol with respect to rcWT HiPIP (25 degrees C, pH 7.0) is entirely consistent with the contribution of these two hydrogen bonds to the stability of the latter. CD measurements show that Tyr-12 influences several electronic transitions within the cluster. The midpoint reduction potentials of variants Y12F, Y12H, and Y12W were 17, 19, and 22 mV (20 mM MOPS, 0.2 M sodium chloride, pH 6.98, 25 degrees C), respectively, higher than that of rcWT HiPIP. The current results indicate that, although conserved Tyr-12 modulates the properties of the cluster, its principle function is to stabilize the HiPIP through hydrogen bonds involving its hydroxyl group and electrostatic interactions involving its aromatic ring. PMID:8580847

  2. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    PubMed

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-12-01

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages.

  3. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    PubMed

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-10-15

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages.

  4. Control of activity through oxidative modification at the conserved residue Cys66 of aryl sulfotransferase IV.

    PubMed

    Marshall, A D; Darbyshire, J F; Hunter, A P; McPhie, P; Jakoby, W B

    1997-04-04

    Oxidation at Cys66 of rat liver aryl suflotransferase IV alters the enzyme's catalytic activity, pH optima and substrate specificity. Although this is a cytosolic detoxification enzyme, the pH optimum for the standard assay substrate 4-nitrophenol is at pH 5.5; upon oxidation, the optimum changes to the physiological pH range. The principal effect of the change in pH optimum is activation, which is manifest by an increase in K'cat without any major influence on substrate binding. In contrast, with tyrosine methyl ester as a substrate, the enzyme's optimum activity occurs at pH 8.0; upon oxidation, it ceases to be a substrate at any pH. The presence of Cys66 was essential for activation to occur, thereby providing a putative reason underlying the conserved nature of this cysteine throughout the phenol sulfotransferase family. Mapping of disulfides by mass spectrometry showed the critical event to be the oxidation of Cys66 to form a disulfide with either Cys232 or glutathione, either one is effective. These results point to a mechanism for regulating the activity of a key enzyme in xenobiotic detoxication during cellular oxidative stress.

  5. Application of conservative residual distribution schemes to the solution of the shallow water equations on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchiuto, M.; Abgrall, R.; Deconinck, H.

    2007-03-01

    We consider the numerical solution of the shallow water equations on unstructured grids. We focus on flows over wet areas. The extension to the case of dry bed will be reported elsewhere. The shallow water equations fall into the category of systems of conservation laws which can be symmetrized thanks to the existence of a mathematical entropy coinciding, in this case, with the total energy. Our aim is to show the application of a particular class of conservative residual distribution (RD) schemes to the discretization of the shallow water equations and to analyze their discrete accuracy and stability properties. We give a review of conservative RD schemes showing relations between different approaches previously published, and recall L∞ stability and accuracy criteria characterizing the schemes. In particular, the accuracy of the RD method in presence of source terms is analyzed, and conditions to construct rth order discretizations on irregular triangular grids are proved. It is shown that the RD approach gives a natural way of obtaining high order discretizations which, moreover, preserves exactly the steady lake at rest solution independently on mesh topology, nature of the variation of the bottom and polynomial order of interpolation used for the unknowns. We also consider more general analytical solutions which are less investigated from the numerical view point. On irregular grids, linearity preserving RD schemes yield a truly second order approximation. We also sketch a strategy to achieve discretizations which preserve exactly some of these solutions. Numerical results on steady and time-dependent problems involving smooth and non-smooth variations of the bottom topology show very promising features of the approach.

  6. Intramolecular cyclization of aspartic acid residues assisted by three water molecules: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (l-Asp) are known to undergo spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions to form l-β-Asp, d-Asp, and d-β-Asp residues. The formation of these abnormal Asp residues in proteins may affect their three-dimensional structures and hence their properties and functions. Indeed, the reactions have been thought to contribute to aging and pathologies. Most of the above reactions of the l-Asp residues proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, a novel three-water-assisted mechanism is proposed for cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a gem-diol precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for an Asp-containing model compound (Ace-Asp-Nme, where Ace = acetyl and Nme = NHCH3). The three water molecules act as catalysts by mediating ‘long-range’ proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form (iminolization). Then, reorientation of a water molecule and a conformational change occur successively, followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen on the carboxyl carbon of the Asp side chain to form the gem-diol species. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  7. The prediction of the degree of exposure to solvent of amino acid residues via genetic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, S.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper I evolve programs that predict the degree of exposure to solvent (the buriedness) of amino acid residues given only the primary structure. I use genetic programming to evolve programs that take as input the primary structure and that output the buriedness of each residue. I trained these programs on a set of 82 proteins from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank (PDB) and cross-validated them on a separate testing set of 40 proteins, also from the PDB. The best program evolved had a correlation of 0.434 between the predicted and observed buriednesses on the testing set.

  8. Thiostrepton Variants Containing a Contracted Quinaldic Acid Macrocycle Result from Mutagenesis of the Second Residue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feifei; Li, Chaoxuan

    2016-01-01

    The thiopeptides are a family of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide metabolites, and the vast majority of thiopeptides characterized to date possess one highly modified macrocycle. A few members, including thiostrepton A, harbor a second macrocycle that incorporates a quinaldic acid moiety and the four N-terminal residues of the peptide. The antibacterial properties of thiostrepton A are well established, and its recently discovered ability to inhibit the proteasome has additional implications for the development of antimalarial and anticancer therapeutics. We have conducted the saturation mutagenesis of Ala2 in the precursor peptide, TsrA, to examine which variants can be transformed into a mature thiostrepton analogue. Although the thiostrepton biosynthetic system is somewhat restrictive towards substitutions at the second residue, eight thiostrepton Ala2 analogues were isolated. The TsrA Ala2Ile and Ala2Val variants were largely channeled through an alternate processing pathway wherein the first residue of the core peptide, Ile1, is removed and the resulting thiostrepton analogues bear quinaldic acid macrocycles abridged by one residue. This is the first report revealing that quinaldic acid loop size is amenable to alteration during the course of thiostrepton biosynthesis. Both the antibacterial and proteasome inhibitory properties of the thiostrepton Ala2 analogues were examined. While the identity of the residue at the second position of the core peptide influences thiostrepton biosynthesis, our report suggests it may not be crucial for antibacterial and proteasome inhibitory properties of the full-length variants. In contrast, the contracted quinaldic acid loop can, to differing degrees, affect both types of biological activity. PMID:26630475

  9. A novel sono-assisted acid pretreatment of chili post harvest residue for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a sono-assisted acid pretreatment strategy for the effective removal of lignin and hemicelluloses and to improve the sugar yield from chili post harvest residue. Operational parameters that affect the pretreatment efficiency were studied and optimized. Inhibitor analysis of the hydrolyzate revealed that major fermentation inhibitors like furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural and organic acids like citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were absent. Changes in structural properties of the biomass were studied in relation to the pretreatment process using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, and the changes in chemical composition was also monitored. The biomass pretreated with the optimized novel method yielded 0.465g/g of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolysate yielded 2.14% of bioethanol with a fermentation efficiency of 71.03%.

  10. Conjugated fatty acid synthesis: residues 111 and 115 influence product partitioning of Momordica charantia conjugase.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-05-11

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ(9,11,13), lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ(9,12,15)). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis)) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13trans)). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation.

  11. Relation between the secondary structure of carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and the fluorescence of the protein.

    PubMed

    Albani, Jihad R

    2003-05-01

    We studied in this work the relation that exists between the secondary structure of the glycans of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and the fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. We calculated for that the efficiency of quenching and the radiative and non-radiative constants. Our results indicate that the glycans display a spatial structure that is modified upon asialylation. The asialylated conformation is closer to the protein matrix than the sialylated form, inducing by that a decrease in the fluorescence parameters of the Trp residues. In fact, the mean quantum yield of Trp residues in sialylated and asialylated alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein are 0.0645 and 0.0385, respectively. Analysis of the fluorescence emission of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein as the result of two contributions (surface and hydrophobic domains) indicates that quantum yields of both classes of Trp residues are lower when the protein is in the asialylated form. Also, the mean fluorescence lifetime of Trp residues decreases from 2.285 ns in the sialylated protein to 1.948 ns in the asialylated one. The radiative rate constant k(r) of the Trp residues in the sialylated alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein is higher than that in the asialylated protein. Thus, the carbohydrate residues are closer to the Trp residues in the absence of sialic acid. The modification of the spatial conformation of the glycans upon asialylation is confirmed by the decrease of the fluorescence lifetimes of Calcofluor, a fluorophore that binds to the carbohydrate residues. Finally, thermal intensity quenching of Calcofluor bound to alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein shows that the carbohydrate residues have slower residual motions in the absence of sialic acid residues.

  12. Impaired Acid Catalysis by Mutation of a Protein Loop Hinge Residue in a YopH Mutant Revealed by Crystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao, T.; Robinson, H; Johnson, S; Hengge, A

    2009-01-01

    Catalysis by the Yersinia protein-tyrosine phosphatase YopH is significantly impaired by the mutation of the conserved Trp354 residue to Phe. Though not a catalytic residue, this Trp is a hinge residue in a conserved flexible loop (the WPD-loop) that must close during catalysis. To learn why this seemingly conservative mutation reduces catalysis by 2 orders of magnitude, we have solved high-resolution crystal structures for the W354F YopH in the absence and in the presence of tungstate and vanadate. Oxyanion binding to the P-loop in W354F is analogous to that observed in the native enzyme. However, the WPD-loop in the presence of oxyanions assumes a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the fully closed state observed in structures of the native enzyme. This observation provides an explanation for the impaired general acid catalysis observed in kinetic experiments with Trp mutants. A 1.4 Angstroms structure of the W354F mutant obtained in the presence of vanadate reveals an unusual divanadate species with a cyclic [VO]2 core, which has precedent in small molecules but has not been previously reported in a protein crystal structure.

  13. Oxidation and inactivation of SERCA by selective reaction of cysteine residues with amino acid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Dremina, Elena S; Sharov, Victor S; Davies, Michael J; Schöneich, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The oxidative modification of proteins plays an important role in a wide range of pathological processes and aging. Proteins are modified by numerous biologic oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, and oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals. More recently, an additional class of physiologically important oxidants has been identified, peptide and protein peroxides. The latter react quite rapidly and selectively with protein cysteine residues. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) is reversibly regulated through NO-dependent S-glutathiolation of specific cysteine residues. The irreversible oxidation of these cysteine residues could, therefore, impair NO-dependent muscle relaxation. Here, we show that specific protein-derived (amino acid) peroxides react selectively with a subset of the 22 reduced cysteine residues of SERCA1, including a peptide-containing Cys674 and Cys675, where Cys674 (in SERCA2) represents one of the targets for NO-dependent S-glutathiolation. Out of 11 tested amino acid, peptide, and protein peroxides, those derived from free tryptophan and free tyrosine showed the highest reactivity towards SERCA, while no oxidation under similar experimental conditions was detected through hydrogen peroxide. Among the peroxides from tryptophan, those of free tryptophan showed a significantly higher reactivity as compared to those from N- and C-terminally blocked tryptophan. Quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that the highest reactivity of the tryptophan-derived peroxides was observed for Cys774 and Cys938, cysteine residues, which are embedded within the transmembrane domains of SERCA1. This unusual reactivity of transmembrane domains cannot be solely rationalized by the hydrophobicity of the oxidant, as the peroxide from dl-tryptophan shows considerable higher reactivity as compared to the one derived from N-acetyl-tryptophan methyl ester. Our data demonstrate a potential role of peptide- and protein

  14. Determination of free acidic and alkaline residues of protein via moving reaction boundary titration in microdevice electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou-yu; Li, Si; Tang, Yun-yun; Dong, Jing-yu; Fan, Liu-yin; Cao, Cheng-xi

    2013-06-21

    As two important physico-chemical parameters, the acidic and alkaline residues of protein are of evident significance for the evaluation of protein properties and the design of relevant separation and analysis. However, there is still no electrophoretic method used for the direct detection of free acidic and alkaline residues of protein. Herein, we developed the concepts of moving reaction boundary (MRB) and MRB titration, relevant MRB titration theory, and the method of microdevice electrophoresis for the determination of free acidic and alkaline residues of protein. In the MRB titration, the boundary was created with acid or alkali and target protein immobilized via highly cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAG). It was theoretically revealed that the number of free acidic or alkaline residues of protein was as a function of MRB displacement in the electrophoretic titration system. As a proof of concept, seven model proteins were chosen for the determination of acidic or alkaline residues of protein via MRB titration. The results showed that the numbers of free acidic and alkaline residues of proteins detected were in good agreement with those obtained from the relevant amino sequences in the NCBI database, demonstrating the feasibility of the developed concept, theory and technique. The general methodology of MRB titration has potential application for inexpensive, facilitative and informative protein structure analysis of free acidic or alkaline residues of protein.

  15. Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria isolated from vegetable residues and silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Cao, Y; Cai, Y; Terada, F

    2010-07-01

    Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and silage fermentation of vegetable residues were studied. Fifty-two strains of LAB isolated from cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and lettuce residues were identified and characterized. The LAB strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, which were divided into 6 groups (A to F) according to morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains in group A were rods that did not produce gas from glucose and formed the d and l isomers of lactate. Groups B and C were homofermentative cocci that formed l-lactic acid. Groups D, E, and F were heterofermentative cocci that formed d-lactic acid. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, group A to F strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella soli and Leuconostoc gelidum, respectively. The prevalent LAB, predominantly homofermentative lactobacilli, consisted of Lactobacillus plantarum (34.6%), Weissella soli (19.2%), Leuconostoc gelidum (15.4%), Leuconostoc citreum (13.5%), Lactococcus lactis (9.6%), and Lactococcus piscium (7.7%). Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant member of the LAB population in 3 types of vegetable residues. These vegetable residues contained a high level of crude protein (20.2 to 28.4% of dry matter). These silages prepared by using a small-scale fermentation system were well preserved, with low pH and a relatively high content of lactate. This study suggests that the vegetable residues contain abundant LAB species and nutrients, and that they could be well preserved by making silage, which is a potentially good vegetable protein source for livestock diets.

  16. Comparison between liquid and solid acids catalysts on reducing sugars conversion from furfural residues via pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keying; Ma, Baojun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Wanyi

    2014-09-01

    Liquid sulphuric acid is adopted and compared with carbon-based sulfonated solid acids (coal tar-based and active carbon-based) for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of liquid acid are at 4% of sulphuric acid, 25:1 of liquid and solid ratio, 175°C of reaction temperature and 120 min of reaction time. The reducing sugar yields are reached over 60% on liquid acid via NaOH/H2O2, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasonic pretreatments, whereas only over 30% on solid acids. The TOFs (turnover number frequency) via NaOH/H2O2 pretreatments are 0.093, 0.020 and 0.023 h(-1) for liquid sulphuric acid, coal tar-based and active carbon-based solid acids catalysts, respectively. Considering the efficiency, cost and environment factors, the liquid and solid acids have their own advantages of potential commercial application values.

  17. Probing the Catalytic Potential of the Hamster Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 Catalytic Triad by Site-directed Mutagenesis of the Proximal Conserved Residue, Tyrosine 190

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Naixia; Liu, Li; Walters, Kylie J.; Hanna, Patrick E.; Wagner, Carston R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) play an important role in both detoxification of arylamine and hydrazine drugs and activation of arylamine carcinogens. Since the catalytic triad, Cys-His-Asp, of mammalian NATs has been shown to be essential for maintaining protein stability, rendering it impossible to assess alterations of the triad on catalysis, we explored the impact of the highly conserved proximal residue, Tyr-190, which forms a direct hydrogen bond interaction with one of the triad residues, Asp-122, as well as a potential pi-pi stacking interaction with the active site His-107. Replacement of Hamster NAT2 Tyr-190 by either phenylalanine, isoleucine, or alanine was well tolerated and did not result in significant alterations in the overall fold of the protein. Nevertheless, stopped-flow and steady-state kinetic analysis revealed that Tyr-190 was critical for maximizing the acetylation rate of NAT2 and the transacetylation rate of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) when compared to wild type. Tyr-190 was also shown to play an important role in determining the pKa of the active site cysteine during acetylation, as well as the pH versus rate profile for transacetylation. We hypothesized that the pH-dependence was associated with global changes in the active site structure, which was revealed by the superposition of [1H, 15N] HSQC spectra for wild type and Y190A. These results suggest that NAT2 catalytic efficiency is partially governed by the ability of Tyr-190 to mediate the collective impact of multiple side chains on the electrostatic potential and local conformation of active site. PMID:19860825

  18. Conserved aspartate and lysine residues of RcsB are required for amylovoran biosynthesis, virulence, and DNA binding in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Veronica; Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-08-01

    In Erwinia amylovora, the Rcs phosphorelay system is essential for amylovoran production and virulence. To further understand the role of conserved aspartate residue (D56) in the phosphor receiver (PR) domain and lysine (K180) residue in the function domain of RcsB, amino acid substitutions of RcsB mutant alleles were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and complementation of various rcs mutants were performed. A D56E substitution of RcsB, which mimics the phosphorylation state of RcsB, complemented the rcsB mutant, resulting in increased amylovoran production and gene expression, reduced swarming motility, and restored pathogenicity. In contrast, D56N and K180A or K180Q substitutions of RcsB did not complement the rcsB mutant. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that D56E, but not D56N, K180Q and K180A substitutions of RcsB bound to promoters of amsG and flhD, indicating that both D56 and K180 are required for DNA binding. Interestingly, the RcsBD56E allele could also complement rcsAB, rcsBC and rcsABCD mutants with restored virulence and increased amylovoran production, indicating that RcsB phosphorylation is essential for virulence of E. amylovora. In addition, mutations of T904 and A905, but not phosphorylation mimic mutation of D876 in the PR domain of RcsC, constitutively activate the Rcs system, suggesting that phosphor transfer is required for activating the Rcs system and indicating both A905 and T904 are required for the phosphatase activity of RcsC. Our results demonstrated that RcsB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, phosphor transfer from RcsC are essential for the function of the Rcs system, and also suggested that constitutive activation of the Rcs system could reduce the fitness of E. amylovora.

  19. Mutational Insights into the Roles of Amino Acid Residues in Ligand Binding for Two Closely Related Family 16 Carbohydrate Binding Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Xiaoyun; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nair, Satish K.; Cann, Isaac K.O.

    2010-11-22

    Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) are specialized proteins that bind to polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5ACBM16-1/CBM16-2 bind to glucose-, mannose-, and glucose/mannose-configured substrates. The crystal structures of the two proteins represent the only examples in CBM family 16, and studies that evaluate the roles of amino acid residues in ligand binding in this family are lacking. In this study, we probed the roles of amino acids (selected based on CBM16-1/ligand co-crystal structures) on substrate binding. Two tryptophan (Trp-20 and Trp-125) and two glutamine (Gln-81 and Gln-93) residues are shown to be critical in ligand binding. Additionally, several polar residues that flank the critical residues also contribute to ligand binding. The CBM16-1 Q121E mutation increased affinity for all substrates tested, whereas the Q21G and N97R mutants exhibited decreased substrate affinity. We solved CBM/substrate co-crystal structures to elucidate the molecular basis of the increased substrate binding by CBM16-1 Q121E. The Gln-121, Gln-21, and Asn-97 residues can be manipulated to fine-tune ligand binding by the Man5A CBMs. Surprisingly, none of the eight residues investigated was absolutely conserved in CBM family 16. Thus, the critical residues in the Man5A CBMs are either not essential for substrate binding in the other members of this family or the two CBMs are evolutionarily distinct from the members available in the current protein database. Man5A is dependent on its CBMs for robust activity, and insights from this study should serve to enhance our understanding of the interdependence of its catalytic and substrate binding modules.

  20. Adaptive nitrogen and integrated weed management in conservation agriculture: impacts on agronomic productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and herbicide residues.

    PubMed

    Oyeogbe, Anthony Imoudu; Das, T K; Bhatia, Arti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2017-04-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) immobilization and weed interference in the early phase of implementation of conservation agriculture (CA) affects crop yields. Yet, higher fertilizer and herbicide use to improve productivity influences greenhouse gase emissions and herbicide residues. These tradeoffs precipitated a need for adaptive N and integrated weed management in CA-based maize (Zea mays L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol] cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to optimize N availability and reduce weed proliferation. Adaptive N fertilization was based on soil test value and normalized difference vegetation index measurement (NDVM) by GreenSeeker™ technology, while integrated weed management included brown manuring (Sesbania aculeata L. co-culture, killed at 25 days after sowing), herbicide mixture, and weedy check (control, i.e., without weed management). Results indicated that the 'best-adaptive N rate' (i.e., 50% basal + 25% broadcast at 25 days after sowing + supplementary N guided by NDVM) increased maize and wheat grain yields by 20 and 14% (averaged for 2 years), respectively, compared with whole recommended N applied at sowing. Weed management by brown manuring (during maize) and herbicide mixture (during wheat) resulted in 10 and 21% higher grain yields (averaged for 2 years), respectively, over the weedy check. The NDVM in-season N fertilization and brown manuring affected N2O and CO2 emissions, but resulted in improved carbon storage efficiency, while herbicide residuals in soil were significantly lower in the maize season than in wheat cropping. This study concludes that adaptive N and integrated weed management enhance synergy between agronomic productivity, fertilizer and herbicide efficiency, and greenhouse gas mitigation.

  1. Important amino acid residues of hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinases (LinA) for enantioselective transformation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Macwan, Ankit S; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-03-01

    LinA-type1 and LinA-type2 are two well-characterized variants of the enzyme 'hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-dehydrochlorinase'. They differ from each other at ten amino acid positions and exhibit differing enantioselectivity for the transformation of the (-) and (+) enantiomers of α-HCH. Amino acids responsible for this enantioselectivity, however, are not known. An in silico docking analysis identified four amino acids (K20, L96, A131, and T133) in LinA-type1 that could be involved in selective binding of the substrates. Experimental studies with constructed mutant enzymes revealed that a combined presence of three amino acid changes in LinA-type1, i.e. K20Q, L96C, and A131G, caused a reversal in its preference from the (-) to the (+) enantiomer of α-HCH. This preference was enhanced by the additional amino acid change T133 M. Presence of these four changes also caused the reversal of enantioselectivity of LinA-type1 for δ-HCH, and β-, γ-, and δ-pentachlorocyclohexens. Thus, the residues K20, L96, A131, and T133 in LinA-type1 and the residues Q20, C96, G131, and M133 in LinA-type 2 appear to be important determinants for the enantioselectivity of LinA enzymes.

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue.

    PubMed

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Vasconcelos, Carolina Bettker; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87gL(-1), whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59gL(-1), corresponding to a productivity of 1.46gL(-1)h(-1). This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors.

  3. Critical amino acid residues of maurocalcine involved in pharmacology, lipid interaction and cell penetration.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Kamel; Ram, Narendra; Boisseau, Sylvie; Strappazzon, Flavie; Rehaim, Amel; Sadoul, Rémy; Darbon, Hervé; Ronjat, Michel; De Waard, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Maurocalcine (MCa) is a 33-amino acid residue peptide that was initially identified in the Tunisian scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus. This peptide triggers interest for three main reasons. First, it helps unravelling the mechanistic basis of Ca(2+) mobilization from the sarcoplasmic reticulum because of its sequence homology with a calcium channel domain involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Second, it shows potent pharmacological properties because of its ability to activate the ryanodine receptor. Finally, it is of technological value because of its ability to carry cell-impermeable compounds across the plasma membrane. Herein, we characterized the molecular determinants that underlie the pharmacological and cell-penetrating properties of maurocalcine. We identify several key amino acid residues of the peptide that will help the design of cell-penetrating analogues devoid of pharmacological activity and cell toxicity. Close examination of the determinants underlying cell penetration of maurocalcine reveals that basic amino acid residues are required for an interaction with negatively charged lipids of the plasma membrane. Maurocalcine analogues that penetrate better have also stronger interaction with negatively charged lipids. Conversely, less effective analogues present a diminished ability to interact with these lipids. These findings will also help the design of still more potent cell penetrating analogues of maurocalcine.

  4. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  5. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

  6. Conserved-residue mutations in Wzy affect O-antigen polymerization and Wzz-mediated chain-length regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Salim T.; Huszczynski, Steven M.; Nugent, Timothy; Gold, Alexander C.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2013-12-01

    O antigen (O-Ag) in many bacteria is synthesized via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway in which Wzy polymerizes lipid-linked O-Ag subunits to modal lengths regulated by Wzz. Characterization of 83 site-directed mutants of Wzy from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (WzyPa) in topologically-mapped periplasmic (PL) and cytoplasmic loops (CL) verified the functional importance of PL3 and PL5, with the former shown to require overall cationic properties. Essential Arg residues in the RX10G motifs of PL3 and PL5 were found to be conserved in putative homologues of WzyPa, as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein. Amino acid substitutions in CL6 were found to alter Wzz-mediated O-antigen modality, with evidence suggesting that these changes may perturb the C-terminal WzyPa tertiary structure. Together, these data suggest that the catch-and-release mechanism of O-Ag polymerization is widespread among bacteria and that regulation of polymer length is affected by interaction of Wzz with Wzy.

  7. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.S.; Pelzig, M.; Glass, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonsulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use with small arginine-containing molecules, because the sulfonic acid group of the reagent is a convenient handle for analytical and preparative separation of products. Camphorquinonesulfonylnorleucine is more useful for work with large polypeptides and proteins, because hydrolysates of modified proteins may be analyzed for norleucine to determine the extent of arginine modification. The adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are stable to 0.5 M hydroxylamine solutions at pH 7, the recommended conditions for cleavage of the corresponding cyclohexanedione adducts. At pH 8-9 the adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are cleaved by o-phenylenediamine. The modification and regeneration of arginine, of the dipeptide arginylaspartic acid, of ribonuclease S-peptide, and of soybean trypsin inhibitor are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagents.The use of camphorquinonesulfonyl chloride to prepare polymers containing arginine-specific ligands is discussed.

  8. Conserved regulators of Rag GTPases orchestrate amino acid-dependent TORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Katie; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is the central component of a signaling network that couples a vast range of internal and external stimuli to cell growth, proliferation and metabolism. TORC1 deregulation is associated with a number of human pathologies, including many cancers and metabolic disorders, underscoring its importance in cellular and organismal growth control. The activity of TORC1 is modulated by multiple inputs; however, the presence of amino acids is a stimulus that is essential for its activation. Amino acid sufficiency is communicated to TORC1 via the highly conserved family of Rag GTPases, which assemble as heterodimeric complexes on lysosomal/vacuolar membranes and are regulated by their guanine nucleotide loading status. Studies in yeast, fly and mammalian model systems have revealed a multitude of conserved Rag GTPase modulators, which have greatly expanded our understanding of amino acid sensing by TORC1. Here we review the major known modulators of the Rag GTPases, focusing on recent mechanistic insights that highlight the evolutionary conservation and divergence of amino acid signaling to TORC1. PMID:27462445

  9. Crop residues of the contiguous United States: Balancing feedstock and soil needs with conservation tillage, cover crops, and biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues are among the cellulosic feedstocks expected to provide renewable energy. The availability of crop species and residue availability varies across the United States. Estimates of harvestable residues must consider all the residues produced during the entire rotation. Inclusion of fallow...

  10. Diverse amino acid residues function within the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. Implications for the role of accessory residues upstream of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal.

    PubMed

    Mullen, R T; Lee, M S; Flynn, C R; Trelease, R N

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plant type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) utilizes amino acid residues that do not strictly adhere to the serine-lysine-leucine (SKL) motif (small-basic-hydrophobic residues). Selected residues were appended to the C terminus of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and were tested for their ability to target CAT fusion proteins to glyoxysomes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 suspension-cultured cells. CAT was redirected from the cytosol into glyoxysomes by a wide range of residues, i.e. A/C/G/S/T-H/K/ L/N/R-I/L/M/Y. Although L and N at the -2 position (-SLL, -ANL) do not conform to the SKL motif, both functioned, but in a temporally less-efficient manner. Other SKL divergent residues, however, did not target CAT to glyoxysomes, i.e. F or P at the -3 position (-FKL, -PKL), S or T at the -2 position (-SSI, STL), or D at the -1 position (-SKD). The targeting inefficiency of CAT-ANL could be ameliorated when K was included at the -4 position (-KANL). In summary, the plant PTS1 mostly conforms to the SKL motif. For those PTS1s that possess nonconforming residue(s), other residues upstream of the PTS1 appear to function as accessory sequences that enhance the temporal efficiency of peroxisomal targeting.

  11. Removal of copper from acid wastewater of bioleaching by adsorption onto ramie residue and uptake by Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Wang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    A continuous batch bioleaching was built to realize the bioleaching of sewage sludge in large scale. In the treatment, heavy metal in acid wastewater of bioleaching was removed by adsorption onto ramie residue. Then, acid wastewater was reused in next bioleaching batch. In this way, most time and water of bioleaching was saved and leaching efficiency of copper, lead and chromium kept at a high level in continuous batch bioleaching. It was found that residual heavy metal in sewage sludge is highly related to that in acid wastewater after bioleaching. To get a high leaching efficiency, concentration of heavy metal in acid wastewater should be low. Adsorption of copper from acid wastewater onto ramie residue can be described by pseudo first-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. Trichoderma viride has the potential to be used for the concentration and recovery of heavy metal adsorbed onto ramie residue.

  12. Extension of UNRES force field to treat polypeptide chains with D-amino-acid residues

    PubMed Central

    Sieradzan, Adam K.; Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Coarse-grained force fields for protein simulations are usually designed and parameterized to treat proteins composed of natural L-amino-acid residues. However, D-amino-acid residues occur in bacterial, fungal (e.g., gramicidins), as well as human-designed proteins. For this reason, we have extended the UNRES coarse-grained force field developed in our laboratory to treat systems with D-amino-acid residues. We developed the respective virtual-bond-torsional and double-torsional potentials for rotation about the Cα · · · Cα virtual-bond axis and two consecutive Cα · · · Cα virtual-bond axes, respectively, as functions of virtual-bond-dihedral angles γ. In turn, these were calculated as potentials of mean force (PMFs) from the diabatic energy surfaces of terminally-blocked model compounds for glycine, alanine, and proline. The potential-energy surfaces were calculated by using the ab initio method of molecular quantum mechanics at the Møller-Plesset (MP2) level of theory and the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, with the rotation angles of the peptide groups about Ci-1α⋯Ciα(λ(1)) and Ciα⋯Ci+1α(λ(2)) used as variables, and the energy was minimized with respect to the remaining degrees of freedom. The PMFs were calculated by numerical integration for all pairs and triplets with all possible combinations of types (glycine, alanine, and proline) and chirality (D or L); however, symmetry relations reduce the number of non-equivalent torsional potentials to 13 and the number of double-torsional potentials to 63 for a given C-terminal blocking group. Subsequently, one- (for torsional) and two-dimensional (for double-torsional potentials) Fourier series were fitted to the PMFs to obtain analytical expressions. It was found that the torsional potentials of the x-Y and X-y types, where X and Y are Ala or Pro, respectively, and a lowercase letter denotes D-chirality, have global minima for small absolute values of γ, accounting for the double-helical structure of

  13. Mobilization of Cr(VI) from chromite ore processing residue through acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Tinjum, James M; Benson, Craig H; Edil, Tuncer B

    2008-02-25

    Batch leaching studies on chromite ore processing residue (COPR) were performed using acids to investigate leaching of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), with respect to particle size, reaction time, and type of acid (HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4)). Aqueous Cr(VI) is maximized at approximately 0.04 mol Cr(VI) per kg of dry COPR at pH 7.6-8.1. Cr(VI) mobilized more slowly for larger particles, and the pH increased with time and increased more rapidly for smaller particles, suggesting that rate limitations occur in the solid phase. With H(2)SO(4), the pH stabilized at a higher value (8.8 for H(2)SO(4) vs. 8.0 for HNO(3)) and more rapidly (16 h vs. 30 h), and the differences in pH for different particle sizes were smaller. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of COPR is very large (8 mol HNO(3) per kg of dry COPR for a stable eluate pH of 7.5). Changes to the elemental and mineralogical composition and distribution in COPR particles after mixing with acid indicate that Cr(VI)-bearing solids dissolved. However, concentrations of Cr(VI) >2800 mg kg(-1) (>50% of the pre-treatment concentration) were still found after mixing with acid, regardless of the particle size, reaction time, or type of acid used. The residual Cr(VI) appears to be partially associated with poorly-ordered Fe and Al oxyhydroxides that precipitated in the interstitial areas of COPR particles. Remediation strategies that use HNO(3) or H(2)SO(4) to neutralize COPR or to maximize Cr(VI) in solution are likely to require extensive amounts of acid, may not mobilize all of the Cr(VI), and may require extended contact time, even under well-mixed conditions.

  14. Biological and structural characterization of a Ras transforming mutation at the phenylalanine-156 residue, which is conserved in all members of the Ras superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Quilliam, L A; Zhong, S; Rabun, K M; Carpenter, J W; South, T L; Der, C J; Campbell-Burk, S

    1995-01-01

    Although Ras residue phenylalanine-156 (F156) is strictly conserved in all members of the Ras superfamily of proteins, it is located outside of the consensus GDP/GTP-binding pocket. Its location within the hydrophobic core of Ras suggests that its strict conservation reflects a crucial role in structural stability. However, mutation of the equivalent residue (F157L) in the Drosophila Ras-related protein Rap results in a gain-of-function phenotype, suggesting an alternative role for this residue. Therefore, we have introduced an F156L mutation into Ras to evaluate the role of this residue in Ras structure and function. Whereas introduction of this mutation activated the transforming potential of wild-type Ras, it did not impair that of oncogenic Ras. Further, Ras (156L) exhibited an extremely rapid off rate for bound GDP/GTP in vitro and showed increased levels of Ras.GTP in vivo. To determine the structural basis for these altered properties, we used high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The F156L mutation caused loss of contact with residues 6, 23, 55, and 79, resulting in disruption of secondary structure in alpha-helix 1 and in beta-sheets 1-5. These major structural changes contrast with the isolated alterations induced by oncogenic mutation (residues 12 or 61) that perturb GTPase activity, and instead, weaken Ras contacts with Mg2+ and its guanine nucleotide substrate and result in increased rates of GDP/GTP dissociation. Altogether, these observations demonstrate the essential role of this conserved residue in Ras structure and its function as a regulated GDP/GTP switch. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7877967

  15. Crystal structures of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase in complex with magnesium, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and farnesyl thiopyrophosphate: roles of the metal ion and conserved residues in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rey-Ting; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Annie P-C; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Wang, Andrew H-J; Liang, Po-Huang

    2005-05-27

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPs) catalyzes the consecutive condensation reactions of a farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) with eight isopentenyl pyrophosphates (IPP), in which new cis-double bonds are formed, to generate undecaprenyl pyrophosphate that serves as a lipid carrier for peptidoglycan synthesis of bacterial cell wall. The structures of Escherichia coli UPPs were determined previously in an orthorhombic crystal form as an apoenzyme, in complex with Mg(2+)/sulfate/Triton, and with bound FPP. In a further search of its catalytic mechanism, the wild-type UPPs and the D26A mutant are crystallized in a new trigonal unit cell with Mg(2+)/IPP/farnesyl thiopyrophosphate (an FPP analogue) bound to the active site. In the wild-type enzyme, Mg(2+) is coordinated by the pyrophosphate of farnesyl thiopyrophosphate, the carboxylate of Asp(26), and three water molecules. In the mutant enzyme, it is bound to the pyrophosphate of IPP. The [Mg(2+)] dependence of the catalytic rate by UPPs shows that the activity is maximal at [Mg(2+)] = 1 mm but drops significantly when Mg(2+) ions are in excess (50 mm). Without Mg(2+), IPP binds to UPPs only at high concentration. Mutation of Asp(26) to other charged amino acids results in significant decrease of the UPPs activity. The role of Asp(26) is probably to assist the migration of Mg(2+) from IPP to FPP and thus initiate the condensation reaction by ionization of the pyrophosphate group from FPP. Other conserved residues, including His(43), Ser(71), Asn(74), and Arg(77), may serve as general acid/base and pyrophosphate carrier. Our results here improve the understanding of the UPPs enzyme reaction significantly.

  16. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  17. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of Composite K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KECDVSR24H-2) produced during a 20- to 24-hr dissolution of a composite K East (KE) Basin canister sludge in 95 C 6 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KECDVSR24H-2, contains radionuclides at concentrations which exceed the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for TRU by about a factor of 70, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 200, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 50. The solids also exceed the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 2 and uranium by a factor of 5. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (both components of TRU) and then uranium and {sup 137}Cs.

  18. Functional role of polar amino acid residues in Na+/H+ exchangers.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, C A; Dibattista, E R; Fliegel, L

    2001-01-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are a family of ubiquitous membrane proteins. In higher eukaryotes they regulate cytosolic pH by removing an intracellular H(+) in exchange for an extracellular Na(+). In yeast and Escherichia coli, Na(+)/H(+) exchangers function in the opposite direction to remove intracellular Na(+) in exchange for extracellular H(+). Na(+)/H(+) exchangers display an internal pH-sensitivity that varies with the different antiporter types. Only recently have investigations examined the amino acids involved in pH-sensitivity and in cation binding and transport. Histidine residues are good candidates for H(+)-sensing amino acids, since they can ionize within the physiological pH range. Histidine residues have been shown to be important in the function of the E. coli Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NhaA and in the yeast Na(+)/H(+) exchanger sod2. In E. coli, His(225) of NhaA may function to interact with, or regulate, the pH-sensory region of NhaA. In sod2, His(367) is also critical to transport and may be a functional analogue of His(225) of NhaA. Histidine residues are not critical for the function of the mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, although an unusual histidine-rich sequence of the C-terminal tail has some influence on activity. Other amino acids involved in cation binding and transport by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are only beginning to be studied. Amino acids with polar side chains such as aspartate and glutamate have been implicated in transport activity of NhaA and sod2, but have not been studied in the mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in pH-sensitivity and cation binding and transport by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. PMID:11415429

  19. Prediction of functionally important residues in globular proteins from unusual central distances of amino acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Well-performing automated protein function recognition approaches usually comprise several complementary techniques. Beside constructing better consensus, their predictive power can be improved by either adding or refining independent modules that explore orthogonal features of proteins. In this work, we demonstrated how the exploration of global atomic distributions can be used to indicate functionally important residues. Results Using a set of carefully selected globular proteins, we parametrized continuous probability density functions describing preferred central distances of individual protein atoms. Relative preferred burials were estimated using mixture models of radial density functions dependent on the amino acid composition of a protein under consideration. The unexpectedness of extraordinary locations of atoms was evaluated in the information-theoretic manner and used directly for the identification of key amino acids. In the validation study, we tested capabilities of a tool built upon our approach, called SurpResi, by searching for binding sites interacting with ligands. The tool indicated multiple candidate sites achieving success rates comparable to several geometric methods. We also showed that the unexpectedness is a property of regions involved in protein-protein interactions, and thus can be used for the ranking of protein docking predictions. The computational approach implemented in this work is freely available via a Web interface at http://www.bioinformatics.org/surpresi. Conclusions Probabilistic analysis of atomic central distances in globular proteins is capable of capturing distinct orientational preferences of amino acids as resulting from different sizes, charges and hydrophobic characters of their side chains. When idealized spatial preferences can be inferred from the sole amino acid composition of a protein, residues located in hydrophobically unfavorable environments can be easily detected. Such residues turn out to be

  20. Conformational characterization of the 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid residue in model peptides.

    PubMed

    Gatos, M; Formaggio, F; Crisma, M; Toniolo, C; Bonora, G M; Benedetti, Z; Di Blasio, B; Iacovino, R; Santini, A; Saviano, M; Kamphuis, J

    1997-01-01

    A series of N- and C-protected, monodispersed homo-oligopeptides (to the dodecamer level) from the small-ring alicyclic C alpha, alpha-dialkylated glycine 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac4c) and two Ala/Ac4c tripeptides were synthesized by solution methods and fully characterized. The conformational preferences of all the model peptides were determined in deuterochloroform solution by FT-IR absorption and 1H-NMR. The molecular structures of the amino acid derivatives Z-Ac4c-OH and Z2-Ac4c-OH, the tripeptides Z-(Ac4c)3-OtBu, Z-Ac4c-(L-Ala)2-OMe and Z-L-Ala-Ac4c-L-Ala-OMe, and the tetrapeptide Z-(Ac4c)4-OtBu were determined in the crystal state by X-ray diffraction. The average geometry of the cyclobutyl moiety of the Ac4c residue was assessed and the tau(N-C alpha-C') bond angle was found to be significantly expanded from the regular tetrahedral value. The conformational data are strongly in favour of the conclusion that the Ac4c residue is an effective beta-turn and helix former. A comparison with the structural propensities of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, the prototype of C alpha, alpha-dialkylated glycines, and the other extensively investigated members of the family of 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acids (Acnc, with n = 3, 5-8) is made and the implications for the use of the Ac4c residue in conformationally constrained peptide analogues are briefly examined.

  1. A Novel Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual

    SciTech Connect

    Horace K. Moo-Young; Charles E. Ochola

    2004-08-31

    The viability of utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual (RLR) to remediate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was investigated. Physical and chemical characterization of RLR showed that it is composed of various minerals that contain significant quantities of limestone or calcium bearing compounds that can be exploited for acid neutralization. Acid Neutralization Potential (ANP) test results showed that RLR has a neutralization potential of approximately 83% as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Neutralization tests with most of the heavy metals associated with AMD showed removal efficiencies of over 99%. An unexpected benefit of utilizing RLR was the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) from the aqueous phase. Due to an elevation in pH by RLR most AMD heavy metals are removed from solution by precipitation as their metal hydroxides. Cr (VI) however is not removed by pH elevation and therefore subsequent ongoing tests to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reaction were conducted.

  2. Identification of Conserved Amino Acids in pUL34 Which Are Critical for Function of the Pseudorabies Virus Nuclear Egress Complex

    PubMed Central

    Paßvogel, Lars; Janke, Una; Klupp, Barbara G.; Granzow, Harald

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a conserved heterodimeric complex of two viral proteins, designated pUL34 and pUL31 in herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PrV). pUL34, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is targeted to the nuclear envelope and recruits pUL31 to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) to provide the docking and envelopment machinery for the nascent capsid. While the less conserved C-terminal part of pUL34 is required for correct positioning of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) at the INM, the conserved N-terminal part functions as a docking site for pUL31. Since no crystal structure of NEC is available yet, structure-function studies depend on mutational analyses, with several approaches already being performed for different herpesvirus NECs. Here, we extended our studies on PrV pUL34 and identified two asparagine residues (N75, N103) and a dileucine motif (LL166/167), adjacent to an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, which are absolutely required for NEC function. While the pUL34–N75A substitution mutant is unable to interact with pUL31, the pUL34–N103A mutant is nonfunctional, despite continuing complex formation. Surprisingly, mutant pUL34–G77A, which does not efficiently recruit pUL31 to the nuclear rim after cotransfection, nonetheless complements a UL34 deletion mutant, indicating that the NEC may be stabilized by additional viral factors during infection. IMPORTANCE In the absence of a crystal structure of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) required for herpesvirus maturation, site-directed mutagenesis studies provide important information on critical amino acid residues. Here, we identify conserved amino acid residues in the membrane-bound component of the NEC which are relevant for its function. PMID:24648464

  3. Acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa residue for ethanol and lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Park, Youn-Je; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa waste, to obtain the hydrolysate containing lactic acid and ethanol fermentative sugars. A central composite design for describing regression equations of variables was used. The selected optimum condition was 4.91% sulphuric acid, 122.68°C and 50 min using the desirability function under the following conditions: the maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield is within the limited range of the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural concentrations. Under the condition, the obtained solution contained 144 g RS/L, 0.79 g furfural/L and 2.59 g HMF/L and was directly fermented without a detoxification step. The maximum product concentration, average productivity, RS conversion and product yield were 115.36 g/L, 2.88 g/L/h, 89.43% and 64% for L-lactic acid; 113.92 g/L, 2.59 g/L/h, 88.31% and 63.29% for D-lactic acid; and 55.03 g/L, 1.38 g/L/h, 42.66 and 30.57%, respectively, for ethanol using a 7-L jar fermenter.

  4. [Nitrate nitrogen leaching and residue of humic acid fertilizer in field soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-chun; Xing, Shang-jun; Duan, Chun-hua; Du, Zhen-yu; Ma, Hai-lin; Ma, Bing-yao

    2010-07-01

    To elucidate the potential influence of humic acidfertilizer on groundwater and soil quality in clay soil (CS) and sandy soil (SS), nitrate nitrogen leaching and residue of different fertilizers in field soil were studied using a self-made leaching field device. Nitrate nitrogen concentration in leaching water of fertilizer treatments was 28.1%-222.2% higher than that of non-nitrogen treatment in different times, but humic acid fertilizer could prevent nitrate nitrogen leaching both in CS and SS, especially in CS. Nitrate nitrogen concentration of leaching water in CS was 41.2%-59.1% less than that in SS and the inhibiting effect in CS was greater than that in SS. Nitrate nitrogen could be accumulated in soil profile by fertilizer application. The residue of nitrate nitrogen retained in 0-40 cm soil layer of humic acid fertilizer treatment was 59.8% and 54.4% respectively, higher than that of urea and compound fertilizer treatments. Nitrate nitrogen amount of humic acid, urea and compound fertilizer treatments in SS was significantly less than that in CS, being 81.7%, 81.1% and 47.6% respectively. Compared with the conventional fertilizer, humic acid fertilizer treatment improved the contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of upper layer soil as well as cation exchange capacity. Besides, total amount of water-soluble salts in humic acid fertilizer treatment was decreased by 24.8% and 22.5% in comparison to urea and compound fertilizer treatments in CS, respectively. In summary, the application of humic acid fertilizer could improve physical and chemical properties of upper layer soil and reduce the risk of potential pollution to groundwater.

  5. Nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two serotypes of San Miguel sea lion virus: identification of conserved and non-conserved amino acid sequences among calicivirus capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Neill, J D

    1992-07-01

    The San Miguel sea lion viruses, members of the calicivirus family, are closely related to the vesicular disease of swine viruses which can cause severe disease in swine. In order to begin the molecular characterization of these viruses, the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two San Miguel sea lion viruses (SMSV), serotypes 1 and 4, was determined. The coding sequences for the capsid precursor protein were located within the 3' terminal 2620 bases of the genomic RNAs of both viruses. The encoded capsid precursor proteins were 79,500 and 77,634 Da for SMSV 1 and SMSV 4, respectively. The SMSV 1 protein was 47.7% and SMSV 4 was 48.6% homologous to the feline calicivirus (FCV) capsid precursor protein while the two SMSV capsid precursors were 73% homologous to each other. Six distinct regions within the capsid precursors (denoted as regions A-F) were identified based on amino acid sequence alignment analysis of the two SMSV serotypes with FCV and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) capsid protein. Three regions showed similarity among all four viruses (regions B, D and F) and one region showed a very high degree of homology between the SMSV serotypes but only limited similarity with FCV (region A). RHDV contained only a truncated region A. A fifth region, consisting of approximately 100 residues, was not conserved among any of the viruses (region E) and, in SMSV, may contain the serotype-specific determinants. Another small region (region C) contained between 15 and 27 amino acids and showed little sequence conservation. Region B showed the highest degree of conservation among the four viruses and contained the residues which had homology to the picornavirus VP3 structural protein. An open reading frame, found in the 3' terminal 514 bases of the SMSV genomes, encoded small proteins (12,575 and 12,522 Da, respectively for SMSV 1 and SMSV 4) of which 32% of the conserved amino acids were basic residues, implying a possible nucleic acid

  6. Polar residues in a conserved motif spanning helices 1 and 2 are functionally important in the SulP transporter family.

    PubMed

    Leves, Fiona P; Tierney, M Louise; Howitt, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    The SulP family (including the SLC26 family) is a diverse family of anion transporters found in all domains of life, with different members transporting different anions. We used sequence and bioinformatics analysis of helices 1 and 2 of SulP family members to identify a conserved motif, extending the previously defined 'sulfate transporter motif'. The analysis showed that in addition to being highly conserved in both sequence and spacing, helices 1 and 2 contain a significant number of polar residues and are predicted to be buried within the protein interior, with at least some faces packed closely against other helices. This suggests a significant functional role for this region and we tested this by mutating polar residues in helices 1 and 2 in the sulfate transporter, SHST1. All mutations made, even those removing only a single hydroxyl group, had significant effects on transport. Many mutations abolished transport without affecting plasma membrane expression of the mutant protein, suggesting a functional role for these residues. Different helical faces appear to have different roles, with the most severe effects being localised to two interacting faces of helices 1 and 2. Our results confirm the predicted importance of conserved polar residues in helices 1 and 2 and suggest that transport of sulfate by SHST1 is dependent on a network of polar and aromatic interactions between these two helices.

  7. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26848697

  8. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Watts, Jennifer L

    2016-02-02

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids.

  9. "Silent" Amino Acid Residues at Key Subunit Interfaces Regulate the Geometry of Protein Nanocages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengli; Zang, Jiachen; Zhang, Xiaorong; Chen, Hai; Mikami, Bunzo; Zhao, Guanghua

    2016-11-22

    Rendering the geometry of protein-based assemblies controllable remains challenging. Protein shell-like nanocages represent particularly interesting targets for designed assembly. Here, we introduce an engineering strategy-key subunit interface redesign (KSIR)-that alters a natural subunit-subunit interface by selective deletion of a small number of "silent" amino acid residues (no participation in interfacial interactions) into one that triggers the generation of a non-native protein cage. We have applied KSIR to construct a non-native 48-mer nanocage from its native 24-mer recombinant human H-chain ferritin (rHuHF). This protein is a heteropolymer composed of equal numbers of two different subunits which are derived from one polypeptide. This strategy has allowed the study of conversion between protein nanocages with different geometries by re-engineering key subunit interfaces and the demonstration of the important role of the above-mentioned specific residues in providing geometric specificity for protein assembly.

  10. Chemical modification of amino acid residues in glycerinated Vorticella stalk and Ca(2+)-induced contractility.

    PubMed

    Kono, R; Ochiai, T; Asai, H

    1997-01-01

    The glycerinated stalk of the peritrich ciliate Vorticella, was treated with various reagents to chemically modify the amino acid residues. The influences of these modifcations on spasmoneme contractility were investigated. First, it was confirmed that the spasmoneme contraction is not inhibited by alteration of SH groups. It was also demonstrated that chemical modification of methionine and tryptophan residues abolishes spasmoneme contractility. The reagents used for chemical modification were N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), chloramine T, and 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide (HNBB), which abolished spasmoneme contractility at concentrations of 40-50 microM, 200-300 microM, and 4 mM, respectively. These results suggest that, along with Ca2+ binding proteins, there are other as yet to be identified proteins involved in contractility.

  11. Volatile fatty acids distribution during acidogenesis of algal residues with pH control.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yuxiao; Xu, Haipeng; Liang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-06-01

    The anaerobic acidification of protein-rich algal residues with pH control (4, 6, 8, 10) was studied in batch reactors, which was operated at mesophilic(35 °C) condition. The distribution of major volatile fatty acids (VFAs) during acidogenesis was emphasized in this paper. The results showed that the acidification efficiency and VFAs distribution in the acid reactor strongly depended on the pH. The main product for all the runs involved acetic acid except that the proportion of butyric acid acidified at pH 6 was relatively higher. The other organic acids remained at lower levels. The VFAs yield reached the maximum value with about 0.6 g VFAs/g volatile solid (VS) added as pH was 8, and also the content of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) reached the highest values of 9,629 mg/l. Low acidification degrees were obtained under the conditions at pH 4 and 10, which was not suitable for the metabolism of acidogens. Hydralic retention time (HRT) required for different conditions varied. As a consequence, it was indicated that pH was crucial to the acidification efficiency and products distribution. The investigation of acidogenesis process, which was producing the major substrates, short-chain fatty acids, would play the primary role in the efficient operation of methanogenesis.

  12. Influence of glutamic acid residues and pH on the properties of transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Venkatesan; Greathouse, Denise V; Koeppe, Roger E

    2017-03-01

    Negatively charged side chains are important for the function of particular ion channels and certain other membrane proteins. To investigate the influence of single glutamic acid side chains on helices that span lipid-bilayer membranes, we have employed GWALP23 (acetyl-GGALW(5)LALALALALALALW(19)LAGA-amide) as a favorable host peptide framework. We substituted individual Leu residues with Glu residues (L12E or L14E or L16E) and incorporated specific (2)H-labeled alanine residues within the core helical region or near the ends of the sequence. Solid-state (2)H NMR spectra reveal little change for the core labels in GWALP23-E12, -E14 and -E16 over a pH range of 4 to 12.5, with the spectra being broader for samples in DOPC compared to DLPC bilayers. The spectra for samples with deuterium labels near the helix ends on alanines 3 and 21 show modest pH-dependent changes in the extent of unwinding of the helix terminals in DLPC and DOPC bilayers. The combined results indicate minor overall responses of these transmembrane helices to changes in pH, with the most buried residue E12 showing no pH dependence. While the Glu residues E14 and E16 may have high pKa values in the lipid bilayer environment, it is also possible that a paucity of helix response is masking the pKa values. Interestingly, when E16 is present, spectral changes at high pH report significant local unwinding of the core helix. Our results are consistent with the expectation that buried carboxyl groups aggressively hold their protons and/or waters of hydration.

  13. Probing the chemical mechanism and critical regulatory amino acid residues of Drosophila melanogaster arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Daniel R; Carpenter, Anne-Marie; Ospina, Santiago Rodriguez; Merkler, David J

    2015-11-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2 (AANATL2) catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides from the corresponding acyl-CoA and arylalkylamine. The N-acylation of biogenic amines in Drosophila melanogaster is a critical step for the inactivation of neurotransmitters, cuticle sclerotization, and melatonin biosynthesis. In addition, D. melanogaster has been used as a model system to evaluate the biosynthesis of fatty acid amides: a family of potent cell signaling lipids. We have previously showed that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylakylamides, including long-chain N-acylserotonins and N-acyldopamines. Herein, we define the kinetic mechanism for AANATL2 as an ordered sequential mechanism with acetyl-CoA binding first followed by tyramine to generate the ternary complex prior to catalysis. Bell shaped kcat,app - acetyl-CoA and (kcat/Km)app - acetyl-CoA pH-rate profiles identified two apparent pKa,app values of ∼7.4 and ∼8.9 that are critical to catalysis, suggesting the AANATL2-catalyzed formation of N-acetyltyramine occurs through an acid/base chemical mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved glutamate that corresponds to the catalytic base for other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes did not produce a substantial depression in the kcat,app value nor did it abolish the pKa,app value attributed to the general base in catalysis (pKa ∼7.4). These data suggest that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides using either different catalytic residues or a different chemical mechanism relative to other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes. In addition, we constructed other site-directed mutants of AANATL2 to help define the role of targeted amino acids in substrate binding and/or enzyme catalysis.

  14. A Conserved Aspartic Acid Is Important for Agonist (VUAA1) and Odorant/Tuning Receptor-Dependent Activation of the Insect Odorant Co-Receptor (Orco)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Brijesh N.; Taylor, Robert W.; Pask, Gregory M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Newcomb, Richard D.; Christie, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco). An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ∼2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels. PMID:23894621

  15. Conformation of dehydropentapeptides containing four achiral amino acid residues – controlling the role of L-valine

    PubMed Central

    Krzciuk-Gula, Joanna; Makowski, Maciej; Latajka, Rafał; Kafarski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Summary Structural studies of pentapeptides containing an achiral block, built from two dehydroamino acid residues (ΔZPhe and ΔAla) and two glycines, as well as one chiral L-Val residue were performed using NMR spectroscopy. The key role of the L-Val residue in the generation of the secondary structure of peptides is discussed. The obtained results suggest that the strongest influence on the conformation of peptides arises from a valine residue inserted at the C-terminal position. The most ordered conformation was found for peptide Boc-Gly-ΔAla-Gly-ΔZPhe-Val-OMe (3), which adopts a right-handed helical conformation. PMID:24778717

  16. Identification of essential amino acid residues of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hiramoto, S; Wato, S; Nishimoto, T; Wada, Y; Nagai, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1999-11-01

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitors, which are bivalent inhibitors with the subunit stoichiometry of (alphabeta)(2) complex, have been inferred to contain unique arginine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues essential for the inhibitory activity. To test the validity of this inference, an attempt was made to identify the essential amino acid residues of a white kidney bean (P. vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor (PHA-I) by using the chemical modification technique combined with amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. Exhaustive modification of the arginine residues by phenylglyoxal did not lead to a marked loss of activity, suggesting that no arginine residue is directly associated with the inhibitory activity. N-Bromosuccinimide treatment of PHA-I in the presence or absence of a substrate alpha-amylase revealed the involvement of two tryptophan residues in alpha-amylase inhibition, and they were identified as Trp188 of the beta-subunit by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry of lysylendopeptidase peptides. Further, two tyrosine residues were preferentially modified either by N-acetylimidazole or by tetranitromethane, resulting in a concomitant loss of most of the PHA-I activity. Amino acid sequencing of the lysylendopeptidase peptides from a tetranitromethane-modified PHA-I identified Tyr186 of the beta-subunit as an essential residue.

  17. A highly conserved interaction involving the middle residue of the SXN active-site motif is crucial for function of class B penicillin-binding proteins: mutational and computational analysis of PBP 2 from N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Tomberg, Joshua; Temple, Brenda; Fedarovich, Alena; Davies, Christopher; Nicholas, Robert A

    2012-04-03

    Insertion of an aspartate residue at position 345a in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), which lowers the rate of penicillin acylation by ~6-fold, is commonly observed in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Here, we show that insertions of other amino acids also lower the penicillin acylation rate of PBP 2, but none supported growth of N. gonorrhoeae, indicating loss of essential transpeptidase activity. The Asp345a mutation likely acts by altering the interaction between its adjacent residue, Asp346, in the β2a-β2d hairpin loop and Ser363, the middle residue of the SXN active site motif. Because the adjacent aspartate creates ambiguity in the position of the insertion, we also examined if insertions at position 346a could confer decreased susceptibility to penicillin. However, only aspartate insertions were identified, indicating that only an Asp-Asp couple can confer resistance and retain transpeptidase function. The importance of the Asp346-Ser363 interaction was assessed by mutation of each residue to Ala. Although both mutants lowered the acylation rate of penicillin G by 5-fold, neither could support growth of N. gonorrhoeae, again indicating loss of transpeptidase function. Interaction between a residue in the equivalent of the β2a-β2d hairpin loop and the middle residue of the SXN motif is observed in crystal structures of other Class B PBPs, and its importance is also supported by multisequence alignments. Overall, these results suggest that this conserved interaction can be manipulated (e.g., by insertion) to lower the acylation rate by β-lactam antibiotics and increase resistance, but only if essential transpeptidase activity is preserved.

  18. Optimization of thermal-dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for enhancement of methane production from cassava residues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Jiang, Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the pretreatment of cassava residues by thermal-dilute sulfuric acid (TDSA) hydrolysis was investigated by means of a statistically designed set of experiments. A three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimum pretreatment condition of cassava residues for methane production. The individual and interactive effects of temperature, H(2)SO(4) concentration and reaction time on increase of methane yield (IMY) were evaluated by applying response surface methodology (RSM). After optimization, the resulting optimum pretreatment condition was 157.84°C, utilizing 2.99% (w/w TS) H(2)SO(4) for 20.15 min, where the maximum methane yield (248 mL/g VS) was 56.96% higher than the control (158 mL/g VS), which was very close to the predict value 56.53%. These results indicate the model obtained through RSM analysis is suit to predict the optimum pretreatment condition and there is great potential of using TDSA pretreatment of cassava residues to enhance methane yield.

  19. Differentiating amino acid residues and side chain orientations in peptides using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Shelley A; Thomas, John C; Silverman, Miles A; Schwartz, Jeffrey J; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Weiss, Paul S

    2013-12-11

    Single-molecule measurements of complex biological structures such as proteins are an attractive route for determining structures of the large number of important biomolecules that have proved refractory to analysis through standard techniques such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance. We use a custom-built low-current scanning tunneling microscope to image peptide structures at the single-molecule scale in a model peptide that forms β sheets, a structural motif common in protein misfolding diseases. We successfully differentiate between histidine and alanine amino acid residues, and further differentiate side chain orientations in individual histidine residues, by correlating features in scanning tunneling microscope images with those in energy-optimized models. Beta sheets containing histidine residues are used as a model system due to the role histidine plays in transition metal binding associated with amyloid oligomerization in Alzheimer's and other diseases. Such measurements are a first step toward analyzing peptide and protein structures at the single-molecule level.

  20. Probing catalysis by Escherichia coli dTDP-glucose-4,6-dehydratase: identification and preliminary characterization of functional amino acid residues at the active site.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, A D; Gross, J W; Frey, P A

    2001-06-05

    A model of the Escherichia coli dTDP-glucose-4,6-dehydratase (4,6-dehydratase) active site has been generated by combining amino acid sequence alignment information with the 3-dimensional structure of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase. The active site configuration is consistent with the partially refined 3-dimensional structure of 4,6-dehydratase, which lacks substrate-nucleotide but contains NAD(+) (PDB file ). From the model, two groups of active site residues were identified. The first group consists of Asp135(DEH), Glu136(DEH), Glu198(DEH), Lys199(DEH), and Tyr301(DEH). These residues are near the substrate-pyranose binding pocket in the model, they are completely conserved in 4,6-dehydratase, and they differ from the corresponding equally well-conserved residues in 4-epimerase. The second group of residues is Cys187(DEH), Asn190(DEH), and His232(DEH), which form a motif on the re face of the cofactor nicotinamide binding pocket that resembles the catalytic triad of cysteine-proteases. The importance of both groups of residues was tested by mutagenesis and steady-state kinetic analysis. In all but one case, a decrease in catalytic efficiency of approximately 2 orders of magnitude below wild-type activity was observed. Mutagenesis of each of these residues, with the exception of Cys187(DEH), which showed near-wild-type activity, clearly has important negative consequences for catalysis. The allocation of specific functions to these residues and the absolute magnitude of these effects are obscured by the complex chemistry in this multistep mechanism. Tools will be needed to characterize each chemical step individually in order to assign loss of catalytic efficiency to specific residue functions. To this end, the effects of each of these variants on the initial dehydrogenation step were evaluated using a the substrate analogue dTDP-xylose. Additional steady-state techniques were employed in an attempt to further limit the assignment of rate limitation. The results are

  1. Identification of Key Amino Acid Residues Modulating Intracellular and In vitro Microcin E492 Amyloid Formation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Paulina; Marcoleta, Andrés; Lobos-Ruiz, Pablo; Arranz, Rocío; Valpuesta, José M; Monasterio, Octavio; Lagos, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Microcin E492 (MccE492) is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril's morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well-characterized, however, it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in Escherichia coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophilic probes, 2-4'-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54-63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59), which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54-63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although with

  2. Identification of Key Amino Acid Residues Modulating Intracellular and In vitro Microcin E492 Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Paulina; Marcoleta, Andrés; Lobos-Ruiz, Pablo; Arranz, Rocío; Valpuesta, José M.; Monasterio, Octavio; Lagos, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Microcin E492 (MccE492) is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril’s morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well-characterized, however, it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in Escherichia coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophilic probes, 2-4′-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54–63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59), which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54–63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although

  3. Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Conserved Sequence Motifs between Helices E and H: Prediction of Critical Motifs and Residues in Enzyme Functions

    PubMed Central

    Oezguen, Numan; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Rational approaches have been extensively used to investigate the role of active site residues in cytochrome P450 (CYP) functions. However, recent studies using random mutagenesis suggest an important role for non-active site residues in CYP functions. Meta-analysis of the random mutants showed that 75% of the functionally important non-active site residues are present in 20% of the entire protein between helices E and H (E-H) and conserved sequence motif (CSM) between 7 and 11. The CSM approach was developed recently to investigate the functional role of non-active site residues in CYP2B4. Furthermore, we identified and analyzed the CSM in multiple CYP families and subfamilies in the E-H region. Results from CSM analysis showed that CSM 7, 8, 10, and 11 are conserved in CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 families, while CSM 9 is conserved only in CYP2 family. Analysis of different CYP2 subfamilies showed that CYP2B and CYP2C have similar characteristics in the CSM, while the characteristics of CYP2A and CYP2D subfamilies are different. Finally, we analyzed CSM 7, 8, 10, and 11, which are common in all the CYP families/subfamilies analyzed, in fifteen important drug-metabolizing CYPs. The results showed that while CSM 8 is most conserved among these CYPs, CSM 7, 9, and 10 have significant variations. We suggest that CSM8 has a common role in all the CYPs that have been analyzed, while CSM 7, 10, and 11 may have relatively specific role within the subfamily. We further suggest that these CSM play important role in opening and closing of the substrate access/egress channel by modulating the flexible/plastic region of the protein. Thus, site-directed mutagenesis of these CSM can be used to study structure-function and dynamic/plasticity-function relationships and to design CYP biocatalysts. PMID:25426333

  4. Effects of the number of fatty acid residues on the phase behaviors of decaglycerol fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Ai, Sakiko; Ishitobi, Masahiko

    2006-04-15

    The effects of the number of fatty acid residues (n) in decaglycerol fatty acid esters, i.e., decaglycerol laurates (abbreviated to (C11)nG10), on the phase behaviors of three laurate esters, (C11)1.9G10, (C11)2.7G10, and (C11)3.4G10, were investigated. The unreacted decaglycerol remaining in each ester was removed by liquid extraction before use. (C11)1.9G10 formed hexagonal liquid crystals in aqueous solutions, while (C11)2.7G10 and (C11)3.4G10, which are more hydrophobic than (C11)1.9G10, formed lamellar liquid crystals. The cloud point in aqueous solution was measured for mixtures of these three esters. The cloud phenomenon was observed when the weight ratio of hydrophilic groups to the total surfactant (WH/WS) was around 0.6. The cloud point shifted to a markedly higher temperature, even with a slight increase in the WH/WS ratio. The solubilization abilities of (C11)nG10 for the oils m-xylene and (R)-(+)-limonene were also examined. When the WH/WS ratio was between 0.60 and 0.64, (C11)nG10 formed microemulsions and lyotropic liquid crystals in the presence of water and the oils. These self-organized structures were stable, even above 90 degrees C. It is concluded that the phase behavior of (C11)nG10 are insensitive to temperature, but strongly dependent on both the WH/WS ratio and the number of fatty acid residues (n).

  5. Identification of amino acid residues involved in substrate specificity of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases using a bioinformatics-guided approach

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kimberly M; Shanklin, John

    2007-01-01

    Background The large amount of available sequence information for the plant acyl-ACP thioesterases (TEs) made it possible to use a bioinformatics-guided approach to identify amino acid residues involved in substrate specificity. The Conserved Property Difference Locator (CPDL) program allowed the identification of putative specificity-determining residues that differ between the FatA and FatB TE classes. Six of the FatA residue differences identified by CPDL were incorporated into the FatB-like parent via site-directed mutagenesis and the effect of each on TE activity was determined. Variants were expressed in E. coli strain K27 that allows determination of enzyme activity by GCMS analysis of fatty acids released into the medium. Results Substitutions at four of the positions (74, 86, 141, and 174) changed substrate specificity to varying degrees while changes at the remaining two positions, 110 and 221, essentially inactivated the thioesterase. The effects of substitutions at positions 74, 141, and 174 (3-MUT) or 74, 86, 141, 174 (4-MUT) were not additive with respect to specificity. Conclusion Four of six putative specificity determining positions in plant TEs, identified with the use of CPDL, were validated experimentally; a novel colorimetric screen that discriminates between active and inactive TEs is also presented. PMID:17201914

  6. Differences in sialic acid residues among bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms: a physical, biochemical, and immunological characterization.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, P; Farley, J R

    2002-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separates three human bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) isoforms in serum; two major BALP isoforms, B1 and B2, and a minor fraction, B/I, which is composed on average of 70% bone and 30% intestinal ALP. The current studies were intended to identify an in vitro source of the BALP isoforms for physical, biochemical, and immunological characterizations. The three BALP isoforms were identified in extracts of human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells, by HPLC, after separation by anion-exchange chromatography. All three BALP isoforms were similar with respect to freeze-thaw stability, solubility, heat inactivation, and inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-homoarginine, and levamisole. The isoforms were also kinetically similar (i.e., maximal velocity and KM at pH 8.8 and pH 10.0). The isoforms differed, however, with respect to sensitivity to precipitation with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), P < 0.001, but not Concanavalin A. At 3.0 mg/ml, WGA precipitated approximately 25% of B/I but more than 80% of B1 and B2. Molecular weights were estimated by native gradient gel electrophoresis: B/I, 126 kDa; B1, 136 kDa; and B2, 141 kDa. Desialylation with neuraminidase reduced the apparent sizes of B1 and B2 to 127 kDa (i.e., approximately to that of B/I). The total carbohydrate content was calculated to be 18 kDa, 28 kDa, and 33 kDa (i.e., 14%, 21%, and 23%) for the BALP isofonns, B/I, B1, and B2, respectively. The number of sialic acid residues was estimated to be 29 and 45, for each B1 and B2 homodimer, respectively. Apparent discrepancies between these estimates of molecular weight and estimates based on gel filtration chromatography were attributed to nonspecific interactions between carbohydrate residues and the gel filtration beads. All three BALP isoforms showed similar dose-dependent linearity in the commercial Alkphase-B and Tandem-MP Ostase immunoassays, r = 0.944 and r = 0.985, respectively (P < 0.001). In summary, our data indicate that

  7. Role of enthalpy-entropy compensation interactions in determining the conformational propensities of amino acid residues in unfolded peptides.

    PubMed

    Toal, Siobhan E; Verbaro, Daniel J; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2014-02-06

    The driving forces governing the unique and restricted conformational preferences of amino acid residues in the unfolded state are still not well understood. In this study, we experimentally determine the individual thermodynamic components underlying intrinsic conformational propensities of these residues. Thermodynamic analysis of ultraviolet-circular dichroism (UV-CD) and (1)H NMR data for a series of glycine capped amino acid residues (i.e., G-x-G peptides) reveals the existence of a nearly exact enthalpy-entropy compensation for the polyproline II-β strand equilibrium for all investigated residues. The respective ΔHβ, ΔSβ values exhibit a nearly perfect linear relationship with an apparent compensation temperature of 295 ± 2 K. Moreover, we identified iso-equilibrium points for two subsets of residues at 297 and 305 K. Thus, our data suggest that within this temperature regime, which is only slightly below physiological temperatures, the conformational ensembles of amino acid residues in the unfolded state differ solely with respect to their capability to adopt turn-like conformations. Such iso-equilibria are rarely observed, and their existence herein indicates a common physical origin behind conformational preferences, which we are able to assign to side-chain dependent backbone solvation. Conformational effects such as differences between the number of sterically allowed side chain rotamers can contribute to enthalpy and entropy but not to the Gibbs energy associated with conformational preferences. Interestingly, we found that alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine are the only residues which do not share these iso-equilbiria. The enthalpy-entropy compensation discovered as well as the iso-equilbrium and thermodynamics obtained for each amino acid residue provide a new and informative way of identifying the determinants of amino acid propensities in unfolded and disordered states.

  8. AF-2 activity and recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 to the estrogen receptor depend on a lysine residue conserved in nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Henttu, P M; Kalkhoven, E; Parker, M G

    1997-01-01

    Hormone-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors depends on the presence of a conserved C-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix (helix 12) in the ligand-binding domain. Here we show that a lysine residue, which is conserved in most nuclear receptors in the predicted helix 3, is also required for estrogen-dependent transactivation. The replacement of lysine 366 with alanine appreciably reduced activation function 2 (AF-2) activity without affecting steroid- or DNA-binding activity in the mouse estrogen receptor. The mutation dramatically reduced the ability of the receptor to bind steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) but had no effect on receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP-140) binding, indicating that while their sites of interaction overlap, they are not entirely consistent and in keeping with the proposal that the recruitment of coactivators, such as SRC-1, is required for AF-2 activity. Although the function of RIP-140 remains to be established, RIP-140 appears to be capable of recruiting the basal transcription machinery, since overexpression of the protein markedly increased the transcriptional activity of the mutant receptor. Since the lysine residue is conserved, we propose that it is required, together with residues in helix 12, to form the surface by which members of the nuclear receptor family interact with coactivators. PMID:9121431

  9. Quantitative solid state NMR analysis of residues from acid hydrolysis of loblolly pine wood.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Carsten; Marzialetti, Teresita; Hoskins, Travis J C; Valenzuela Olarte, Mariefel B; Agrawal, Pradeep K; Jones, Christopher W

    2009-10-01

    The composition of solid residues from hydrolysis reactions of loblolly pine wood with dilute mineral acids is analyzed by (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Using this method, the carbohydrate and lignin fractions are quantified in less than 3h as compared to over a day using wet chemical methods. In addition to the quantitative information, (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy provides information on the formation of additional extractives and pseudo lignin from the carbohydrates. Being a non-destructive technique, NMR spectroscopy provides unambiguous evidence of the presence of side reactions and products, which is a clear advantage over the wet chemical analytical methods. Quantitative results from NMR spectroscopy and proximate analysis are compared for the residues from hydrolysis of loblolly pine wood under 13 different conditions; samples were treated either at 150 degrees C or 200 degrees C in the presence of various acids (HCl, H(2)SO(4), H(3)PO(4), HNO(3) and TFA) or water. The lignin content determined by both methods differed on averaged by 2.9 wt% resulting in a standard deviation of 3.5 wt%. It is shown that solid degradation products are formed from saccharide precursors under harsh reaction conditions. These degradation reactions limit the total possible yield of monosaccharides from any subsequent reaction.

  10. Theoretical exploration of the cooperative effect in NMF-NMF-amino acid residue hydrogen bonding system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xichen; Liu, Wenlan; Sun, Kening; Wang, Yan; Tan, Hongwei; Chen, Guangju

    2008-09-28

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the cooperative effect in sixteen linearly-arranged trimer systems consisting of N-methylformamide dimer and an extra amino acid residue. These trimer systems, NMF-NMF-AAR, in short, have been systematically investigated by full optimization at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level and subsequent electronic energy calculations at PBE1PBE/cc-pVTZ, HF/cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ, respectively. Obvious spatial transformation due to energetic factors has been found in almost all the trimers. Systematic analysis in weak interaction energy components has shown that: (1) in these trimer systems, the bonding structure and the cooperative effect combine to determine the stability of both HB1 and HB2. For HB2, the structure of the constituent amino acid residue also plays a crucial role by interfering with the neighboring moieties; (2) the large contribution of the cooperative effect to the overall hydrogen bonding energy has claimed the importance of cooperativity in our systems; (3) the non-hydrogen bonding weak interaction components are found to be non-negligible in these trimer systems; (4) moreover, the cooperative effect between these non-hydrogen bonding components is always found to be positive. The good performances of PBE1PBE and PM6 have been established by comparisons between these methods.

  11. Accurate determination of residual acrylic acid in superabsorbent polymer of hygiene products by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Jiang, Ran

    2017-02-17

    This work reports on a method for the determination of residual acrylic acid (AA) in the superabsorbent polymers for hygiene products by headspace analysis. It was based on water extraction for the polymer sample at a room temperature for 50min. Then, the AA in the extractant reacted with bicarbonate solution in a closed headspace sample vial, from which the carbon dioxide generated from the reaction (within 20min at 70°C) was detected by gas chromatography (GC). It was found that there is adsorption partition equilibrium of AA between solid-liquid phases. Therefore, an equation for calculating the total AA content in the original polymers sample was derived based on the above phase equilibrium. The results show that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD<2.51%) and good accuracy (recoveries from 93 to 105%); the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 373mg/kg. The present method is rapid, accurate, and suitable for determining total residual acrylic acid in a wide variety of applications from processing of superabsorbent polymer to commercial products quality control.

  12. Glycolic acid-catalyzed deamidation of asparagine residues in degrading PLGA matrices: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Noriyoshi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2015-03-31

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a strong candidate for being a drug carrier in drug delivery systems because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, in degrading PLGA matrices, the encapsulated peptide and protein drugs can undergo various degradation reactions, including deamidation at asparagine (Asn) residues to give a succinimide species, which may affect their potency and/or safety. Here, we show computationally that glycolic acid (GA) in its undissociated form, which can exist in high concentration in degrading PLGA matrices, can catalyze the succinimide formation from Asn residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. A two-step mechanism was studied by quantum-chemical calculations using Ace-Asn-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHCH3) as a model compound. The first step is cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a tetrahedral intermediate, and the second step is elimination of ammonia from the intermediate. Both steps involve an extensive bond reorganization mediated by a GA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The present findings are expected to be useful in the design of more effective and safe PLGA devices.

  13. The Dual NOD1/NOD2 Agonism of Muropeptides Containing a Meso-Diaminopimelic Acid Residue

    PubMed Central

    Dagil, Yulia A.; Arbatsky, Nikolai P.; Alkhazova, Biana I.; L’vov, Vyacheslav L.; Mazurov, Dmitriy V.; Pashenkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Muropeptides are fragments of peptidoglycan that trigger innate immune responses by activating nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2. Muropeptides from Gram-negative bacteria contain a meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) residue in either a terminal or a non-terminal position. While the former ones are known to be recognized by NOD1, much less is known about recognition of muropeptides with non-terminal meso-DAP, which are most abundant moieties of Gram-negative peptidoglycans. Here, we developed a novel system to assess biological activity of muropeptides, based on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout (KO) of NOD1 and NOD2 genes in modified HEK293T cells. Using NOD1/NOD2 knockout and overexpression systems, as well as human monocytes and macrophages, we refine the current view of muropeptide recognition. We show that NOD2 can recognize different natural muropeptides containing a meso-DAP residue (preferably in a non-terminal position), provided they are present at micromolar concentrations. NOD2 accepts muropeptides with long and branched peptide chains and requires an intact N-acetylmuramyl residue. Muropeptides with non-terminal meso-DAP can activate NOD1 as well, but, in this case, probably require peptidase pre-processing to expose the meso-DAP residue. Depending on NOD1/NOD2 ratio in specific cell types, meso-DAP-containing muropeptides can be recognized either primarily via NOD2 (in monocytes) or via NOD1 (in monocyte-derived macrophages and HEK293T-derived cells). The dual NOD1/NOD2 agonism of meso-DAP-containing muropeptides should be taken into account when assessing cellular responses to muropeptides and designing muropeptide immunostimulants and vaccine adjuvants. PMID:27513337

  14. Conserved histidine residues at the ferroxidase centre of the Campylobacter jejuni Dps protein are not strictly required for metal binding and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sanchuki, Heloisa B S; Valdameri, Glaucio; Moure, Vivian R; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Korolik, Victoria; Ribeiro, Ronny Rocha; Huergo, Luciano F

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for living organisms as it is involved in a broad variety of important biological processes. However, free iron inside the cell could be potentially toxic, generating hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reaction. Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) belongs to a subfamily of ferritins and can store iron atoms inside the dodecamer. The presence of a ferroxidase centre, composed of highly conserved residues, is a signature of this protein family. In this study, we analysed the role of two conserved histidine residues (H25 and H37) located at the ferroxidase centre of the Campylobacter jejuni Dps protein by replacing them with glycine residues. The C. jejuni H25G/H37G substituted variant showed reduced iron binding and ferroxidase activities in comparison with wt Dps, while DNA-binding activity remained unaffected. We also found that both CjDps wt and CjDps H25G/H37G were able to bind manganese atoms. These results indicate that the H25 and H37 residues at the ferroxidase centre of C. jejuni Dps are not strictly required for metal binding and oxidation.

  15. Comparison of the effects of ozone on the modification of amino acid residues in glutamine synthetase and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Berlett, B S; Levine, R L; Stadtman, E R

    1996-02-23

    During exposure to ozone, the methionine and aromatic amino acid residues of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (GS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) are oxidized rapidly in the order Met > Trp > Tyr approximately His > Phe. The loss of His is matched by a nearly equivalent formation of aspartate or of a derivative that is converted to aspartic acid upon acid hydrolysis. Conversion of His to aspartate was confirmed by showing that the oxidation of E. coli protein in which all His residues were uniformly labeled with 14C gave rise to 14C-labeled aspartic acid in 80% yield and also by the demonstration that His residues in the tripeptides Ala-His-Ala or Ala-Ala-His gave rise to nearly stoichiometric amounts of aspartic acid whereas oxidation of His-Ala-Ala yielded only 36% aspartate. The oxidation of BSA and GS led to formation, respectively, of 11 and 3.3 eq of carbonyl groups and 0.5 and 0.3 eq of quinoprotein per subunit. Although BSA and GS contain nearly identical amounts of each kind of aromatic amino acid residues, oxidation of these residues in BSA was about 1.5-2.0 times faster than in GS indicating that the susceptibility to oxidation is dependent on the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of the protein.

  16. Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of cadmium from Cd-Ni zinc plant residues.

    PubMed

    Safarzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Moradkhani, Davood; Ojaghi-Ilkhchi, Mehdi

    2009-04-30

    Cd-Ni filtercakes are produced continuously at the third purification step in the electrolytic production of zinc in the National Iranian Lead and Zinc Company (NILZ) in northwestern Iran. In this research, the dissolution kinetics of cadmium from Cd-Ni residues produced in NILZ plant has been investigated. Hence, the effects of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size and stirring speed on the kinetics of cadmium dissolution in sulfuric acid were studied. The dissolution kinetics at 25-55 degrees C and tacid concentration, solid/liquid ratio and particle size were also achieved. The rate of reaction at first 5 min based on diffusion-controlled process can be expressed by a semi-empirical equation as:It was determined that the dissolution rate increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration and decreasing particle size.

  17. Acid-catalyzed hydrothermal severity on the fractionation of agricultural residues for xylose-rich hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Ye; Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of acid-catalyzed hydrothermal fractionation for maximum solubilization of the hemicellulosic portion of three agricultural residues. The fractionation conditions converted into combined severity factor (CS) in the range of 1.2-2.9. The highest hemicellulose yield of 87.88% was achieved when barley straw was fractionated at a CS of 2.19. However, the maximum glucose release of 15.29% was achieved for the case of rice straw. The maximum productions of various by-products were observed with the fractionation of rape straw: 0.88 g/L of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2.16 g/L of furfural, 0.44 g/L of levulinic acid, 1.59 g/L of formic acid, and 3.06 g/L of acetic acid. The highest selectivities, a criterion for evaluating the fractionation of 21.55 for fractionated solid and 7.48 for liquid hydrolyzate were obtained from barley straw.

  18. The Immunosuppressive Properties of the HIV Vpr Protein Are Linked to a Single Highly Conserved Residue, R90

    PubMed Central

    Tcherepanova, Irina; Starr, Aijing; Lackford, Brad; Adams, Melissa D.; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Boulassel, Mohamed Rachid; Calderhead, David; Healey, Don; Nicolette, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background A hallmark of AIDS progression is a switch of cytokines from Th1 to Th2 in the plasma of patients. IL-12, a critical Th1 cytokine secreted by antigen presenting cells (APCs) is suppressed by Vpr, implicating it as an important virulence factor. We hypothesize that Vpr protein packaged in the virion may be required for disabling APCs of the first infected mucosal tissues. Consistent with this idea are reports that defects in the C-terminus of Vpr are associated with long-term non-progression. Principal Findings Vpr RNA amplified from various sources was electroporated into monocyte-derived DC and IL-12 levels in supernatants were analyzed. The analysis of previously reported C-terminal Vpr mutations demonstrate that they do not alleviate the block of IL-12 secretion. However, a novel single conservative amino acid substitution, R90K, reverses the IL-12 suppression. Analysis of 1226 Vpr protein sequences demonstrated arginine (R) present at position 90 in 98.8%, with other substitutions at low frequency. Furthermore, none of sequences report lysine (K) in position 90. Vpr clones harboring the reported substitutions in position 90 were studied for their ability to suppress IL-12. Our data demonstrates that none of tested substitutions other than K relieve IL-12 suppression. This suggests a natural selection for sequences which suppress IL-12 secretion by DC and against mutations which relieve such suppression. Further analyses demonstrated that the R90K, as well as deletion of the C-terminus, directs the Vpr protein for rapid degradation. Conclusion This study supports Vpr as an HIV virulence factor during HIV infection and for the first time provides a link between evolutionary conservation of Vpr and its ability to suppress IL-12 secretion by DC. DC activated in the presence of Vpr would be defective in the production of IL-12, thus contributing to the prevailing Th2 cytokine profile associated with progressive HIV disease. These findings should be

  19. Interaction between carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and saturating concentrations of Calcofluor White. A fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R; Sillen, A; Plancke, Y D; Coddeville, B; Engelborghs, Y

    2000-07-24

    Calcofluor White is a fluorescent probe that interacts with polysaccharides and is commonly used in clinical studies. Interaction between Calcofluor White and carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) was previously followed by fluorescence titration of the Trp residues of the protein. A stoichiometry of one Calcofluor for one protein has been found [J.R. Albani and Y.D. Plancke, Carbohydr. Res., 318 (1999) 193-200]. Alpha1-acid glycoprotein contains 40% carbohydrate by weight and has up to 16 sialic acid residues. Since binding of Calcofluor to alpha1-acid glycoprotein occurs mainly on the carbohydrate residues, we studied in the present work the interaction between Calcofluor and the protein by following the fluorescence change of the fluorophore. In order to establish the role of the sialic acid residues in the interaction, the experiments were performed with the sialylated and asialylated protein. Interaction of Calcofluor with sialylated alpha1-acid glycoprotein induces a red shift of the emission maximum of the fluorophore from 438 to 450 nm at saturation (one Calcofluor for one sialic acid) and an increase in the fluorescence intensity. At saturation the fluorescence intensity increase levels off. Binding of Calcofluor to asialylated acid glycoprotein does not change the position of the emission maximum of the fluorophore and induces a decrease in its fluorescence intensity. Saturation occurs when 10 molecules of Calcofluor are bound to 1 mol of alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Since the protein contains five heteropolysaccharide groups, we have 2 mol of Calcofluor for each group. Addition of free sialic acid to Calcofluor induces a continuous decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore but does not change the position of the emission maximum. Our results confirm the presence of a defined spatial conformation of the sialic acid residues, a conformation that disappears when they are free in solution. Dynamics studies on Calcofluor

  20. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection

  1. A Conserved Active Site Tyrosine Residue of Proline Dehydrogenase Helps Enforce the Preference for Proline over Hydroxyproline as the Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, E.L.; Larson, J.D.; Schuermann, J.P.; Tanner, J.J.

    2009-03-02

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to {Delta}-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insight into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analogue L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75, 1.90, and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline 3-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of 20 (Y540S) and 50 (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding the substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.

  2. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-04-25

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane.

  3. Frequencies of amino acid strings in globular protein sequences indicate suppression of blocks of consecutive hydrophobic residues

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Russell; Istrail, Sorin; King, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Patterns of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues play a major role in protein folding and function. Long, predominantly hydrophobic strings of 20–22 amino acids each are associated with transmembrane helices and have been used to identify such sequences. Much less attention has been paid to hydrophobic sequences within globular proteins. In prior work on computer simulations of the competition between on-pathway folding and off-pathway aggregate formation, we found that long sequences of consecutive hydrophobic residues promoted aggregation within the model, even controlling for overall hydrophobic content. We report here on an analysis of the frequencies of different lengths of contiguous blocks of hydrophobic residues in a database of amino acid sequences of proteins of known structure. Sequences of three or more consecutive hydrophobic residues are found to be significantly less common in actual globular proteins than would be predicted if residues were selected independently. The result may reflect selection against long blocks of hydrophobic residues within globular proteins relative to what would be expected if residue hydrophobicities were independent of those of nearby residues in the sequence. PMID:11316883

  4. Structural comparison of AP endonucleases from the exonuclease III family reveals new amino acid residues in human AP endonuclease 1 that are involved in incision of damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Vigouroux, Armelle; Mursalimov, Aibek; Grin, Inga; Alili, Doria; Koshenov, Zhanat; Akishev, Zhiger; Maksimenko, Andrei; Bissenbaev, Amangeldy K; Matkarimov, Bakhyt T; Saparbaev, Murat; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Moréra, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively damaged DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair (BER) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease-initiated nucleotide incision repair (NIR). In the BER pathway, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases, whereas in the NIR pathway, the same AP endonuclease incises DNA 5' to an oxidized base. The majority of characterized AP endonucleases possess classic BER activities, and approximately a half of them can also have a NIR activity. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying DNA substrate specificity of AP endonucleases remains unclear mainly due to the absence of a published structure of the enzyme in complex with a damaged base. To identify critical residues involved in the NIR function, we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal structure with the structures of other AP endonucleases: Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Xth), human APE1, and archaeal Mth212. We found conserved amino acid residues in the NIR-specific enzymes APE1, Mth212, and ExoA. Four of these positions were studied by means of point mutations in APE1: we applied substitution with the corresponding residue found in NIR-deficient E. coli Xth (Y128H, N174Q, G231S, and T268D). The APE1-T268D mutant showed a drastically decreased NIR activity and an inverted Mg(2+) dependence of the AP site cleavage activity, which is in line with the presence of an aspartic residue at the equivalent position among other known NIR-deficient AP endonucleases. Taken together, these data show that NIR is an evolutionarily conserved function in the Xth family of AP endonucleases.

  5. Cotton nitrogen management in a high-residue conservation system: nitrogen source, rate, application method and application timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage systems are promoted in many parts of the world to help achieve environmental sustainability in agriculture. In-service training programs are used to educate extension agents as means to diffuse conservation tillage practices. However, changing extension agents’ attitudes is a c...

  6. Roles of conserved residues within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase in replication and latency in mice.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Shariya L; Pesola, Jean M; Coen, Donald M

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic subunit of the herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase (HSV-1 Pol) is essential for viral DNA synthesis and production of infectious virus in cell culture. While mutations that affect 5'-3' polymerase activity have been evaluated in animal models of HSV-1 infection, mutations that affect other functions of HSV-1 Pol have not. In a previous report, we utilized bacterial artificial chromosome technology to generate defined HSV-1 pol mutants with lesions in the previously uncharacterized pre-NH2-terminal domain. We found that the extreme N-terminal 42 residues (deletion mutant polΔN43) were dispensable for replication in cell culture, while residues 44-49 (alanine-substitution mutant polA6) were required for efficient viral DNA synthesis and production of infectious virus. In this study, we sought to address the importance of these conserved elements in viral replication in a mouse corneal infection model. Mutant virus polΔN43 exhibited no meaningful defect in acute or latent infection despite strong conservation of residues 1-42 with HSV-2 Pol. The polA6 mutation caused a modest defect in replication at the site of inoculation, and was severely impaired for ganglionic replication, even at high inocula that permitted efficient corneal replication. Additionally, the polA6 mutation resulted in reduced latency establishment and subsequent reactivation. Moreover, we found that the polA6 replication defect in cultured cells was exacerbated in resting cells as compared to dividing cells. These results reveal an important role for the conserved motif at residues 44-49 of HSV-1 Pol for ganglionic viral replication.

  7. Intra-molecular cross-linking of acidic residues for protein structure studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruppa, Gary Hermann; Young, Malin M.; Novak, Petr; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2005-03-01

    Intra-molecular cross-linking has been suggested as a method of obtaining distance constraints that would be useful in developing structural models of proteins. Recent work published on intra-molecular cross-linking for protein structural studies has employed commercially available primary amine selective reagents that can cross-link lysine residues to other lysine residues or the amino terminus. Previous work using these cross-linkers has shown that for several proteins of known structure, the number of cross-links that can be obtained experimentally may be small compared to what would be expected from the known structure, due to the relative reactivity, distribution, and solvent accessibility of the lysines in the protein sequence. To overcome these limitations we have investigated the use of cross-linking reagents that can react with other reactive sidechains in proteins. We used 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to activate the carboxylic acid containing residues, aspartic acid (D), glutamic acid (E), and the carboxy terminus (O), for cross-linking reactions. Once activated, the DEO sidechains can react to form 'zero-length' cross-links with nearby primary amine containing resides, lysines (K) and the amino terminus (X), via the formation of a new amide bond. We also show that the EDC-activated DEO sidechains can be cross-linked to each other using dihydrazides, two hydrazide moieties connected by an alkyl cross-linker ann of variable length. Using these reagents, we have found three new 'zero-length' cross-links in ubiquitin consistent with its known structure (M1-E16, M1-E18, and K63-E64). Using the dihydrazide cross-linkers, we have identified 2 new cross-links (D21-D32 and E24-D32) unambiguously. Using a library of dihydrazide cross-linkers with varying arm length, we have shown that there is a minimum arm length required for the DEO-DEO cross-links of 5.8 angstroms. These results show that additional structural information

  8. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  9. Nitrate and Nitrite Determination in Gunshot Residue Samples by Capillary Electrophoresis in Acidic Run Buffer().

    PubMed

    Erol, Özge Ö; Erdoğan, Behice Y; Onar, Atiye N

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in gunshot residue has been conducted by capillary electrophoresis using an acidic run buffer (pH 3.5). In previously developed capillary electrophoretic methods, alkaline pH separation buffers were used where nitrite and nitrate possess similar electrophoretic mobility. In this study, the electroosmotic flow has been reversed by using low pH running buffer without any additives. As a result of reversing the electroosmotic flow, very fast analysis has been actualized, well-defined and separated ion peaks emerge in less than 4 min. Besides, the limit of detection was improved by employing large volume sample stacking. Limit of detection values were 6.7 and 4.3 μM for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. In traditional procedure, mechanical agitation is employed for extraction, while in this work the extraction efficiency of ultrasound mixing for 30 min was found sufficient. The proposed method was successfully applied to authentic gunshot residue samples.

  10. A synthetic amino acid residue containing a new oligopeptide-based photosensitive fluorescent organogel.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Dibakar Kumar; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic amino acid (with a stilbene residue in the main chain) containing a tripeptide-based organogelator has been discovered. This peptide-based synthetic molecule 1 self-assembles in various organic solvents to form an organogel. The gel has been thoroughly characterized by using various microscopic techniques including field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, and rheology. Morphological investigations using FESEM and AFM show a nanofibrillar network structure. Interestingly, the organogel is photoresponsive and a gel-sol transition occurred by irradiating the gel with UV light of 365 nm for 2 h as shown by the UV and fluorescence study. This photoresponsive fluorescent gel holds promise for new peptide-based soft materials with interesting applications.

  11. Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Melligan, F; Dussan, K; Auccaise, R; Novotny, E H; Leahy, J J; Hayes, M H B; Kwapinski, W

    2012-03-01

    Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11-20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL37 Protein Tyrosine Residues Conserved among All Alphaherpesviruses Are Required for Interactions with Glycoprotein K, Cytoplasmic Virion Envelopment, and Infectious Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Chouljenko, Dmitry V.; Jambunathan, Nithya; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Naderi, Misagh; Brylinski, Michal; Caskey, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL37 protein functions in virion envelopment at trans-Golgi membranes, as well as in retrograde and anterograde transport of virion capsids. Recently, we reported that UL37 interacts with glycoprotein K (gK) and its interacting partner protein UL20 (N. Jambunathan, D. Chouljenko, P. Desai, A. S. Charles, R. Subramanian, V. N. Chouljenko, and K. G. Kousoulas, J Virol 88:5927–5935, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00278-14), facilitating cytoplasmic virion envelopment. Alignment of UL37 homologs encoded by alphaherpesviruses revealed the presence of highly conserved residues in the central portion of the UL37 protein. A cadre of nine UL37 site-specific mutations were produced and tested for their ability to inhibit virion envelopment and infectious virus production. Complementation analysis revealed that replacement of tyrosines 474 and 480 with alanine failed to complement the UL37-null virus, while all other mutated UL37 genes complemented the virus efficiently. The recombinant virus DC474-480 constructed with tyrosines 474, 476, 477, and 480 mutated to alanine residues produced a gK-null-like phenotype characterized by the production of very small plaques and accumulation of capsids in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Recombinant viruses having either tyrosine 476 or 477 replaced with alanine produced a wild-type phenotype. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that replacement of all four tyrosines with alanines substantially reduced the ability of gK to interact with UL37. Alignment of HSV UL37 with the human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus UL37 homologs revealed that Y480 was conserved only for alphaherpesviruses. Collectively, these results suggest that the UL37 conserved tyrosine 480 residue plays a crucial role in interactions with gK to facilitate cytoplasmic virion envelopment and infectious virus production. IMPORTANCE The HSV-1 UL37 protein is conserved among all herpesviruses, functions in both

  13. Differential contribution of basic residues to HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein’s nucleic acid chaperone function and retroviral replication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Mitra, Mithun; Naufer, M. Nabuan; McCauley, Micah J.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid (NC) protein contains 15 basic residues located throughout its 55-amino acid sequence, as well as one aromatic residue in each of its two CCHC-type zinc finger motifs. NC facilitates nucleic acid (NA) rearrangements via its chaperone activity, but the structural basis for this activity and its consequences in vivo are not completely understood. Here, we investigate the role played by basic residues in the N-terminal domain, the N-terminal zinc finger and the linker region between the two zinc fingers. We use in vitro ensemble and single-molecule DNA stretching experiments to measure the characteristics of wild-type and mutant HIV-1 NC proteins, and correlate these results with cell-based HIV-1 replication assays. All of the cationic residue mutations lead to NA interaction defects, as well as reduced HIV-1 infectivity, and these effects are most pronounced on neutralizing all five N-terminal cationic residues. HIV-1 infectivity in cells is correlated most strongly with NC’s NA annealing capabilities as well as its ability to intercalate the DNA duplex. Although NC’s aromatic residues participate directly in DNA intercalation, our findings suggest that specific basic residues enhance these interactions, resulting in optimal NA chaperone activity. PMID:24293648

  14. Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity is a novel function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). However, the functional site for this new effect is presently unknown. Methods and Results In this study, recombinant human HMGB1 A box and B box (rHMGB1 A box, rHMGB1 B box), recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the truncated C-terminal acidic tail mutant (tHMGB1) were prepared by the prokaryotic expression system. The C-terminal acidic tail (C peptide) was synthesized, which was composed of 30 amino acid residues. Antibacterial assays showed that both the full length rHMGB1 and the synthetic C peptide alone could efficiently inhibit bacteria proliferation, but rHMGB1 A box and B box, and tHMGB1 lacking the C-terminal acidic tail had no antibacterial function. These results suggest that C-terminal acidic tail is the key region for the antibacterial activity of HMGB1. Furthermore, we prepared eleven different deleted mutants lacking several amino acid residues in C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1. Antibacterial assays of these mutants demonstrate that the amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region is the core functional site for the antibacterial activity of the molecule. Conclusion In sum, these results define the key region and the crucial site in HMGB1 for its antibacterial function, which is helpful to illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of HMGB1. PMID:19751520

  15. Selective conversion of cellulose in corncob residue to levulinic acid in an aluminum trichloride-sodium chloride system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianmei; Jiang, Zhicheng; Hu, Libin; Hu, Changwei

    2014-09-01

    Increased energy consumption and environmental concerns have driven efforts to produce chemicals from renewable biomass with high selectivity. Here, the selective conversion of cellulose in corncob residue, a process waste from the production of xylose, to levulinic acid was carried out using AlCl3 as catalyst and NaCl as promoter by a hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature. A levulinic acid yield of 46.8 mol% was obtained, and the total selectivity to levulinic acid with formic acid was beyond 90%. NaCl selectively promoted the dissolution of cellulose from corncob residue, and significantly improved the yield and selectivity to levulinic acid by inhibiting lactic acid formation in the subsequent dehydration process. Owing to the salt effect of NaCl, the obtained levulinic acid could be efficiently extracted to tetrahydrofuran from aqueous solution. The aqueous solution with AlCl3 and NaCl could be recycled 4 times. Because of the limited conversion of lignin, this process allows for the production of levulinic acid with high selectivity directly from corncob residue in a simple separation process.

  16. NMR WaterLOGSY Reveals Weak Binding of Bisphenol A with Amyloid Fibers of a Conserved 11 Residue Peptide from Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Asencio-Hernández, Julia; Kieffer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a molecule largely released in the environment, has detrimental effects on ecosystems and on human health. It acts as an endocrine disruptor targeting steroid hormone receptors, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), estrogen-related receptor (ERR) and androgen receptor (AR). BPA-derived molecules have recently been shown to interact with the AR N-terminal domain (AR-NTD), which is known to be largely intrinsically disordered. This N-terminal domain contains an 11 residue conserved domain that forms amyloid fibers upon oxidative dimerisation through its strictly conserved Cys240 residue. We investigate here the interaction of BPA, and other potential endocrine disruptors, with AR-NTD amyloid fibers using the WaterLOGSY NMR experiment. We observed a selective binding of these compounds to the amyloid fibers formed by the AR-NTD conserved region and glutamine homopolymers. This observation suggests that the high potency of endocrine disruptors may result, in part, from their ability to bind amyloid forms of nuclear receptors in addition to their cognate binding sites. This property may be exploited to design future therapeutic strategies targeting AR related diseases such as the spinal bulbar muscular atrophy or prostate cancer. The ability of NMR WaterLOGSY experiments to detect weak interactions between small ligands and amyloid fibers may prove to be of particular interest for identifying promising hit molecules. PMID:27583469

  17. Differential expression of the α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer is associated with metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Lin, Yu; Yue, Liling; Zhao, Xuemei; Liu, Jicheng

    2011-05-01

    Aberrant sialylation is closely associated with the malignant phenotype of cancer cells and metastatic potential. However, the precise nature of the molecules in breast cancers has not been unveiled. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of α2,3-sialic acid residues of 50 primary tumor cases, 50 pair-matched lymph node metastasis tumor samples and in the MDA-MB-231, T-47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential. The expression of α2,3-sialic acid residues was analyzed by histochemistry, cytochemistry and flow cytometry with Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL). The invasion and migration abilities of cells were examined using cell adhesion and transwell in vitro assays. Pair-matched lymph node metastasis tumor samples exhibited higher levels of expression of α2,3-sialic acid residues compared to that of primary tumors (P=0.0432). Furthermore, of 38 tumors cases in T1/T2 stages, 31 (81.58%) had weak staining for MAL, which specifically binds to α2,3-sialic acid residues, whereas of 12 tumor cases in T3/T4 stages, only 1 (8.33%) had weak reactions for MAL. The highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 exhibited the strongest binding to MAL and the highest expression levels of α2,3-sialic acid residues among the selected cell lines, depending on mRNA expression levels of α2,3-sialyltransferase gene. The adhesion, invasion and migration activities confirmed that MDA-MB-231 exhibited the greater cell adhesion to, migration toward and invasion to Matrigel. Taken together, the high expression of α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer was associated with metastatic potential. This property may be important for developing new therapeutic approaches for breast cancer.

  18. Site-specific PEGylation of therapeutic proteins via optimization of both accessible reactive amino acid residues and PEG derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xiao-lan; Yuan, Yong-hua; Pu, Jun; Liao, Fei

    2012-08-01

    Modification of accessible amino acid residues with poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] is a widely used technique for formulating therapeutic proteins. In practice, site-specific PEGylation of all selected/engineered accessible nonessential reactive residues of therapeutic proteins with common activated PEG derivatives is a promising strategy to concomitantly improve pharmacokinetics, allow retention of activity, alleviate immunogenicity, and avoid modification isomers. Specifically, through molecular engineering of a therapeutic protein, accessible essential residues reactive to an activated PEG derivative are substituted with unreactive residues provided that protein activity is retained, and a limited number of accessible nonessential reactive residues with optimized distributions are selected/introduced. Subsequently, all accessible nonessential reactive residues are completely PEGylated with the activated PEG derivative in great excess. Branched PEG derivatives containing new PEG chains with negligible metabolic toxicity are more desirable for site-specific PEGylation. Accordingly, for the successful formulation of therapeutic proteins, optimization of the number and distributions of accessible nonessential reactive residues via molecular engineering can be integrated with the design of large-sized PEG derivatives to achieve site-specific PEGylation of all selected/engineered accessible reactive residues.

  19. Differential modulation of prM cleavage, extracellular particle distribution, and virus infectivity by conserved residues at nonfurin consensus positions of the dengue virus pr-M junction.

    PubMed

    Junjhon, Jiraphan; Lausumpao, Matthawee; Supasa, Sunpetchuda; Noisakran, Sansanee; Songjaeng, Adisak; Saraithong, Prakaimuk; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Keelapang, Poonsook; Kanjanahaluethai, Amornrat; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Malasit, Prida; Sittisombut, Nopporn

    2008-11-01

    In the generation of flavivirus particles, an internal cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein prM by furin is required for the acquisition of infectivity. Unlike cleavage of the prM of other flaviviruses, cleavage of dengue virus prM is incomplete in many cell lines; the partial cleavage reflects the influence of residues at furin nonconsensus positions of the pr-M junction, as flaviviruses share basic residues at positions P1, P2, and P4, recognized by furin. In this study, viruses harboring the alanine-scanning and other multiple-point mutations of the pr-M junction were generated, employing a dengue virus background that exhibited 60 to 70% prM cleavage and a preponderance of virion-sized extracellular particles. Analysis of prM and its cleavage products in viable mutants revealed a cleavage-suppressive effect at the conserved P3 Glu residue, as well as the cleavage-augmenting effects at the P5 Arg and P6 His residues, indicating an interplay between opposing modulatory influences mediated by these residues on the cleavage of the pr-M junction. Changes in the prM cleavage level were associated with altered proportions of extracellular virions and subviral particles; mutants with reduced cleavage were enriched with subviral particles and prM-containing virions, whereas the mutant with enhanced cleavage was deprived of these particles. Alterations of virus multiplication were detected in mutants with reduced prM cleavage and were correlated with their low specific infectivities. These findings define the functional roles of charged residues located adjacent to the furin consensus sequence in the cleavage of dengue virus prM and provide plausible mechanisms by which the reduction in the pr-M junction cleavability may affect virus replication.

  20. Tri-peptide reference structures for the calculation of relative solvent accessible surface area in protein amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Topham, Christopher M; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-02-01

    Relative amino acid residue solvent accessibility values allow the quantitative comparison of atomic solvent-accessible surface areas in different residue types and physical environments in proteins and in protein structural alignments. Geometry-optimised tri-peptide structures in extended solvent-exposed reference conformations have been obtained for 43 amino acid residue types at a high level of quantum chemical theory. Significant increases in side-chain solvent accessibility, offset by reductions in main-chain atom solvent exposure, were observed for standard residue types in partially geometry-optimised structures when compared to non-minimised models built from identical sets of proper dihedral angles abstracted from the literature. Optimisation of proper dihedral angles led most notably to marked increases of up to 54% in proline main-chain atom solvent accessibility compared to literature values. Similar effects were observed for fully-optimised tri-peptides in implicit solvent. The relief of internal strain energy was associated with systematic variation in N, C(α) and C(β) atom solvent accessibility across all standard residue types. The results underline the importance of optimisation of 'hard' degrees of freedom (bond lengths and valence bond angles) and improper dihedral angle values from force field or other context-independent reference values, and impact on the use of standardised fixed internal co-ordinate geometry in sampling approaches to the determination of absolute values of protein amino acid residue solvent accessibility. Quantum chemical methods provide a useful and accurate alternative to molecular mechanics methods to perform energy minimisation of peptides containing non-standard (chemically modified) amino acid residues frequently present in experimental protein structure data sets, for which force field parameters may not be available. Reference tri-peptide atomic co-ordinate sets including hydrogen atoms are made freely available.

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved amino acids in the alpha subunit of toluene dioxygenase: potential mononuclear non-heme iron coordination sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, H; Parales, R E; Lynch, N A; Gibson, D T

    1996-01-01

    The terminal oxygenase component of toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1 is an iron-sulfur protein (ISP(TOL)) that requires mononuclear iron for enzyme activity. Alignment of all available predicted amino acid sequences for the large (alpha) subunits of terminal oxygenases showed a conserved cluster of potential mononuclear iron-binding residues. These were between amino acids 210 and 230 in the alpha subunit (TodC1) of ISP(TOL). The conserved amino acids, Glu-214, Asp-219, Tyr-221, His-222, and His-228, were each independently replaced with an alanine residue by site-directed mutagenesis. Tyr-266 in TodC1, which has been suggested as an iron ligand, was treated in an identical manner. To assay toluene dioxygenase activity in the presence of TodC1 and its mutant forms, conditions for the reconstitution of wild-type ISP(TOL) activity from TodC1 and purified TodC2 (beta subunit) were developed and optimized. A mutation at Glu-214, Asp-219, His-222, or His-228 completely abolished toluene dioxygenase activity. TodC1 with an alanine substitution at either Tyr-221 or Tyr-266 retained partial enzyme activity (42 and 12%, respectively). In experiments with [14C]toluene, the two Tyr-->Ala mutations caused a reduction in the amount of Cis-[14C]-toluene dihydrodiol formed, whereas a mutation at Glu-214, Asp-219, His-222, or His-228 eliminated cis-toluene dihydrodiol formation. The expression level of all of the mutated TWO proteins was equivalent to that of wild-type TodC1 as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses. These results, in conjunction with the predicted amino acid sequences of 22 oxygenase components, suggest that the conserved motif Glu-X3-4,-Asp-X2-His-X4-5-His is critical for catalytic function and the glutamate, aspartate, and histidine residues may act as mononuclear iron ligands at the site of oxygen activation. PMID:8655491

  2. Histone-dependent IgG conservation in octanoic acid precipitation and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Toh, Phyllicia; Sun, Yue; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Hoi, Aina; Xian, Mo; Zhang, Haibo; Nian, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-12-01

    Octanoic acid (OA) precipitation has long been used in protein purification. Recently, we reported a new cell culture clarification method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) purification, employing an advance elimination of chromatin heteroaggregates with a hybrid OA-solid phase system. This treatment reduced DNA more than 3 logs, histone below the detection limit (LOD), and non-histone host cell proteins (nh-HCP) by 90 % while conserving more than 90 % of the IgG monomer. In this study, we further investigated the conservation of IgG monomer and antibody light chain (LC) to the addition of OA/OA-solid phase complex, with or without histone and DNA in different combinations. The results showed that highly basic histone protein was the prime target in OA/OA-solid phase precipitation system for IgG purification, and the selective conservation of IgG monomer in this system was histone dependent. Our findings partially support the idea that OA works by sticking to electropositive hydrophobic domains on proteins, reducing their solubility, and causing them to agglomerate into large particles that precipitate from solution. Our findings also provide a new perspective for IgG purification and emphasize the necessity to re-examine the roles of various host contaminants in IgG purification.

  3. Amino acid residues of bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 that determine sensitivity in primates to β-glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiroo; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Sakurai, Takanobu; Yin, Lijie; Pan, Wenshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids responsible for the difference in sensitivities of TAS2R16s of various primates using a cultured cell expression system. We found that the sensitivity of TAS2R16 varied due to several amino acid residues. Mutation of amino acid residues at E86T, L247M, and V260F in human and langur TAS2R16 for mimicking the macaque TAS2R16 decreased the sensitivity of the receptor in an additive manner, which suggests its contribution to the potency of salicin, possibly via direct interaction. However, mutation of amino acid residues 125 and 133 in human TAS2R16, which are situated in helix 4, to the macaque sequence increased the sensitivity of the receptor. These results suggest the possibility that bitter taste sensitivities evolved independently by replacing specific amino acid residues of TAS2Rs in different primate species to adapt to species-specific food. PMID:27924271

  4. SeqX: a tool to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Jan C; Fördös, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    Background The interacting residues of protein and nucleic acid sequences are close to each other – they are co-located. Structure databases (like Protein Data Bank, PDB and Nucleic Acid Data Bank, NDB) contain all information about these co-locations; however it is not an easy task to penetrate this complex information. We developed a JAVA tool, called SeqX for this purpose. Results SeqX tool is useful to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. The user a. selects a structure from PDB; b. chooses an atom that is commonly present in every residues of the nucleic acid and/or protein structure(s) c. defines a distance from these atoms (3–15 Å). The SeqX tool detects every residue that is located within the defined distances from the defined "backbone" atom(s); provides a DotPlot-like visualization (Residues Contact Map), and calculates the frequency of every possible residue pairs (Residue Contact Table) in the observed structure. It is possible to exclude +/- 1 to 10 neighbor residues in the same polymeric chain from detection, which greatly improves the specificity of detections (up to 60% when tested on dsDNA). Results obtained on protein structures showed highly significant correlations with results obtained from literature (p < 0.0001, n = 210, four different subsets). The co-location frequency of physico-chemically compatible amino acids is significantly higher than is calculated and expected in random protein sequences (p < 0.0001, n = 80). Conclusion The tool is simple and easy to use and provides a quick and reliable visualization and analyses of residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. Availability and requirements SeqX, Java J2SE Runtime Environment 5.0 (available from [see Additional file 1] ) and at least a 1 GHz processor and with a minimum 256 Mb RAM. Source codes are available from the authors. PMID:16011796

  5. Leaching and selective zinc recovery from acidic leachates of zinc metallurgical leach residues.

    PubMed

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Jain, Rohan; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2017-02-15

    Zinc (Zn) leaching yields and kinetics from three different zinc plant leach residues (ZLR) generated in different periods (ZLR1>30 years, ZLR2 5-30 years and ZLR3<2 years) were investigated. The factors affecting the Zn leaching rate such as solid to liquid ratio, temperature, acid concentration and agitation were optimized. Under optimum conditions, 46.2 (±4.3), 23.3 (±2.7) and 17.6 (±1.2) mg of Zn can be extracted per gram of ZLR1, ZLR2 and ZLR3, respectively. The Zn leaching kinetics of ZLRs follow the shrinking core diffusion model. The activation energy required to leach Zn from ZLR1, ZLR2 and ZLR3 were estimated to be 2.24kcal/mol, 6.63kcal/mol and 11.7kcal/mol, respectively, by the Arrhenius equation. The order of the reaction with respect to the sulfuric acid concentration was also determined as 0.20, 0.56, and 0.87 for ZLR1, ZLR2 and ZLR3, respectively. Zn was selectively recovered from the leachates by adjusting the initial pH and by the addition of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. More than 90% of Zn was selectively recovered as sphalerite from the ZLR polymetallic leachates by chemical sulfide precipitation.

  6. Evidence for pentagalloyl glucose binding to human salivary alpha-amylase through aromatic amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Zajácz, Agnes; Bécsi, Bálint; Ragunath, Chandran; Ramasubbu, Narayanan; Erdodi, Ferenc; Batta, Gyula; Kandra, Lili

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate here that pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), a main component of gallotannins, was an effective inhibitor of HSA and it exerted similar inhibitory potency to Aleppo tannin used in this study. The inhibition of HSA by PGG was found to be non-competitive and inhibitory constants of K(EI)=2.6 microM and K(ESI)=3.9 microM were determined from Lineweaver-Burk secondary plots. PGG as a model compound for gallotannins was selected to study the inhibitory mechanism and to characterize the interaction of HSA with this type of molecules. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding experiments confirmed the direct interaction of HSA and PGG, and it also established similar binding of Aleppo tannin to HSA. Saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment by NMR clearly demonstrated the aromatic rings of PGG may be involved in the interaction suggesting a possible stacking with the aromatic side chains of HSA. The role of aromatic amino acids of HSA in PGG binding was reinforced by kinetic studies with the W58L and Y151M mutants of HSA: the replacement of the active site aromatic amino acids with aliphatic ones decreased the PGG inhibition dramatically, which justified the importance of these residues in the interaction.

  7. Computational analysis of perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV) from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV), finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV) in three countries, provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV, which has caused global panic to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, the causal agent of the self-limiting Dengue fever and the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, has been a scourge in tropical countries for many centuries. The recently solved structure of mature ZIKV (PDB ID:5IRE) has provided key insights into the structure of the envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins, the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E) protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc.) (MEPPitope). These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes, and also enumerates residue pairs that undergo significant polarity reversal. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288) that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40), with little

  8. Quantitative assessment of the preferences for the amino acid residues flanking archaeal N-linked glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-05-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of an oligosaccharide to an asparagine residue in polypeptide chains. Using positional scanning peptide libraries, we assessed the effects of amino acid variations on the in vitro glycosylation efficiency within and adjacent to an N-glycosylation consensus, Asn-X-Ser/Thr, with an archaeal OST from Pyrococcus furiosus. The amino acid variations at the X(-2), X(-1) and X(+1) positions in the sequence X(-2)-X(-1)-Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X(+1) strongly influenced the glycosylation efficiency to a similar extent at position X. The rank orders of the amino acid preferences were unique at each site. We experimentally confirmed that the archaeal OST does not require an acidic residue at the -2 position, unlike the eubacterial OSTs. Pro was disfavored at the -1 and +1 positions, although the exclusion was not as strict as that at X, whereas Pro was the most favored amino acid residue among those studied at the -2 position. The overall amino acid preferences are correlated with a conformational propensity to extend around the sequon. The results of the library experiments revealed that the optimal acceptor sequence was PYNVTK, with a K(m) of 10 µM. The heat-stable, single-subunit OST of P. furiosus is a potential candidate enzyme for the production of recombinant glycoproteins in bacterial cells. Quantitative assessment of the amino acid preferences of the OST enzyme will facilitate the proper design of a production system.

  9. A conserved proline residue in the leucine zipper region of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 in Arabidopsis thaliana interferes with the formation of homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Huaishun; Cao Kaiming; Wang Xiping

    2007-10-19

    Two putative Arabidopsis E group bZIP transcript factors, AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61, are nuclear-localized and their transcriptional activation domain is in their N-terminal region. By searching GenBank, we found other eight plant homologues of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61. All of them have a proline residue in the third heptad of zipper region. Yeast two-hybrid assay and EMSA showed that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could not form homodimer while their mutant forms, AtbZIP34m and AtbZIP61m, which the proline residue was replaced by an alanine residue in the zipper region, could form homodimer and bind G-box element. These results suggest that the conserved proline residue interferes with the homodimer formation. However, both AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could form heterodimers with members of I group and S group transcription factors in which some members involved in vascular development. So we speculate that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 may participate in plant development via interacting with other group bZIP transcription factors.

  10. CS(2) blinds in Brassica crops: false positive results in the dithiocarbamate residue analysis by the acid digestion method.

    PubMed

    Perz, R C; van Lishaut, H; Schwack, W

    2000-03-01

    Various members of the Brassicaceae family (cauliflower, savoy cabbage, red cabbage, turnip-rooted cabbage) grown without any application of pesticides were analyzed according to the acid digestion method commonly used for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues. Depending on postharvest treatments, high non-anthropogenic CS(2) values up to 4 mg/kg were found in some cases, especially in frozen raw cabbage samples, exceeding maximum residue limits. To explore phytogenic CS(2) occurrences, two model substances (phenylisothiocyanate and methyl tryptaminedithiocarbamate) representing natural mustard oils and brassinines, respectively, were analyzed for their acid hydrolysis decomposition products. In both cases, COS was found generally, but CS(2) was readily formed during acid digestion, too, when sulfides were present. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that CS(2) values determined by using the acid digestion method of crops rich in secondary metabolism sulfur compounds have to be interpreted carefully.

  11. Identification of amino acid residues involved in heme binding and hemoprotein utilization in the Porphyromonas gingivalis heme receptor HmuR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyan; Olczak, Teresa; Guo, Hwai-Chen; Dixon, Dabney W; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2006-02-01

    We have previously identified and characterized a heme/hemoglobin receptor, HmuR, in Porphyromonas gingivalis. To analyze the conserved amino acid residues of HmuR that may be involved in hemin/hemoprotein binding and utilization, we constructed a series of P. gingivalis A7436 hmuR mutants with amino acid replacements and characterized the ability of these mutants to utilize hemin and hemoproteins. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to introduce mutations H95A, H434A, H95A-H434A, YRAP420-423YAAA, and NPDL442-445NAAA into HmuR in both P. gingivalis and Escherichia coli. Point mutations at H95 and H434 and in the NPDL motif of HmuR resulted in decreased binding to hemin, hemoglobin, and human serum albumin-hemin complex. Notably, mutations of these conserved sites and motifs led to reduced growth of P. gingivalis when human serum was used as the heme source. Analysis using a three-dimensional homology model of HmuR indicated that H95, H434, and the NPDL motif are present on apical or extracellular loops of HmuR, while the YRAP motif is present on the barrel wall. Taken together, these results support a role for H95, H434, and the NPDL motif of the P. gingivalis HmuR protein in heme binding and utilization of serum hemoproteins and the HmuR YRAP motif in serum hemoprotein utilization.

  12. Heavily fractionated noble gases in an acid residue from the Klein Glacier 98300 EH3 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; El Goresy, Ahmed; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2010-09-01

    Noble gases were measured both in bulk samples (stepped pyrolysis and total extraction) and in a HF/HCl residue (stepped pyrolysis and combustion) from the Klein Glacier (KLE) 98300 EH3 chondrite. Like the bulk meteorite and as seen in previous studies of bulk type 3 E chondrites ("sub-Q"), the acid residue contains elementally fractionated primordial noble gases. As we show here, isotopically these are like those in phase-Q of primitive meteorites, but elementally they are heavily fractionated relative to these. The observed noble gases are different from "normal" Q noble gases also with respect to release patterns, which are similar to those of Ar-rich noble gases in anhydrous carbonaceous chondrites and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (with also similar isotopic compositions). While we cannot completely rule out a role for parent body processes such as thermal and shock metamorphism (including a later thermal event) in creating the fractionated elemental compositions, parent body processes in general seem not be able to account for the distinct release patterns from those of normal Q noble gases. The fractionated gases may have originated from ion implantation from a nebular plasma as has been suggested for other types of primordial noble gases, including Q, Ar-rich, and ureilite noble gases. With solar starting composition, the corresponding effective electron temperature is about 5000 K. This is lower than inferred for other primordial noble gases (10,000-6000 K). Thus, if ion implantation from a solar composition reservoir was a common process for the acquisition of primordial gas, electron temperatures in the early solar system must have varied spatially or temporally between 10,000 and 5000 K. Neon and xenon isotopic ratios of the residue suggest the presence of presolar silicon carbide and diamond in abundances lower than in the Qingzhen EH3 and Indarch EH4 chondrites. Parent body processes including thermal and shock metamorphism and a late thermal

  13. Effect of ferrous sulfate and nitrohumic acid neutralization on the leaching of metals from a combined bauxite residue.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiaolian; Li, Fasheng; Du, Ping

    2017-02-23

    Bauxite residue neutralization is intended to open opportunities for revegetation and reuse of the residue. Ferrous sulfate (FS) and nitrohumic acid (NA) were two kinds of materials studied for pH reduction of the residue from 10.6 to 8.3 and 8.1, respectively. The effects of FS and NA on the leaching of metals from a combined bauxite residue were investigated by using sequential and multiple extraction procedures. Neutralization with FS and NA restricted the leaching of Al, V, and Pb from the residue but promoted the leaching of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni, consistent with the changes in the potentially mobile fractions. With the exceptions of Pb and Ni, leaching of metals increased during a 10-day extraction period. However, the maximum leaching of Al, V, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni from neutralized bauxite residue were 0.46 mg/L, 59.3, 12.9, 167, 95.3, 15.5, and 14.5 μg/L, respectively, which were under the corresponding limits in the National Standard (GB/T 14848-93). Although it is necessary to consider the continued leaching of metals during neutralization, both maximum and accumulation leaching concentrations of metals from a combined bauxite residue were too low to pose a potential environmental risk.

  14. The Chinese hamster Alu-equivalent sequence: a conserved highly repetitious, interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in mammals has a structure suggestive of a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Toomey, T P; Leinwand, L; Jelinek, W R

    1981-01-01

    A consensus sequence has been determined for a major interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid repeat in the genome of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells). This sequence is extensively homologous to (i) the human Alu sequence (P. L. Deininger et al., J. Mol. Biol., in press), (ii) the mouse B1 interspersed repetitious sequence (Krayev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1201-1215, 1980) (iii) an interspersed repetitious sequence from African green monkey deoxyribonucleic acid (Dhruva et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:4514-4518, 1980) and (iv) the CHO and mouse 4.5S ribonucleic acid (this report; F. Harada and N. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1273-1285, 1980). Because the CHO consensus sequence shows significant homology to the human Alu sequence it is termed the CHO Alu-equivalent sequence. A conserved structure surrounding CHO Alu-equivalent family members can be recognized. It is similar to that surrounding the human Alu and the mouse B1 sequences, and is represented as follows: direct repeat-CHO-Alu-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. A composite interspersed repetitious sequence has been identified. Its structure is represented as follows: direct repeat-residue 47 to 107 of CHO-Alu-non-Alu repetitious sequence-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. Because the Alu flanking sequences resemble those that flank known transposable elements, we think it likely that the Alu sequence dispersed throughout the mammalian genome by transposition. Images PMID:9279371

  15. Neutralization of acidic residues in helix II stabilizes the folded conformation of acyl carrier protein and variably alters its function with different enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huansheng; Murphy, Anne; McMaster, Christopher R; Byers, David M

    2007-02-16

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP), a small protein essential for bacterial growth and pathogenesis, interacts with diverse enzymes during the biosynthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, and other specialized products such as lipid A. NMR and hydrodynamic studies have previously shown that divalent cations stabilize native helical ACP conformation by binding to conserved acidic residues at two sites (A and B) at either end of the "recognition" helix II. To examine the roles of these amino acids in ACP structure and function, site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace individual site A (Asp-30, Asp-35, Asp-38) and site B (Glu-47, Glu-53, Asp-56) residues in recombinant Vibrio harveyi ACP with the corresponding amides, along with combined mutations at each site (SA, SB) or both sites (SA/SB). Like native V. harveyi ACP, all individual mutants were unfolded at neutral pH but adopted a helical conformation in the presence of millimolar Mg(2+) or upon fatty acylation. Mg(2+) binding to sites A or B independently stabilized native ACP conformation, whereas mutant SA/SB was folded in the absence of Mg(2+), suggesting that charge neutralization is largely responsible for ACP stabilization by divalent cations. Asp-35 in site A was critical for holo-ACP synthase activity, while acyl-ACP synthetase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) activities were more affected by mutations in site B. Both sites were required for fatty acid synthase activity. Overall, our results indicate that divalent cation binding site mutations have predicted effects on ACP conformation but unpredicted and variable consequences on ACP function with different enzymes.

  16. Functional analysis of an inosine-guanosine transporter from Leishmania donovani. The role of conserved residues, aspartate 389 and arginine 393.

    PubMed

    Arastu-Kapur, Shirin; Ford, Ethan; Ullman, Buddy; Carter, Nicola S

    2003-08-29

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters encompass two conserved, charged residues that occur within predicted transmembrane domain 8. To assess the role of these "signature" residues in transporter function, the Asp389 and Arg393 residues within the LdNT2 nucleoside transporter from Leishmania donovani were mutated and the resultant phenotypes evaluated after transfection into Delta ldnt2 parasites. Whereas an R393K mutant retained transporter activity similar to that of wild type LdNT2, the R393L, D389E, and D389N mutations resulted in dramatic losses of transport capability. Tagging the wild type and mutant ldnt2 proteins with green fluorescent protein demonstrated that the D389N and D389E mutants targeted properly to the parasite cell surface and flagellum, whereas the expression of R393L at the cell surface was profoundly compromised. To test whether Asp389 and Arg393 interact, a series of mutants was generated, D389R/R393R, D389D/R393D, and D389R/R393D, within the green fluorescent protein-tagged LdNT2 construct. Although all of these ldnt2 mutants were transport-deficient, D389R/R393D localized properly to the plasma membrane, while neither D389R/R393R nor D389D/R393D could be detected. Moreover, a transport-incompetent D389N/R393N double ldnt2 mutant also localized to the parasite membrane, whereas a D389L/R393L ldnt2 mutant did not, suggesting that an interaction between residues 389 and 393 may be involved in LdNT2 membrane targeting. These studies establish genetically that Asp389 is critical for optimal transporter function and that a positively charged or polar residue at Arg393 is essential for proper expression of LdNT2 at the plasma membrane.

  17. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-02-15

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites.

  18. Peculiar patterns of amino acid substitution and conservation in the fast evolving tunicate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Berná, Luisa; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the patterns and rates of amino acid evolution in tunicates with special interest on the extremely fast evolving Oikopleura dioica. We show that this species, on average, is twice as fast as the already fast evolving Ciona intestinalis. The acceleration in both species seems to be affected by similar evolutionary forces yet to different extent, since a substantial proportion of the most and less accelerated genes are orthologous between the two species. Among the possible causes that underlie the genome wide acceleration in Oikopleura, relaxation of functional constraints appears to be an important one, since all amino acids exhibit surprisingly homogenous levels of divergence. Such homogeneity, however, is not observed in Ciona. Apart from the genome wide acceleration, detailed analysis of functional groups of genes revealed that genes associated with regulatory functions (transcription regulators, chromatin remodeling proteins and metabolic regulators), have been subjected to an even more extreme process of acceleration, suggesting that adaptive evolution is the most probable cause of their unusual exacerbated rates. Another remarkable observation is that cysteine is among the less conserved amino acids, contrary to what is commonly observed in other species. The possible causes of this particular behavior are discussed.

  19. D-amino acid residue in a defensin-like peptide from platypus venom: effect on structure and chromatographic properties.

    PubMed

    Torres, Allan M; Tsampazi, Chryssanthi; Geraghty, Dominic P; Bansal, Paramjit S; Alewood, Paul F; Kuchel, Philip W

    2005-10-15

    The recent discovery that the natriuretic peptide OvCNPb (Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide B) from platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) venom contains a D-amino acid residue suggested that other D-amino-acid-containing peptides might be present in the venom. In the present study, we show that DLP-2 (defensin-like peptide-2), a 42-amino-acid residue polypeptide in the platypus venom, also contains a D-amino acid residue, D-methionine, at position 2, while DLP-4, which has an identical amino acid sequence, has all amino acids in the L-form. These findings were supported further by the detection of isomerase activity in the platypus gland venom extract that converts DLP-4 into DLP-2. In the light of this new information, the tertiary structure of DLP-2 was recalculated using a new structural template with D-Met2. The structure of DLP-4 was also determined in order to evaluate the effect of a D-amino acid at position 2 on the structure and possibly to explain the large retention time difference observed for the two molecules in reverse-phase HPLC. The solution structures of the DLP-2 and DLP-4 are very similar to each other and to the earlier reported structure of DLP-2, which assumed that all amino acids were in the L-form. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the D-amino acid at position 2 has minimal effect on the overall fold in solution.

  20. Evolution of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Flaveria, a conserved serine residue in the carboxyl-terminal part of the enzyme is a major determinant for C4-specific characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, O E; Westhoff, P; Svensson, P

    2000-09-08

    C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases have evolved from ancestral C3 isoforms during the evolution of angiosperms and gained distinct kinetic and regulatory properties compared with the C3 isozymes. To identify amino acid residues and/or domains responsible for these C4-specific properties the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Flaveria trinervia (C4) was compared with its orthologue in the closely related C3 plant Flaveria pringlei. Reciprocal enzyme chimera were constructed and the kinetic constants, K(0.5) and k(cat), as well as the Hill coefficient, h, were determined for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate both in the presence and absence of the activator glucose 6-phosphate. By this approach two regions were identified which determined most of the kinetic differences of the C4 and C3 ppcA phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases with respect to the substrate PEP. In addition, the experiments suggest that the two regions do not act additively but interact with each other. The region between amino acids 296 and 437 is essential for activation by glucose 6-phosphate. The carboxyl-terminal segment between amino acids 645 and 966 contains a C4 conserved serine or a C3 invariant alanine at position 774 in the respective enzyme isoform. Site-directed mutagenesis shows that this position is a key determinant for the kinetic properties of the two isozymes.

  1. The requirement of the glutamic acid residue at the third position from the carboxyl termini of the laminin gamma chains in integrin binding by laminins.

    PubMed

    Ido, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Aya; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ito, Shunsuke; Li, Shaoliang; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2007-04-13

    Laminins are the major cell-adhesive proteins in the basement membrane, consisting of three subunits termed alpha, beta, and gamma. The putative binding site for integrins has been mapped to the G domain of the alpha chain, although trimerization with beta and gamma chains is necessary for the G domain to exert its integrin binding activity. The mechanism underlying the requirement of beta and gamma chains in integrin binding by laminins remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of the gamma chain is involved in modulation of the integrin binding activity of laminins. We found that deletion of the C-terminal three but not two amino acids within the gamma1 chain completely abrogated the integrin binding activity of laminin-511. Furthermore, substitution of Gln for Glu-1607, the amino acid residue at the third position from the C terminus of the gamma1 chain, also abolished the integrin binding activity, underscoring the role of Glu-1607 in integrin binding by the laminin. We also found that the conserved Glu residue of the gamma2 chain is necessary for integrin binding by laminin-332, suggesting that the same mechanism operates in the modulation of the integrin binding activity of laminins containing either gamma1 or gamma2 chains. However, the peptide segment modeled after the C-terminal region of gamma1 chain was incapable of either binding to integrin or inhibiting integrin binding by laminin-511, making it unlikely that the Glu residue is directly recognized by integrin. These results, together, indicate a novel mechanism operating in ligand recognition by laminin binding integrins.

  2. SucStruct: Prediction of succinylated lysine residues by using structural properties of amino acids.

    PubMed

    López, Yosvany; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Michaelson, Jacob; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2017-03-28

    Post-Translational Modification (PTM) is a biological reaction which contributes to diversify the proteome. Despite many modifications with important roles in the cellular activity, lysine succinylation has recently emerged as an important PTM mark. It alters the chemical structure of lysines, leading to remarkable changes in the structure and function of proteins. Given the huge amount of proteins being sequenced in the post-genome era, the experimental detection of succinylated residues remains expensive, inefficient and time-consuming. Therefore, the development of computational tools for accurately predicting succinylated lysines is an urgent necessity. To date, several approaches have been proposed but their sensitivity has been reportedly poor. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes structural features of amino acids to improve lysine succinylation prediction. Succinylated and non-succinylated lysines were first retrieved from 670 proteins and characteristics such as accessible surface area, backbone torsion angles, and local structure conformations were incorporated. We used the k-nearest neighbors cleaning for dealing with class imbalance and designed a pruned decision tree for classification. Our predictor, referred as SucStruct (Succinylation using Structural features), proved to significantly improve performance when compared to previous predictors, with sensitivity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient equal to 0.7334-0.7946, 0.7444-0.7608 and 0.4884-0.5240, respectively.

  3. Peptide bond formation does not involve acid-base catalysis by ribosomal residues.

    PubMed

    Bieling, Peter; Beringer, Malte; Adio, Sarah; Rodnina, Marina V

    2006-05-01

    Ribosomes catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between aminoacyl esters of transfer RNAs within a catalytic center composed of ribosomal RNA only. Here we show that the reaction of P-site formylmethionine (fMet)-tRNA(fMet) with a modified A-site tRNA substrate, Phelac-tRNA(Phe), in which the nucleophilic amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl group, does not show the pH dependence observed with small substrate analogs such as puromycin and hydroxypuromycin. This indicates that acid-base catalysis by ribosomal residues is not important in the reaction with the full-size substrate. Rather, the ribosome catalyzes peptide bond formation by positioning the tRNAs, or their 3' termini, through interactions with rRNA that induce and/or stabilize a pH-insensitive conformation of the active site and provide a preorganized environment facilitating the reaction. The rate of peptide bond formation with unmodified Phe-tRNA(Phe) is estimated to be >300 s(-1).

  4. Biosorption of heavy metal ions onto agricultural residues buckwheat hulls functionalized with 1-hydroxylethylidenediphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Zengdi; Qu, Rongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Zhang, Jiang; Xu, Qiang

    2012-11-28

    Novel biosorbent materials obtained from agricultural residues buckwheat hulls (BH) were successfully developed through functionalization with 1-hydroxylethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP), and they were characterized. This paper reports the feasibility of using HEDP-BH for removal of heavy metals from stimulated wastewater, the experimental results revealed that the adsorption property of functionalized buckwheat hulls with 120 mesh 120-HEDP-BH for Au(III) was very excellent, and the monolayer maximum adsorption capacity for Au(III) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm models was up to 450.45 mg/g at 35 °C. The combined effect of initial solution pH, 120-HEDP-BH dosage, and initial Au(III) concentration was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM), and the result showed that biomass dosage exerted a stronger influence on Au(III) uptake than those of initial pH and initial Au(III) concentration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the quadratic model demonstrated that the model was highly significant. Moreover, investigation on the adsorption selectivity showed that 120-HEDP-BH displayed strong affinity for gold in aqueous solutions and even exhibited 100% selectivity for Au(III) ions in the presence of Zn(II) and Co(II). Regeneration capacities of 120-HEDP-BH were studied using the eluent solutions of 0.0-5.0% thiourea in 0.1 mmol/L HCl, and it was found that the adsorption capability remains high after several cycles of adsorption-desorption process.

  5. Contribution of conserved polar glutamine, asparagine and threonine residues and glycosylation to agonist action at human P2X1 receptors for ATP.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan A; Evans, Richard J

    2006-02-01

    The role of conserved polar glutamine, asparagine and threonine residues in the large extracellular loop, and glycosylation, to agonist action at human P2X1 receptors was tested by generating alanine substitution mutants. For the majority of mutants (Q56A, Q95A, T104A, T109A, Q112A, Q114A, T146A, N153A, T158A, N184A, N191A, N242A, N300A) alanine substitution had no effect on ATP potency. The mutants Q95A, Q112A, Q114A and T158A showed changes in efficacy for the partial agonists BzATP and Ap5A, suggesting that these polar residues may contribute to the gating of the channel. The mutants T186A, N204A and N290A had six-, three- and 60-fold decreases in ATP potency, respectively. For T186A and N290A, the partial agonists BzATP and Ap5A were no longer agonists but still bind to the receptor as shown by the ability to modulate the response to co-applied ATP. N153, N184 and N242 are glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum and N300 acquires complex glycosylation in the golgi. These results aid in refining a model for ATP binding at the P2X1 receptor where the residues F185T186, and the conserved triplet N290F291R292, are likely to play a role in ATP action at the receptor.

  6. Mutation of a conserved residue enhances the sensitivity of analogue-sensitised kinases to generate a novel approach to the study of mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ye-Dee; Patel, Avinash; Kaemena, Daniel F; Hagan, Iain M

    2013-11-01

    The chemical genetic strategy in which mutational enlargement of the ATP-binding site sensitises of a protein kinase to bulky ATP analogues has proved to be an elegant tool for the generation of conditional analogue-sensitive kinase alleles in a variety of model organisms. Here, we describe a novel substitution mutation in the kinase domain that can enhance the sensitivity of analogue-sensitive kinases. Substitution of a methionine residue to phenylalanine in the +2 position after HRDLKxxN motif of the subdomain VIb within the kinase domain markedly increased the sensitivities of the analogue-sensitive kinases to ATP analogues in three out of five S. pombe kinases (i.e. Plo1, Orb5 and Wee1) that harbor this conserved methionine residue. Kinome alignment established that a methionine residue is found at this site in 5-9% of kinases in key model organisms, suggesting that a broader application of this structural modification may enhance ATP analogue sensitivity of analogue-sensitive kinases in future studies. We also show that the enhanced sensitivity of the wee1.as8 allele in a cdc25.22 background can be exploited to generate highly synchronised mitotic and S phase progression at 36°C. Proof-of-principle experiments show how this novel synchronisation technique will prove of great use in the interrogation of the mitotic or S-phase functions through temperature sensitivity mutation of molecules of interest in fission yeast.

  7. Aspartic Acid Residue D3 Critically Determines Cx50 Gap Junction Channel Transjunctional Voltage-Dependent Gating and Unitary Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Li; Nakagawa, So; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Bai, Donglin

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the aspartic acid residue (D) at the third position is critical in determining the voltage polarity of fast Vj-gating of Cx50 channels. To test whether another negatively charged residue (a glutamic acid residue, E) could fulfill the role of the D3 residue, we generated the mutant Cx50D3E. Vj-dependent gating properties of this mutant channel were characterized by double-patch-clamp recordings in N2A cells. Macroscopically, the D3E substitution reduced the residual conductance (Gmin) to near zero and outwardly shifted the half-inactivation voltage (V0), which is a result of both a reduced aggregate gating charge (z) and a reduced free-energy difference between the open and closed states. Single Cx50D3E gap junction channels showed reduced unitary conductance (γj) of the main open state, reduced open dwell time at ±40 mV, and absence of a long-lived substate. In contrast, a G8E substitution tested to compare the effects of the E residue at the third and eighth positions did not modify the Vj-dependent gating profile or γj. In summary, this study is the first that we know of to suggest that the D3 residue plays an essential role, in addition to serving as a negative-charge provider, as a critical determinant of the Vj-dependent gating sensitivity, open-closed stability, and unitary conductance of Cx50 gap junction channels. PMID:22404924

  8. Isomerization of HNO to HON in the singlet state assisted by amino acid residues and/or water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junyou; Li, Ping; Bu, Yuxiang; Wang, Weihua; Mou, Zhaoxia; Song, Rui

    The effects of amino acid residues in the presence or absence of water molecules on the isomerization of the singlet state of HNO/HON have been systematically investigated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The structural characteristics, proton transfer (PT) mechanisms, and the corresponding thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, have been discussed, respectively. All the optimized complexes have been characterized by the ring structures through the intermolecular H-bonds. The origin of the increase in N bond H stretching frequency (blue shifts) occurring in the reactants has also been investigated using the natural bonding orbital (NBO) analyses, which is mainly attributed to the decrease of the electron densities in the antibonding orbital of the N bond H bonds as well as the increase of the polarization of the N bond H bond. All the PTs proceed with the concerted mechanisms since no ionic intermediates have been located during PT processes. At the same time, the cooperative effects of amino acid residues and water molecules on the selected PT processes have been observed, where the PTs assisted solely by the selected residues cannot occur without the participation of the water molecule. Overall, the introductions of one or two water molecules are more favorable for the isomerization of HNO assisted by the amino acid residues.

  9. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct.

  10. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct. PMID:27681031

  11. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  12. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst.

  13. Direct fermentation of potato starch and potato residues to lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus under non-sterile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Smerilli, Marina; Neureiter, Markus; Wurz, Stefan; Haas, Cornelia; Frühauf, Sabine; Fuchs, Werner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lactic acid is an important biorefinery platform chemical. The use of thermophilic amylolytic microorganisms to produce lactic acid by fermentation constitutes an efficient strategy to reduce operating costs, including raw materials and sterilization costs. RESULTS A process for the thermophilic production of lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus directly from potato starch was characterized and optimized. Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 494 was selected out of 12 strains screened for amylolytic activity and the ability to form lactic acid as the major product of the anaerobic metabolism. In total more than 30 batches at 3–l scale were run at 60 °C under non-sterile conditions. The process developed produced 37 g L−1 optically pure (98%) L-lactic acid in 20 h from 50 g L−1 raw potato starch. As co-metabolites smaller amounts (<7% w/v) of acetate, formate and ethanol were formed. Yields of lactic acid increased from 66% to 81% when potato residues from food processing were used as a starchy substrate in place of raw potato starch. CONCLUSIONS Potato starch and residues were successfully converted to lactic acid by G. stearothermophilus. The process described in this study provides major benefits in industrial applications and for the valorization of starch-rich waste streams. © 2015 The Authors.Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25937690

  14. Probing the conformation of a conserved glutamic acid within the Cl(-) pathway of a CLC H(+)/Cl(-) exchanger.

    PubMed

    Vien, Malvin; Basilio, Daniel; Leisle, Lilia; Accardi, Alessio

    2017-04-03

    The CLC proteins form a broad family of anion-selective transport proteins that includes both channels and exchangers. Despite extensive structural, functional, and computational studies, the transport mechanism of the CLC exchangers remains poorly understood. Several transport models have been proposed but have failed to capture all the key features of these transporters. Multiple CLC crystal structures have suggested that a conserved glutamic acid, Gluex, can adopt three conformations and that the interconversion of its side chain between these states underlies H(+)/Cl(-) exchange. One of these states, in which Gluex occupies the central binding site (Scen) while Cl(-) ions fill the internal and external sites (Sint and Sext), has only been observed in one homologue, the eukaryotic cmCLC. The existence of such a state in other CLCs has not been demonstrated. In this study, we find that during transport, the prototypical prokaryotic CLC exchanger, CLC-ec1, adopts a conformation with functional characteristics that match those predicted for a cmCLC-like state, with Gluex trapped in Scen between two Cl(-) ions. Transport by CLC-ec1 is reduced when [Cl(-)] is symmetrically increased on both sides of the membrane and mutations that disrupt the hydrogen bonds stabilizing Gluex in Scen destabilize this trapped state. Furthermore, inhibition of transport by high [Cl(-)] is abolished in the E148A mutant, in which the Gluex side chain is removed. Collectively, our results suggest that, during the CLC transport cycle, Gluex can occupy Scen as well as the Sext position in which it has been captured crystallographically and that hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues that coordinate ion binding to Scen play a role in determining the equilibrium between these two conformations.

  15. A Mutational Analysis of the Active Site Loop Residues in cis-3-Chloroacrylic Acid Dehalogenase

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Huddleston, Jamison P.; Johnson, William H.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    cis -3-Chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (cis-CaaD) from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 and a homologue from Corynebacterium glutamicum designated Cg10062 share 34% sequence identity (54% similarity). The former catalyzes a key step in a bacterial catabolic pathway for the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, whereas the latter has no known biological activity. Although Cg10062 has the six active site residues (Pro-1, His-28, Arg-70, Arg-73, Tyr-103, Glu-114) that are critical for cis-CaaD activity, it shows only a low level cis-CaaD activity and lacks the specificity of cis-CaaD: Cg10062 processes both isomers of 3-chloroacrylate with a preference for the cis-isomer. Although the basis for these differences is unknown, a comparison of the crystal structures of the enzymes covalently modified by an adduct resulting from their incubation with the same inhibitor offers a possible explanation. A 6-residue active site loop in cis-CaaD shows a strikingly different conformation from that observed in Cg10062: the loop closes down on the active site of cis-CaaD, but not on that of Cg10062. In order to examine what this loop might contribute to cis-CaaD catalysis and specificity, the residues were changed individually to those found in Cg10062. Subsequent kinetic and mechanistic analysis suggests that the T34A mutant of cis-CaaD is more Cg10062-like. The mutant enzyme shows a 4-fold increase in Km (using cis-3-bromoacrylate), but not to the degree observed for Cg10062 (687-fold). The mutation also causes a 4-fold decrease in the burst rate (compared to the wild type cis-CaaD), whereas Cg10062 shows no burst rate. More telling is the reaction of the T34A mutant of cis-CaaD with the alternate substrate, 2,3-butadienoate. In the presence of NaBH4 and the allene, cis-CaaD is completely inactivated after one turnover due to the covalent modification of Pro-1. The same experiment with Cg10062 does not result in the covalent modification of Pro-1. The different outcomes are attributed to

  16. Mutational Studies on Resurrected Ancestral Proteins Reveal Conservation of Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences throughout Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Valeria A.; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Local protein interactions (“molecular context” effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  17. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dennis S.; Calandria, Jorgelina M.; Gordon, William C.; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M.; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J.; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells’ functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1−/− mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1−/− mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1−/− reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  18. Identification of amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of mammalian membrane-bound front-end fatty acid desaturases[S

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenshi; Ohno, Makoto; Taguchi, Masahiro; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound desaturases are physiologically and industrially important enzymes that are involved in the production of diverse fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives. Here, we identified amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of rat Δ6 desaturase (D6d) acting on linoleoyl-CoA by comparing its amino acid sequence with that of Δ5 desaturase (D5d), which converts dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-CoA. The N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain was excluded as a determinant by domain swapping analysis. Substitution of eight amino acid residues (Ser209, Asn211, Arg216, Ser235, Leu236, Trp244, Gln245, and Val344) of D6d with the corresponding residues of D5d by site-directed mutagenesis switched the substrate specificity from linoleoyl-CoA to dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-CoA. In addition, replacement of Leu323 of D6d with Phe323 on the basis of the amino acid sequence of zebra fish Δ5/6 bifunctional desaturase was found to render D6d bifunctional. Homology modeling of D6d using recent crystal structure data of human stearoyl-CoA (Δ9) desaturase revealed that Arg216, Trp244, Gln245, and Leu323 are located near the substrate-binding pocket. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the structural basis of the substrate specificity of a mammalian front-end fatty acid desaturase, which will aid in efficient production of value-added fatty acids. PMID:26590171

  19. Amino acid sequence requirements at residues 69 and 238 for the SME-1 beta-lactamase to confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics have been used to counteract resistant strains of bacteria harboring beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Four enzymes from the class A group of beta-lactamases, NMC-A, IMI-1, SME-1, and KPC-1, efficiently hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Sequence comparisons and structural information indicate that cysteines at amino acid residues 69 and 238, which are conserved in all four of these enzymes, form a disulfide bond that is unique to these beta-lactamases. To test whether this disulfide bond is required for catalytic activity, the codons for residues Cys69 and Cys238 were randomized individually and simultaneously by PCR-based mutagenesis to create random replacement libraries for these positions. Mutants that were able to confer resistance to ampicillin, imipenem, or cefotaxime were selected from these libraries. The results indicate that positions Cys69 and Cys238 are critical for hydrolysis of all of the antibiotics tested, suggesting that the disulfide bond is generally required for this enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics.

  20. T Cell Determinants Incorporating [beta]-Amino Acid Residues Are Protease Resistant and Remain Immunogenic In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Andrew I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Price, Jason D.; Kauwe, Andreade; Chen, Weisan; Oakley, Aaron; Perlmutter, Patrick; McCluskey, James; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Rossjohn, Jamie; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2010-07-20

    A major hurdle in designing successful epitope-based vaccines resides in the delivery, stability, and immunogenicity of the peptide immunogen. The short-lived nature of unmodified peptide-based vaccines in vivo limits their therapeutic application in the immunotherapy of cancers and chronic viral infections as well as their use in generating prophylactic immunity. The incorporation of {beta}-amino acids into peptides decreases proteolysis, yet its potential application in the rational design of T cell mimotopes is poorly understood. To address this, we have replaced each residue of the SIINFEKL epitope individually with the corresponding {beta}-amino acid and examined the resultant efficacy of these mimotopes. Some analogs displayed similar MHC binding and superior protease stability compared with the native epitope. Importantly, these analogs were able to generate cross-reactive CTLs in vivo that were capable of lysing tumor cells that expressed the unmodified epitope as a surrogate tumor Ag. Structural analysis of peptides in which anchor residues were substituted with {beta}-amino acids revealed the basis for enhanced MHC binding and retention of immunogenicity observed for these analogs and paves the way for future vaccine design using {beta}-amino acids. We conclude that the rational incorporation of {beta}-amino acids into T cell determinants is a powerful alternative to the traditional homologous substitution of randomly chosen naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids, and these mimotopes may prove particularly useful for inclusion in epitope-based vaccines.

  1. Residual cadmium forms in acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, R.E.; Logan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus and lime additions after acid extraction on residual Cd solubility and chemical forms in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. High Cd content anaerobically digested sewage sludge was aerated and then acidified to pH 2 to solubilize Cd. After 18 h of acidification, the sludge was dewatered and the supernatant and solids separated. Seventy or more percent of the Cd was removed from the solids. Similar amounts of Ni, Mn and Zn were also removed, but Cu removal was only 26% and that of Pb was < 5%. Before liming the sludge was amended with rock phosphate (RP) or monocalcium phosphate (MCP). The RP was insoluble while MCP dissolved, providing a high level of phosphate ligand for Cd precipitation or coprecipitation. Estimated sludge solution solubility products for major Fe, Al and Ca phosphates showed that several of these minerals could have precipitated with P addition, especially with MCP, and Cd may have coprecipitated with these solid phases. Cadmium phosphate may also have been formed in the MCP sludge. Chemical fractionation indicated that 50% of the Cd in the aerated unextracted sludge existed as inorganic precipitates with another 40% Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ extractable. Acidification solubilized 98% of the inorganic Cd and 86% of the organically bound Cd. Seventy-nine percent of the Cd remaining in the dewatered acidified sludge was in the KNO/sub 3/ extractable (exchangeable) fraction. Liming redistributed the Cd with 13 to 19% as inorganic precipitates, 70 to 85% organically bound and < 3% in the exchangeable fraction. Phosphate addition had no significant effect on Cd fractionation.

  2. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  3. Identification of amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867.

    PubMed

    Chua, C H; Feng, Y; Yeo, C C; Khoo, H E; Poh, C L

    2001-10-16

    Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO, EC 1.13.11.4) is a ring cleavage enzyme that utilizes gentisate as a substrate yielding maleylpyruvate as the ring fission product. Mutant GDOs were generated by both random mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis of the gene cloned from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867. Alignment of known GDO sequences indicated the presence of a conserved central core region. Mutations generated within this central core resulted in the complete loss of enzyme activity whereas mutations in the flanking regions yielded GDOs with enzyme activities that were reduced by up to 78%. Site-directed mutagenesis was also performed on a pair of highly conserved HRH and HXH motifs found within this core region. Conversion of these His residues to Asp resulted in the complete loss of catalytic activity. Mutagenesis within the core region could have affected quaternary structure formation as well as cofactor binding. A mutant enzyme with increased catalytic activities was also characterized.

  4. Localization of key amino acid residues in the dominant conformational epitopes on thyroid peroxidase recognized by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Marlena; Czarnocka, Barbara; Gora, Monika

    2012-09-01

    Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the major target autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases, recognize conformational epitopes limited to two immunodominant regions (IDRs) termed IDR-A and -B. The apparent restricted heterogeneity of TPO autoantibodies was discovered using TPO-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and later confirmed by human recombinant Fabs. In earlier studies we identified key amino acids crucial for the interaction of human autoantibodies with TPO. Here we show the critical residues that participate in binding of five mAbs to the conformational epitopes on the TPO surface. Using ELISA we tested the reactivity of single and multiple TPO mutants expressed in CHO cells with a panel of mAbs specifically recognizing IDR-A (mAb 2 and 9) and IDR-B (mAb 15, 18, 64). We show that antibodies recognizing very similar regions on the TPO surface may interact with different sets of residues. We found that residues K713 and E716 contribute to the interaction between mAb 2 and TPO. The epitope for mAb 9 is critically dependent on residues R646 and E716. Moreover, we demonstrate that amino acids E604 and D630 are part of the functional epitope for mAb 15, and amino acids D624 and K627 for mAb 18. Finally, residues E604, D620, D624, K627, and D630 constitute the epitope for mAb 64. This is the first detailed study identifying the key resides for binding of mAbs 2, 9, 15, 18, and 64. Better understanding of those antibodies' specificity will be helpful in elucidating the properties of TPO as an antigen in autoimmune disorders.

  5. Dynamics of linker residues modulate the nucleic acid binding properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.

  6. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration.

  7. Two amino acid residues confer type specificity to a neutralizing, conformationally dependent epitope on human papillomavirus type 11.

    PubMed Central

    Ludmerer, S W; Benincasa, D; Mark, G E

    1996-01-01

    Characterization of virus binding by neutralizing antibodies is important both in understanding early events in viral infectivity and in development of vaccines. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11) have been described, but mapping the binding site has been difficult because of the conformational nature of key type-specific neutralization epitopes on the L1 coat protein. We have determined those residues of the L1 protein of HPV11 which confer type specificity to the binding of HPV11-neutralizing MAbs. Binding of three HPV11-specific neutralizing MAbs could be redirected to HPV6 L1 virus-like particles in which as few as two substitutions of corresponding amino acid residues from HPV11 L1 have been made, thus demonstrating the importance of these residues to MAb binding through the transfer of a conformationally dependent epitope. In addition, a fourth neutralizing MAb could be distinguished from the other neutralizing MAbs in terms of the amino acid residues which affect binding, suggesting the possibility that it neutralizes HPV11 through a different mechanism. PMID:8676509

  8. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND356-58, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3.

  9. Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid by Lactobacillus casei: interchain transacylation of D-alanyl ester residues

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, W.C. 3d.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

    1985-06-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains poly(glycerophosphate) substituted with D-alanyl ester residues. The distribution of these residues in the in vitro-synthesized polymer is uniform. Esterification of LTA with D-alanine may occur in one of two modes: (i) addition at random or (ii) addition at a defined locus in the poly(glycerophosphate) chain followed by redistribution of the ester residues. A time-dependent transacylation of these residues from D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA to hydrophilic acceptor was observed. The hydrophilic acceptor was characterized as D-alanyl-hydrophilic LTA. This transacylation requires neither ATP nor the D-alanine incorporation system, i.e., the D-alanine activating enzyme and D-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase. No evidence for an enzyme-catalyzed transacylation reaction was observed. The authors propose that this process of transacylation may be responsible for the redistribution of D-alanyl residues after esterification to the poly(glycerophosphate). As a result, it is difficult to distinguish between these proposed modes of addition.

  10. Formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ ions from metal-cationized tetrapeptides containing beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid residues.

    PubMed

    Osburn, Sandra M; Ochola, Sila O; Talaty, Erach R; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The presence and position of a single beta-alanine (betaA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaABu) or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Cap) residue has been shown to have a significant influence on the formation of b(n)+ and y(n)+ product ions from a series of model, protonated peptides. In this study, we examined the effect of the same residues on the formation of analogous [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products from metal (Li+, Na+ and Ag+)-cationized peptides. The larger amino acids suppress formation of b3+ from protonated peptides with general sequence AAXG (where X = beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid), presumably because of the prohibitive effect of larger cyclic intermediates in the 'oxazolone' pathway. However, abundant [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products are generated from metal-cationized versions of AAXG. Using a group of deuterium-labeled and exchanged peptides, we found that formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ involves transfer of either amide or alpha-carbon position H atoms, and the tendency to transfer the atom from the alpha-carbon position increases with the size of the amino acid in position X. To account for the transfer of the H atom, a mechanism involving formation of a ketene product as [b3 - 1 + cat]+ is proposed.

  11. Importance of the conserved lysine 83 residue of Zea mays cytochrome b(561) for ascorbate-specific transmembrane electron transfer as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nobuyuki; Rahman, Motiur Md; Sakamoto, Yoichi; Takigami, Tadakazu; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Hori, Hiroshi; Hase, Toshiharu; Park, Sam-Yong; Tsubaki, Motonari

    2009-11-10

    Cytochromes b(561), a novel class of transmembrane electron transport proteins residing in a large variety of eukaryotic cells, have a number of common structural features including six hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices and two heme ligation sites. We found that recombinant Zea mays cytochrome b(561) obtained by a heterologous expression system using yeast Pichia pastoris cells could utilize the ascorbate/mondehydroascorbate radical as a physiological electron donor/acceptor. We found further that a concerted proton/electron transfer mechanism might be operative in Z. mays cytochrome b(561) as well upon the electron acceptance from ascorbate to the cytosolic heme center. The well-conserved Lys(83) residue in a cytosolic loop was found to have a very important role(s) for the binding of ascorbate and the succeeding electron transfer via electrostatic interactions based on the analyses of three site-specific mutants, K83A, K83E, and K83D. Further, unusual behavior of the K83A mutant in pulse radiolysis experiments indicated that Lys(83) might also be responsible for the intramolecular electron transfer to the intravesicular heme. On the other hand, pulse radiolysis experiments on two site-specific mutants, S118A and W122A, for the well-conserved residues in the putative monodehydroascorbate radical binding site showed that their electron transfer activities to the monodehydroascorbate radical were very similar to those of the wild-type protein, indicating that Ser(118) and Trp(122) do not have major roles for the redox events on the intravesicular side.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates Commonly Use Erythrocyte Invasion Pathways That Are Independent of Sialic Acid Residues of Glycophorin A

    PubMed Central

    Okoyeh, Jude Nnaemeka; Pillai, C. R.; Chitnis, Chetan E.

    1999-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is mediated by specific molecular interactions. Sialic acid residues of glycophorin A are used as invasion receptors by Plasmodium falciparum. In vitro invasion studies have demonstrated that some cloned P. falciparum lines can use alternate receptors independent of sialic acid residues of glycophorin A. It is not known if invasion by alternate pathways occurs commonly in the field. In this study, we used in vitro growth assays and erythrocyte invasion assays to determine the invasion phenotypes of 15 P. falciparum field isolates. Of the 15 field isolates tested, 5 multiply in both neuraminidase and trypsin-treated erythrocytes, 3 multiply in neuraminidase-treated but not trypsin-treated erythrocytes, and 4 multiply in trypsin-treated but not neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes; 12 of the 15 field isolates tested use alternate invasion pathways that are not dependent on sialic acid residues of glycophorin A. Alternate invasion pathways are thus commonly used by P. falciparum field isolates. Typing based on two polymorphic markers, MSP-1 and MSP-2, and two microsatellite markers suggests that only 1 of the 15 field isolates tested contains multiple parasite genotypes. Individual P. falciparum lines can thus use multiple invasion pathways in the field. These observations have important implications for malaria vaccine development efforts based on EBA-175, the P. falciparum protein that binds sialic acid residues of glycophorin A during invasion. It may be necessary to target parasite ligands responsible for the alternate invasion pathways in addition to EBA-175 to effectively block erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum. PMID:10531229

  13. Experimental study of the antithrombogenic behavior of Dacron vascular grafts coated with hydrophilic acrylic copolymers bearing salicylic acid residues.

    PubMed

    San Román, J; Buján, J; Bellón, J M; Gallardo, A; Escudero, M C; Jorge, E; de Haro, J; Alvarez, L; Castillo-Olivares, J L

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the present work was study of the behavior of active coatings of hydrophilic acrylic polymers bearing salicylic acid residues linked covalently to the macromolecular chains, after their application to woven and knitted Dacron vascular grafts. In vitro tests were carried out under dynamic flow conditions using equipment especially designed to reproduce physiologic conditions, to determine the retention of the coating using a saline solution. Ex vivo tests were carried out in an extracorporeal circuit using the dog as an animal model. The study of the deposition of platelets was followed by labeling of autologous platelets with 111In-oxine, as well as by analysis of the surfaces of the prostheses by scanning electron microscopy. An application of thin coatings of hydrophilic acrylic copolymers improves the antithrombogenicity of the vascular grafts with respect to the uncoated prosthesis. The presence of relatively small amounts of units bearing salicylic acid residues in the copolymer chains (5-20 wt %) gives good results when they are applied to woven and knitten Dacron meshes which have been quantified by analysis of the percentage of radiotracer on the surface of the vascular grafts tested in ex vivo experiments. The salicylic acid residues are released slowly to the medium by hydrolysis of the reversible covalent bonds of this compound to the acrylic macromolecular chains, which provides an additional antiaggregating effect for platelets. The polymeric coating forms a thin active film which improves the antithrombogenic properties of the surface of woven or knitted Dacron vascular grafts in ex vivo experiments.

  14. Using mutagenesis to explore conserved residues in the RNA-binding groove of influenza A virus nucleoprotein for antiviral drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Lin; Hung, Hui-Chen; Lo, Shou-Chen; Chiang, Ching-Hui; Chen, I.-Jung; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-02-01

    Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant type of RNA-binding viral protein in influenza A virus–infected cells and is necessary for viral RNA transcription and replication. Recent studies demonstrated that influenza NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. The surface of the groove, covered with numerous conserved residues between the head and body domains of influenza A NP, plays a crucial role in RNA binding. To explore the mechanism by which NP binds RNA, we performed a series of site-directed mutagenesis in the RNA-binding groove, followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to characterize the interactions between RNA and NP. Furthermore, a role of Y148 in NP stability and NP-RNA binding was evaluated. The aromatic residue of Y148 was found to stack with a nucleotide base. By interrupting the stacking interaction between Y148 and an RNA base, we identified an influenza virus NP inhibitor, (E, E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; this inhibitor reduced the NP’s RNA-binding affinity and hindered viral replication. Our findings will be useful for the development of new drugs that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the influenza virus.

  15. Inactivation of influenza virus haemagglutinin by chlorine dioxide: oxidation of the conserved tryptophan 153 residue in the receptor-binding site.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio

    2012-12-01

    Airborne influenza virus infection of mice can be prevented by gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). This study demonstrated that ClO(2) abolished the function of the haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (H1N1) in a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent manner. The IC(50) during a 2 min reaction with ClO(2) at 25 °C was 13.7 µM, and the half-life time of HA with 100 µM ClO(2) at 25 °C was 19.5 s. Peptides generated from a tryptic digest of ClO(2)-treated virus were analysed by mass spectrometry. An HA fragment, (150)NLLWLTGK(157) was identified in which the tryptophan residue (W153) was 32 mass units greater than expected. The W153 residue of this peptide, which is derived from the central region of the receptor-binding site of HA, is highly conserved. It was shown that W153 was oxidized to N-formylkynurenine in ClO(2)-treated virus. It was concluded that the inactivation of influenza virus by ClO(2) is caused by oxidation of W153 in HA, thereby abolishing its receptor-binding ability.

  16. Extended amino acid sequences around the active-site lysine residue of class-I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases from rabbit muscle, sturgeon muscle, trout muscle and ox liver.

    PubMed Central

    Benfield, P A; Forcina, B G; Gibbons, I; Perham, R N

    1979-01-01

    1. Amino acid sequences covering the region between residues 173 and 248 [adopting the numbering system proposed by Lai, Nakai & Chang (1974) Science 183, 1204-1206] were derived for trout (Salmo trutta) muscle aldolase and for ox liver aldolase. A comparable sequence was derived for residues 180-248 of sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) muscle aldolase. The close homology with the rabbit muscle enzyme was used to align the peptides of the other aldolases from which the sequences were derived. The results also allowed a partial sequence for the N-terminal 39 residues for the ox liver enzyme to be deduced. 2. In the light of the strong homology evinced for these enzymes, a re-investigation of the amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle aldolase between residues 181 and 185 was undertaken. This indicated the presence of a hitherto unsuspected -Ile-Val-sequence between residues 181 and 182 and the need to invert the sequence -Glu-Val- to -Val-Glx- at positions 184 and 185. 3. Comparison of the available amino acid sequences of these enzymes suggested an early evolutionary divergence of the genes for muscle and liver aldolases. It was also consistent with other evidence that the central region of the primary structure of these enzymes (which includes the active-site lysine-227) forms part of a conserved folding domain in the protein subunit. 4. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences proposed has been deposited as Suy Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:534504

  17. Substitutions of Conserved Residues in the C-terminal Region of DnaC Cause Thermolability in Helicase Loading*

    PubMed Central

    Felczak, Magdalena M.; Sage, Jay M.; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Aykul, Senem; Kaguni, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    The DnaB-DnaC complex binds to the unwound DNA within the Escherichia coli replication origin in the helicase loading process, but the biochemical events that lead to its stable binding are uncertain. This study characterizes the function of specific C-terminal residues of DnaC. Genetic and biochemical characterization of proteins bearing F231S and W233L substitutions of DnaC reveals that their activity is thermolabile. Because the mutants remain able to form a complex with DnaB at 30 and 37 °C, their thermolability is not explained by an impaired interaction with DnaB. Photo-cross-linking experiments and biosensor analysis show an altered affinity of these mutants compared with wild type DnaC for single-stranded DNA, suggesting that the substitutions affect DNA binding. Despite this difference, their activity in DNA binding is not thermolabile. The substitutions also drastically reduce the affinity of DnaC for ATP as measured by the binding of a fluorescent ATP analogue (MANT-ATP) and by UV cross-linking of radiolabeled ATP. Experiments show that an elevated temperature substantially inhibits both mutants in their ability to load the DnaB-DnaC complex at a DnaA box. Because a decreased ATP concentration exacerbates their thermolabile behavior, we suggest that the F231S and W233L substitutions are thermolabile in ATP binding, which correlates with defective helicase loading at an elevated temperature. PMID:26728455

  18. The interdomain linker of AAV-2 Rep68 is an integral part of its oligomerization domain: role of a conserved SF3 helicase residue in oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Perez, Francisco; Bardelli, Martino; Burgner, John W; Villamil-Jarauta, Maria; Das, Kanni; Kekilli, Demet; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Linden, R Michael; Escalante, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    The four Rep proteins of adeno-associated virus (AAV) orchestrate all aspects of its viral life cycle, including transcription regulation, DNA replication, virus assembly, and site-specific integration of the viral genome into the human chromosome 19. All Rep proteins share a central SF3 superfamily helicase domain. In other SF3 members this domain is sufficient to induce oligomerization. However, the helicase domain in AAV Rep proteins (i.e. Rep40/Rep52) as shown by its monomeric characteristic, is not able to mediate stable oligomerization. This observation led us to hypothesize the existence of an as yet undefined structural determinant that regulates Rep oligomerization. In this document, we described a detailed structural comparison between the helicase domains of AAV-2 Rep proteins and those of the other SF3 members. This analysis shows a major structural difference residing in the small oligomerization sub-domain (OD) of Rep helicase domain. In addition, secondary structure prediction of the linker connecting the helicase domain to the origin-binding domain (OBD) indicates the potential to form α-helices. We demonstrate that mutant Rep40 constructs containing different lengths of the linker are able to form dimers, and in the presence of ATP/ADP, larger oligomers. We further identified an aromatic linker residue (Y224) that is critical for oligomerization, establishing it as a conserved signature motif in SF3 helicases. Mutation of this residue critically affects oligomerization as well as completely abolishes the ability to produce infectious virus. Taken together, our data support a model where the linker residues preceding the helicase domain fold into an α-helix that becomes an integral part of the helicase domain and is critical for the oligomerization and function of Rep68/78 proteins through cooperative interaction with the OBD and helicase domains.

  19. Probing the location and function of the conserved histidine residue of phosphoglucose isomerase by using an active site directed inhibitor N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Meng, M.; Chane, T. L.; Sun, Y. J.; Hsiao, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) catalyzes the interconversion of D-glucopyranose-6-phosphate and D-fructofuranose-6-phosphate by promoting an intrahydrogen transfer between C1 and C2. A conserved histidine exists throughout all phosphoglucose isomerases and was hypothesized to be the base catalyzing the isomerization reaction. In the present study, this conserved histidine, His311, of the enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus was subjected to mutational analysis, and the mutational effect on the inactivation kinetics by N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate was investigated. The substitution of His311 with alanine, asparagine, or glutamine resulted in the decrease of activity, in k(cat)/K(M), by a factor of 10(3), indicating the importance of this residue. N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate inactivated irreversibly the activity of wild-type phosphoglucose isomerase; however, His311 --> Ala became resistant to this inhibitor, indicating that His311 is located in the active site and is responsible for the inactivation of the enzyme by this active site-directed inhibitor. The pKa of His311 was estimated to be 6.31 according to the pH dependence of the inactivation. The proximity of this value with the pKa value of 6.35, determined from the pH dependence of k(cat)/K(M), supports a role of His311 as a general base in the catalysis. PMID:10595547

  20. On the role of a conserved, potentially helix-breaking residue in the tRNA-binding alpha-helix of archaeal CCA-adding enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyundae D; Sood, Vanita D; Baker, David; Weiner, Alan M

    2008-07-01

    Archaeal class I CCA-adding enzymes use a ribonucleoprotein template to build and repair the universally conserved 3'-terminal CCA sequence of the acceptor stem of all tRNAs. A wealth of structural and biochemical data indicate that the Archaeoglobus fulgidus CCA-adding enzyme binds primarily to the tRNA acceptor stem through a long, highly conserved alpha-helix that lies nearly parallel to the acceptor stem and makes many contacts with its sugar-phosphate backbone. Although the geometry of this alpha-helix is nearly ideal in all available cocrystal structures, the helix contains a highly conserved, potentially helix-breaking proline or glycine near the N terminus. We performed a mutational analysis to dissect the role of this residue in CCA-addition activity. We found that the phylogenetically permissible P295G mutant and the phylogenetically absent P295T had little effect on CCA addition, whereas P295A and P295S progressively interfered with CCA addition (C74>C75>A76 addition). We also examined the effects of these mutations on tRNA binding and the kinetics of CCA addition, and performed a computational analysis using Rosetta Design to better understand the role of P295 in nucleotide transfer. Our data indicate that CCA-adding activity does not correlate with the stability of the pre-addition cocrystal structures visualized by X-ray crystallography. Rather, the data are consistent with a transient conformational change involving P295 of the tRNA-binding alpha-helix during or between one or more steps in CCA addition.

  1. Conserved catalytic residues of the ALDH1L1 aldehyde dehydrogenase domain control binding and discharging of the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Krupenko, Sergey A

    2011-07-01

    The C-terminal domain (C(t)-FDH) of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH, ALDH1L1) is an NADP(+)-dependent oxidoreductase and a structural and functional homolog of aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here we report the crystal structures of several C(t)-FDH mutants in which two essential catalytic residues adjacent to the nicotinamide ring of bound NADP(+), Cys-707 and Glu-673, were replaced separately or simultaneously. The replacement of the glutamate with an alanine causes irreversible binding of the coenzyme without any noticeable conformational changes in the vicinity of the nicotinamide ring. Additional replacement of cysteine 707 with an alanine (E673A/C707A double mutant) did not affect this irreversible binding indicating that the lack of the glutamate is solely responsible for the enhanced interaction between the enzyme and the coenzyme. The substitution of the cysteine with an alanine did not affect binding of NADP(+) but resulted in the enzyme lacking the ability to differentiate between the oxidized and reduced coenzyme: unlike the wild-type C(t)-FDH/NADPH complex, in the C707A mutant the position of NADPH is identical to the position of NADP(+) with the nicotinamide ring well ordered within the catalytic center. Thus, whereas the glutamate restricts the affinity for the coenzyme, the cysteine is the sensor of the coenzyme redox state. These conclusions were confirmed by coenzyme binding experiments. Our study further suggests that the binding of the coenzyme is additionally controlled by a long-range communication between the catalytic center and the coenzyme-binding domain and points toward an α-helix involved in the adenine moiety binding as a participant of this communication.

  2. Mutation of a Conserved Active Site Residue Converts Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase l Into a DNA Topoisomerase l-Dependent Poison

    SciTech Connect

    He,X.; van Waardenburg, R.; Babaoglu, K.; Price, A.; Nitiss, K.; Nitiss, J.; Bjornsti, M.; White, S.

    2007-01-01

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) catalyzes the resolution of 3' and 5' phospho-DNA adducts. A defective mutant, associated with the recessive neurodegenerative disease SCAN1, accumulates Tdp1-DNA complexes in vitro. To assess the conservation of enzyme architecture, a 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of yeast Tdp1 was determined that is very similar to human Tdp1. Poorly conserved regions of primary structure are peripheral to an essentially identical catalytic core. Enzyme mechanism was also conserved, because the yeast SCAN1 mutant (H{sub 432}R) enhanced cell sensitivity to the DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) poison camptothecin. A more severe Top1-dependent lethality of Tdp1H{sub 432}N was drug-independent, coinciding with increased covalent Top1-DNA and Tdp1-DNA complex formation in vivo. However, both H432 mutants were recessive to wild-type Tdp1. Thus, yeast H{sub 432} acts in the general acid/base catalytic mechanism of Tdp1 to resolve 3' phosphotyrosyl and 3' phosphoamide linkages. However, the distinct pattern of mutant Tdp1 activity evident in yeast cells, suggests a more severe defect in Tdp1H{sub 432}N-catalyzed resolution of 3' phospho-adducts.

  3. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol in an organic residue produced by ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs.

    PubMed

    Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H-P

    2010-03-01

    More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH(3)OH:NH(3) = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at approximately 80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kap; Ho, Joseph X.; Keeling, Kim; Gilliland, Gary L.; Ji, Xinhua; Rueker, Florian; Carter, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  5. Pulsed EPR Determination of Water Accessibility to Spin-Labeled Amino Acid Residues in LHCIIb

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, A.; Dockter, C.; Bund, T.; Paulsen, H.; Jeschke, G.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins reside in a structured environment in which some of their residues are accessible to water, some are in contact with alkyl chains of lipid molecules, and some are buried in the protein. Water accessibility of residues may change during folding or function-related structural dynamics. Several techniques based on the combination of pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with site-directed spin labeling can be used to quantify such water accessibility. Accessibility parameters for different residues in major plant light-harvesting complex IIb are determined by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy in the presence of deuterated water, deuterium contrast in transversal relaxation rates, analysis of longitudinal relaxation rates, and line shape analysis of electron-spin-echo-detected EPR spectra as well as by the conventional techniques of measuring the maximum hyperfine splitting and progressive saturation in continuous-wave EPR. Systematic comparison of these parameters allows for a more detailed characterization of the environment of the spin-labeled residues. These techniques are applicable independently of protein size and require ∼10–20 nmol of singly spin-labeled protein per sample. For a residue close to the N-terminus, in a domain unresolved in the existing x-ray structures of light-harvesting complex IIb, all methods indicate high water accessibility. PMID:19186148

  6. Influence of shear force on floc properties and residual aluminum in humic acid treatment by nano-Al₁₃.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiying; Gao, Baoyu; Du, Bin; Xu, Zhenghe; Zhang, Yongfang; Wei, Dong

    2014-04-30

    The impacts of various shear forces on floc sizes and structures in humic acid coagulations by polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and nano-Al13 were comparatively studied in this paper. The dynamic floc size was monitored by use of a laser diffraction particle sizing device. The floc structure was evaluated in terms of fractal dimension, analyzed by small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). The effect of increased shear rate on residual Al of the coagulation effluents was then analyzed on the basis of different floc characteristics generated under various shear conditions. The results showed that floc size decreased with the increasing shear rate for both Al13 and PACl. Besides, floc strength and re-formation ability were also weakened by the enhanced shear force. Al13 resulted in small, strong and better recoverable flocs than PACl and moreover, in the shear range of 100-300 revolution per minute (rpm) (G=40.7-178.3s(-1)), the characteristics of HA-Al13 flocs displayed smaller scale changes than those of HA-PACl flocs. The results of residual Al measurements proved that with shear increased, the residual Al increased continuously but Al13 presented less sensitivity to the varying shear forces. PACl contributed higher residual Al than Al13 under the same shear condition.

  7. Kinetic and mutagenic evidence for the role of histidine residues in the Lycopersicon esculentum 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, M A; Howe, D L; Salleh, H M; Sheflyan, G Y; Son, J K; Woodard, R W

    1999-01-01

    The ACCO gene from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) has been cloned into the expression vector PT7-7. The highly expressed protein was recovered in the form of inclusion bodies. ACCO is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) with a second-order rate constant of 170 M(-1) min(-1). The pH-inactivation rate data imply the involvement of an amino acid residue with a pK value of 6.05. The difference UV spectrum of the the DEPC-inactivated versus native ACCO showed a single peak at 242 nm indicating the modification of histidine residues. The inactivation was reversed by the addition of hydroxylamine to the DEPC-inactivated ACCO. Substrate/cofactor protection studies indicate that both iron and ACC bind near the active site, which contains histidine residues. Four histidines of ACCO were individually mutated to alanine and glycine. H39A is catalytically active, while H177A, H177G, H211A, H211G, H234A, and H234G are basically inactive. The results indicate that histidine residues 177, 211, and 234 may serve as ligands for the active-site iron of ACCO and/or may play some important structural or catalytic role.

  8. Identification of functionally important amino acid residues in the mitochondria targeting sequence of Hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sai Kam; Ho, Sai Fan; Tsui, Kwok Wing; Fung, Kwok Pui; Waye, M.Y. Mary

    2008-11-10

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the X protein (HBx) is thought to mediate the cellular changes associated with carcinogenesis. Recently, isolation of the hepatitis B virus integrants from HCC tissue by others have established the fact that the X gene is often truncated at its C-terminus. Expression of the GFP fusion proteins of HBx and its truncation mutants with a GFP tag in human liver cell-lines in this study revealed that the C-terminus of HBx is indispensable for its specific localization in the mitochondria. A crucial region of seven amino acids at the C-terminus has been mapped out in which the cysteine residue at position 115 serves as the most important residue for the subcellular localization. When cysteine 115 of HBx is mutated to alanine the mitochondria targeting property of HBx is abrogated.

  9. A facile route to preparation of high purity nanoporous silica from acid-leached residue of serpentine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Penn; Sharratt, Paul; Yeo, Tze Yuen; Bu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    As the current cost of mineral carbonation is too high for an economically viable industrial process, it is desirable to produce value-added products from CO2 mineralization process. In this work, a facile and cost-effective process was developed for the production of high purity SiO2 from acid-leached serpentine residue. The Si extraction rate is fast even under ambient conditions due to the highly defective structure of the residue. The reaction kinetics were studied and it was found that the Si extraction rate was under a combination of chemical reaction control and film diffusion control. The SiO2 sample prepared has high purity with a nanoporous structure, which renders it a potential candidate for applications such as an adsorbent and a catalyst support.

  10. Effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue using ferrous sulfate.

    PubMed

    Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu

    2009-08-30

    A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to assess the effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using ferrous sulfate. The remediation scheme entailed the chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and the mitigation of swell potential. Leaching tests and the EQ3/6 geochemical model were used to estimate the acid dosage required to destabilize Cr(VI)-bearing and swell-causing minerals. The model predicted greater acid dosage than that estimated from the batch leaching tests. This indicated that mass transfer limitation may be playing a significant role in impeding the dissolution of COPR minerals following acid addition and hence hindering the remediation of COPR. Cr(VI) concentrations determined by alkaline digestion for the treated samples were less than the current NJDEP standard. However, Cr(VI) concentrations measured by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were greater than those measured by alkaline digestion. Greater Cr(VI) percentages were reduced for acid pretreated and also for smaller particle size COPR samples. Upon treatment, brownmillerite content was greatly reduced for the acid pretreated samples. Conversely, ettringite, a swell-causing mineral, was not observed in the treated COPR.

  11. ASCORBIC ACID REDUCTION ON RESIDUAL ACTIVE CHLORINE IN POTABLE WATER PRIOR TO HALOCARBOXYLATE DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In studies on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), it is necessary to scavenge residual active (odxidizing) chlorine in order to fix the chlorination byproducts (such as haloethanoates) at a point in time . Such research projects often have distinct needs from requi...

  12. ASCORBIC ACID REDUCTION OF RESIDUAL ACTIVE CHLORINE IN POTABLE WATER PRIOR TO HALOCARBOXYLATE DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In studies on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), it is necessary to scavenge residual active (oxidizing) chlorine in order to fix the chlorination byproducts (such as haloethanoates) at a point in time. Thus, methods designed for compliance monitoring are not alway...

  13. 40 CFR 180.155 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific... ammonium, sodium, or potassium salts, ethyl ester, and acetamide in or on food commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Cherry, sweet 0.1 Fruit, pome, group 11 0.15 Olive 0.7 Orange 0.1 Pineapple1...

  14. The Hydroxyl Side Chain of a Highly Conserved Serine Residue Is Required for Cation Selectivity and Substrate Transport in the Glial Glutamate Transporter GLT-1/SLC1A2*

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Alexandre; Montalbetti, Nicolas; Gyimesi, Gergely; Pujol-Giménez, Jonai; Hediger, Matthias A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate transporters maintain synaptic concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter below neurotoxic levels. Their transport cycle consists of cotransport of glutamate with three sodium ions and one proton, followed by countertransport of potassium. Structural studies proposed that a highly conserved serine located in the binding pocket of the homologous GltPh coordinates l-aspartate as well as the sodium ion Na1. To experimentally validate these findings, we generated and characterized several mutants of the corresponding serine residue, Ser-364, of human glutamate transporter SLC1A2 (solute carrier family 1 member 2), also known as glutamate transporter GLT-1 and excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT2. S364T, S364A, S364C, S364N, and S364D were expressed in HEK cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes to measure radioactive substrate transport and transport currents, respectively. All mutants exhibited similar plasma membrane expression when compared with WT SLC1A2, but substitutions of serine by aspartate or asparagine completely abolished substrate transport. On the other hand, the threonine mutant, which is a more conservative mutation, exhibited similar substrate selectivity, substrate and sodium affinities as WT but a lower selectivity for Na+ over Li+. S364A and S364C exhibited drastically reduced affinities for each substrate and enhanced selectivity for l-aspartate over d-aspartate and l-glutamate, and lost their selectivity for Na+ over Li+. Furthermore, we extended the analysis of our experimental observations using molecular dynamics simulations. Altogether, our findings confirm a pivotal role of the serine 364, and more precisely its hydroxyl group, in coupling sodium and substrate fluxes. PMID:26483543

  15. Uptake of nitric acid, ammonia, and organics in orographic clouds: mass spectrometric analyses of droplet residual and interstitial aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes; Mertes, Stephan; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent in situ analyses of interstitial aerosol and cloud droplet residues have been conducted at the Schmücke mountain site during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia campaign in central Germany in September and October 2010. Cloud droplets were sampled from warm clouds (temperatures between -3 and +16 °C) by a counterflow virtual impactor and the submicron-sized residues were analyzed by a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), while the interstitial aerosol composition was measured by an high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). During cloud-free periods, the submicron out-of-cloud aerosol was analyzed using both instruments, allowing for intercomparison between the two instruments. Further instrumentation included black carbon measurements and optical particle counters for the aerosol particles as well as optical sizing instrumentation for the cloud droplets. The results show that, under cloud conditions, on average 85 % of the submicron aerosol mass partitioned into the cloud liquid phase. Scavenging efficiencies of nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and organics ranged between 60 and 100 %, with nitrate having, in general, the highest values. For black carbon, the scavenging efficiency was markedly lower (about 24 %). The nitrate and ammonium mass fractions were found to be markedly enhanced in cloud residues, indicating uptake of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia into the aqueous phase. This effect was found to be temperature dependent: at lower temperatures, the nitrate and ammonium mass fractions in the residues were higher. Also, the oxidation state of the organic matter in cloud residues was found to be temperature dependent: the O : C ratio was lower at higher temperatures. A possible explanation for this observation is a more effective uptake and/or higher concentrations of low-oxidized water-soluble volatile organic compounds, possibly of biogenic origin, at higher temperatures. Organic nitrates were observed

  16. Functional characterization of the conserved amino acids in Pop1p, the largest common protein subunit of yeast RNases P and MRP

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shaohua; Hsieh, John; Nugent, Rebecca L.; Coughlin, Daniel J.; Fierke, Carol A.; Engelke, David R.

    2006-01-01

    RNase P and RNase MRP are ribonucleoprotein enzymes required for 5′-end maturation of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) and processing of precursor ribosomal RNAs, respectively. In yeast, RNase P and MRP holoenzymes have eight protein subunits in common, with Pop1p being the largest at >100 kDa. Little is known about the functions of Pop1p, beyond the fact that it binds specifically to the RNase P RNA subunit, RPR1 RNA. In this study, we refined the previous Pop1 phylogenetic sequence alignment and found four conserved regions. Highly conserved amino acids in yeast Pop1p were mutagenized by randomization and conditionally defective mutations were obtained. Effects of the Pop1p mutations on pre-tRNA processing, pre-rRNA processing, and stability of the RNA subunits of RNase P and MRP were examined. In most cases, functional defects in RNase P and RNase MRP in vivo were consistent with assembly defects of the holoenzymes, although moderate kinetic defects in RNase P were also observed. Most mutations affected both pre-tRNA and pre-rRNA processing, but a few mutations preferentially interfered with only RNase P or only RNase MRP. In addition, one temperature-sensitive mutation had no effect on either tRNA or rRNA processing, consistent with an additional role for RNase P, RNase MRP, or Pop1p in some other form. This study shows that the Pop1p subunit plays multiple roles in the assembly and function of of RNases P and MRP, and that the functions can be differentiated through the mutations in conserved residues. PMID:16618965

  17. Preparation of a modified flue gas desulphurization residue and its effect on pot sorghum growth and acidic soil amelioration.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Xu, Peizhi; Xie, Kaizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Li, Yongli

    2011-09-15

    A modified flue gas desulphurization residue (MFGDR) was prepared and its effects on sorghum growth and acidic soil amelioration were evaluated in this paper. The MFGDR was prepared by calcining a mixture of dry/semi-dry flue gas desulphurization (FGD) residue from a coal-fired power plant, sorted potash feldspar and/or limestone powder. The available nutrients from the MFGDR were determined with 4.91 wt% K(+), 1.15 wt% Mg(2+), 22.4 wt% Ca(2+), 7.01 wt% Si(4+) and 2.07 wt% SO(4)(2-)-S in 0.1 mol L(-1) citric acid solution. Its pH value was held at 9.60 displaying slightly alkaline. The results of sorghum pot growth in both red and crimson acidic soil for 30 days indicated that adding the MFGDR at a dosage of 2 g kg(-1) in total soil weight would increase the growth rate of biomass by 24.3-149% (wet weight basis) and 47.3-157% (dry weight), the stem length and thickness increase by 5.75-22.1% and 4.76-30.9% in contrast with CK treatment for two test cuttings, respectively. The effect on sorghum growth was attributed to the increase of available nutrients, the enhancement of soil pH value and the reduction of aluminum toxicity in acidic soil due to the addition of the MFGDR. The experimental results also suggested that the MFGDR could be effectively used to ameliorate the acidic soil which is widely distributed throughout the southern China.

  18. A common set of conserved motifs in a vast variety of putative nucleic acid-dependent ATPases including MCM proteins involved in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, E V

    1993-01-01

    A new superfamily of (putative) DNA-dependent ATPases is described that includes the ATPase domains of prokaryotic NtrC-related transcription regulators, MCM proteins involved in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication, and a group of uncharacterized bacterial and chloroplast proteins. MCM proteins are shown to contain a modified form of the ATP-binding motif and are predicted to mediate ATP-dependent opening of double-stranded DNA in the replication origins. In a second line of investigation, it is demonstrated that the products of unidentified open reading frames from Marchantia mitochondria and from yeast, and a domain of a baculovirus protein involved in viral DNA replication are related to the superfamily III of DNA and RNA helicases that previously has been known to include only proteins of small viruses. Comparison of the multiple alignments showed that the proteins of the NtrC superfamily and the helicases of superfamily III share three related sequence motifs tightly packed in the ATPase domain that consists of 100-150 amino acid residues. A similar array of conserved motifs is found in the family of DnaA-related ATPases. It is hypothesized that the three large groups of nucleic acid-dependent ATPases have similar structure of the core ATPase domain and have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:8332451

  19. Simulation of acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues to fermentable sugars for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiras, Dimitris

    2012-12-01

    The dilute acid hydrolysis of fir sawdust with sulfuric acid was undertaken in a batch reactor system (autoclave). The experimental data and reaction kinetic analysis indicate that this is a potential process for cellulose and hemicelluloses hydrolysis, due to a rapid hydrolysis reaction for acid concentration 0.045 N at 160-180°C. It was found that significant sugar degradation occurred at these conditions. The optimum conditions gave a yield of 38% total fermentable sugars. The kinetics of dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses (polysaccharides) were simulated using four pseudo-kinetic models. The reaction rate constants were calculated in each case.

  20. Amino acid residues in the Ler protein critical for derepression of the LEE5 promoter in enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Mi; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Choy, Hyon E; Shin, Minsang

    2016-08-01

    Enteropathogenic E. coli causes attaching and effacing (A/E) intestinal lesions. The genes involved in the formation of A/E lesions are encoded within a chromosomal island comprising of five major operons, LEE1-5. The global regulator H-NS represses the expression of these operons. Ler, a H-NS homologue, counteracts the H-NS-mediated repression. Using a novel genetic approach, we identified the amino acid residues in Ler that are involved in the interaction with H-NS: I20 and L23 in the C-terminal portion of α-helix 3, and I42 in the following unstructured linker region.

  1. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION AND C-TERMINAL RESIDUES OF ALGAL BILIPROTEINS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    R-phycoerythrin from Ceramium rubrum and C- phycocyanin from Nostoc nuscorum were obtained in purified form by fractional crystallization, followed by...as amino acids. Alanine was identified as the only C-terminal amino acid of R-phycoerythrin, each molecule of which contained about 12 terminal groups. Serine was identified as the only C-terminal group of C- phycocyanin . (Author)

  2. Identification of Amino Acid Residues of ERH Required for Its Recruitment to Nuclear Speckles and Replication Foci in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Banko, Monika I.; Krzyzanowski, Marek K.; Turcza, Paulina; Maniecka, Zuzanna; Kulis, Marta; Kozlowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    ERH is a small, highly evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein of unknown function. Its three-dimensional structure is absolutely unique and it can form a homodimer through a β sheet surface. ERH has been shown to interact, among others, with PDIP46/SKAR and Ciz1. When coexpressed with the latter protein, ERH accumulates in replication foci in the nucleus of HeLa cells. Here, we report that when ERH is coexpressed with PDIP46/SKAR in HeLa cells, it is recruited to nuclear speckles, and identify amino acid residues critical for targeting ERH to both these subnuclear structures. ERH H3A Q9A shows a diminished recruitment to nuclear speckles but it is recruited to replication foci. ERH E37A T51A is very poorly recruited to replication foci while still accumulating in nuclear speckles. Consequently, ERH H3A Q9A E37A T51A is recruited neither to nuclear speckles nor to replication foci. The lack of interactions of these three ERH forms with PDIP46/SKAR and/or Ciz1 was further confirmed in vitro by GST pull-down assay. The residues whose substitutions interfere with the accumulation in nuclear speckles are situated on the β sheet surface of ERH, indicating that only the monomer of ERH can interact with PDIP46/SKAR. Substitutions affecting the recruitment to replication foci map to the other side of ERH, near a long loop between the α1 and α2 helices, thus both the monomer and the dimer of ERH could interact with Ciz1. The construction of the ERH mutants not recruited to nuclear speckles or replication foci will facilitate further studies on ERH actions in these subnuclear structures. PMID:24015320

  3. Unexpected functional diversity in the fatty acid desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and identification of key residues determining activity.

    PubMed

    Haritos, Victoria S; Horne, Irene; Damcevski, Katherine; Glover, Karen; Gibb, Nerida

    2014-08-01

    Desaturases catalyse modifications to fatty acids which are essential to homeostasis and for pheromone and defensive chemical production. All desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum were investigated via query of the sequenced genome which yielded 15 putative acyl-Coenzyme A genes. Eleven desaturase mRNA were obtained in full length and functionally expressed in yeast. Phylogenetic analysis separated the desaturases into 4 distinct clades; one clade contained conserved beetle Δ9 desaturases, second clade was Tribolium-specific having diverse activities including Δ5, Δ9 and Δ12 desaturation and the other 2 clades had mixed insect representatives. Three members of this clade contained unusual inserted sequences of ∼20 residues in the C-terminal region and were related to desaturases that all contained similar inserts. Deletion of the entirety of the insert in the flour beetle Δ12 desaturase abolished its activity but this was partially restored by the reintroduction of two histidine residues, suggesting the histidine(s) are required for activity but the full length insert is not. Five new desaturase activities were discovered: Δ9 desaturation of C12:0-C16:0 substrates; two unprecedented Δ5 enzymes acting on C18:0 and C16:0; Δ9 activity exclusively on C16:0 and a further stearate Δ9 desaturase. qPCR analysis ruled out a role in sex pheromone synthesis for the Δ5 and Δ9/C16:0 desaturases. The flour beetle genome has underpinned an examination of all transcribed desaturases in the organism and revealed a diversity of novel and unusual activities, an improved understanding of the evolutionary relationships among insect desaturases and sequence determinants of activity.

  4. The selective reaction of methoxyamine with cytidine residues in mammalian initiator transfer ribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Peter W.; Clark, Brian F.C.

    1974-01-01

    Methoxyamine reacts selectively with tRNA molecules at certain exposed cytosine residues usually located in non base-paired regions of the two dimensional clover leaf structure. Here methoxyamine is used for the first time in a study of a mammalian tRNA structure. One of the sequence abnormalities of myeloma initiator tRNA is a cytosine instead of the usual uracil immediately preceding the anticodon. A study of the reaction of the cytosine residues with methoxyamine indicates that the accessibility of bases to chemical reagents in the anticodon loop of this mammalian initiator tRNA is very similar to that observed for the bacterial initiator tRNA. Images PMID:10793658

  5. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Residual Nitrite in a Summer Style Sausage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Lactobacillus leichmannii, Streptococcus faecalis, and several atypical lactobacilli isolated from fresh beef and mutton reduced 200-1000 ppm nitrite...faecalis and an atypical lactobacillus isolated from beef) showed abilities to reduce pH and residual nitrite to levels similar to L. plantarum and P...Leuconostoc mesenteroides reduced nitrite at a faster rate than either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus viridescens, while Lactobacillus

  6. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some new non-proteinogenic amino acids containing thiazole residues.

    PubMed

    Stanchev, M; Pajpanova, T; Golovinsky, E

    2000-01-01

    Some new thioamides and thiazoles have been synthesized using canavanine, S-cysteine, homo-S-cysteinesulfonamides and their N-omega aminoethylated derivatives as adducts in order to investigate the structure-antimicrobial activity relationships. The compounds showed substantial antibacterial activity in vitro against various gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus etc.) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris etc.) bacteria. These findings indicate that the presence of the thiazole residue is an essential factor for the antibacterial effect.

  7. Stabile Chlorine Isotope Study of Martian Shergottites and Nakhlites; Whole Rock and Acid Leachates and Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C-Y; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    We have established a precise analytical technique for stable chlorine isotope measurements of tiny planetary materials by TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) [1], for which the results are basically consistent with the IRMS tech-nique (gas source mass spectrometry) [2,3,4]. We present here results for Martian shergottites and nakhlites; whole rocks, HNO3-leachates and residues, and discuss the chlorine isotope evolution of planetary Mars.

  8. Amino acid residues 196–225 of LcrV represent a plague protective epitope

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Berube, Bryan J.; Segal, Joshua; Elli, Derek; Ciletti, Nancy A.; Anderson, Deborah; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of the type III secretion needles of Yersinia pestis, is the single most important plague protective antigen. Earlier work reported monoclonal antibody MAb 7.3, which binds a conformational epitope of LcrV and protects experimental animals against lethal plague challenge. By screening monoclonal antibodies directed against LcrV for their ability to protect immunized mice against bubonic plague challenge, we examined here the possibility of additional protective epitopes. MAb BA5 protected animals against plague, neutralized the Y. pestis type III secretion pathway and promoted opsonophagocytic clearance of bacteria in blood. LcrV residues 196–225 were necessary and sufficient for MAb-BA5 binding. Compared to full length LcrV, a variant lacking its residues 196–225 retained the ability of eliciting plague protection. These results identify LcrV residues 196–225 as a linear epitope that is recognized by the murine immune system to confer plague protection. PMID:20005318

  9. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of K East Area Sludge Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Carlson, C.D.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of various leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KEACRESID1) produced during a 24-hour dissolution of K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite in boiling 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KEACRESID1, is a visibly heterogeneous material. This material contains radionuclides at concentrations above the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for transuranics (TRU) by about a factor of 3, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 10, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 1.6. It meets the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 4 and for uranium by a factor of 10. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu, and then {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, and uranium.

  10. Delivery of a foreign epitope by sharing amino acid residues with the carrier matrix.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Wan-Shoo; Drummer, Heidi Edelgard; Netter, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    A broad range of structural viral proteins has the ability to assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs). Under the condition that modified subunits are still competent to assemble into VLPs, they are epitope delivery platforms suitable for vaccination purposes. The insertion of foreign sequences can be detrimental for the formation of chimeric VLPs as a result of misfolded subunit proteins. Hence, a strategy was adopted to screen for locations allowing the use of shared residues between the wildtype subunit sequence and the foreign insert. The insertion of a cysteine-containing sequence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 2 (E2) without adding an additional cysteine residue retained the ability of recombinant small hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-S) to form secretion competent VLPs. A cysteine residue shared by the insert and the template protein avoided the formation of non-native disulfide bonds, and allowed the formation of VLPs. The chimeric HBsAg-S VLPs were similar to wildtype VLPs in density exposing the inserted foreign epitope and being immunogenic. Overall, the use of shared sequences between the insert and the subunit will facilitate the design of chimeric VLPs carrying multiple epitopes.

  11. Optimization of a Nucleic Acids united-RESidue 2-Point model (NARES-2P) with a maximum-likelihood approach

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yi; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2015-12-28

    Coarse-grained models are useful tools to investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of biomolecules. They are obtained by merging several atoms into one interaction site. Such simplified models try to capture as much as possible information of the original biomolecular system in all-atom representation but the resulting parameters of these coarse-grained force fields still need further optimization. In this paper, a force field optimization method, which is based on maximum-likelihood fitting of the simulated to the experimental conformational ensembles and least-squares fitting of the simulated to the experimental heat-capacity curves, is applied to optimize the Nucleic Acid united-RESidue 2-point (NARES-2P) model for coarse-grained simulations of nucleic acids recently developed in our laboratory. The optimized NARES-2P force field reproduces the structural and thermodynamic data of small DNA molecules much better than the original force field.

  12. Influence of the amino acid residue downstream of (Asp)4Lys on enterokinase cleavage of a fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Hosfield, T; Lu, Q

    1999-04-10

    We have studied the cleavage efficiency of the protease enterokinase (EK) using the novel vector pESP4. pESP4 is a yeast expression vector equipped with ligation-independent cloning sites, a GST purification tag, and a FLAG epitope tag. EK is used to cleave the FLAG and GST tags leaving the protein of interest without any extraneously added amino acids. We have found that EK is relatively permissive of the amino acid residue downstream of the recognition sequence (the P'1 position). This makes EK an ideal choice to use as a protease to cleave any protein of interest cloned within the pESP4 yeast expression vector.

  13. Optimization of a Nucleic Acids united-RESidue 2-Point model (NARES-2P) with a maximum-likelihood approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2015-01-01

    Coarse-grained models are useful tools to investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of biomolecules. They are obtained by merging several atoms into one interaction site. Such simplified models try to capture as much as possible information of the original biomolecular system in all-atom representation but the resulting parameters of these coarse-grained force fields still need further optimization. In this paper, a force field optimization method, which is based on maximum-likelihood fitting of the simulated to the experimental conformational ensembles and least-squares fitting of the simulated to the experimental heat-capacity curves, is applied to optimize the Nucleic Acid united-RESidue 2-point (NARES-2P) model for coarse-grained simulations of nucleic acids recently developed in our laboratory. The optimized NARES-2P force field reproduces the structural and thermodynamic data of small DNA molecules much better than the original force field. PMID:26723596

  14. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  15. Molecular design of glycoprotein mimetics: glycoblotting by engineered proteins with an oxylamino-functionalized amino acid residue.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Naoki; Oiwa, Kei; Hohsaka, Takahiro; Sadamoto, Reiko; Niikura, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Norio; Takimoto, Akio; Kondo, Hirosato; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2005-11-18

    The general and efficient method for the site-directed glycosylation of proteins is a key step in order to understand the biological importance of the carbohydrate chains of proteins and to control functional roles of the engineered glycoproteins in terms of the development of improved glycoprotein therapeutics. We have developed a novel method for site-directed glycosylation of proteins based on chemoselective blotting of common reducing sugars by genetically encoded proteins. The oxylamino-functionalized L-homoserine residues, 2-amino-4-O-(N-methylaminooxy) butanoic acid and 2-amino-4-aminooxy butanoic acid, were efficiently incorporated into proteins by using the four-base codon/anticodon pair strategy in Escherichia coli in vitro translation. Direct and chemoselective coupling between unmodified simple sugars and N-methylaminooxy group displayed on the engineered streptavidin allowed for the combinatorial synthesis of novel glycoprotein mimetics.

  16. Improving volatile fatty acids production by exploiting the residual substrates in post-fermented sludge: Protease catalysis of refractory protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Fu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    The real cause to the low yield of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), from inhibition or low biodegradation, is uncertain in sludge anaerobic fermentation. In this study, poor biodegradability of proteins and fast decrease of the indigenous hydrolase activity in the residual post-fermented sludge were found to be the major reasons. With the addition of trypsin or alkaline protease in residual post-fermented sludge after primary alkaline fermentation, degradation efficiency of refractory protein increased by 33.6% and 34.8%, respectively. Accordingly, the VFAs yields were improved by 69.7% and 106.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of added trypsin and alkaline protease could maintain at 13.52 U/mL and 19.11 U/mL in the alkaline fermentation process. This study demonstrated that exploiting the refractory proteins in residual post-fermented sludge by protease addition seems to be a very promising way for improving VFAs yield of conventional alkaline fermentations with waste activated sludge.

  17. An eleven amino acid residue deletion expands the substrate specificity of acetyl xylan esterase II (AXE II) from Penicillium purpurogenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombres, Marcela; Garate, José A.; Lagos, Carlos F.; Araya-Secchi, Raúl; Norambuena, Patricia; Quiroz, Soledad; Larrondo, Luis; Pérez-Acle, Tomas; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    The soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum secretes to the culture medium a variety of enzymes related to xylan biodegradation, among them three acetyl xylan esterases (AXE I, II and III). AXE II has 207 amino acids; it belongs to family 5 of the carbohydrate esterases and its structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 0.9 Å resolution (PDB 1G66). The enzyme possesses the α/β hydrolase fold and the catalytic triad typical of serine esterases (Ser90, His187 and Asp175). AXE II can hydrolyze esters of a large variety of alcohols, but it is restricted to short chain fatty acids. An analysis of its three-dimensional structure shows that a loop that covers the active site may be responsible for this strict specificity. Cutinase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters of long chain fatty acids and shows a structure similar to AXE II, lacks this loop. In order to generate an AXE II with this broader specificity, the preparation of a mutant lacking residues involving this loop (Gly104 to Ala114) was proposed. A set of molecular simulation experiments based on a comparative model of the mutant enzyme predicted a stable structure. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the loop's residues have been eliminated from the AXE II cDNA. The mutant protein has been expressed in Aspergillus nidulans A722 and Pichia pastoris, and it is active towards a range of fatty acid esters of up to at least 14 carbons. The availability of an esterase with broader specificity may have biotechnological applications for the synthesis of sugar esters.

  18. Conserved arginine residues in the carboxyl terminus of the equine arteritis virus E protein may play a role in heparin binding but may not affect viral infectivity in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Sarkar, Sanjay; Zhang, Jianqiang; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-04-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, has relatively broad cell tropism in vitro. In horses, EAV primarily replicates in macrophages and endothelial cells of small blood vessels. Until now, neither the cellular receptor(s) nor the mechanism(s) of virus attachment and entry have been determined for this virus. In this study, we investigated the effect of heparin on EAV infection in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Heparin, but not other glycosaminoglycans, could reduce EAV infection up to 93 %. Sequence analysis of the EAV E minor envelope protein revealed a conserved amino acid sequence (52 RSLVARCSRGARYR 65) at the carboxy terminus of the E protein, which was predicted to be the heparin-binding domain. The basic arginine (R) amino acid residues were subsequently mutated to glycine by site-directed mutagenesis of ORF2a in an E protein expression vector and an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. Two single mutations in E (R52G and R57G) did not affect the heparin-binding capability, whereas the E double mutation (R52,60G) completely eliminated the interaction between the E protein and heparin. Although the mutant R52,60G EAV did not bind heparin, the mutations did not completely abolish infectivity, indicating that heparin is not the only critical factor for EAV infection. This also suggested that other viral envelope protein(s) might be involved in attachment through heparin or other cell-surface molecules, and this warrants further investigation.

  19. Phenolic acids identified in sorghum distillery residue demonstrated antioxidative and anti-cold-stress properties in cultured tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin-Mei; Lin, Jing-Jen; Liao, Chih-Yuan; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Pan, Bonnie Sun

    2014-05-21

    This study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds and evaluate the anti-cold-stress function of the sorghum distillery residue (SDR) using tilapia as an alternative animal model. The highest contents of water-soluble bioactive compounds in SDR were polyphenols, followed by tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. SDR was extracted with double-distilled water, 95% ethanol, and ethyl acetate, separately. The ethanol extract (SDR-E) yielded the highest polyphenol content [15.03 mg/g of SDR dry weight (dw)], of which the EC50 value of R,R-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficiency was 0.56 ± 0.04 mg/mL. The SDR-E suppressed the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) more efficiently than that of other extracts. Tilapia fed a diet containing 3.6% SDR-E decreased accumulative mortality during cold stress, of 46.2%. The accumulative morality of the control was 92.9%. The phenolic acids identified in SDR included gallic acid (0.36 ± 0.08 mg/g of SDR dw), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (0.16 ± 0.12 mg/g of SDR dw), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.49 ± 0.23 mg/g of SDR dw). Diets supplemented with 0.5% 4-hydroxybenzoic acid fed to tilapia showed a lower mortality rate than that fed 1.0% 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, comparable to that of the tilapia fed 20% SDR. The latter showed lower mortality than that of the control. These results suggested that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is one of the major anti-cold-stress compounds in SDR.

  20. Amino acid sequence around the active-site serine residue in the acyltransferase domain of goat mammary fatty acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, J; Højrup, P; Rasmussen, M M; Roepstorff, P; Knudsen, J

    1985-01-01

    Goat mammary fatty acid synthetase was labelled in the acyltransferase domain by formation of O-ester intermediates by incubation with [1-14C]acetyl-CoA and [2-14C]malonyl-CoA. Tryptic-digest and CNBr-cleavage peptides were isolated and purified by high-performance reverse-phase and ion-exchange liquid chromatography. The sequences of the malonyl- and acetyl-labelled peptides were shown to be identical. The results confirm the hypothesis that both acetyl and malonyl groups are transferred to the mammalian fatty acid synthetase complex by the same transferase. The sequence is compared with those of other fatty acid synthetase transferases. PMID:3922356

  1. Prediction of fatty acid-binding residues on protein surfaces with three-dimensional probability distributions of interacting atoms.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Rajasekaran; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2014-08-01

    Protein-fatty acid interaction is vital for many cellular processes and understanding this interaction is important for functional annotation as well as drug discovery. In this work, we present a method for predicting the fatty acid (FA)-binding residues by using three-dimensional probability density distributions of interacting atoms of FAs on protein surfaces which are derived from the known protein-FA complex structures. A machine learning algorithm was established to learn the characteristic patterns of the probability density maps specific to the FA-binding sites. The predictor was trained with five-fold cross validation on a non-redundant training set and then evaluated with an independent test set as well as on holo-apo pair's dataset. The results showed good accuracy in predicting the FA-binding residues. Further, the predictor developed in this study is implemented as an online server which is freely accessible at the following website, http://ismblab.genomics.sinica.edu.tw/.

  2. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  3. Analysis of amino acids in latent fingerprint residue by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Tom; Croxton, Ruth; Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is important for the development and improvement of existing fingerprint enhancement techniques. This study demonstrates the first analysis of a latent fingerprint sample, using an optimized CE-MS method. In total 12 amino acids were detected in the fingerprint sample. MS/MS fragmentation was used to provide additional identity confirmation, for which eight of the twelve detected amino acids generated confirmatory product ions. Nine amino acids were quantified and their relative abundances were consistent with previous studies with serine and glycine being the most abundant. The successful detection of amino acids from latent fingerprints demonstrates that CE-MS is a potential future technique for further study of such compounds in fingerprint samples.

  4. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology.

  5. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Arwidsson, Zandra; Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin; von Kronhelm, Thomas; Sjöberg, Ragnar; Allard, Bert; van Hees, Patrick

    2010-01-15

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient.

  6. The C-terminal 50 Amino Acid Residues of Dengue NS3 Protein Are Important for NS3-NS5 Interaction and Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Moon Y. F.; Saw, Wuan Geok; Zhao, Yongqian; Chan, Kitti W. K.; Singh, Daljit; Chong, Yuwen; Forwood, Jade K.; Ooi, Eng Eong; Grüber, Gerhard; Lescar, Julien; Luo, Dahai; Vasudevan, Subhash G.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus multifunctional proteins NS3 protease/helicase and NS5 methyltransferase/RNA-dependent RNA polymerase form part of the viral replication complex and are involved in viral RNA genome synthesis, methylation of the 5′-cap of viral genome, and polyprotein processing among other activities. Previous studies have shown that NS5 residue Lys-330 is required for interaction between NS3 and NS5. Here, we show by competitive NS3-NS5 interaction ELISA that the NS3 peptide spanning residues 566–585 disrupts NS3-NS5 interaction but not the null-peptide bearing the N570A mutation. Small angle x-ray scattering study on NS3(172–618) helicase and covalently linked NS3(172–618)-NS5(320–341) reveals a rigid and compact formation of the latter, indicating that peptide NS5(320–341) engages in specific and discrete interaction with NS3. Significantly, NS3:Asn-570 to alanine mutation introduced into an infectious DENV2 cDNA clone did not yield detectable virus by plaque assay even though intracellular double-stranded RNA was detected by immunofluorescence. Detection of increased negative-strand RNA synthesis by real time RT-PCR for the NS3:N570A mutant suggests that NS3-NS5 interaction plays an important role in the balanced synthesis of positive- and negative-strand RNA for robust viral replication. Dengue virus infection has become a global concern, and the lack of safe vaccines or antiviral treatments urgently needs to be addressed. NS3 and NS5 are highly conserved among the four serotypes, and the protein sequence around the pinpointed amino acids from the NS3 and NS5 regions are also conserved. The identification of the functionally essential interaction between the two proteins by biochemical and reverse genetics methods paves the way for rational drug design efforts to inhibit viral RNA synthesis. PMID:25488659

  7. Key amino acid residues in the regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase catalysis by component B.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Brian J; Lipscomb, John D

    2003-05-20

    The regulatory component MMOB of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) has been hypothesized to control access of substrates into the active site of the hydroxylase component (MMOH) through formation of a size specific channel or region of increased structural flexibility tuned to methane and O(2). Accordingly, a decrease in the size of four MMOB residues (N107G/S109A/S110A/T111A, the Quad mutant) was shown to accelerate the reaction of substrates larger than methane with the reactive MMOH intermediate Q [Wallar, B. J., and Lipscomb, J. D. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 2220-2233]. Here, this hypothesis is tested by construction of single and double mutations involving the residues of the Quad mutant. It is shown that mutations of residues that extend into the core structure of MMOB alter many aspects of the MMOH catalyzed reaction but do not mimic the effects of the Quad mutant. In contrast, the MMOB residues that are thought to form part of the interface in the MMOH-MMOB complex increase active site accessibility as observed for the Quad mutant. In particular, the mutant T111A mimics most of the effects of the Quad mutant; thus, Thr111 is proposed to most directly control access. Unexpectedly, mutation of Thr111 to the larger Tyr greatly increases the rate constant for the reaction of larger substrates such as ethane, furan, and nitrobenzene with Q while decreasing the rate constant for the reaction with methane. Other steps in the cycle are dramatically slowed, the regiospecificity for nitrobenzene oxidation is altered, and 10-fold more T111Y than wild-type MMOB is required to maximize the rate of turnover. Thus, T111Y appears to make a more extensive change in local interface structure that allows hydrocarbons at least as large as ethane to bind and react with Q similarly. As a result, the bond cleavage rates for methane, ethane, and their deuterated analogues are shown for the first time to correlate with bond strength in accord with a mechanism in which C-H bond

  8. Radiolytic Modification of Sulfur Containing Acidic Amino Residues in Model Peptides: Fundamental Studies for Protein Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,G.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    Protein footprinting based on hydroxyl radical-mediated modification and quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis is a proven technique for examining protein structure, protein-ligand interactions, and structural allostery upon protein complex formation. The reactive and solvent-accessible amino acid side chains function as structural probes; however, correct structural analysis depends on the identification and quantification of all the relevant oxidative modifications within the protein sequence. Sulfur-containing amino acids are oxidized readily and the mechanisms of oxidation are particularly complex, although they have been extensively investigated by EPR and other spectroscopic methods. Here we have undertaken a detailed mass spectrometry study (using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry) of model peptides containing cysteine (Cys-SH), cystine (disulfide bonded Cys), and methionine after oxidation using {gamma}-rays or synchrotron X-rays and have compared these results to those expected from oxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature. Radiolysis of cysteine leads to cysteine sulfonic acid (+48 Da mass shift) and cystine as the major products; other minor products including cysteine sulfinic acid (+32 Da mass shift) and serine (-16 Da mass shift) are observed. Radiolysis of cystine results in the oxidative opening of the disulfide bond and generation of cysteine sulfonic acid and sulfinic acid; however, the rate of oxidation is significantly less than that for cysteine. Radiolysis of methionine gives rise primarily to methionine sulfoxide (+16 Da mass shift); this can be further oxidized to methionine sulfone (+32 Da mass shift) or another product with a -32 Da mass shift likely due to aldehyde formation at the {gamma}-carbon. Due to the high reactivity of sulfur-containing amino acids, the extent of oxidation is easily influenced by secondary oxidation events or the presence of redox reagents used in standard proteolytic

  9. A conservative amino acid substitution alters the regiospecificity of CYP94A2, a fatty acid hydroxylase from the plant Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Kahn, R A; Le Bouquin, R; Pinot, F; Benveniste, I; Durst, F

    2001-07-15

    Fatty acid omega-hydroxylation is involved in the biosynthesis of the plant cuticle, formation of plant defense signaling molecules, and possibly in the rapid catabolism of free fatty acids liberated under stress conditions. CYP94A2 is a cytochrome P450-dependent medium-chain fatty acid hydroxylase that was recently isolated from Vicia sativa. Contrary to CYP94A1 and CYP86A1, two other fatty acid hydroxylases previously characterized in V. sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, CYP94A2 is not a strict omega-hydroxylase, but exhibits chain-length-dependent regioselectivity of oxidative attack. Sequence alignments of CYP94A2 with CYP94A1 and molecular modeling studies suggested that F494, located in SRS-6 (substrate recognition site) was involved in substrate recognition and positioning. Indeed, a conservative amino acid substitution at that position markedly altered the regiospecificity of CYP94A2. The observed shift from omega toward omega-1 hydroxylation was prominent with lauric acid as substrate and declined with increasing fatty acid chain length.

  10. Nonenzymatic oligomerization reactions on templates containing inosinic acid or diaminopurine nucleotide residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The template-directed oligomerization of nucleoside-5'-phosphoro-2-methyl imidazolides on standard oligonucleotide templates has been studied extensively. Here, we describe experiments with templates in which inosinic acid (I) is substituted for guanylic acid, or 2,6-diaminopurine nucleotide (D) for adenylic acid. We find that the substitution of I for G in a template is strongly inhibitory and prevents any incorporation of C into internal positions in the oligomeric products of the reaction. The substitution of D for A, on the contrary, leads to increased incorporation of U into the products. We found no evidence for the template-directed facilitation of oligomerization of A or I through A-I base pairing. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  11. Early region 1B of adenovirus 2 encodes two coterminal proteins of 495 and 155 amino acid residues.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, C W; Schmitt, R C; Smart, J E; Lewis, J B

    1984-01-01

    Partial sequence analysis of tryptic peptides has identified the E1B-495R (E1b-57K) (early transcription region 1B of 495 amino acid residues, with an approximate molecular weight of 57,000) protein of adenovirus 2 as encoded by the 495 amino acid open reading frame located in the adenovirus 2 DNA sequence between nucleotides 2016 and 3500. Additional proteins of 16,000 Mr and 18,000 Mr that are related to the E1B-495R protein were identified by cell-free translation of hybridization-selected mRNA. Analysis of [35S]methionine-containing amino terminal tryptic peptides by thin-layer chromatography showed that the E1B-495R, E1B-18K, and E1B-16K proteins all begin at the same initiation codon. The E1B-495R protein from 293 cells also has the same initial tryptic peptide, acetyl-methionyl-glutamyl-arginine. Sequence analysis of E1B-18K tryptic peptides indicated that this protein also has the same carboxy terminus as the E1B-495R protein and that it is derived from an mRNA that is spliced to remove sequences between nucleotides 2250 and 3269, resulting in a protein product of 155 amino acid residues. Analysis of E1B-16K tryptic peptides has not yet revealed the carboxy terminal structure of this protein. Both the E1B-495R and the E1B-155R (E1B-18K) proteins, as well as the E1B-16K protein, were precipitated from cell-free translations and from extracts of infected cells by antiserum against an amino terminal nonapeptide common to these proteins. Images PMID:6323739

  12. Factors contributing to decreased protein stability when aspartic acid residues are in {beta}-sheet regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Cai, X.; Raffen, R.; Gu, M.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-07-01

    Asp residues are significantly under represented in {beta}-sheet regions of proteins, especially in the middle of {beta}-strands, as found by a number of studies using statistical, modeling, or experimental methods. To further understand the reasons for this under representation of Asp, we prepared and analyzed mutants of a {beta}-domain. Two Gln residues of the immunoglobulin light-chain variable domain (V{sub L}) of protein Len were replaced with Asp, and then the effects of these changes on protein stability and protein structure were studied. The replacement of Q38D, located at the end of a {beta}-strand, and that of Q89D, located in the middle of a {beta}-strand, reduced the stability of the parent immunoglobulin VL domain by 2.0 kcal/mol and 5.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Because the Q89D mutant of the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain was too unstable to be expressed as a soluble protein, we prepared the Q89D mutant in a triple mutant background, V{sub L}-Len M4L/Y27dD/T94H, which was 4.2 kcal/mol more stable than the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain. The structures of mutants V{sub L}-Len Q38D and V{sub L}-Len Q89D/M4L/Y27dD/T94H were determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.6 A resolution. We found no major perturbances in the structures of these QD mutant proteins relative to structures of the parent proteins. The observed stability changes have to be accounted for by cumulative effects of the following several factors: (1) by changes in main-chain dihedral angles and in side-chain rotomers, (2) by close contacts between some atoms, and, most significantly, (3) by the unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the Asp side chain and the carbonyls of the main chain. We show that the Asn side chain, which is of similar size but neutral, is less destabilizing. The detrimental effect of Asp within a {beta}-sheet of an immunoglobulin-type domain can have very serious consequences. A somatic mutation of a {beta}-strand residue to Asp could prevent the expression of the

  13. Factors contributing to decreased protein stability when aspartic acid residues are in β-sheet regions

    PubMed Central

    Pokkuluri, P.R.; Gu, M.; Cai, X.; Raffen, R.; Stevens, F.J.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Asp residues are significantly under represented in β-sheet regions of proteins, especially in the middle of β-strands, as found by a number of studies using statistical, modeling, or experimental methods. To further understand the reasons for this under representation of Asp, we prepared and analyzed mutants of a β-domain. Two Gln residues of the immunoglobulin light-chain variable domain (VL) of protein Len were replaced with Asp, and then the effects of these changes on protein stability and protein structure were studied. The replacement of Q38D, located at the end of a β-strand, and that of Q89D, located in the middle of a β-strand, reduced the stability of the parent immunoglobulin VL domain by 2.0 kcal/mol and 5.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Because the Q89D mutant of the wild-type VL-Len domain was too unstable to be expressed as a soluble protein, we prepared the Q89D mutant in a triple mutant background, VL-Len M4L/Y27dD/T94H, which was 4.2 kcal/mol more stable than the wild-type VL-Len domain. The structures of mutants VL-Len Q38D and VL-Len Q89D/M4L/Y27dD/T94H were determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.6 Å resolution. We found no major perturbances in the structures of these Q→D mutant proteins relative to structures of the parent proteins. The observed stability changes have to be accounted for by cumulative effects of the following several factors: (1) by changes in main-chain dihedral angles and in side-chain rotomers, (2) by close contacts between some atoms, and, most significantly, (3) by the unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the Asp side chain and the carbonyls of the main chain. We show that the Asn side chain, which is of similar size but neutral, is less destabilizing. The detrimental effect of Asp within a β-sheet of an immunoglobulin-type domain can have very serious consequences. A somatic mutation of a β-strand residue to Asp could prevent the expression of the domain both in vitro and in vivo, or it could contribute to

  14. Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Belevich, Galina; Euro, Liliya; Wikström, Mårten; Verkhovskaya, Marina

    2007-01-16

    The conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in subunit NuoCD of complex I from Escherichia coli were substituted for alanine. The wild-type and mutated NuoCD subunit was expressed on a plasmid in an E. coli strain bearing a nuoCD deletion. Complex I was fully expressed in the H224A and H228A mutants, whereas the R274A mutation yielded approximately 50% expression. Ubiquinone reductase activity of complex I was studied in membranes and with purified enzyme and was 50% and 30% of the wild-type activity in the H224A and H228A mutants, respectively. The activity of R274A was less than 5% of the wild type in membranes but 20% in purified complex I. Rolliniastatin inhibited quinone reductase activity in the mutants with similar affinity as in the wild type, indicating that the quinone-binding site was not significantly altered by the mutations. Ubiquinone-dependent superoxide production by complex I was similar to the wild type in the R274A mutant but slightly higher in the H224A and H228A mutants. The EPR spectra of purified complex I from the H224A and H228A mutants did not differ from the wild type. In contrast, the signals of the N2 cluster and another fast-relaxing [4Fe-4S] cluster, tentatively assigned as N6b, were drastically decreased in the NADH-reduced R274A mutant enzyme but reappeared on further reduction with dithionite. These findings show that the redox potential of the N2 and N6b centers is shifted to more negative values by the R274A mutation. Purified complex I was reconstituted into liposomes, and electric potential was generated across the membrane upon NADH addition in all three mutant enzymes, suggesting that none of the mutations directly affect the proton-pumping machinery.

  15. pH-induced conformational change of IscU at low pH correlates with protonation/deprotonation of two conserved histidine residues.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziqi; Kim, Jin Hae; Tonelli, Marco; Ali, Ibrahim K; Markley, John L

    2014-08-19

    IscU, the scaffold protein for the major iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis pathway in microorganisms and mitochondria (ISC pathway), plays important roles in the formation of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters and their delivery to acceptor apo-proteins. Our laboratory has shown that IscU populates two distinct, functionally relevant conformational states, a more structured state (S) and a more dynamic state (D), that differ by cis/trans isomerizations about two peptidyl-prolyl peptide bonds [Kim, J. H., Tonelli, M., and Markley, J. L. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109, 454-459. Dai Z., Tonelli, M., and Markley, J. L. (2012) Biochemistry, 51, 9595-9602. Cai, K., Frederick, R. O., Kim, J. H., Reinen, N. M., Tonelli, M., and Markley, J. L. (2013) J. Biol. Chem., 288, 28755-28770]. Here, we report our findings on the pH dependence of the D ⇄ S equilibrium for Escherichia coli IscU in which the D-state is stabilized at low and high pH values. We show that the lower limb of the pH dependence curve results from differences in the pKa values of two conserved histidine residues (His10 and His105) in the two states. The net proton affinity of His10 is about 50 times higher and that of His105 is 13 times higher in the D-state than in the S-state. The origin of the high limb of the D ⇄ S pH dependence remains to be determined. These results show that changes in proton inventory need to be taken into account in the steps in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and transfer that involve transitions of IscU between its S- and D-states.

  16. The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess; Chaves, Arielle; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W; Haigler, Candace H

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose synthases (CESAs) synthesize the β-1,4-glucan chains that coalesce to form cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. In addition to a large cytosolic (catalytic) domain, CESAs have eight predicted transmembrane helices (TMHs). However, analogous to the structure of BcsA, a bacterial CESA, predicted TMH5 in CESA may instead be an interfacial helix. This would place the conserved FxVTxK motif in the plant cell cytosol where it could function as a substrate-gating loop as occurs in BcsA. To define the functional importance of the CESA region containing FxVTxK, we tested five parallel mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana CESA1 and Physcomitrella patens CESA5 in complementation assays of the relevant cesa mutants. In both organisms, the substitution of the valine or lysine residues in FxVTxK severely affected CESA function. In Arabidopsis roots, both changes were correlated with lower cellulose anisotropy, as revealed by Pontamine Fast Scarlet. Analysis of hypocotyl inner cell wall layers by atomic force microscopy showed that two altered versions of Atcesa1 could rescue cell wall phenotypes observed in the mutant background line. Overall, the data show that the FxVTxK motif is functionally important in two phylogenetically distant plant CESAs. The results show that Physcomitrella provides an efficient model for assessing the effects of engineered CESA mutations affecting primary cell wall synthesis and that diverse testing systems can lead to nuanced insights into CESA structure-function relationships. Although CESA membrane topology needs to be experimentally determined, the results support the possibility that the FxVTxK region functions similarly in CESA and BcsA.

  17. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution (w/v). Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing li...

  18. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  19. Valproic acid increases conservative homologous recombination frequency and reactive oxygen species formation: a potential mechanism for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Defoort, Ericka N; Kim, Perry M; Winn, Louise M

    2006-04-01

    Valproic acid, a commonly used antiepileptic agent, is associated with a 1 to 2% incidence of neural tube defects when taken during pregnancy; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs has not been elucidated. Previous research suggests that valproic acid exposure leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA damage due to ROS can result in DNA double-strand breaks, which can be repaired through homologous recombination (HR), a process that is not error-free and can result in detrimental genetic changes. Because the developing embryo requires tight regulation of gene expression to develop properly, we propose that the loss or dysfunction of genes involved in embryonic development through aberrant HR may ultimately cause neural tube defects. To determine whether valproic acid induces HR, Chinese hamster ovary 3-6 cells, containing a neomycin direct repeat recombination substrate, were exposed to valproic acid for 4 or 24 h. A significant increase in HR after exposure to valproic acid (5 and 10 mM) for 24 h was observed, which seems to occur through a conservative HR mechanism. We also demonstrated that exposure to valproic acid (5 and 10 mM) significantly increased intracellular ROS levels, which were attenuated by preincubation with polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEG)-catalase. A significant change in the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/2'-de-oxyguanosine, a measure of DNA oxidation, was not observed after valproic acid exposure; however, preincubation with PEG-catalase significantly blocked the increase in HR. These data demonstrate that valproic acid increases HR frequency and provides a possible mechanism for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Rüker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed. PMID:7538846

  1. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  2. Identification of amino acid residues responsible for the enantioselectivity and amide formation capacity of the Arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191.

    PubMed

    Kiziak, Christoph; Stolz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile with a low enantioselectivity to (R)-mandelic acid and (S)-mandeloamide in a ratio of about 4:1. In contrast, the same substrate was hydrolyzed by the homologous nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750 almost exclusively to (R)-mandelic acid. A chimeric enzyme between both nitrilases was constructed, which represented in total 16 amino acid exchanges in the central part of the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191. The chimeric enzyme clearly resembled the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750 in its turnover characteristics for (R,S)-mandelonitrile and (R,S)-2-phenylpropionitrile (2-PPN) and demonstrated an even higher enantioselectivity for the formation of (R)-mandelic acid than the nitrilase from A. faecalis. An alanine residue (Ala165) in direct proximity to the catalytically active cysteine residue was replaced in the nitrilase from P. fluorescens by a tryptophan residue (as found in the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750 and most other bacterial nitrilases) and several other amino acid residues. Those enzyme variants that possessed a larger substituent in position 165 (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) converted racemic mandelonitrile and 2-PPN to increased amounts of the R enantiomers of the corresponding acids. The enzyme variant Ala165His showed a significantly increased relative activity for mandelonitrile (compared to 2-PPN), and the opposite was found for the enzyme variants carrying aromatic residues in the relevant position. The mutant forms carrying an aromatic substituent in position 165 generally formed significantly reduced amounts of mandeloamide from mandelonitrile. The important effect of the corresponding amino acid residue on the reaction specificity and enantiospecificity of arylacetonitrilases was confirmed by the construction of a Trp164Ala variant of the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750. This point mutation converted the highly R

  3. Isolation of residual lignin from softwood kraft pulp. Advantages of the acetic acid acidolysis method.

    PubMed

    Lachenal, Dominique; Mortha, Gérard; Sevillano, Rose-Marie; Zaroubine, Michail

    2004-01-01

    Lignin in kraft pulp was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates, acidolysis with dioxane-water-HCl (conventional method), and acidolysis with acetic acid-water-ZnCl2. The latter method was shown to extract lignin with a better yield than for conventional acidolysis and with a much lower content in impurities than for enzymatic hydrolysis. It was confirmed by 13C NMR analysis of the lignin samples that conventional hydrolysis modified the lignin polymer, causing the cleavage of some aryl-ether linkages. The cleavage was also observed on a model compound submitted to the same extraction conditions. In that respect, the acetic acid-water-ZnCl2 method was less damaging and consequently more suitable for analytical purposes.

  4. Förster energy-transfer studies between Trp residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and the glycosylation site of the protein.

    PubMed

    Albani, Jihad R

    2003-10-10

    Energy-transfer studies between Trp residues of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and the fluorescent probe Calcofluor White were performed. Calcofluor White interacts with carbohydrate residues of the protein, while the three Trp residues are located at the surface (Trp-160) and in hydrophobic domains of the protein (Trp-25 and Trp-122). Binding of Calcofluor to the protein induces a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the Trp residues accompanied by an increase of that of Calcofluor White. Efficiency (E) of Trp fluorescence quenching was determined to be equal to 45%, and the Förster distance R(o), at which the efficiency of energy transfer is 50%, was calculated to be 18.13 A. This low distance and the value of the efficiency clearly indicate that energy transfer between Trp residues and Calcofluor White is weak.

  5. FKBP12.6 activates RyR1: investigating the amino acid residues critical for channel modulation.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Elisa; Galfré, Elena; O'Brien, Fiona; Pitt, Samantha J; Bellamy, Stuart; Sessions, Richard B; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2014-02-18

    We have previously shown that FKBP12 associates with RyR2 in cardiac muscle and that it modulates RyR2 function differently to FKBP12.6. We now investigate how these proteins affect the single-channel behavior of RyR1 derived from rabbit skeletal muscle. Our results show that FKBP12.6 activates and FKBP12 inhibits RyR1. It is likely that both proteins compete for the same binding sites on RyR1 because channels that are preactivated by FKBP12.6 cannot be subsequently inhibited by FKBP12. We produced a mutant FKBP12 molecule (FKBP12E31Q/D32N/W59F) where the residues Glu(31), Asp(32), and Trp(59) were converted to the corresponding residues in FKBP12.6. With respect to the functional regulation of RyR1 and RyR2, the FKBP12E31Q/D32N/W59F mutant lost all ability to behave like FKBP12 and instead behaved like FKBP12.6. FKBP12E31Q/D32N/W59F activated RyR1 but was not capable of activating RyR2. In conclusion, FKBP12.6 activates RyR1, whereas FKBP12 activates RyR2 and this selective activator phenotype is determined within the amino acid residues Glu(31), Asp(32), and Trp(59) in FKBP12 and Gln(31), Asn(32), and Phe(59) in FKBP12.6. The opposing but different effects of FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 on RyR1 and RyR2 channel gating provide scope for diversity of regulation in different tissues.

  6. Near-UV Photodissociation of Tryptic Peptide Cation Radicals. Scope and Effects of Amino Acid Residues and Radical Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Tureček, František

    2017-02-01

    Peptide cation-radical fragment ions of the z-type, [●AXAR+], [●AXAK+], and [●XAR+], where X = A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, N, P, Y, and W, were generated by electron transfer dissociation of peptide dications and investigated by MS3-near-ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) at 355 nm. Laser-pulse dependence measurements indicated that the ion populations were homogeneous for most X residues except phenylalanine. UVPD resulted in dissociations of backbone CO-NH bonds that were accompanied by hydrogen atom transfer, producing fragment ions of the [yn]+ type. Compared with collision-induced dissociation, UVPD yielded less side-chain dissociations even for residues that are sensitive to radical-induced side-chain bond cleavages. The backbone dissociations are triggered by transitions to second (B) excited electronic states in the peptide ion R-CH●-CONH- chromophores that are resonant with the 355-nm photon energy. Electron promotion increases the polarity of the B excited states, R-CH+-C●(O-)NH-, and steers the reaction to proceed by transfer of protons from proximate acidic Cα and amide nitrogen positions.

  7. Observing Vibrational Energy Flow in a Protein with the Spatial Resolution of a Single Amino Acid Residue.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoki; Mizuno, Misao; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2014-09-18

    One of the challenges in physical chemistry has been understanding how energy flows in a condensed phase from the microscopic viewpoint. To address this, space-resolved information at the molecular scale is required but has been lacking due to experimental difficulties. We succeeded in the real-time mapping of the vibrational energy flow in a protein with the spatial resolution of a single amino acid residue by combining time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy and site-directed single-Trp mutagenesis. Anti-Stokes Raman intensities of the Trp residues at different sites exhibited different temporal evolutions, reflecting propagation of the energy released by the heme group. A classical heat transport model was not able to reproduce the entire experimental data set, showing that we need a molecular-level description to explain the energy flow in a protein. The systematic application of our general methodology to proteins with different structural motifs may provide a greatly increased understanding of the energy flow in proteins.

  8. Amino acid residues 4425-4621 localized on the three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Benacquista, B L; Sharma, M R; Samsó, M; Zorzato, F; Treves, S; Wagenknecht, T

    2000-01-01

    We have localized a region contained within the sequence of amino acid residues 4425-4621 on the three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR). Mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against a peptide comprising these residues have been complexed with ryanodine receptors and imaged in the frozen-hydrated state by cryoelectron microscopy. These images, along with images of antibody-free ryanodine receptor, were used to compute two-dimensional averaged images and three-dimensional reconstructions. Two-dimensional averages of immunocomplexes in which the ryanodine receptor was in the fourfold symmetrical orientation disclosed four symmetrical regions of density located on the edges of the receptor's cytoplasmic assembly that were absent from control averages of receptor without added antibody. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the antibody-binding sites to be on the so-called handle domains of the ryanodine receptor's cytoplasmic assembly, near their junction with the transmembrane assembly. This study is the first to demonstrate epitope mapping on the three-dimensional structure of the ryanodine receptor. PMID:10692321

  9. [Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid residues in foods using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Deng, Xiaojun; Guo, Dehua; Jin, Shuping

    2007-07-01

    A method for the determination of glyphosate (PMG) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) residues in plant products, such as rice, wheat, vegetables, fruits and tea, pig and chicken muscles, aquatic products, chestnut, honey, etc., was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In this method, PMG and AMPA were extracted with water from samples, defatted using an extraction step with dichloromethane, and purified using a cation-exchange (CAX) solid phase extraction cartridge. Then, these were derived using fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for subsequent HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Isotope-labeled PMG 1, 2(13)- C(15) N was used as the internal standard for the quantitative analysis of two residues. For all samples, the recoveries ranged from 80.0% to 104% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 6.7% to 18.2%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was determined to be 0.05 mg/kg with a linear range of 0.20-10 microg/L. It is demonstrated that this method is reliable and sensitive for the analysis of PMG and APMA with low concentrations in foods.

  10. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  11. A Hexasaccharide Containing Rare 2‐O‐Sulfate‐Glucuronic Acid Residues Selectively Activates Heparin Cofactor II

    PubMed Central

    Sankarayanarayanan, Nehru Viji; Strebel, Tamara R.; Boothello, Rio S.; Sheerin, Kevin; Raghuraman, Arjun; Sallas, Florence; Mosier, Philip D.; Watermeyer, Nicholas D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sequences that selectively target heparin cofactor II (HCII), a key serpin present in human plasma, remain unknown. Using a computational strategy on a library of 46 656 heparan sulfate hexasaccharides we identified a rare sequence consisting of consecutive glucuronic acid 2‐O‐sulfate residues as selectively targeting HCII. This and four other unique hexasaccharides were chemically synthesized. The designed sequence was found to activate HCII ca. 250‐fold, while leaving aside antithrombin, a closely related serpin, essentially unactivated. This group of rare designed hexasaccharides will help understand HCII function. More importantly, our results show for the first time that rigorous use of computational techniques can lead to discovery of unique GAG sequences that can selectively target GAG‐binding protein(s), which may lead to chemical biology or drug discovery tools. PMID:28124818

  12. Ophthalmic acid accumulation in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding protein YggS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Yamauchi, Ayako; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli YggS is a highly conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein whose biochemical function is currently unknown. A previous study with a yggS-deficient E. coli strain (ΔyggS) demonstrated that YggS controls l-Ile- and l-Val-metabolism by modulating 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB), l-2-aminobutyrate (l-2-AB), and/or coenzyme A (CoA) availability in a PLP-dependent fashion. In this study, we found that ΔyggS accumulates an unknown metabolite as judged by amino acid analyses. LC/MS and MS/MS analyses of the compound with propyl chloroformate derivatization, and co-chromatography analysis identified this compound as γ-l-glutamyl-l-2-aminobutyryl-glycine (ophthalmic acid), a glutathione (GSH) analogue in which the l-Cys moiety is replaced by l-2-AB. We also determine the metabolic consequence of the yggS mutation. Absence of YggS initially increases l-2-AB availability, and then causes ophthalmic acid accumulation and CoA limitation in the cell. The expression of a γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and a glutathione synthetase in a ΔyggS background causes high-level accumulation of ophthalmic acid in the cells (∼1.2 nmol/mg cells) in a minimal synthetic medium. This opens the possibility of a first fermentative production of ophthalmic acid.

  13. Mutational and Structural Analysis of Conserved Residues in Ribose-5-Phosphate Isomerase B from Leishmania donovani: Role in Substrate Recognition and Conformational Stability

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Preet Kamal; Tripathi, Neha; Desale, Jayesh; Neelagiri, Soumya; Yadav, Shailendra; Bharatam, Prasad V.; Singh, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B from Leishmania donovani (LdRpiB) is one of the potential drug targets against visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study, we have targeted several conserved amino acids for mutational analysis (i.e. Cys69, His11, His102, His138, Asp45, Tyr46, Pro47 and Glu149) to gain crucial insights into their role in substrate binding, catalysis and conformational stability of the enzyme. All the eight LdRpiB variants were cloned, sequenced, expressed and purified. C69S, H102N, D45N and E149A mutants exhibited complete loss of enzyme activity indicating that they are indispensable for the enzyme activity. Kinetic parameters were altered in case of H138N, H11N and P47A variants; however Y46F exhibited similar kinetic behaviour as wild type. All the mutants except H138N exhibited altered protein structure as determined by CD and fluorescence spectral analysis. This data was supported by the atomic level details of the conformational changes and substrate binding using molecular dynamic simulations. LdRpiB also exhibited activity with D-form of various aldose substrates in the order of D-ribose > D-talose > D-allose > D-arabinose. Our study provides insights for better understanding of substrate enzyme interactions which can rationalize the process of drug design against parasite RpiB. PMID:26953696

  14. Functional analysis of conserved aromatic amino acids in the discoidin domain of Paenibacillus β-1,3-glucanase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 190-kDa Paenibacillus β-1,3-glucanase (LamA) contains a catalytic module of the glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and several auxiliary domains. Of these, a discoidin domain (DS domain), present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins with a wide variety of functions, exists at the carboxyl-terminus. To better understand the bacterial DS domain in terms of its structure and function, this domain alone was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The results indicate that the DS domain binds various polysaccharides and enhances the biological activity of the GH16 module on composite substrates. We also investigated the importance of several conserved aromatic residues in the domain's stability and substrate-binding affinity. Both were affected by mutations of these residues; however, the effect on protein stability was more notable. In particular, the forces contributed by a sandwiched triad (W1688, R1756, and W1729) were critical for the presumable β-sandwich fold. PMID:19930717

  15. Helix formation in preorganized beta/gamma-peptide foldamers: hydrogen-bond analogy to the alpha-helix without alpha-amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Almeida, Aaron M; Zhang, Weicheng; Reidenbach, Andrew G; Choi, Soo Hyuk; Guzei, Ilia A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-06-16

    We report the first high-resolution structural data for the beta/gamma-peptide 13-helix (i,i+3 C=O...H-N H-bonds), a secondary structure that is formed by oligomers with a 1:1 alternation of beta- and gamma-amino acid residues. Our characterization includes both crystallographic and 2D NMR data. Previous studies suggested that beta/gamma-peptides constructed from conformationally flexible residues adopt a different helical secondary structure in solution. Our design features preorganized beta- and gamma-residues, which strongly promote 13-helical folding by the 1:1 beta/gamma backbone.

  16. Measurement of the individual pKa values of acidic residues of hen and turkey lysozymes by two-dimensional 1H NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Bartik, K; Redfield, C; Dobson, C M

    1994-01-01

    The pH dependence of the two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of hen and turkey egg-white lysozymes has been recorded over the pH range 1-7. By monitoring the chemical shifts of the resonances of the various protons of ionizable residues, individual pKa values for the acidic residues have been determined for both proteins. The pKa values are displaced, with the exception of those of the residues in the active site cleft, by an average of 1 unit to low pH compared to model compounds. PMID:8038389

  17. Cascade Dissociations of Peptide Cation-Radicals. Part 1. Scope and Effects of Amino Acid Residues in Penta-, Nona- and Decapeptides

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Thomas W.; Hui, Renjie; Ledvina, Aaron; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid residue-specific backbone and side-chain dissociations of peptide z ions in MS3 spectra were elucidated for over 40 pentapeptides with arginine C-terminated sequences of the AAXAR and AAHXR type, nonapeptides of the AAHAAXYAR and AAHAXAYAR type, and AAHAAXYAAR decapeptides. Peptide zn ions containing amino acid residues with readily transferrable benzylic or tertiary β-hydrogen atoms (Phe, Tyr, His, Trp, Val) underwent facile backbone cleavages to form dominant zn-2 or zn-3 ions. These backbone cleavages are thought to be triggered by a side-chain β-hydrogen atom transfer to the z ion Cα radical site followed by homolytic dissociation of the adjacent Cα—CO bond, forming zn-2 + HNCO cation-radicals that spontaneously dissociate by loss of HNCO. Amino acid residues that do not have readily transferrable β-hydrogen atoms (Gly, Ala) do not undergo the zn → zn-2 dissociations. The backbone cleavages compete with side-chain dissociations in z ions containing Asp and Asn residues. Side-chain dissociations are thought to be triggered by α-hydrogen atom transfers that activate the Cβ—Cγ or Cβ—heteroatom bonds for dissociations that dominate the MS3 spectra of z ions from peptides containing Leu, Cys, Lys, Met, Ser, Arg, Glu and Gln residues. The Lys, Arg, Gln, and Glu residues also participate in γ-hydrogen atom transfers that trigger other side-chain dissociations. PMID:22669761

  18. Just three water molecules can trigger the undesired nonenzymatic reactions of aspartic acid residues: new insight from a quantum-chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, O.

    2014-03-01

    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (L-Asp) can undergo spontaneous, nonenzymatic reactions under physiological conditions by which abnormal L-β-Asp, D-Asp, and/or D-β-Asp residues are formed. These altered Asp residues may affect the three-dimensional structures of the peptides and proteins and hence their properties and functions. In fact, the altered Asp residues are relevant to age-related diseases such as cataract and Alzheimer's disease. Most of the above reactions of the L-Asp residue proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, I propose a detailed mechanism of cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for a small Asp-containing model compound complexed with three water molecules which act as general acid-base catalysts in proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form. Then, successive reorientation of a water molecule and conformational change occur followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen atom on the carboxyl carbon atom of the Asp side chain to form a five-membered ring. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  19. Roles of basic amino acid residues in the activity of μ-conotoxin GIIIA and GIIIB, peptide blockers of muscle sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ishida, Yukisato; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    To study in detail the roles of basic amino acid residues in the activity of μ-conotoxin GIIIA (μ-GIIIA) and GIIIB (μ-GIIIB), specific blockers of muscle sodium channels, seven analogs of μ-GIIIA, and two analogs of μ-GIIIB were synthesized. μ-GIIIA analogs were synthesized by replacing systematically the three Arg residues (Arg1, Arg13, and Arg19) with one, two, and three Lys residues. μ-GIIIB analogs were synthesized by replacing simultaneously all four Lys residues (Lys9, Lys11, Lys16, and Lys19) with Arg residues and further replacement of acidic Asp residues with neutral Ala residues. Circular dichroism spectra of the synthesized analogs suggested that the replacement did not affect the three dimensional structure. The inhibitory effects on the twitch contractions of the rat diaphragm showed that the side chain guanidino group of Arg13 of μ-GIIIA was important for the activity, whereas that of Arg19 had little role for biological activity. Although [Arg9,11,16,19]μ-GIIIB showed higher activity than native μ-GIIIB, highly basic [Ala2,12, Arg9,11,16,19]μ-GIIIB showed lower activity, suggesting that there was an appropriate molecular basicity for the maximum activity.

  20. The Loss and Gain of Functional Amino Acid Residues Is a Common Mechanism Causing Human Inherited Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Pejaver, Vikas; Pagel, Kymberleigh A.; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N.; Mooney, Sean D.; Radivojac, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the precise molecular events altered by disease-causing genetic variants represents a major challenge in translational bioinformatics. To this end, many studies have investigated the structural and functional impact of amino acid substitutions. Most of these studies were however limited in scope to either individual molecular functions or were concerned with functional effects (e.g. deleterious vs. neutral) without specifically considering possible molecular alterations. The recent growth of structural, molecular and genetic data presents an opportunity for more comprehensive studies to consider the structural environment of a residue of interest, to hypothesize specific molecular effects of sequence variants and to statistically associate these effects with genetic disease. In this study, we analyzed data sets of disease-causing and putatively neutral human variants mapped to protein 3D structures as part of a systematic study of the loss and gain of various types of functional attribute potentially underlying pathogenic molecular alterations. We first propose a formal model to assess probabilistically function-impacting variants. We then develop an array of structure-based functional residue predictors, evaluate their performance, and use them to quantify the impact of disease-causing amino acid substitutions on catalytic activity, metal binding, macromolecular binding, ligand binding, allosteric regulation and post-translational modifications. We show that our methodology generates actionable biological hypotheses for up to 41% of disease-causing genetic variants mapped to protein structures suggesting that it can be reliably used to guide experimental validation. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of disease-causing human variants mapping to protein structures are function-altering both in the presence and absence of stability disruption. PMID:27564311

  1. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Gieseker, Charles M; Miller, Ron A; Rummel, Nathan G; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2009-04-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H](-)m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 microgkg(-1) of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n=107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 microgkg(-1). An internal standard, (13)C(3)-labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D.=15%, n=18) with an MDL of 7.4 microgkg(-1). Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D.=10%, n=13) with an MDL of 3.5 microgkg(-1).

  2. Keys to Lipid Selection in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Catalysis: Structural Flexibility, Gating Residues and Multiple Binding Pockets

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Giulia; Bauer, Inga; Campomanes, Pablo; Cavalli, Andrea; Armirotti, Andrea; Girotto, Stefania; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates the endocannabinoid system cleaving primarily the lipid messenger anandamide. FAAH has been well characterized over the years and, importantly, it represents a promising drug target to treat several diseases, including inflammatory-related diseases and cancer. But its enzymatic mechanism for lipid selection to specifically hydrolyze anandamide, rather than similar bioactive lipids, remains elusive. Here, we clarify this mechanism in FAAH, examining the role of the dynamic paddle, which is formed by the gating residues Phe432 and Trp531 at the boundary between two cavities that form the FAAH catalytic site (the “membrane-access” and the “acyl chain-binding” pockets). We integrate microsecond-long MD simulations of wild type and double mutant model systems (Phe432Ala and Trp531Ala) of FAAH, embedded in a realistic membrane/water environment, with mutagenesis and kinetic experiments. We comparatively analyze three fatty acid substrates with different hydrolysis rates (anandamide > oleamide > palmitoylethanolamide). Our findings identify FAAH’s mechanism to selectively accommodate anandamide into a multi-pocket binding site, and to properly orient the substrate in pre-reactive conformations for efficient hydrolysis that is interceded by the dynamic paddle. Our findings therefore endorse a structural framework for a lipid selection mechanism mediated by structural flexibility and gating residues between multiple binding cavities, as found in FAAH. Based on the available structural data, this exquisite catalytic strategy for substrate specificity seems to be shared by other lipid-degrading enzymes with similar enzymatic architecture. The mechanistic insights for lipid selection might assist de-novo enzyme design or drug discovery efforts. PMID:26111155

  3. Amino acid residues that contribute to substrate specificity of class A beta-lactamase SME-1.

    PubMed

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-08-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 beta-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A beta-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket.

  4. Functional Differentiation of Antiporter-Like Polypeptides in Complex I; a Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of Residues Conserved in MrpA and NuoL but Not in MrpD, NuoM, and NuoN

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Eva; Górecki, Kamil; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the three largest subunits in the membrane domain (NuoL, NuoM and NuoN) of complex I are homologous to each other, as well as to two subunits (MrpA and MrpD) from a Na+/H+ antiporter, Mrp. MrpA and NuoL are more similar to each other and the same is true for MrpD and NuoN. This suggests a functional differentiation which was proven experimentally in a deletion strain model system, where NuoL could restore the loss of MrpA, but not that of MrpD and vice versa. The simplest explanation for these observations was that the MrpA and MrpD proteins are not antiporters, but rather single subunit ion channels that together form an antiporter. In this work our focus was on a set of amino acid residues in helix VIII, which are only conserved in NuoL and MrpA (but not in any of the other antiporter-like subunits.) and to compare their effect on the function of these two proteins. By combining complementation studies in B. subtilis and 23Na-NMR, response of mutants to high sodium levels were tested. All of the mutants were able to cope with high salt levels; however, all but one mutation (M258I/M225I) showed differences in the efficiency of cell growth and sodium efflux. Our findings showed that, although very similar in sequence, NuoL and MrpA seem to differ on the functional level. Nonetheless the studied mutations gave rise to interesting phenotypes which are of interest in complex I research. PMID:27391676

  5. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Berroteran, R W; Ware, D E; Hampsey, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. Analysis of cyc1 transcripts from sua8 mutants revealed that suppression is a consequence of diminished transcription initiation at the normal start sites in favor of initiation at downstream sites, including a site between the aberrant and normal ATG start codons. This effect is not cyc1 gene specific since initiation at other genes, including ADH1, CYC7, and HIS4, was similarly affected, although initiation at HIS3 and SPT15 was unaffected. The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The sua8 suppressors are the result of single amino acid replacements of highly conserved residues. Three replacements were found either within or immediately preceding homology block D, and a fourth was found adjacent to homology block H, indicating that these regions play a role in defining start sites in vivo. Nearly identical effects on start site selection were observed for sua7 suppressors, which encode altered forms of TFIIB. Synthetic lethality was associated with double sua7 sua8 suppressor mutations, and recessive sua7 mutants failed to fully complement recessive sua8 mutants in heterozygous diploids (nonallelic noncomplementation). These data indicate that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB are important determinants of transcription start site selection in S. cerevisiae and suggest that this function might be conferred by interaction between these two proteins. Images PMID:8264591

  6. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of agricultural and agro-industrial residues for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J

    2007-04-01

    The potential of dilute-acid prehydrolysis as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, peanut shells, and cassava stalks was investigated. The prehydrolysis was performed at 122 degrees C during 20, 40, or 60 min using 2% H(2)SO(4) at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10. Sugar formation increased with increasing reaction time. Xylose, glucose, arabinose, and galactose were detected in all of the prehydrolysates, whereas mannose was found only in the prehydrolysates of peanut shells and cassava stalks. The hemicelluloses of bagasse were hydrolyzed to a high-extent yielding concentrations of xylose and arabinose of 19.1 and 2.2 g/L, respectively, and a xylan conversion of more than 80%. High-glucose concentrations (26-33.5 g/L) were found in the prehydrolysates of rice hulls, probably because of hydrolysis of starch of grain remains in the hulls. Peanut shells and cassava stalks rendered low amounts of sugars on prehydrolysis, indicating that the conditions were not severe enough to hydrolyze the hemicelluloses in these materials quantitatively. All prehydrolysates were readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dilute-acid prehydrolysis resulted in a 2.7- to 3.7-fold increase of the enzymatic convertibility of bagasse, but was not efficient for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut shells, cassava stalks, or rice hulls.

  7. ACID EVAPORATION OF ULTIMA GOLD TM AB LIQUID SCINTILLATION COCKTAIL RESIDUE

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Crump, S.

    2011-12-21

    Prior analyses of samples from the F/H Lab solutions showed the presence of diisopropylnapthalene (DIN), a major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC). These solutions are processed through H-Canyon Tank 10.5 and ultimately through the 17.8E evaporator. Similar solutions originated in SRNL streams sent to the same H Canyon tanks. This study examined whether the presence of these organics poses a process-significant hazard for the evaporator. Evaporation and calorimetry testing of surrogate samples containing 2000 ppm of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB LSC in 8 M nitric acid have been completed. These experiments showed that although reactions between nitric acid and the organic components do occur, they do not appear to pose a significant hazard for runaway reactions or generation of energetic compounds in canyon evaporators. The amount of off-gas generated was relatively modest and appeared to be well within the venting capacity of the H-Canyon evaporators. A significant fraction of the organic components likely survives the evaporation process primarily as non-volatile components that are not expected to represent any new process concerns during downstream operations such as neutralization. Laboratory Waste solutions containing minor amounts of DIN can be safely received, stored, transferred, and processed through the canyon waste evaporator.

  8. Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Residues for Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    The potential of dilute-acid prehydrolysis as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, peanut shells, and cassava stalks was investigated. The prehydrolysis was performed at 122°C during 20, 40, or 60 min using 2% H2SO4 at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1∶10. Sugar formation increased with increasing reaction time. Xylose, glucose, arabinose, and galactose were detected in all of the prehydrolysates, whereas mannose was found only in the prehydrolysates of peanut shells and cassava stalks. The hemicelluloses of bagasse were hydrolyzed to a high-extent yielding concentrations of xylose and arabinose of 19.1 and 2.2 g/L, respectively, and a xylan conversion of more than 80%. High-glucose concentrations (26-33.5 g/L) were found in the prehydrolysates of rice hulls, probably because of hydrolysis of starch of grain remains in the hulls. Peanut shells and cassava stalks rendered low amounts of sugars on prehydrolysis, indicating that the conditions were not severe enough to hydrolyze the hemicelluloses in these materials quantitatively. All prehydrolysates were readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dilute-acid prehydrolysis resulted in a 2.7-to 3.7-fold increase of the enzymatic convertibility of bagasse, but was not efficient for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut shells, cassava stalks, or rice hulls.

  9. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic residues pretreated with phosphoric acid-acetone for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kim, Nag-Jong; Jiang, Min; Kang, Jong Won; Chang, Ho Nam

    2009-07-01

    Bermudagrass, reed and rapeseed were pretreated with phosphoric acid-acetone and used for ethanol production by means of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with a batch and fed-batch mode. When the batch SSF experiments were conducted in a 3% low effective cellulose, about 16 g/L of ethanol were obtained after 96 h of fermentation. When batch SSF experiments were conducted with a higher cellulose content (10% effective cellulose for reed and bermudagrass and 5% for rapeseed), higher ethanol concentrations and yields (of more than 93%) were obtained. The fed-batch SSF strategy was adopted to increase the ethanol concentration further. When a higher water-insoluble solid (up to 36%) was applied, the ethanol concentration reached 56 g/L of an inhibitory concentration of the yeast strain used in this study at 38 degrees C. The results show that the pretreated materials can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production, and that the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment can effectively yield a higher ethanol concentration.

  10. The roles of active-site residues in the catalytic mechanism of trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase: a kinetic, NMR, and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Azurmendi, Hugo F; Wang, Susan C; Massiah, Michael A; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Whitman, Christian P; Mildvan, Albert S

    2004-04-13

    trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (CaaD) converts trans-3-chloroacrylic acid to malonate semialdehyde by the addition of H(2)O to the C-2, C-3 double bond, followed by the loss of HCl from the C-3 position. Sequence similarity between CaaD, an (alphabeta)(3) heterohexamer (molecular weight 47,547), and 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), an (alpha)(6) homohexamer, distinguishes CaaD from those hydrolytic dehalogenases that form alkyl-enzyme intermediates. The recently solved X-ray structure of CaaD demonstrates that betaPro-1 (i.e., Pro-1 of the beta subunit), alphaArg-8, alphaArg-11, and alphaGlu-52 are at or near the active site, and the >or=10(3.4)-fold decreases in k(cat) on mutating these residues implicate them as mechanistically important. The effect of pH on k(cat)/K(m) indicates a catalytic base with a pK(a) of 7.6 and an acid with a pK(a) of 9.2. NMR titration of (15)N-labeled wild-type CaaD yielded pK(a) values of 9.3 and 11.1 for the N-terminal prolines, while the fully active but unstable alphaP1A mutant showed a pK(a) of 9.7 (for the betaPro-1), implicating betaPro-1 as the acid catalyst, which may protonate C-2 of the substrate. These results provide the first evidence for an amino-terminal proline, conserved in all known tautomerase superfamily members, functioning as a general acid, rather than as a general base as in 4-OT. Hence, a reasonable candidate for the general base in CaaD is the active site residue alphaGlu-52. CaaD has 10 arginine residues, six in the alpha-subunit (Arg-8, Arg-11, Arg-17, Arg-25, Arg-35, and Arg-43), and four in the beta-subunit (Arg-15, Arg-21, Arg-55, and Arg-65). (1)H-(15)N-heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra of CaaD showed seven to nine Arg-NepsilonH resonances (denoted R(A) to R(I)) depending on the protein concentration and pH. One of these signals (R(D)) disappeared in the spectrum of the largely inactive alphaR11A mutant (deltaH = 7.11 ppm, deltaN = 89.5 ppm), and another one (R

  11. Rdh10a Provides a Conserved Critical Step in the Synthesis of Retinoic Acid during Zebrafish Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    D’Aniello, Enrico; Ravisankar, Padmapriyadarshini; Waxman, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    The first step in the conversion of vitamin A into retinoic acid (RA) in embryos requires retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs). Recent studies have demonstrated that RDH10 is a critical core component of the machinery that produces RA in mouse and Xenopus embryos. If the conservation of Rdh10 function in the production of RA extends to teleost embryos has not been investigated. Here, we report that zebrafish Rdh10a deficient embryos have defects consistent with loss of RA signaling, including anteriorization of the nervous system and enlarged hearts with increased cardiomyocyte number. While knockdown of Rdh10a alone produces relatively mild RA deficient phenotypes, Rdh10a can sensitize embryos to RA deficiency and enhance phenotypes observed when Aldh1a2 function is perturbed. Moreover, excess Rdh10a enhances embryonic sensitivity to retinol, which has relatively mild teratogenic effects compared to retinal and RA treatment. Performing Rdh10a regulatory expression analysis, we also demonstrate that a conserved teleost rdh10a enhancer requires Pax2 sites to drive expression in the eyes of transgenic embryos. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Rdh10a has a conserved requirement in the first step of RA production within vertebrate embryos. PMID:26394147

  12. Synergy of Lewis and Brønsted acids on catalytic hydrothermal decomposition of carbohydrates and corncob acid hydrolysis residues to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Tian; Chen, Jiachuan; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of various chemicals and materials. Herein, we reported a simple and effective dehydration of glucose-based carbohydrates to HMF in a biphasic system containing cyclopentyl methyl ether as the organic phase and AlCl3 with minute amounts of HCl as co-catalysts. The results showed that the mixed catalysts had a positive synergistic catalytic effect on glucose conversion to HMF compared with single AlCl3 or HCl catalyst. For glucose, the highest HMF yield of 54.5% was achieved at 175 °C for 20 min. More importantly, the optimal catalytic system was so efficient that it achieved one of the highest reported yields of HMF (30.5%) directly from corncob acid hydrolysis residues. Thus, the catalytic system can become a promising route for effective utilization of biomass in future biorefineries. PMID:28084456

  13. Amino acid residues in ribonuclease MC1 from bitter gourd seeds which are essential for uridine specificity.

    PubMed

    Numata, T; Suzuki, A; Yao, M; Tanaka, I; Kimura, M

    2001-01-16

    The ribonuclease MC1 (RNase MC1), isolated from seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), consists of 190 amino acids and is characterized by specific cleavage at the 5'-side of uridine. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to evaluate the contribution of four amino acids, Asn71, Val72, Leu73, and Arg74, at the alpha4-alpha5 loop between alpha4 and alpha5 helices for recognition of uracil base by RNase MC1. Four mutants, N71T, V72L, L73A, and R74S, in which Asn71, Val72, Leu73, and Arg74 in RNase MC1 were substituted for the corresponding amino acids, Thr, Leu, Ala, and Ser, respectively, in a guanylic acid preferential RNase NW from Nicotiana glutinosa, were prepared and characterized with respect to enzymatic activity. Kinetic analysis with a dinucleoside monophosphate, CpU, showed that the mutant N71T exhibited 7.0-fold increased K(m) and 2.3-fold decreased k(cat), while the mutant L73A had 14.4-fold increased K(m), although it did retain the k(cat) value comparable to that of the wild-type. In contrast, replacements of Val72 and Arg74 by the corresponding amino acids Leu and Ser, respectively, had little effect on the enzymatic activity. This observation is consistent with findings in the crystal structure analysis that Asn71 and Leu73 are responsible for a uridine specificity for RNase MC1. The role of Asn71 in enzymatic reaction of RNase MC1 was further investigated by substituting amino acids Ala, Ser, Gln, and Asp. Our observations suggest that Asn71 has at least two roles: one is base recognition by hydrogen bonding, and the other is to stabilize the conformation of the alpha4-alpha5 loop by hydrogen bonding to the peptide backbone, events which possibly result in an appropriate orientation of the alpha-helix (alpha5) containing active site residues. Mutants N71T and N71S showed a remarkable shift from uracil to guanine specificity, as evaluated by cleavage of CpG, although they did exhibit uridine specificity against yeast RNA and homopolynucleotides.

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Undaria pinnatifida residues to organic acids with recyclable trimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongxing; Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng; Guo, Jingjing

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of trimethylamine (TMA) on the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process and the recycle of TMA. The results suggest that the peeling reaction occurred on the surface and the cleavage of cellulose leading to water-soluble substances and bio-oil. The highest content of organic acids was found in the water-soluble phase. Model compounds, different glucides with TMA were used to investigate the mechanism of the HTL. Results suggest that the OH(-) appeared to selectively interact with C-O-C bonds, and thus causing the key linkages of cellulose to become much easier to be cleaved under mild conditions. In addition, the conditions for TMA recovery were optimized and the highest TMA recovery rate reached 98.89%. The recovered TMA had the same properties as the original compound, and it was perfectly re-usable in the conversion process of HTL.

  15. Wastewater disinfection by peracetic acid: assessment of models for tracking residual measurements and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Gehr, Ronald; Bartrand, Timothy A; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Dell'Erba, Adele; Falsanisi, Dario; Haas, Charles N

    2007-07-01

    With its potential for low (if any) disinfection byproduct formation and easy retrofit for chlorine contactors, peracetic acid (PAA) or use of PAA in combination with other disinfectant technologies may be an attractive alternative to chlorine-based disinfection. Examples of systems that might benefit from use of PAA are water reuse schemes or plants discharging to sensitive receiving water bodies. Though PAA is in use in numerous wastewater treatment plants in Europe, its chemical kinetics, microbial inactivation rates, and mode of action against microorganisms are not thoroughly understood. This paper presents results from experimental studies of PAA demand, PAA decay, and microbial inactivation, with a complementary modeling analysis. Model results are used to evaluate techniques for measurement of PAA concentration and to develop hypotheses regarding the mode of action of PAA in bacterial inactivation. Kinetic and microbial inactivation rate data were collected for typical wastewaters and may be useful for engineers in evaluating whether to convert from chlorine to PAA disinfection.

  16. Position dependence of amino acid intrinsic helical propensities II: non-charged polar residues: Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln.

    PubMed Central

    Petukhov, M.; Uegaki, K.; Yumoto, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Serrano, L.

    1999-01-01

    The assumption that the intrinsic alpha-helical propensities of the amino acids are position independent was critical in several helix/coil transition theories. In the first paper of these series, we reported that this is not the case for Gly and nonpolar aliphatic amino acids (Val, Leu, Met, and Ile). Here we have analyzed the helical intrinsic propensities of noncharged polar residues (Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln) at different positions of a model polyalanine-based peptide. We found that Thr is more favorable (by approximately 0.3 kcal/mol) at positions N1 and N2 than in the helix center, although for Ser, Asn, and Gln the differences are smaller (+/-0.2 kcal/mol), and in many cases within the experimental error. There is a reasonable agreement (+/-0.2 kcal/mol) between the calculated free energies, using the ECEPP/2 force field equipped with a hydration potential, and the experimental data, except at position N1. PMID:10548060

  17. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is

  18. Leaching and selective copper recovery from acidic leachates of Três Marias zinc plant (MG, Brazil) metallurgical purification residues.

    PubMed

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-07-15

    Zinc plant purification residue (ZPR), a typical Zn-hydrometallurgical waste, was collected from the Três Marias Zn plant (MG, Brazil). ZPR was characterized for its metal content and fractionation, mineralogy, toxicity and leachability. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results revealed that this ZPR displays high percentages of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the highly mobilizable fractions, increasing its hazardous potential. Bulk chemical analysis, pH dependent leaching and acid (H2SO4) leaching studies confirm that the ZPR is polymetallic, rich in Cd, Cu and Zn. The sulfuric acid concentration (1 M), agitation speed (450 rpm), temperature (40 °C) and pulp density (20 g L(-1)) were optimized to leach the maximum amount of heavy metals (Cd, Cu and Zn). Under optimum conditions, more than 50%, 70% and 60% of the total Cd, Cu and Zn present in the ZPR can be leached, respectively. The metals in the acid leachates were investigated for metal sulfide precipitation with an emphasis on selective Cu recovery. Metal sulfide precipitation process parameters such as initial pH and Cu to sulfide ratio were optimized as pH 1.5 and 1:0.5 (Cu:sulfide) mass ratio, respectively. Under optimum conditions, more than 95% of Cu can be selectively recovered from the polymetallic ZPR leachates. The Cu precipitates characterization studies reveal that they are approximately 0.1 μm in diameter and mainly consist of Cu and S. XRD analysis showed covellite (CuS), chalcanthite (CuSO4·5H2O) and natrochalcite (NaCu2(SO4)2(OH)·H2O) as the mineral phases. ZPRs can thus be considered as an alternative resource for copper production.

  19. The adsorption of chromium (VI) from industrial wastewater by acid and base-activated lignocellulosic residues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos

    2007-06-01

    This study deals with the adsorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic and industrial wastewater, produced by a sewage plant. The activated carbons were prepared from a lignocellulosic raw material by thermal treatment at 450 and 650 degrees C in the presence of acid (AlCl(3), HCl, H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4)) and base (NaOH) agents. To optimize the adsorption of Cr(VI), the chemical modifications caused by each activating agent (related to the capability of Cr(VI) removal), and the optimal experimental conditions of the pH, Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and residence time, were studied. Thus, treatment with H(3)PO(4) gives rise to carbons with a high surface area and high efficiency for Cr(VI) removal at short equilibrium times. In contrast, the generation of active surface sites by means of NaOH requires longer equilibrium times, the adsorption being less effective than in the former case. The adsorption isotherms obey the Langmuir equation only in the first stages of the reaction but fit the Freundlich equations over the whole range studied, so the heat of adsorption can be easily calculated. The results also show that the activated carbons obtained can be recovered by filtration with an efficiency of 30% in the third cycle.

  20. Evolutionarily conserved amino acids in TCR V regions and MHC control their interaction

    PubMed Central

    Marrack, Philippa; Scott-Browne, James P.; Dai, Shaodong; Gapin, Laurent; Kappler, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha/beta T cell receptors (TCRs) react with major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC) plus peptides, a poorly understood phenomenon, probably because thymocytes bearing TCRs that manifest MHC-reactivity too well are lost by negative selection. Only TCRs with attenuated ability to react with MHC appear on mature T cells. Also, the interaction sites between TCRs and MHC may be inherently flexible and hence difficult to spot. Contacts between TCRs and MHC in the solved structures of their complexes were reevaluated with these points in mind. The results show that frequently used amino acids in TCR CDR1 and CDR2 regions are often used to bind MHC, in areas around small amino acids on the surfaces of MHC α helices that form a cup, allowing somewhat flexible binding of the TCRs. The TCR amino acids involved are specific to families of V regions and partially different rules govern recognition of MHC1 versus MHCII. PMID:18304006