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Sample records for acid rgd peptide

  1. Comparison between RGD-peptide-modified titanium and borosilicate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Senyah, N; Hildebrand, G; Liefeith, K

    2005-11-01

    The use of synthetic peptides containing adhesive sequences, such as the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, represents a promising strategy to control biological interactions at the cell-material interface. These peptides are known to improve the tissue-material contact owing to highly specific binding to cellular membrane receptors known as integrins, thereby promoting the adhesion, migration and proliferation of cells. The peptides were coupled to borosilicate glass and titanium surfaces using silanisation chemistry. A tryptophan residue was incorporated into the amino acid sequences of selected peptides to facilitate the detection of the covalently bound peptides. Successful peptide immobilisation was proven by fluorimetric measurements. The confocal imaging analysis suggests a homogeneous distribution of the immobilised peptide across the biomaterial surface. In vitro cell proliferation assays were employed to compare the adhesion potentials of the well-known RGD-containing peptides GRGDSP, GRADSP and RGDS to the three peptides designed by our group. The results demonstrate that the RGD sequence is not necessarily required to enhance the adhesion of cells to non-biological surfaces. Moreover, it is shown that the number of adhering cells can be increased by changes in the peptide hydrophobicity. Changes in the cytoskeleton are observed depending on the type of RGD-peptide modification. PMID:16151591

  2. Cell-Adhesive Matrices Composed of RGD Peptide-Displaying M13 Bacteriophage/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanofibers Beneficial to Myoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Linhua; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Chuntae; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin Woo; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-10-01

    Recently, there has been considerable effort to develop suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Cell adhesion is a prerequisite for cells to survive. In nature, the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays this role. Therefore, an ideal scaffold should be structurally similar to the natural ECM and have biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, the scaffold should have biofunctionality, which provides the potent ability to enhance the cellular behaviors, such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study concentrates on fabricating cell-adhesive matrices composed of RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage (RGD-M13 phage) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) nanofibers. Long rod-shaped M13 bacteriophages are non-toxic and can express many desired proteins on their surface. A genetically engineered M13 phage was constructed to display RGD peptides on its surface. PLGA is a biodegradable polymer with excellent biocompatibility and suitable physicochemical property for adhesive matrices. In this study, RGD-M13 phage/PLGA hybrid nanofiber matrices were fabricated by electrospinning. The physicochemical properties of these matrices were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. In addition, the cellular behaviors, such as the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation, were analyzed by a CCK-8 assay and immunofluorescence staining to evaluate the potential application of these matrices to tissue engineering scaffolds. The RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofiber matrices could enhance the cellular behaviors and promote the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. These results suggest that the RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofiber matrices are beneficial to myoblast differentiation and can serve as effective tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26726438

  3. RGD based peptide amphiphiles as drug carriers for cancer targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Poonam S.

    Specific interactions of ligands with receptors is one of the approaches for active targeting of anticancer drugs to cancer cells. Over expression of integrin receptors is a physiological manifestation in several cancers and is associated with cancer progression and metastasis, which makes it an attractive target for cancer chemotherapy. The peptide sequence for this integrin recognition is the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Self-assembly offers a unique way of presenting ligands to target receptors for recognition and binding. This study focuses on development of integrin specific peptide amphiphile self-assemblies as carriers for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to αvbeta 3 integrin overexpressing cancers. Amphiphiles composed of conjugates of different analogs of RGD (linear, cyclic or glycosylated) and aliphatic fatty acid with or without 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (ADA) as linker were synthesized and characterized. The amphiphiles exhibited Critical Micellar Concentration in the range of 7-30 μM. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the formation of spherical micelles in the size range of 10-40 nm. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer studies revealed entrapment of hydrophobic dyes within a tight micellar core and provided information regarding the cargo exchange within micelles. The RGD micelles exhibited competitive binding with 55% displacement of a bound fluorescent probe by the cyclic RGD micelles. The internalization of fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) loaded RGD micelles was significantly higher in A2058 melanoma cells compared to free FITC within 20 minutes of incubation at 37°C. The same micelles showed significantly lower internalization at 4°C and on pretreatment with 0.45M sucrose confirming endocytotic uptake of the RGD micellar carriers. The IC50 of paclitaxel in A2058 melanoma cells was lower when treated within RGD micelles as compared to treatment of free drug. On the other hand, IC50 values increased by 2 to 9 fold for micellar treatment

  4. Accelerated healing of cardiovascular textiles promoted by an RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Tweden, K S; Harasaki, H; Jones, M; Blevitt, J M; Craig, W S; Pierschbacher, M; Helmus, M N

    1995-07-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron polyester) fabrics are used extensively in cardiovascular devices, e.g. heart valve sewing cuffs and vascular prostheses. While devices containing these fabrics are generally successful, it is recognized that fabrics cause complications prior to tissue ingrowth due to their thrombogenic nature. A surface active synthetic peptide, called PepTite Coating (PepTite), which was modeled after the cell attachment domain of human fibronectin has been marketed as a biocompatible coating. This peptide stimulates cell attachment through the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. Modification of medical implants with PepTite has been shown to promote ingrowth of surrounding cells into the material leading to better tissue integration, reduced inflammation and reduced fibrotic encapsulation. In this study, polyester and PTFE textiles were modified with PepTite. The effectiveness of this coating in enhancing wound healing was investigated in a simple vascular and cardiac valve model. Our results indicate that the RGD-containing peptide, PepTite, promoted the formation of an endothelial-like cell layer on both polyester and PTFE vascular patches in the dog model. PepTite was also found to promote the formation of a significantly thinner neointima (pannus) on polyester as compared to that on its uncoated control. These results were corroborated in the cardiac valve model in which a greater amount of thin pannus and less thrombus were seen on coated polyester sewing cuffs than on control uncoated cuffs. This research shows the promising tissue response to RGD coated textiles and the potential role of this peptide in material passivation via accelerated healing.

  5. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jung Young

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images.

  6. Graphene oxide-stimulated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells on PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. C.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Hong, S. W.; Oh, J.-W.; Kim, C.-S.; Kim, B.; Hyun, J. K.; Kim, Y.-J.; Han, D.-W.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, much attention has been paid to graphene-based nanomaterials because they are considered as potential candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering and substrates for the differentiation of stem cells. Until now, electrospun matrices composed of various biodegradable copolymers have been extensively developed for tissue engineering and regeneration; however, their use in combination with graphene oxide (GO) is novel and challenging. In this study, nanofiber matrices composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) and M13 phage with RGD peptide displayed on its surface (RGD peptide-M13 phage) were prepared as extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking substrates. RGD peptide is a tripeptide (Arg-Gly-Asp) found on ECM proteins that promotes various cellular behaviors. The physicochemical properties of PLGA and RGD peptide-M13 phage (PLGA/RGD peptide) nanofiber matrices were characterized by atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the growth of C2C12 mouse myoblasts on the PLGA/RGD peptide matrices was examined by measuring the metabolic activity. Moreover, the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts on the matrices when treated with GO was evaluated. The cellular behaviors, including growth and differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts, were substantially enhanced on the PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices when treated with GO. Overall, these findings suggest that the PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices can be used in combination with GO as a novel strategy for skeletal tissue regeneration.

  7. The impact of the RGD peptide on osteoblast adhesion and spreading on zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite surface.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Elena; Hausen, Moema; Costa, Andrea M; Alves, Gutemberg; Mello, Alexandre; Ospina, C A; Mir, M; Granjeiro, José M; Rossi, Alexandre M

    2013-05-01

    The incorporation of zinc into the hydroxyapatite structure (ZnHA) has been proposed to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Another approach to improve cell adhesion and hydroxyapatite (HA) performance is coating HA with adhesive proteins or peptides such as RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid). The present study investigated the adhesion of murine osteoblastic cells to non-sintered zinc-substituted HA disks before and after the adsorption of RGD. The incorporation of zinc into the HA structure simultaneously changed the topography of disk's surface on the nanoscale and the disk's surface chemistry. Fluorescence microscopy analyses using RGD conjugated to a fluorescein derivative demonstrated that ZnHA adsorbed higher amounts of RGD than non-substituted HA. Zinc incorporation into HA promoted cell adhesion and spreading, but no differences in the cell density, adhesion and spreading were detected when RGD was adsorbed onto ZnHA. The pre-treatment of disks with fetal bovine serum (FBS) greatly increased the cell density and cell surface area for all RGD-free groups, overcoming the positive contribution of zinc to cell adhesion. The presence of RGD on the ZnHA surface impaired the effects of FBS pre-treatment possibly due to competition between FBS proteins and RGD for surface binding sites.

  8. Does ligand-receptor mediated competitive effect or penetrating effect of iRGD peptide when co-administration with iRGD-modified SSL?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Yu, Ke-Fu; Zhong, Ting; Luo, Li-Min; Du, Ruo; Ren, Wei; Huang, Dan; Song, Ping; Li, Dan; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-12-01

    Ligand-mediated targeting of anticancer therapeutic agents is a useful strategy for improving anti-tumor efficacy. It has been reported that co-administration of a tumor-penetrating peptide iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) enhances the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here, we designed an experiment involving co-administration of iRGD-SSL-DOX with free iRGD to B16-F10 tumor bearing mice to examine the action of free iRGD. We also designed an experiment to investigate the location of iRGD-modified SSL when co-administered with free iRGD or free RGD to B16-F10 tumor bearing nude mice. Considering the sequence of iRGD, we selected the GPDC, RGD and CRGDK as targeting ligands to investigate the targeting effect of these peptides compared with iRGD on B16-F10 and MCF-7 cells, with or without enzymatic degradation. Finally, we selected free RGD, free CRGDK and free iRGD as ligand to investigate the inhibitory effect on RGD-, CRGDK- or iRGD-modified SSL on B16-F10 or MCF-7 cells. Our results indicated that iRGD targeting to tumor cells was ligand-receptor mediated involving RGD to αv-integrin receptor and CRGDK to NRP-1 receptor. Being competitive effect, the administration of free iRGD would not be able to further enhance the anti-tumor activity of iRGD-modified SSL. There is no need to co-administrate of free iRGD with the iRGD-modified nanoparticles for further therapeutic benefit.

  9. Potential tumor-targeting peptide vector of histidylated oligolysine conjugated to a tumor-homing RGD motif.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Y; Hosaka, S; Kawa, S; Kiyosawa, K

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a potential tumor-targeting peptide vector (cRGD-hK) that is intended to be systemically and repeatedly administered to patients with advanced solid tumors. The peptide vector of 36 l-amino acid residues, CRGDCF(K[H-]KKK)6, comprises a tumor-homing RGD motif, a DNA-binding oligolysine, and histidyl residues to facilitate the delivery into the cytosol. Using cytomegalovirus-driven luciferase expression plasmids as a reporter, we tested the transfection efficiency of cRGD-hK in hepatoma and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Transfection with the cRGD-hK/plasmid complexes (molar ratio 4000:1) was inhibited by 50 nM bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar ATPase endosomal proton pump, or 10 microM cycloRGDfV, an integrin alphavbeta3 antagonist, indicating that the three elements of cRGD-hK could function as expected, at least in vitro. In nude mice bearing tumors created by subcutaneous inoculation, luciferase activity in the tumor tissues 48 hours after the injection of the cRGD-hK/plasmid complexes through the tail vein (20 microg plasmids per mouse) was significantly higher than that in the lung, kidney, and spleen, but only slightly higher than that in the liver. Although the latter difference was small, we propose a potential nonviral gene therapy for advanced solid tumors through use of the tumor-targeting peptide vector.

  10. The effect of covalently linked RGD peptide on the conformation of polysaccharides in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Bernstein-Levi, Ortal; Ochbaum, Guy; Bitton, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Covalently modified polysaccharides are routinely used in tissue engineering due to their tailored biofunctionality. Understanding the effect of single-chain level modification on the solution conformation of the single chain, and more importantly on the self-assembly and aggregation of the ensemble of chains is expected to improve our ability to control network topology and the properties of the resulting gels. Attaching an RGD peptide to a polysaccharide backbone is a common procedure used to promote cell adhesion in hydrogel scaffolds. Recently it has been shown that the spatial presentation of the RGD sequences affects the cell behavior; thus, understanding the effects of grafted RGD on the conformational properties of the solvated polysaccharide chains is a prerequisite for rational design of polysaccharide-peptide based biomaterials. Here we investigate the effect of covalently linked G4RGDS on the conformational state of the individual chain and chain assemblies of alginate, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid (HA) in aqueous solutions. Two peptide fractions were studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheology. In all cases, upon peptide conjugation structural differences were observed. Analysis of the scattering data shows evidence of clustering for a higher fraction of bound peptide. Moreover for all three polysaccharides the typical shear thinning behavior of the natural polysaccharide solutions is replaced by a Newtonian fluid behavior for the lower fraction conjugated peptide while a more pronounced shear thinning behavior is observed for the higher fraction. These results indicate that the fraction of the bounded peptide, determines the behavior of a polysaccharide-peptide conjugates in solution, regardless of the specific nature of the polysaccharide. PMID:26215906

  11. Biofunctionalization of polycaprolactone scaffolds with RGD peptides for the better cells integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, V. G.; Seifalian, A. M.; Antonova, L. V.; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in vitro electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds carbodiimide linkage with RGD peptides and their unconjugated counterparts. The scaffolds possessed highly porous structure and were formed by randomly distributed fibers. Orange II staining and ninhydrin test confirmed successful amination of the PCL. For the assessment of cell adhesion, we colonized scaffolds with primary human fibroblasts and counted the number of alive and dead cells. After 6 days of incubation, the number of fibroblasts on the scaffolds modified by RGD peptides significantly exceeded the number on unmodified scaffolds; however, the distribution of the cells on functionalized scaffolds was uneven, possibly due to uneven distribution of RGD peptides. The percentage of dead cells on the scaffolds with RGD peptides was significantly lower compared to their unmodified counterparts. Therefore, conjugation of PCL scaffolds with RGD peptides improves their integration with cells. This can be used in regenerative medicine.

  12. RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage/PLGA nanofibers as cell-adhesive matrices for smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Oh Seong; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Lin Hua; Kim, Chang-Seok; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook; Kim, Chuntae; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are network structures that play an essential role in regulating cellular growth and differentiation. In this study, novel nanofibrous matrices were fabricated by electrospinning M13 bacteriophage and poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and were shown to be structurally and functionally similar to natural ECMs. A genetically-engineered M13 bacteriophage was constructed to display Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides on its surface. The physicochemical properties of RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage (RGD-M13 phage)/PLGA nanofibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. We used immunofluorescence staining to confirm that M13 bacteriophages were homogenously distributed in RGD-M13 phage/PLGA matrices. Furthermore, RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofibrous matrices, having excellent biocompatibility, can enhance the behaviors of vascular smooth muscle cells. This result suggests that RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofibrous matrices have potentials to serve as tissue engineering scaffolds.

  13. Activatable iRGD-based peptide monolith: Targeting, internalization, and fluorescence activation for precise tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Sung-Jin; Park, Sung-Jun; Paik, Chang H; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2016-09-10

    A disulfide-bridged cyclic RGD peptide, named iRGD (internalizing RGD, c(CRGDK/RGPD/EC)), is known to facilitate tumor targeting as well as tissue penetration. After the RGD motif-induced targeting on αv integrins expressed near tumor tissue, iRGD encounters proteolytic cleavage to expose the CendR motif that promotes penetration into cancer cells via the interaction with neuropilin-1. Based on these proteolytic cleavage and internalization mechanism, we designed an iRGD-based monolithic imaging probe that integrates multiple functions (cancer-specific targeting, internalization and fluorescence activation) within a small peptide framework. To provide the capability of activatable fluorescence signaling, we conjugated a fluorescent dye to the N-terminal of iRGD, which was linked to the internalizing sequence (CendR motif), and a quencher to the opposite C-terminal. It turned out that fluorescence activation of the dye/quencher-conjugated monolithic peptide probe requires dual (reductive and proteolytic) cleavages on both disulfide and amide bond of iRGD peptide. Furthermore, the cleavage of the iRGD peptide leading to fluorescence recovery was indeed operative depending on the tumor-related angiogenic receptors (αvβ3 integrin and neuropilin-1) in vitro as well as in vivo. Compared to an 'always fluorescent' iRGD control probe without quencher conjugation, the dye/quencher-conjugated activatable monolithic peptide probe visualized tumor regions more precisely with lower background noise after intravenous injection, owing to the multifunctional responses specific to tumor microenvironment. All these results, along with minimal in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, suggest potential of the iRGD-based activatable monolithic peptide probe as a promising imaging agent for precise tumor diagnosis. PMID:27349354

  14. Activatable iRGD-based peptide monolith: Targeting, internalization, and fluorescence activation for precise tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Sung-Jin; Park, Sung-Jun; Paik, Chang H; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2016-09-10

    A disulfide-bridged cyclic RGD peptide, named iRGD (internalizing RGD, c(CRGDK/RGPD/EC)), is known to facilitate tumor targeting as well as tissue penetration. After the RGD motif-induced targeting on αv integrins expressed near tumor tissue, iRGD encounters proteolytic cleavage to expose the CendR motif that promotes penetration into cancer cells via the interaction with neuropilin-1. Based on these proteolytic cleavage and internalization mechanism, we designed an iRGD-based monolithic imaging probe that integrates multiple functions (cancer-specific targeting, internalization and fluorescence activation) within a small peptide framework. To provide the capability of activatable fluorescence signaling, we conjugated a fluorescent dye to the N-terminal of iRGD, which was linked to the internalizing sequence (CendR motif), and a quencher to the opposite C-terminal. It turned out that fluorescence activation of the dye/quencher-conjugated monolithic peptide probe requires dual (reductive and proteolytic) cleavages on both disulfide and amide bond of iRGD peptide. Furthermore, the cleavage of the iRGD peptide leading to fluorescence recovery was indeed operative depending on the tumor-related angiogenic receptors (αvβ3 integrin and neuropilin-1) in vitro as well as in vivo. Compared to an 'always fluorescent' iRGD control probe without quencher conjugation, the dye/quencher-conjugated activatable monolithic peptide probe visualized tumor regions more precisely with lower background noise after intravenous injection, owing to the multifunctional responses specific to tumor microenvironment. All these results, along with minimal in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, suggest potential of the iRGD-based activatable monolithic peptide probe as a promising imaging agent for precise tumor diagnosis.

  15. Rational Design of Cancer-Targeted Benzoselenadiazole by RGD Peptide Functionalization for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liye; Li, Wenying; Huang, Yanyu; Zhou, Yangliang; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-09-01

    A cancer-targeted conjugate of the selenadiazole derivative BSeC (benzo[1,2,5] selenadiazole-5-carboxylic acid) with RGD peptide as targeting molecule and PEI (polyethylenimine) as a linker is rationally designed and synthesized in the present study. The results show that RGD-PEI-BSeC forms nanoparticles in aqueous solution with a core-shell nanostructure and high stability under physiological conditions. This rational design effectively enhances the selective cellular uptake and cellular retention of BSeC in human glioma cells, and increases its selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The nanoparticles enter the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis via clathrin-mediated and nystatin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathways. Internalized nanoparticles trigger glioma cell apoptosis by activation of ROS-mediated p53 phosphorylation. Therefore, this study provides a strategy for the rational design of selenium-containing cancer-targeted theranostics.

  16. RGD peptide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles: antiangiogenesis by suppressing VEGF-VEGFR2-ERK/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yahui; Li, Xiaoling; Lai, Haoqiang; Huang, Yanyu; He, Lizhen; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. Herein we described the synthesis of RGD peptide-decorated and doxorubicin-loaded selenium nanoparticles (RGD-NPs) targeting tumor vasculature to enhance the cellular uptake and antiangiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. After internalization by receptor-mediated endocytosis, this nanosystem disassembled under acidic condition with the presence of lysozymes and cell lysate, leading to bioresponsive triggered drug release. Mechanistic investigation revealed that RGD-NPs inhibited angiogenesis through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via suppression of VEGF-VEGFR2-ERK/AKT signaling axis by triggering ROS-mediated DNA damage. Additionally, RGD-NPs can inhibit MCF-7 tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice via down-regulation of VEGF-VEGFR2, effectively reduce the toxicity and prolong the blood circulation in vivo. Our results suggest that the strategy to use RGD-peptide functionalized SeNPs as carriers of anticancer drugs is an efficient way to achieve cancer-targeted antiangiogenesis synergism. PMID:26961468

  17. Gradient immobilization of a cell adhesion RGD peptide on thermal responsive surface for regulating cell adhesion and detachment.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhui; Wu, Jindan; Gao, Changyou

    2011-06-15

    Using surface initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and an injection method, a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(acrylic acid)-g-RGD (PNIPAAm-b-PAA-g-RGD) gradient surface was prepared. First, a thermoresponsive surface with a constant thickness of PNIPAAm was fabricated, onto which the AA monomers were block copolymerized using the PNIPAAm macromolecules as initiators. During this process, a continuous injection method was employed to yield a molecular weight gradient of PAA on the underlying uniform PNIPAAm layer. RGD peptide was finally covalently immobilized onto the PAA gradient by carbodiimide chemistry. In vitro culture of HepG2 cells showed that immobilization of the RGD peptide could accelerate cell attachment, while the thermoresponsive layer beneath could effectively release the cells by simply lowering temperature. Thus, the PNIPAAm-b-PAA-g-RGD gradient surface, combining the thermal response with cell affinity properties, can well regulate the cell adhesion and detachment, which may thus be useful for investigation of cell-substrate interactions with a smaller number of samples.

  18. YY-39, a tick anti-thrombosis peptide containing RGD domain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Fang, Yaqun; Han, Yajun; Bai, Xuewei; Yan, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Lai, Ren; Zhang, Zhiye

    2015-06-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites, which continuously attach to their hosts for 1-2 weeks. There are many biologically active compounds in tick salivary glands interfering host haemostatic system and to successfully obtain blood meal. Several platelet aggregation inhibitors have been identified from ticks. A family of conserved peptides, which were identified from transcriptome analysis of many tick salivary glands, were found to contain unique primary structure including predicted mature peptides of 39-47 amino acid residues in length and a Pro/Glu(P/E)-Pro/His(P/H)-Lys-Gly-Asp(RGD) domain. Given their unique structure and RGD domain, they are considered a novel family of disintegrins that inhibit platelet aggregation. One of them (YY-39) was tested for its effects on platelets and thrombosis in vivo. YY-39 was found effectively to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Furthermore, YY-39 blocked platelet adhesion to soluble collagen and bound to purified GPIIb/IIIa in a dose-dependent manner. In in vivo experiments, YY-39 reduced thrombus weight effectively in a rat arteriovenous shunt model and inhibited thrombosis in a carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis model. Combined with their prevalence in ticks and platelet inhibitory functions, this family of peptides might be conserved tick anti-haemostatic molecules.

  19. Novel Approach to Prepare {sup 99m}Tc-Based Multivalent RGD Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuang Liu

    2012-10-24

    This project presents a novel approach to prepare the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptides. This project will focus on fundamentals of {sup 99m}Tc radiochemistry. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the proposed radiotracers. Once a kit formulation is developed for preparation of the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD peptides, various tumor-bearing animal models will be used to evaluate their potential for SPECT (single photon-emission computed tomography) imaging of cancer. We have demonstrated that (1) multimerization of cyclic RGD peptides enhances the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} bonding affinity and radiotracer tumor uptake; (2) addition of G{sub 3} or PEG{sub 4} linkers makes it possible for two RGD motifs in 3P-RGD{sub 2} and 3G-RGD{sub 2} to achieve simultaneous integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding; and (3) multimers are actually bivalent (not multivalent), the presence of extra RGD motifs can enhance the tumor retention time of the radiotracer.

  20. Systemic Administration of siRNA via cRGD-containing Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyu; Wang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Weiyan; Cheng, Qiang; Zheng, Shuquan; Guo, Shutao; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Xing-Jie; Du, Quan; Liang, Zicai

    2015-01-01

    Although small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been demonstrated to specifically silence their target genes in disease models and clinical trials, in vivo siRNA delivery is still the technical bottleneck that limits their use in therapeutic applications. In this study, a bifunctional peptide named RGD10-10R was designed and tested for its ability to deliver siRNA in vitro and in vivo. Because of their electrostatic interactions with polyarginine (10R), negatively charged siRNAs were readily complexed with RGD10-10R peptides, forming spherical RGD10-10R/siRNA nanoparticles. In addition to enhancing their serum stability by preventing RNase from attacking siRNA through steric hindrance, peptide binding facilitated siRNA transfection into MDA-MB-231 cells, as demonstrated by FACS and confocal microscopy assays and by the repressed expression of target genes. When RGD10 peptide, a receptor competitor of RGD10-10R, was added to the transfection system, the cellular internalization of RGD10-10R/siRNA was significantly compromised, suggesting a mechanism of ligand/receptor interaction. Tissue distribution assays indicated that the peptide/siRNA complex preferentially accumulated in the liver and in several exocrine/endocrine glands. Furthermore, tumor-targeted delivery of siRNA was also demonstrated by in vivo imaging and cryosection assays. In summary, RGD10-10R might constitute a novel siRNA delivery tool that could potentially be applied in tumor treatment. PMID:26300278

  1. Facile synthesis of RGD peptide-modified iron oxide nanoparticles with ultrahigh relaxivity for targeted MR imaging of tumors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Li, Jingchao; Yang, Jia; Wei, Ping; Luo, Yu; Ding, Ling; Sun, Wenjie; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang; Shen, Mingwu

    2015-05-01

    We report the facile synthesis of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-targeted iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) with ultrahigh relaxivity for in vivo tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this study, stable polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4 NPs were first prepared by a mild reduction route. The formed aminated Fe3O4 NPs with PEI coating were sequentially conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-RGD segment, followed by acetylation of the remaining PEI surface amines. The thus-formed Fe3O4@PEI·NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD NPs were characterized via different techniques. We show that the multifunctional RGD-targeted Fe3O4 NPs with a mean size of 9.1 nm are water-dispersible, colloidally stable, and hemocompatible and cytocompatible in the given concentration range. With the displayed ultrahigh r2 relaxivity (550.04 mM(-1) s(-1)) and RGD-mediated targeting specificity to αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells as confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the developed multifunctional Fe3O4@PEI·NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD NPs are able to be used as a highly efficient nanoprobe for targeted MR imaging of αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo. Given the versatile PEI amine-enabled conjugation chemistry, the developed PEI-coated Fe3O4 NPs may be functionalized with other biological ligands or drugs for various biomedical applications, in particular, the diagnosis and therapy of different types of cancer. PMID:26222591

  2. iRGD peptide conjugation potentiates intraperitoneal tumor delivery of paclitaxel with polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Hunt, Hedi; Scodeller, Pablo; Gaitzsch, Jens; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Tammik, Olav; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-10-01

    Polymersomes are versatile nanoscale vesicles that can be used for cytoplasmic delivery of payloads. Recently, we demonstrated that pH-sensitive polymersomes exhibit an intrinsic selectivity towards intraperitoneal tumor lesions. A tumor homing peptide, iRGD, harbors a cryptic C-end Rule (CendR) motif that is responsible for neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) binding and for triggering extravasation and tumor penetration of the peptide. iRGD functionalization increases tumor selectivity and therapeutic efficacy of systemic drug-loaded nanoparticles in many tumor models. Here we studied whether intraperitoneally administered paclitaxel-loaded iRGD-polymersomes show improved efficacy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. First, we demonstrated that the pH-sensitive polymersomes functionalized with RPARPAR (a prototypic CendR peptide) or iRGD internalize in the cells that express NRP-1, and that internalized polymersomes release their cargo inside the cytosol. CendR-targeted polymersomes loaded with paclitaxel were more cytotoxic on NRP-1-positive cells than on NRP-1-negative cells. In mice bearing peritoneal tumors of gastric (MKN-45P) or colon (CT26) origin, intraperitoneally administered RPARPAR and iRGD-polymersomes showed higher tumor-selective accumulation and penetration than untargeted polymersomes. Finally, iRGD-polymersomes loaded with paclitaxel showed improved efficacy in peritoneal tumor growth inhibition and in suppression of local dissemination compared to the pristine paclitaxel-polymersomes or Abraxane. Our study demonstrates that iRGD-functionalization improves efficacy of paclitaxel-polymersomes for intraperitoneal treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  3. (18)F, (64)Cu, and (68)Ga labeled RGD-bombesin heterodimeric peptides for PET imaging of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaofei; Yan, Yongjun; Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-05-20

    Radiolabeled RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and bombesin (BBN) radiotracers that specifically target integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are both promising radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. We recently designed and synthesized a RGD-BBN heterodimeric peptide with both RGD and BBN motifs in one single molecule. The (18)F-labeled RGD-BBN heterodimer exhibited dual integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and GRPR targeting in a PC-3 prostate cancer model. In this study we investigated whether radiolabeled RGD-BBN tracers can be used to detect breast cancer by using microPET. Cell binding assay demonstrated that the high GRPR expressing breast cancer cells typically express low to moderate level of integrin alpha(v)beta(3), while high integrin alpha(v)beta(3) expressing breast cancer cells have negligible level of GRPR. We labeled RGD-BBN heterodimer with three positron emitting radionuclides (18)F, (64)Cu, and (68)Ga and investigated the corresponding PET radiotracers in both orthotopic T47D (GRPR(+)/low integrin alpha(v)beta(3)) and MDA-MB-435 (GRPR(-)/integrin alpha(v)beta(3)(+)) breast cancer models. The three radiotracers all possessed in vitro dual integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and GRPR binding affinity. The advantages of the RGD-BBN radiotracers over the corresponding BBN analogues are obvious for imaging MDA-MB-435 (GRPR(-)/integrin alpha(v)beta(3)(+)) tumor. (18)F-FB-PEG(3)-RGD-BBN showed lower tumor uptake than (64)Cu-NOTA-RGD-BBN and (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN but was able to visualize breast cancer tumors with high contrast. Synthesis of (64)Cu-NOTA-RGD-BBN and (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN is much faster and easier than (18)F-FB-PEG(3)-RGD-BBN. (64)Cu-NOTA-RGD-BBN showed prolonged tumor uptake but also higher liver retention and kidney uptake than (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN and (18)F-FB-PEG(3)-RGD-BBN. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN possessed high tumor signals but also relatively high background uptake compared with the other two radiotracers. In summary, the prosthetic labeling

  4. Incorporation of Exogenous RGD Peptide and Inter-Species Blending as Strategies for Enhancing Human Corneal Limbal Epithelial Cell Growth on Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Laura J.; Suzuki, Shuko; Harkin, Damien G.; Chirila, Traian V.

    2013-01-01

    While fibroin isolated from the cocoons of domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori supports growth of human corneal limbal epithelial (HLE) cells, the mechanism of cell attachment remains unclear. In the present study we sought to enhance the attachment of HLE cells to membranes of Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) through surface functionalization with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide. Moreover, we have examined the response of HLE cells to BMSF when blended with the fibroin produced by a wild silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, which is known to contain RGD sequences within its primary structure. A procedure to isolate A. pernyi silk fibroin (APSF) from the cocoons was established, and blends of the two fibroins were prepared at five different BMSF/APSF ratios. In another experiment, BMSF surface was modified by binding chemically the GRGDSPC peptide using a water-soluble carbodiimide. Primary HLE were grown in the absence of serum on membranes made of BMSF, APSF, and their blends, as well as on RGD-modified BMSF. There was no statistically significant enhancing effect on the cell attachment due to the RGD presence. This suggests that the adhesion through RGD ligands may have a complex mechanism, and the investigated strategies are of limited value unless the factors contributing to this mechanism become better known. PMID:24955953

  5. RGD-containing peptides inhibit intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Serrano, Arelys; García-Arrarás, José E

    2004-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima is an echinoderm capable of regenerating its viscera. Previous studies from our group have shown a striking remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during intestinal regeneration. To study the role of the ECM during regeneration, we have focused on the RGD sequences present in many ECM molecules. Regenerating animals were treated with an RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide that competes with the interaction between RGD sequence and cellular integrins. Saline and RGES (Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser) peptide injections were done as controls. The size of the regenerating intestine was determined, and the regenerating structures were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of collagen and fibronectin, as well as for muscle and other cells. The results show a delay in intestinal regeneration in animals injected with the RGDS peptide, suggesting that the ECM-integrin interaction plays an important function in the regenerative process.

  6. Covalent Grafting of the RGD-Peptide onto Polyetheretherketone Surfaces via Schiff Base Formation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marc; Lorenz, Steffen; Strand, Dennis; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Gabriel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the synthetic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has increasingly been used in a number of orthopedic implementations, due to its excellent mechanical properties, bioinertness, and chemical resistance. For in vivo applications, the surface of PEEK, which does not naturally support cell adhesion, has to be modified to improve tissue integration. In the present work we demonstrate a novel wet-chemical modification of PEEK to modify the surface, enabling the covalent grafting of the cell-adhesive RGD-peptide. Modification of the polymer surface was achieved via Schiff base formation using an aliphatic diamine and subsequent crosslinker-mediated immobilization of the peptide. In cell culture experiments with primary osteoblasts it was shown that the RGD-modified PEEK not only significantly promoted cellular adhesion but also strongly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts on the modified polymer surface. PMID:24228010

  7. Covalent grafting of the RGD-peptide onto polyetheretherketone surfaces via Schiff base formation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Marc; Lorenz, Steffen; Strand, Dennis; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Gabriel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the synthetic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has increasingly been used in a number of orthopedic implementations, due to its excellent mechanical properties, bioinertness, and chemical resistance. For in vivo applications, the surface of PEEK, which does not naturally support cell adhesion, has to be modified to improve tissue integration. In the present work we demonstrate a novel wet-chemical modification of PEEK to modify the surface, enabling the covalent grafting of the cell-adhesive RGD-peptide. Modification of the polymer surface was achieved via Schiff base formation using an aliphatic diamine and subsequent crosslinker-mediated immobilization of the peptide. In cell culture experiments with primary osteoblasts it was shown that the RGD-modified PEEK not only significantly promoted cellular adhesion but also strongly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts on the modified polymer surface. PMID:24228010

  8. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides alter hepatic killing of Candida albicans in the isolated perfused mouse liver model.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R T; Garner, R E; Hudson, J A

    1992-01-01

    The isolated perfused mouse liver model was used to study the effect of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides on hepatic trapping and killing of Candida albicans. After extensive washing, 10(6) C. albicans CFU were infused into mouse livers. At the time of recovery, 63% +/- 2% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of the infused C. albicans CFU were recovered from the liver and 14% +/- 1% were recovered from the effluent for a total recovery of 77% +/- 2%. This indicates that 86% +/- 9% of the original inoculum was trapped by the liver and that 23% +/- 2% was killed within the liver. Prior to their infusion into livers, 10(7) CFU of C. albicans were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min in the presence of various RGD peptides (0.1 mg/ml). Repeatedly, more than 90% of the infused RGD-treated C. albicans was trapped by the perfused liver. In comparison with the 23% killing rate observed in control livers, perfused livers killed approximately 40 to 50% of the infused C. albicans treated either with fibronectin, PepTite 2000, RGD, or RGDS. Hepatic killing of C. albicans treated with PepTite 2000 or fibronectin was dose dependent. Treatment of C. albicans with GRGDTP, GRGDSP, GRADSP, or GRGESP did not alter the ability of the perfused liver to kill C. albicans, suggesting that a degree of specificity for RGD peptides is associated with an increased ability of liver to kill RGD-treated C. albicans. Together, the data suggest that RGD peptides bind to a receptor on the surface of C. albicans, thereby increasing hepatic, and presumably Kupffer cell, killing of C. albicans. Natural or synthetic RGD peptides may serve as opsonins promoting C. albicans killing by Kupffer cells.

  9. Reproduction and sera embryotoxicity after immunization of monkeys with the laminin peptides YIGSR, RGD, and IKVAV.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, B J; Klein, N W; Conrad, S H; Ruppenthal, G C; Sackett, G P; Weeks, B S; Kleinman, H K

    1995-01-01

    Monkeys with excellent reproductive histories were immunized with the laminin peptides YIGSR, RGD, IKVAV, and YD, a control sequence with no known biological function. Sera from the YIGSR-immunized monkey became toxic, causing neural tube defects in whole rat embryo cultures, and this monkey experienced fetal loss after immunization. Sera from the RGD-immunized monkey also became embryotoxic in culture after immunization, but this monkey appeared to become infertile as she failed to initiate a pregnancy for at least 2 years after immunization. In contrast, embryos cultured on sera from the IKVAV- or YD-immunized monkeys were predominantly normal and both monkeys completed successful pregnancies. Antibody levels to the respective peptides or to laminin were not predictive of embryotoxicity, but antibody binding to homogenized yolk sacs as well as to yolk sacs of cultured embryos was associated with sera embryotoxicity and reproductive outcomes in vivo. These observations suggested that the laminin sequences YIGSR and RGD may play a role in immune-mediated reproductive failure by reacting directly with embryonic tissue and could provide a basis for identifying individuals at risk for both spontaneous abortion and infertility. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624326

  10. Enhanced Cellular Adhesion on Titanium by Silk Functionalized with titanium binding and RGD peptides

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Guillaume; Blanchi, Thomas; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Calabrese, Rossella; Rossi, Claire; Vigneron, Pascale; Duval, Jean-Luc; Kaplan, David L.; Egles, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue adhesion on titanium represents a challenge for implantable materials. In order to improve adhesion at the cell/material interface we used a new approach based on the molecular recognition of titanium by specific peptides. Silk fibroin protein was chemically grafted with titanium binding peptide (TiBP) to increase adsorption of these chimeric proteins to the metal surface. Quartz Crystal Microbalance was used to quantify the specific adsorption of TiBP-functionalized silk and an increase in protein deposition by more than 35% was demonstrated due to the presence of the binding peptide. A silk protein grafted with TiBP and fibronectin-derived RGD peptide was then prepared. The adherence of fibroblasts on the titanium surface modified with the multifunctional silk coating demonstrated an increase in the number of adhering cells by 60%. The improved adhesion was demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and immunocytochemical staining of focal contact points. Chick embryo organotypic culture also revealed strong adhesion of endothelial cells expanding on the multifunctional silk-peptide coating. These results demonstrated that silk functionalized with TiBP and RGD represents a promising approach to modify cell-biomaterial interfaces, opening new perspectives for implantable medical devices, especially when reendothelialization is required. PMID:22975628

  11. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide interacting with individual tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Erin J; Austin, Christopher J D; Aitken, Jade B; Vogt, Stefan; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Harris, Hugh H; Rendina, Louis M

    2013-03-01

    The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells.

  12. Non-peptidic analogs of the cell adhesion motif RGD prevent experimental liver injury.

    PubMed

    Bruck, R; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Shirin, H; Aeed, H; Halpern, Z

    2000-07-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and some chronic cholestatic liver diseases, T lymphocytes serve as effector cells of the immunostimulatory processes. Cellular interactions of immune cells with extracellular matrix components are regulated primarily via the beta 1 subfamily of integrin receptors. The target epitope of several such integrin receptors is the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence, a cell adhesion motif shared by several matrix-associated adhesive glycoproteins. We review the use of synthetic non-peptidic analogs of RGD in the prevention of immune-mediated, concanavalin A-induced liver damage in mice and in inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis in rats. The Con A-induced elevation of serum transaminases and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the infiltration of liver tissue by inflammatory cells were inhibited by pretreatment of the mice with the synthetic RGD mimetics. In rats, the progression of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis was markedly inhibited by the co-administration of the RGD mimetic SF-6,5. The compounds described here may be examined therapeutically for pathological conditions in the liver, manifested as necro-inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:10909422

  13. RGD and interleukin-13 peptide functionalized nanoparticles for enhanced glioblastoma cells and neovasculature dual targeting delivery and elevated tumor penetration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huile; Xiong, Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Shijie; Jiang, Xinguo

    2014-03-01

    As the most common malignant brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was characterized by angiogenesis and tumor cells proliferation. Dual targeting to neovasculature and GBM cells could deliver cargoes to these two kinds of cells, leading to a combination treatment. In this study, polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized with RGD and interleukin-13 peptide (IRNPs) to construct a neovasculature and tumor cell dual targeting delivery system in which RGD could target αvβ3 on neovasculature and interleukin-13 peptide could target IL13Rα2 on GBM cells. In vitro, interleukin-13 peptide and RGD could enhance the uptake by corresponding cells (C6 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells). Due to the expression of both receptors on C6 cells, RGD also could enhance the uptake by C6 cells. Through receptor labeling, it clearly showed that αvβ3 could mediate the internalization of RGD modified nanoparticles and IL13Rα2 could mediate the internalization of interleukin-13 peptide modified nanoparticles. The ligand functionalization also resulted in a modification on endocytosis pathways, which changed the main endocytosis pathways from macropinocytosis for unmodified nanoparticles to clathrin-mediated endocytosis for IRNPs. IRNPs also displayed the strongest penetration ability according to tumor spheroid analysis. In vivo, IRNPs could effectively deliver cargoes to GBM with higher intensity than monomodified nanoparticles. After CD31-staining, it demonstrated IRNPs could target both neovasculature and GBM cells. In conclusion, IRNPs showed promising ability in dual targeting both neovasculature and GBM cells.

  14. Histidine-iridium(III) coordination-based peptide luminogenic cyclization and cyclo-RGD peptides for cancer-cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochuan; Jia, Junli; Cao, Rui; Wang, Xiaobo; Fei, Hao

    2014-12-24

    In the field of peptide drug discovery, structural constraining and fluorescent labeling are two sought-after techniques important for both basic research and pharmaceutical development. In this work, we describe an easy-to-use approach for simultaneous peptide cyclization and luminescent labeling based on iridium(III)-histidine coordination (Ir-HH cyclization). Using a series of model peptides with histidine flanking each terminus, the binding activity and reaction kinetics of Ir-HH cyclization of different ring sizes were characterized. In the series, Ir-HAnH (n = 2, 3) with moderate ring sizes provides appropriate flexibility and proper distance between histidines for cyclic formation, which leads to the best binding affinity and structural stability in physiological conditions, as compared to other Ir-HH-cyclized peptides with smaller (n = 0, 1) or larger (n = 4, 5) ring sizes. Ir-HRGDH, an Ir-HH-cyclized peptide containing integrin targeting motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), showed better targeting affinity than its linear form and enhanced membrane permeability in comparison with fluorescein-labeled cyclic RGDyK peptide. Cell death inducing peptide KLA-linked Ir-HRGDH (Ir-HRGDH-KLA) showed dramatically enhanced cytotoxicity and high selectivity for cancer cells versus noncancer cells. These data demonstrate that the method conveniently combines structural constraining of peptides with luminescent imaging capabilities, which facilitates functional and intracellular characterization of potential peptide-based drug leads, thus introducing a new tool to meet emerging needs in medicinal research.

  15. Polymer-Based Reconstruction of the Inferior Vena Cava in Rat: Stem Cells or RGD Peptide?

    PubMed Central

    Pontailler, Margaux; Illangakoon, Eranka; Williams, Gareth R.; Marijon, Camille; Bellamy, Valérie; Balvay, Daniel; Autret, Gwenhael; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Planat-Benard, Valérie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Bruneval, Patrick; Menasché, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    As part of a program targeted at developing a resorbable valved tube for replacement of the right ventricular outflow tract, we compared three biopolymers (polyurethane [PU], polyhydroxyalkanoate (the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxyvalerate) [PHBVV]), and polydioxanone [PDO]) and two biofunctionalization techniques (using adipose-derived stem cells [ADSCs] or the arginine-glycine-aspartate [RGD] peptide) in a rat model of partial inferior vena cava (IVC) replacement. Fifty-three Wistar rats first underwent partial replacement of the IVC with an acellular electrospun PDO, PU, or PHBVV patch, and 31 nude rats subsequently underwent the same procedure using a PDO patch biofunctionalized either by ADSC or RGD. Results were assessed both in vitro (proliferation and survival of ADSC seeded onto the different materials) and in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology, immunohistochemistry [against markers of vascular cells (von Willebrand factor [vWF], smooth muscle actin [SMA]), and macrophages ([ED1 and ED2] immunostaining)], and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; for the expression of various cytokines and inducible NO synthase). PDO showed the best in vitro properties. Six weeks after implantation, MRI did not detect significant luminal changes in any group. All biopolymers were evenly lined by vWF-positive cells, but only PDO and PHBVV showed a continuous layer of SMA-positive cells at 3 months. PU patches resulted in a marked granulomatous inflammatory reaction. The ADSC and RGD biofunctionalization yielded similar outcomes. These data confirm the good biocompatibility of PDO and support the concept that appropriately peptide-functionalized polymers may be successfully substituted for cell-loaded materials. PMID:25611092

  16. Multimerization of cRGD peptides by click chemistry: synthetic strategies, chemical limitations, and influence on biological properties.

    PubMed

    Wängler, Carmen; Maschauer, Simone; Prante, Olaf; Schäfer, Martin; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bartenstein, Peter; Eisenhut, Michael; Wängler, Björn

    2010-10-18

    Integrin α(ν)β(3) is overexpressed on endothelial cells of growing vessels as well as on several tumor types, and so integrin-binding radiolabeled cyclic RGD pentapeptides have attracted increasing interest for in vivo imaging of α(ν)β(3) integrin expression by positron emission tomography (PET). Of the cRGD derivatives available for imaging applications, systems comprising multiple cRGD moieties have recently been shown to exhibit highly favorable properties in relation to monomers. To assess the synthetic limits of the cRGD-multimerization approach and thus the maximum multimer size achievable by using different efficient conjugation reactions, we prepared a variety of multimers that were further investigated in vitro with regard to their avidities to integrin α(ν)β(3.) The synthesized peptide multimers containing increasing numbers of cRGD moieties on PAMAM dendrimer scaffolds were prepared by different click chemistry coupling strategies. A cRGD hexadecimer was the largest construct that could be synthesized under optimized reaction conditions, thus identifying the current synthetic limitations for cRGD multimerization. The obtained multimeric systems were conjugated to a new DOTA-based chelator developed for the derivatization of sterically demanding structures and successfully labeled with (68)Ga for a potential in vivo application. The evaluated multimers showed very high avidities-increasing with the number of cRGD moieties-in in vitro studies on immobilized α(ν)β(3) integrin and U87MG cells, of up to 131- and 124-fold, respectively, relative to the underivatized monomer. PMID:20827791

  17. Modeling the Interaction between Integrin-Binding Peptide (RGD) and Rutile Surface: The Effect of Na+ on Peptide Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chunya; Skelton, Adam; Chen, Mingjun; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of a single tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adsorbing onto negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution was studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that the adsorbed Na{sup +} ions play an important role in determining the binding geometry of RGD. With an initial 'horseshoe' configuration, the charged side groups (COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}) of the peptide are able to interact with the surface through direct hydrogen bonds (H bonds) in the very early stage of adsorption. The Na{sup +} ions approach the positively charged Arg side chain, competing with the Arg side chain for adsorption to the negatively charged hydroxyl oxygen. In coordination with the structural adjustment of the peptide, the Arg residue is driven to detach from the rutile surface. In contrast, the Na+ ions in close proximity to the negatively charged Asp side chain contribute to the binding of the COO{sup -} group on the surface, helping the carboxyl oxygen not involved in COO{sup -}-surface H bonds to orientate toward the hydroxyl hydrogens. Once both carboxyl oxygens form enough H bonds with the hydroxyl hydrogens, the redundant ions move toward a more favorable adsorption site.

  18. Clinical Application of Radiolabeled RGD Peptides for PET Imaging of Integrin αvβ3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haojun; Niu, Gang; Wu, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging for non-invasive assessment of angiogenesisis is of great interest for clinicians because of the wide-spread application of anti-angiogenic cancer therapeutics. Besides, many other interventions that involve the change of blood vessel/tumor microenvironment would also benefit from such imaging strategies. Of the imaging techniques that target angiogenesis, radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides have been a major focus because of their high affinity and selectivity for integrin αvβ3--one of the most extensively examined target of angiogenesis. Since the level of integrin αvβ3 expression has been established as a surrogate marker of angiogenic activity, imaging αvβ3 expression can potentially be used as an early indicator of effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy at the molecular level. In this review, we summarize RGD-based PET tracers that have already been used in clinical trials and intercompared them in terms of radiosynthesis, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics and clinical applications. A perspective of their future use in the clinic is also provided. PMID:26722375

  19. Low-Molecular Weight Polyethylenimine Modified with Pluronic 123 and RGD- or Chimeric RGD-NLS Peptide: Characteristics and Transfection Efficacy of Their Complexes with Plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhao, Wenfang; Liu, Kehai; Yu, Qian; Mao, Yuan; Lu, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaguang; Zhu, Manman

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of transfection efficiency vs. cytotoxicity and tumor-targeting ability when polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a nonviral gene delivery vector, new degradable PEI polymers were synthesized via cross-linking low-molecular-weight PEI with Pluronic P123 and then further coupled with a targeting peptide R4 (RGD) and a bifunctional R11 (RGD-NLS), which were termed as P123-PEI-R4 and P123-PEI-R11, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that both P123-PEI-R4 and P123-PEI-R11 efficaciously condense plasmid DNA at a polymer-to-pDNA w/w ratio of 3.0 and 0.4, respectively. The polyplexes were stable in the presence of serum and could protect plasmid DNA against DNaseI. They had uniform spherical nanoparticles with appropriate sizes around 100-280 nm and zeta-potentials about +40 mV. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that these polyplexes had lower cytotoxicity at any concentration compared with PEI 25 kDa, thus giving promise to high transfection efficiency as compared with another P123-PEI derivate conjugated with trifunctional peptide RGD-TAT-NLS (P123-PEI-R18). More importantly, compared with the other polymers, P123-PEI-R11 showed the highest transfection efficiency with relatively lower cytotoxicity at any concentration, indicating that the new synthetic polymer P123-PEI-R11 could be used as a safe and efficient gene deliver vector. PMID:27213305

  20. RGD Peptide Cell-Surface Display Enhances the Targeting and Therapeutic Efficacy of Attenuated Salmonella-mediated Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Hwan; Zheng, Jin Hai; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Szardenings, Michael; Min, Jung Hyun; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria-based anticancer therapies aim to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy by actively targeting and efficiently removing cancer. To achieve this goal, new approaches that target and maintain bacterial drugs at sufficient concentrations during the therapeutic window are essential. Here, we examined the tumor tropism of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium displaying the RGD peptide sequence (ACDCRGDCFCG) on the external loop of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). RGD-displaying Salmonella strongly bound to cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3, but weakly bound to αvβ3-negative cancer cells, suggesting the feasibility of displaying a preferential homing peptide on the bacterial surface. In vivo studies revealed that RGD-displaying Salmonellae showed strong targeting efficiency, resulting in the regression in αvβ3-overexpressing cancer xenografts, and prolonged survival of mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human melanoma (MDA-MB-435). Thus, surface engineering of Salmonellae to display RGD peptides increases both their targeting efficiency and therapeutic effect. PMID:27446500

  1. RGD Peptide Cell-Surface Display Enhances the Targeting and Therapeutic Efficacy of Attenuated Salmonella-mediated Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hwan; Zheng, Jin Hai; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Szardenings, Michael; Min, Jung Hyun; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E.; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria-based anticancer therapies aim to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy by actively targeting and efficiently removing cancer. To achieve this goal, new approaches that target and maintain bacterial drugs at sufficient concentrations during the therapeutic window are essential. Here, we examined the tumor tropism of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium displaying the RGD peptide sequence (ACDCRGDCFCG) on the external loop of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). RGD-displaying Salmonella strongly bound to cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3, but weakly bound to αvβ3-negative cancer cells, suggesting the feasibility of displaying a preferential homing peptide on the bacterial surface. In vivo studies revealed that RGD-displaying Salmonellae showed strong targeting efficiency, resulting in the regression in αvβ3-overexpressing cancer xenografts, and prolonged survival of mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human melanoma (MDA-MB-435). Thus, surface engineering of Salmonellae to display RGD peptides increases both their targeting efficiency and therapeutic effect. PMID:27446500

  2. IL-6 Antibody and RGD Peptide Conjugated Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer for Targeted Drug Delivery of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Shewaye Lakew; Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Chou, Hsiao-Ying; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih

    2016-01-14

    In this study, PAMAM dendrimer (G4.5) was conjugated with two targeting moieties, IL-6 antibody and RGD peptide (G4.5-IL6 and G4.5-RGD conjugates). Doxorubicin anticancer drug was physically loaded onto G4.5-IL6 and G4.5-RGD with the encapsulation efficiency of 51.3 and 30.1% respectively. The cellular internalization and uptake efficiency of G4.5-IL6/DOX and G4.5-RGD/DOX complexes was observed and compared by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using HeLa cells, respectively. The lower IC50 value of G4.5-IL6/DOX in comparison to G4.5-RGD/DOX is indication that higher drug loading and faster drug release rate corresponded with greater cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic effect was further verified by increment in late apoptotic/necrotic cells due to delivery of drug through receptor-mediated endocytosis. On the basis of these results, G4.5-IL6 is a better suited carrier for targeted drug delivery of DOX to cervical cancer cells. PMID:26670944

  3. Dual-functionalized liposomal delivery system for solid tumors based on RGD and a pH-responsive antimicrobial peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianyu; Lu, Libao; Zhang, Li; Shi, Kairong; Cun, Xingli; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Yayuan; Gao, Huile; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    [D]-H6L9, as a pH-responsive anti-microbial peptide (AMP), has been evidenced by us to be an excellent choice in tumor microenvironment-responsive delivery as it could render liposomes responsive to the acidified tumor microenvironment. However, [D]-H6L9-modified liposomes could not actively target to tumor area. Therefore, integrin αvβ3-targeted peptide RGD was co-modified with [D]-H6L9 onto liposomes [(R + D)-Lip] for improved tumor delivery efficiency. Under pH 6.3, (R + D)-Lip could be taken up by C26 cells and C26 tumor spheroids (integrin αvβ3-positive) with significantly improved efficiency compared with other groups, which was contributed by both RGD and [D]-H6L9, while RGD did not increase the cellular uptake performance on MCF-7 cells (integrin αvβ3-negative). Results showed that RGD could decrease cellular uptake of (R + D)-Lip while [D]-H6L9 could increase it, implying the role of both RGD and [D]-H6L9 in cellular internalization of (R + D)-Lip. On the other hand, (R + D)-Lip could escape the entrapment of lysosomes. PTX-loaded (R + D)-Lip could further increase the cellular toxicity against C26 cells compared with liposomes modified only with RGD and [D]-H6L9 respectively, and achieve remarkable tumor inhibition effect on C26 tumor models. PMID:26842655

  4. Antiadhesive polymer brush coating functionalized with antimicrobial and RGD peptides to reduce biofilm formation and enhance tissue integration.

    PubMed

    Muszanska, Agnieszka K; Rochford, Edward T J; Gruszka, Agnieszka; Bastian, Andreas A; Busscher, Henk J; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of polymer-peptide conjugates to be used as infection-resistant coating for biomaterial implants and devices. Antiadhesive polymer brushes composed of block copolymer Pluronic F-127 (PF127) were functionalized with antimicrobial peptides (AMP), able to kill bacteria on contact, and arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides to promote the adhesion and spreading of host tissue cells. The antiadhesive and antibacterial properties of the coating were investigated with three bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of the coating to support mammalian cell growth was determined using human fibroblast cells. Coatings composed of the appropriate ratio of the functional components: PF127, PF127 modified with AMP, and PF127 modified with RGD showed good antiadhesive and bactericidal properties without hampering tissue compatibility.

  5. Growth promoting in vitro effect of synthetic cyclic RGD-peptides on human osteoblast-like cells attached to cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Magdolen, Ursula; Auernheimer, Jörg; Dahmen, Claudia; Schauwecker, Johannes; Gollwitzer, Hans; Tübel, Jutta; Gradinger, Reiner; Kessler, Horst; Schmitt, Manfred; Diehl, Peter

    2006-06-01

    In tissue engineering, the application of biofunctional compounds on biomaterials such as integrin binding RGD-peptides has gained growing interest. Anchorage-dependent cells like osteoblasts bind to these peptides thus ameliorating the integration of a synthetic implant. In case sterilized bone grafts are used as substitutes for reconstruction of bone defects, the ingrowth of the implanted bone is often disturbed because of severe pretreatment such as irradiation or autoclaving, impairing the biological and mechanical properties of the bone. We report for the first time on the in vitro coating of the surface of freshly resected, cleaned bone discs with synthetic, cyclic RGD-peptides. For this approach, two different RGD-peptides were used, one containing two phosphonate anchors, the other peptide four of these binding moieties to allow efficient association of these reactive RGD-peptides to the inorganic bone matrix. Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured on RGD-coated bone discs and the adherence and growth of the cells were analyzed. Coating of bone discs with RGD-peptides did not improve the adhesion rate of osteoblast-like cells to the discs but significantly (up to 40%) accelerated growth of these cells within 8 days after attachment. This effect points to pretreatment of bone implants, especially at the critical interface area between the implanted bone and the non-resected residual bone structure, before re-implantation in order to stimulate and enhance osteointegration of a bone implant. PMID:16685410

  6. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  7. (99m)Tc-Galacto-RGD2: a novel 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD peptide dimer useful for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shundong; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Guoqiang; Valenzuela, Francisco; Sowiński, Paweł; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael; Liu, Shuang

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-Galacto-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] ((99m)Tc-Galacto-RGD2: HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; Galacto-RGD2 = Glu[cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys(SAA-PEG2-(1,2,3-triazole)-1-yl-4-methylamide)

  8. Intravenous transferrin, RGD peptide and dual-targeted nanoparticles enhance anti-VEGF intraceptor gene delivery to laser-induced CNV

    PubMed Central

    Singh, SR; Grossniklaus, HE; Kang, SJ; Edelhauser, HF; Ambati, BK; Kompella, UB

    2010-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) leads to loss of vision in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in adult population over 50 years old. In this study, we developed intravenously administered, nanoparticulate, targeted nonviral retinal gene delivery systems for the management of CNV. CNV was induced in Brown Norway rats using a 532 nm laser. We engineered transferrin, arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) peptide or dual-functionalized poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to target delivery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intraceptor plasmid to CNV lesions. Anti-VEGF intraceptor is the only intracellularly acting VEGF inhibitory modality. The results of the study show that nanoparticles allow targeted delivery to the neovascular eye but not the control eye on intravenous administration. Functionalizing the nanoparticle surface with transferrin, a linear RGD peptide or both increased the retinal delivery of nanoparticles and subsequently the intraceptor gene expression in retinal vascular endothelial cells, photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelial cells when compared to nonfunctionalized nanoparticles. Most significantly, the CNV areas were significantly smaller in rats treated with functionalized nanoparticles as compared to the ones treated with vehicle or nonfunctionalized nanoparticles. Thus, surface-functionalized nanoparticles allow targeted gene delivery to the neovascular eye on intravenous administration and inhibit the progression of laser-induced CNV in a rodent model. PMID:19194480

  9. Evaluation of copper-64 labeled AmBaSar conjugated cyclic RGD peptide for improved microPET imaging of integrin alphavbeta3 expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hancheng; Li, Zibo; Huang, Chiun-Wei; Shahinian, Anthony H; Wang, Hui; Park, Ryan; Conti, Peter S

    2010-08-18

    Recently, we have developed a new cage-like bifunctional chelator 4-((8-amino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo [6.6.6] icosane-1-ylamino) methyl) benzoic acid (AmBaSar) for copper-64 labeling and synthesized the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD. In this study, we further evaluate the biological property of this new AmBaSar chelator by using (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD as the model compound. In vitro and in vivo stability, lipophilicity, cell binding and uptake, microPET imaging, receptor blocking experiments, and biodistribution studies of (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD were investigated, and the results were directly compared with the established radiotracer (64)Cu-DOTA-RGD. The (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD was obtained with high radiochemical yield (> or =95%) and purity (> or =99%) under mild conditions (pH 5.0-5.5 and 23-37 degrees C) in less than 30 min. For in vitro studies, the radiochemical purity of (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD was more than 97% in PBS or FBS and 95% in mouse serum after 24 h of incubation. The log P value of (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD was -2.44 +/- 0.12. For in vivo studies, (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD and (64)Cu-DOTA-RGD have demonstrated comparable tumor uptake at selected time points on the basis of microPET imaging. The integrin alpha(v)beta(3) receptor specificity was confirmed by blocking experiments for both tracers. Compared with (64)Cu-DOTA-RGD, (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD demonstrated much lower liver accumulation in both microPET imaging and biodistribution studies. Metabolic studies also directly supported the observation that (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD was more stable in vivo than (64)Cu-DOTA-RGD. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the (64)Cu-AmBaSar-RGD have demonstrated its improved Cu-chelation stability compared with that of the established tracer (64)Cu-DOTA-RGD. The AmBaSar chelator will also have general applications for (64)Cu labeling of various bioactive molecules in high radiochemical yield and high in vivo stability.

  10. RGD peptide-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles enable highly efficient and specific gene delivery to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingdan; Alves, Carla S; Hou, Wenxiu; Qiu, Jieru; Möhwald, Helmuth; Tomás, Helena; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    We report the use of arginine-glycine-aspartic (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD) peptide-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for highly efficient and specific gene delivery to stem cells. In this study, generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers modified with RGD via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer and with PEG monomethyl ether were used as templates to entrap gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The native and the RGD-modified PEGylated dendrimers and the respective well characterized Au DENPs were used as vectors to transfect human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with plasmid DNA (pDNA) carrying both the enhanced green fluorescent protein and the luciferase (pEGFPLuc) reporter genes, as well as pDNA encoding the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) gene. We show that all vectors are capable of transfecting the hMSCs with both pDNAs. Gene transfection using pEGFPLuc was demonstrated by quantitative Luc activity assay and qualitative evaluation by fluorescence microscopy. For the transfection with hBMP-2, the gene delivery efficiency was evaluated by monitoring the hBMP-2 concentration and the level of osteogenic differentiation of the hMSCs via alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion, calcium deposition, and von Kossa staining assays. Our results reveal that the stem cell gene delivery efficiency is largely dependent on the composition and the surface functionality of the dendrimer-based vectors. The coexistence of RGD and AuNPs rendered the designed dendrimeric vector with specific stem cell binding ability likely via binding of integrin receptor on the cell surface and improved three-dimensional conformation of dendrimers, which is beneficial for highly efficient and specific stem cell gene delivery applications. PMID:25658033

  11. Highly efficient in vivo gene transfection by plasmid/PEI complexes coated by anionic PEG derivatives bearing carboxyl groups and RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Sakae, Mitsuko; Ito, Tomoko; Yoshihara, Chieko; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Yanagie, Hironobu; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Koyama, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-01

    A new class of an anionic poly (ethylene glycol) derivative, PEG-Suc, bearing 17.7 pairs of carboxylic acid-side chains was synthesized. PEG-Suc deposited onto the DNA/polyethyleneimine complexes without destroying them even at high dose ratio. Coating of the DNA complexes by PEG-Suc recharged their surface to negative, and effectively protected them from the albumin-induced aggregation. Paired carboxyl groups in the side chains showed higher proton sponge effect. Negatively charged surface would diminish the electrostatic binding of the complexes to the cells, and the transfection efficiency on the cultured cells was not high. RGD peptide side chain as a ligand to malignant cell surfaces was then introduced to compensate the reduced electrical adhesion. RGD-PEG-Suc-coated plasmid/PEI complex brought about more than 3 times higher reporter protein activity on the cultured B16 cells. Those bio-compatible DNA complexes with ligand attained very high gene expression in tumor, lung, and liver after injection into mouse tail vein.

  12. RGD-peptide conjugated inulin-ibuprofen nanoparticles for targeted delivery of Epirubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luzhong; Li, Guicai; Gao, Ming; Liu, Xin; Ji, Bing; Hua, Ruheng; Zhou, Youlang; Yang, Yumin

    2016-08-01

    Recently, chemotherapy-based polymeric nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for solid tumor treatment. Tumor targeted nanoparticles demonstrated great potential for improved accumulation in the tumor tissue, superior anticancer activity and reduced side effects. Thus, inulin-ibuprofen polymer was synthesized by esterification between inulin and ibuprofen, and RGD targeted epirubicin (EPB) loaded nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of inulin-ibuprofen polymer and in situ encapsulation of EPB. RGD conjugated EPB loaded nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The EPB release from the nanoparticles showed pH-dependent profile and accelerated by the decreased pH value, which would favor the effective drug delivery in vivo. Intracellular uptake analysis suggested that RGD conjugated nanoparticles could be easily internalized by the cancer cells. In vitro cytotoxicity revealed that RGD conjugated EPB loaded nanoparticles exhibited the better antitumor efficacy compared with non-conjugated nanoparticles. More importantly, RGD conjugated EPB loaded nanoparticles showed superior anticancer effects and reduced toxicity than free EPB and non-conjugated nanoparticles by in vivo antitumor activity, EPB biodistribution and histology analysis.

  13. Robust Therapeutic Efficacy of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2-Cleavable Fas-1-RGD Peptide Complex in Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Keum Hee; Sung, Shijin; Park, Jae Yong; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, In San; Kang, Young Mo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic agents that are transformable via introducing cleavable linkage by locally enriched MMP-2 within inflamed synovium would enhance therapeutic efficacy on chronic inflammatory arthritis. Transforming growth factor-β-inducible gene-h3 (βig-h3), which consists of four fas-1 domains and an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, intensifies inflammatory processes by facilitating adhesion and migration of fibroblast-like synoviocyte in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex consisting of a fas-1 domain and an RGD peptide blocks the interaction between βig-h3 and resident cells and leads to the amelioration of inflammatory arthritis. Methods We designed βig-h3-derivatives, including the fourth fas-1 domain truncated for H1 and H2 sequences of mouse (MFK00) and MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex (MFK902). MMP-2 selectivity was examined by treatment with a series of proteases. MFK902 efficacy was determined by the adhesion and migration assay with NIH3T3 cells in vitro and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using male DBA/1J mice in vivo. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with MFK902 at different dosages. Results MFK902 was specifically cleaved by active MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and βig-h3-mediated adhesion and migration were more effectively inhibited by MFK902, compared with RGD or MFK00 peptides. The arthritis activity of murine CIA, measured by clinical arthritis index and incidence of arthritic paws, was significantly ameliorated after treatment with all dosages of MFK902 (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg). MFK902 ameliorated histopathologic deterioration and reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators simultaneously with improvement of clinical features. In addition, a favorable safety profile of MFK902 was demonstrated in vivo. Conclusion The present study revealed that MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex based on βig-h3 structure is a potent and safe

  14. Integrin αvβ3 as a Promising Target to Image Neoangiogenesis Using In-House Generator-Produced Positron Emitter (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA-Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD) Ligand.

    PubMed

    Vatsa, Rakhee; Bhusari, Priya; Kumar, Sunil; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh; Singh, Gurpreet; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-06-01

    For the growth and spread of a tumor beyond 2 mm, angiogenesis plays a crucial role, and association of various integrins with angiogenesis is evidential. The aim of the study was radiolabeling of DOTA-chelated RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptide with (68)Ga for PET imaging in locally advanced breast carcinoma. DOTA-RGD was incubated with (68)GaCl3, eluted in 0.05 m HCl. Elution volume, peptide amount, and reaction pH were studied. Radio-ITLC, gas chromatography, endotoxin, and sterility testing were performed. Serial (n=3) and whole-body (n=2) PET/CT imaging was done on patients post i.v. injection of 111-185 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD. Maximum radiolabeling yield was achieved with 3 mL elution volume of 15-20 μg peptide at pH 3.5-4.0 with 10 minutes of incubation at 95°C. Product samples were sterile having 99.5% radiochemical purity with residual ethanol content and endotoxins in injectable limits. Intense radiotracer uptake was noticed in the tumor with SUVmax 15.3 at 45 minutes in serial images. Physiological radiotracer uptake was seen in the liver, spleen, ventricles, and thyroid with excretion through the kidneys. The authors concluded that (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD has the potential for imaging α,vβ3 integrin-expressing tumors. PMID:26083951

  15. Integrin αvβ3 as a Promising Target to Image Neoangiogenesis Using In-House Generator-Produced Positron Emitter (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA-Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD) Ligand.

    PubMed

    Vatsa, Rakhee; Bhusari, Priya; Kumar, Sunil; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh; Singh, Gurpreet; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-06-01

    For the growth and spread of a tumor beyond 2 mm, angiogenesis plays a crucial role, and association of various integrins with angiogenesis is evidential. The aim of the study was radiolabeling of DOTA-chelated RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptide with (68)Ga for PET imaging in locally advanced breast carcinoma. DOTA-RGD was incubated with (68)GaCl3, eluted in 0.05 m HCl. Elution volume, peptide amount, and reaction pH were studied. Radio-ITLC, gas chromatography, endotoxin, and sterility testing were performed. Serial (n=3) and whole-body (n=2) PET/CT imaging was done on patients post i.v. injection of 111-185 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD. Maximum radiolabeling yield was achieved with 3 mL elution volume of 15-20 μg peptide at pH 3.5-4.0 with 10 minutes of incubation at 95°C. Product samples were sterile having 99.5% radiochemical purity with residual ethanol content and endotoxins in injectable limits. Intense radiotracer uptake was noticed in the tumor with SUVmax 15.3 at 45 minutes in serial images. Physiological radiotracer uptake was seen in the liver, spleen, ventricles, and thyroid with excretion through the kidneys. The authors concluded that (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD has the potential for imaging α,vβ3 integrin-expressing tumors.

  16. Ayadualin, a novel RGD peptide with dual antihemostatic activities from the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Fujita, Megumi; Ishimaru, Yuka; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    Sequence analysis of the Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis salivary gland cDNA library identified a short peptide containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence flanked by two cysteine residues in the C-terminal end as the most abundant transcript. In the present study, a recombinant protein of the RGD-containing peptide, designated ayadualin, was expressed in Escherichia coli and its activity was characterized. Ayadualin inhibited both collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregations by interfering with the binding of integrin αIIbβ3 to fibrinogen. The RGD sequence and cysteine residues located on both sides of the RGD sequence were essential for the inhibitory action. Moreover, ayadualin efficiently inhibited the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway irrespective of the RGD sequence. Measuring the enzymatic activity of coagulation factors using chromogenic substrates revealed that ayadualin efficiently inhibited factor XIIa (FXIIa) activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-incubation of ayadualin with FXII inhibited FXIIa activity, while activated FXIIa was not affected by ayadualin, indicating that ayadualin inhibits the activation of FXII, but not enzymatic activity of FXIIa. These results indicated that ayadualin plays an important role in the blood feeding of Lu. ayacuchensis by inhibiting host hemostasis via dual mechanisms.

  17. Ayadualin, a novel RGD peptide with dual antihemostatic activities from the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Fujita, Megumi; Ishimaru, Yuka; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    Sequence analysis of the Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis salivary gland cDNA library identified a short peptide containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence flanked by two cysteine residues in the C-terminal end as the most abundant transcript. In the present study, a recombinant protein of the RGD-containing peptide, designated ayadualin, was expressed in Escherichia coli and its activity was characterized. Ayadualin inhibited both collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregations by interfering with the binding of integrin αIIbβ3 to fibrinogen. The RGD sequence and cysteine residues located on both sides of the RGD sequence were essential for the inhibitory action. Moreover, ayadualin efficiently inhibited the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway irrespective of the RGD sequence. Measuring the enzymatic activity of coagulation factors using chromogenic substrates revealed that ayadualin efficiently inhibited factor XIIa (FXIIa) activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-incubation of ayadualin with FXII inhibited FXIIa activity, while activated FXIIa was not affected by ayadualin, indicating that ayadualin inhibits the activation of FXII, but not enzymatic activity of FXIIa. These results indicated that ayadualin plays an important role in the blood feeding of Lu. ayacuchensis by inhibiting host hemostasis via dual mechanisms. PMID:25724270

  18. Internalization of RGD peptide conjugates of near-infrared fluorescent probes in different cell lines occurs via different integrin receptor subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, S.; Xu, B.; Ye, Y.; Liang, K.; Achilefu, S.

    2006-02-01

    Expression of integrin α vβ 3 is upregulated in a number of cancers including colon, pancreas, lung and breast. Previous studies demonstrated that near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes designed to target α vβ 3 accumulated both in vitro and in vivo in α vβ 3-positive tumor cells. To evaluate the selectivity of some NIR-labeled RGD peptides for α vβ 3, the molecular probes were incubated in different cells, including the α vβ 3-positive U87 and A549 cells, and α vβ 3-negative HT29 cells. Whereas the RGD compounds tested internalized in the A549 cells, their uptake by the HT29 cell line, which is positive for α vβ 5 and α vβ 6, was low. The uptake of these probes in U87 depended on the structural features of the compounds. Further studies with functional blocking antibodies showed that the internalization in the α vβ 3-positive cells may be mediated by different integrin receptor subtypes. The preliminary results suggest that the internalization of linear RGD peptides is mediated by the α vβ 3 heterodimer but rearrangement of the peptide sequence could alter the selectivity of the molecular probes for different integrin subunits in the dimeric α and β proteins. Thus, a careful choice of RGD peptides can be used to monitor the functional status of different integrins in cells and tissues.

  19. Interface Immobilization Chemistry of cRGD-based Peptides Regulates Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pallarola, Diego; Bochen, Alexander; Boehm, Heike; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq R; Spatz, Joachim P; Kessler, Horst

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of specific surface receptors of the integrin family with different extracellular matrix-based ligands is of utmost importance for the cellular adhesion process. A ligand consists of an integrin-binding group, here cyclic RGDfX, a spacer molecule that lifts the integrin-binding group from the surface and a surface anchoring group. c(-RGDfX-) peptides are bound to gold nanoparticle structured surfaces via polyproline, polyethylene glycol or aminohexanoic acid containing spacers of different lengths. Although keeping the integrin-binding c(-RGDfX-) peptides constant for all compounds, changes of the ligand's spacer chemistry and length reveal significant differences in cell adhesion activation and focal adhesion formation. Polyproline-based peptides demonstrate improved cell adhesion kinetics and focal adhesion formation compared with common aminohexanoic acid or polyethylene glycol spacers. Binding activity can additionally be improved by applying ligands with two head groups, inducing a multimeric effect. This study gives insights into spacer-based differences in integrin-driven cell adhesion processes and remarkably highlights the polyproline-based spacers as suitable ligand-presenting templates for surface functionalization. PMID:25810710

  20. The influence of biomimetic topographic features and the extracellular matrix peptide RGD on human corneal epithelial contact guidance

    PubMed Central

    Tocce, E.J.; Liliensiek, S.J.; Broderick, A.H.; Jiang, Y; Murphy, K.C.; Murphy, C.J.; Lynn, D.M.; Nealey, P.F

    2012-01-01

    A major focus in the field of tissue engineering is the regulation of essential cell behaviors through biophysical and biochemical cues from the local extracellular environment. The impact of nanotopographic cues on human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) contact guidance, proliferation, migration and adhesion have previously been demonstrated. In the current report, we have expanded our study of HCEC response to include both biophysical and controlled biochemical extracellular cues. By exploiting methods for the layer-by-layer coating of substrates with reactive poly(ethylene imine) and poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PEI/PVDMA)-based multilayer thin films, we have incorporated a single adhesion peptide motif, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), onto topographically patterned substrates. This strategy eliminates protein adsorption onto the surface, thus decoupling the effects of the HCEC response to topographic cues from adsorbed proteins and the soluble media proteins. The direction of cell alignment was dependent on the scale of the topographic cues, and, to less of an extent, the culture medium. In EpiLife® medium, cell alignment to unmodified-NOA81 topographic features, which allowed for protein adsorption, differed significantly from cell alignment on RGD-modified features. These results demonstrate that the surface chemical composition affects significantly how HCECs respond to topographic cues. In summary, we demonstrate the modulation of the HCEC response to environmental cues through critical substrate and soluble parameters. PMID:23069317

  1. Expression of conformationally constrained adhesion peptide in an antibody CDR loop and inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity by an antibody antigenized with the RGD motif.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, M; Filaci, G; Lee, R H; del Guercio, P; Rossi, F; Bacchetta, R; Stevenson, F; Barnaba, V; Billetta, R

    1993-01-01

    We report that an antibody engineered to express three Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) repeats in the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (antigenized antibody) efficiently inhibits the lysis of human erythroleukemia K-562 cells by natural killer (NK) cells. Synthetic peptides containing RGD did not inhibit. Inhibition was specific for the (RGD)3-containing loop and required simultaneous occupancy of the Fc receptor (CD16) on effector cells. The antigenized antibody inhibited other forms of cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but not cytotoxicity mediated by major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A three-dimensional model of the engineered antibody loop shows the structure and physicochemical characteristics probably required for the ligand activity. The results indicate that an RGD motif is involved in the productive interaction between NK and target cells. Moreover, they show that peptide expression in the hypervariable loops of an antibody molecule is an efficient procedure for stabilizing oligopeptides within a limited spectrum of tertiary structures. This is a new approach towards imparting ligand properties to antibody molecules and can be used to study the biological function and specificity of short peptide motifs, including those involved in cell adhesion. Images PMID:8223447

  2. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Lee, Jonghwan; Jung, Jae Ho; Moon, Byung Seok; Kim, Soonhag; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-06-30

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin αvβ3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe (123)I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization.

  3. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sun Yoo, Jung; Lee, Jonghwan; Ho Jung, Jae; Seok Moon, Byung; Kim, Soonhag; Chul Lee, Byung; Eun Kim, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin αvβ3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe 123I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization. PMID:26123253

  4. Functional characterization of six aspartate (D) recombinant mojastin mutants (r-Moj): A second aspartate amino acid carboxyl to the RGD in r-Moj-D_ peptides is not sufficient to induce apoptosis of SK-Mel-28 cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carla J; Gutierrez, Daniel A; Aranda, Ana S; Koshlaychuk, Melissa A; Carrillo, David A; Medrano, Rafael; McBride, Terri D; U, Andrew; Medina, Stephanie M; Lombardo, Melissa C; Lucena, Sara E; Sanchez, Elda E; Soto, Julio G

    2016-08-01

    Disintegrins are small peptides produced in viper venom that act as integrin antagonists. When bound to integrins, disintegrins induce altered cellular behaviors, such as apoptotic induction. Disintegrins with RGDDL or RGDDM motifs induce apoptosis of normal and cancer cells. We hypothesized that a second aspartate (D) carboxyl to the RGD is sufficient to induce apoptosis. Five recombinant mojastin D mutants were produced by site-directed mutagenesis (r-Moj-DA, r-Moj-DG, r-Moj-DL, r-Moj-DN, and r-Moj-DV). Stable αv integrin knockdown and shRNA scrambled control SK-Mel-28 cell lines were produced to test a second hypothesis: r-Moj-D_ peptides bind to αv integrin. Only r-Moj-DL, r-Moj-DM, and r-Moj-DN induced apoptosis of SK-Mel-28 cells (at 29.4%, 25.6%, and 36.2%, respectively). Apoptotic induction was significantly reduced in SK-Mel-28 cells with a stable αv integrin knockdown (to 2%, 17%, and 2%, respectively), but not in SK-Mel-28 cells with a stable scrambled shRNA. All six r-Moj-D_ peptides inhibited cell proliferation; ranging from 49.56% (r-Moj-DN) to 75.6% (r-Moj-DA). Cell proliferation inhibition by r-Moj-D_ peptides was significantly reduced in SK-Mel-28 cells with a stable αv integrin knockdown. All six r-Moj-D_ peptides inhibited SK-Mel-28 cell migration at high levels (69%-100%). As a consequence, rac-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced as early as 1 h after treatment, suggesting that rac-1 is involved in the cell migration activity of SK-Mel-28.

  5. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  6. RGD functionalized polymeric nanoparticles targeting periodontitis epithelial cells for the enhanced treatment of periodontitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenxin; Xu, Peicheng; Zhao, Jingjing; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Nengneng; Pang, Zhiqing

    2015-11-15

    Long term retention of antimicrobials with effective drug concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is of vital importance for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. In this study, a novel epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system by conjugating minocycline-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NP-MIN) with RGD peptide were developed and administrated locally for targeting periodontitis epithelial cells and enhancing the treatment of periodontitis in dogs. Biodegradable NP-MIN was made with an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. RGD peptide was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via Maleimide group reaction with hydrosulfide in RGD peptide (RGD-NP-MIN). Transmission electron microscopy examination and dynamic light scattering results revealed that RGD-NP-MIN had a sphere shape, with a mean diameter around 106nm. In vitro release of minocycline from RGD-NP-MIN showed that RGD modification did not change the remarkable sustained releasing characteristic of NP-MIN. To elucidate the interaction of RGD-NP and epithelial cells, RGD-NP binding, uptake and cellular internalization mechanisms by calu-3 cells were investigated. It was shown RGD modification significantly enhanced nanoparticles binding and uptake by Calu-3 cells, and RGD-NP uptake was an energy-dependent process through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both clathrin-associated endocytosis and caveolae-dependent endocytosis pathway were involved in the RGD-NP uptake, and the intracellular transport of RGD-NP was related to lysosome and Golgi apparatus. Finally, in vivo pharmacokinetics of minocycline in the periodontal pockets and anti-periodontitis effects of RGD-NP-MIN on periodontitis-bearing dogs were evaluated. After local administration of RGD-NP-MIN, minocycline concentration in gingival crevicular fluid decreased slowly and maintained an effective drug concentration for a longer time than that of NP-MIN. Anti-periodontitis effects

  7. The effect of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide and hyaluronate synthetic matrix on epithelialization of meshed skin graft interstices.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Hansbrough, J F; Polarek, J W

    1996-01-01

    Keratinocytes and fibroblasts interact with proteins of the extracellular matrix such as fibronectin and vitronectin through RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) cell-attachment sequences. This study evaluated the ability of a provisional synthetic matrix composed of an RGD peptide and hyaluronic acid to accelerate the epithelialization of the interstices of meshed, human, split-thickness skin when placed on full-thickness wounds of athymic mice. Full-thickness skin defects, sparing the panniculus carnosus, were created on athymic mice and 3:1 meshed, human skin was placed on them. The grafts had four central, isolated interstices, which epithelialized by migration of human keratinocytes. Conditions were either the addition to the wound of the synthetic matrix or a matrix of hyaluronic acid alone. The time to closure of the graft interstices was decreased (p < 0.02) in the wounds treated with the RGD peptide-hyaluronic acid provisional matrix. The resultant epithelium of the closed interstices was significantly thicker 8 days after surgery for the RGD-treated wounds. Basement membrane proteins (laminin and type IV collagen) were also found to be present at the dermoepidermal junction earlier in the RGD-treated wounds. These results imply that use of the RGD peptide conjugate to effect cell-matrix interactions may have clinical significance in the field of wound healing.

  8. Tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation for the rapid construction of integrin αvβ₃ targeted PET tracer based on a cyclic RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Ramajeyam; Liu, Shuanglong; Hassink, Matthew; Huang, Chiun-Wei; Yap, Li-Peng; Park, Ryan; Fox, Joseph M; Li, Zibo; Conti, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    Labeling biomolecules with (18)F is usually done through coupling with prosthetic groups, which generally requires several time-consuming radiosynthetic steps resulting in low labeling yield. Recently, the tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation has been introduced as a method of bioconjugation that proceeds with fast reaction rates without need for catalysis. Herein, we report the development of an extremely fast and efficient method for generating (18)F labeled probes based on the tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation. Starting with only 30 μg (78 μM) of a tetrazine-RGD conjugate and 2 mCi (5 μM) of (18)F-trans-cyclooctene, the (18)F labeled RGD peptide could be obtained in more than 90% yield within five minutes. The (18)F labeled RGD peptide demonstrated prominent tumor uptake in vivo. The receptor specificity was confirmed by blocking experiments. These results successfully demonstrate that the tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation serves as an efficient labeling method for PET probe construction.

  9. Enhanced tumor targeting of cRGD peptide-conjugated albumin nanoparticles in the BxPC-3 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinzhe; Song, Yunlong; Di, Yang; He, Hang; Fu, Deliang; Jin, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The emerging albumin nanoparticle brings new hope for the delivery of antitumor drugs. However, a lack of robust tumor targeting greatly limits its application. In this paper, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic-conjugated, gemcitabine-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs) were successfully prepared, characterized, and tested in vitro in the BxPC-3 cell line. Initially, 4-N-myristoyl-gemcitabine (Gem-C14) was formed by conjugating myristoyl to the 4-amino group of gemcitabine. Then, cRGD-HSA was synthesized using sulfosuccinimidyl-(4-N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC) cross-linkers. Finally, cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs were formulated based on the nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) technology. The resulting NPs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading efficiency. In vitro cellular uptake and inhibition studies were conducted to compare Gem-HSA-NPs and cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). The cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs exhibited an average particle size of 160 ± 23 nm. The encapsulation rate and drug loading rate were approximately 83 ± 5.6% and 11 ± 4.2%, respectively. In vitro, the cRGD-anchored NPs exhibited a significantly greater affinity for the BxPC-3 cells compared to non-targeted NPs and free drug. The cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs also showed the strongest inhibitory effect in the BxPC-3 cells among all the analyzed groups. The improved efficacy of cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs in the BxPC-3 cell line warrants further in vivo investigations. PMID:27515795

  10. A comparative study of polyethylene glycol hydrogels derivatized with the RGD peptide and the cell-binding domain of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Hekmatfer, Sogol; Karuri, Nancy W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the biological responses of cells cultured on polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels functionalized with varying concentrations of the widely used adhesion peptide, RGD, and the cell-binding domain of fibronectin, III(9-10). We used Michael addition chemistry to covalently link cysteines in GRGDSPC and glutathione S-transferase (GST) tagged III(9-10) (GST-III(9-10)), to the acrylate groups in PEG diacrylate (PEGDA). Conjugation of GST-III(9-10) to PEGDA occurred through cysteine residues in GST. Ellman's reagent and immunoblotting studies demonstrated an efficiency of 90% or more for PEG conjugation of 1 μM GST-III(9-10) or GRDGSPC in 10% (wt/vol) PEGDA at 37°C for 1 h. Circular dichroism and limited proteolysis demonstrated that conjugating PEGDA to GST-III(9-10) did not significantly perturb its native secondary structure. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis characterization of the wash solution of PEG hydrogels after photopolymerization demonstrated that >95% of the 1 μM GST-III(9-10) was incorporated into the PEG hydrogels after cross-linking. PEG hydrogels derivatized with 1 μM GST-III(9-10) had significantly higher cell adhesion and spreading than PEG hydrogels with 1 μM GRGDSPC. A comparable adhesion response between GRGDSPC and GST-III(9-10) was obtained when the former was at millimolar and the latter at micromolar concentration. The amount and type of conjugate in the PEG hydrogel derivative was statistically more significant than hydrogel rigidity in stimulating the biological responses observed. This report presents new evidence of the robustness of III(9-10) in mediating cell adhesion and spreading on PEG hydrogels.

  11. Effect of RGD-functionalization and stiffness modulation of polyelectrolyte multilayer films on muscle cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gribova, Varvara; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Albigès-Rizo, Corinne; Auzely-Velty, Rachel; Picart, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering holds promise for the replacement of muscle due to an injury and for the treatment of muscle diseases. Although RGD substrates have been widely explored in tissue engineering, there is no study aimed at investigating the combined effects of RGD nanoscale presentation and matrix stiffness on myogenesis. In the present work, we use polyelectrolyte multilayer films made of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and poly(L-glutamic) acid (PGA) as substrates of tunable stiffness that can be functionalized by a RGD adhesive peptide to investigate important events in myogenesis, including adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were used as cellular models. RGD presentation on soft films and increased film stiffness could both induce cell adhesion, but integrins involved in adhesion were different in case of soft and stiff films. Moreover, soft films with RGD peptide appeared to be the most appropriate substrate for myogenic differentiation while the stiff PLL/PGA films significantly induced cell migration, proliferation and inhibited myogenic differentiation. The ROCK kinase was found to be involved in myoblast response to the different films. Indeed, its inhibition was sufficient to rescue the differentiation on stiff films, but no significant changes were observed on stiff films with the RGD peptide. These results suggest that different signaling pathways may be activated depending on mechanical and biochemical properties of the multilayer films. This study emphasizes the superior advantage of the soft PLL/PGA films presenting the RGD peptide in terms of myogenic differentiation. This soft RGD-presenting film may be further used as coating of various polymeric scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. PMID:23261924

  12. Retargeting FX-binding-ablated HAdV-5 to vascular cells by inclusion of the RGD-4C peptide in hexon hypervariable region 7 and the HI loop.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stacy; Parker, Alan L; Clarke, Carolyn; Duffy, Margaret R; Alba, Raul; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have generated interest in the function of human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) hexon:  factor X (FX) binding and subsequent hepatocyte transduction and interaction with the immune system. Here, we retargeted adenovirus serotype 5 vectors, ablated for FX interaction, by replacing amino acids in hexon HVR7 with RGD-4C or inserting the peptide into the fibre HI loop. These genetic modifications in the capsid were compatible with virus assembly, and could efficiently retarget transduction of the vector via the αvβ3/5 integrin-mediated pathway, but did not alter immune recognition by pre-existing human neutralizing anti-HAdV-5 antibodies or by natural antibodies in mouse serum. Thus, FX-binding-ablated HAdV-5 can be retargeted but remain sensitive to immune-mediated attack. These findings further refine HAdV-5-based vectors for human gene therapy and inform future vector development.

  13. Computational study of the RGD-peptide interactions with perovskite-type BFO-(1 1 1) membranes under aqueous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-long; Bian, Liang; Hou, Wen-ping; Dong, Fa-Qin; Song, Mian-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Li-sheng

    2016-07-01

    We elucidated a number of facets regarding arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-bismuth ferrite (BFO)-(1 1 1) membrane interactions and reactivity that have previously remained unexplored on a molecular level. Results demonstrate the intra-molecular interaction facilitates a "horseshoe" structure of RGD adsorbed onto the BFO-(1 1 1) membrane, through the electrostatic (Asp-cation-Fe) and water-bridge (Osbnd H2O and H2Osbnd NH2) interactions. The effect of structural and electron-transfer interactions is attributed to the cation-valences, indicating that the divalent cations are electron-acceptors and the monovalent cations as electron-donors. Notably, the strongly bound Ca2+ ion exerts a "gluing" effect on the Asp-side-chain, indicating a tightly packed RGD-BFO configuration. Thus, modulating the biological response of BFO-(1 1 1) membrane will allow us to design more appropriate interfaces for implantable diagnostic and therapeutic perovskite-type micro-devices.

  14. The bioactivity of agarose-PEGDA interpenetrating network hydrogels with covalently immobilized RGD peptides and physically entrapped aggrecan

    PubMed Central

    Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous reports of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) have demonstrated drastic improvements in mechanical performance relative to individual constituent networks while maintaining viability of encapsulated cells. The current study investigated whether covalent linkage of RGD to the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) network could improve upon cell viability and performance of agarose-PEGDA IPNs compared to unmodified IPNs (control) and to IPNs with different concentrations of physically entrapped aggrecan, providing a point of comparison to previous work. The inclusion of RGD or aggrecan generally did not adversely affect mechanical performance, and significantly improved chondrocyte viability and performance. Although both 4 and 100 μ g/mL of aggrecan improved cell viability, only 100 μ g/mL aggrecan was clearly beneficial to improving biosynthesis, whereas 100 μg/mL of RGD was beneficial to both chondrocyte viability and biosynthesis. Interestingly, clustering of cells within the IPNs with RGD and the higher aggrecan concentration were observed, likely indicating cell migration and/or preferred regional proliferation. This clustering resulted in a clearly visible enhancement of matrix production compared to the other IPNs. With this cell migration, we also observed significant cell proliferation and matrix synthesis beyond the periphery of the IPN, which could have important implications in facilitating integration with surrounding cartilage in vivo. With RGD and aggrecan (at its higher concentration) providing substantial and comparable improvements in cell performance, RGD would be the recommended bioactive signal for this particular IPN formulation and cell source given the significant cost savings and potentially more straightforward regulatory pathway in commercialization. PMID:24462353

  15. The modulation of MSC integrin expression by RGD presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jonathan; Segura, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials designed to mimic the intricate native extracellular matrix (ECM) can use a variety of techniques to control the behavior of encapsulated cells. Common methods include controlling the mechanical properties of the material, incorporating bioactive signals, spatially patterning bioactive signals, and controlling the time-release of bioactive signals. Further design parameters like bioactive signal distribution can be used to manipulate cell behavior. Efforts on clustering adhesion peptides have focused on seeding cells on top of a biomaterial. Here we report the effect of clustering the adhesion peptide RGD on mouse mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated inside three-dimensional hyaluronic acid hydrogels. The clustered bioactive signals resulted in significant differences in both cell spreading and integrin expression. These results indicate that signal RGD peptide clustering is an additional hydrogel design parameter can be used to influence and guide the behavior of encapsulated cells. PMID:23465825

  16. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  17. RGD-FasL Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongchen; Wang, Juan; Yin, Ping; Qiu, Jinhua; Liu, Ruizhen; Li, Wenzhu; Fan, Xin; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Caixia; Zhang, Jiakai; Zhuang, Guohong

    2009-01-01

    Despite impressive results obtained in animal models, the clinical use of Fas ligand (FasL) as an anticancer drug is limited by severe toxicity. Systemic toxicity of death ligands may be prevented by using genes encoding membrane-bound death ligands and by targeted transgene expression through either targeted transduction or targeted transcription. Selective induction of tumor cell death is a promising anticancer strategy. A fusion protein is created by fusing the extracellular domain of Fas ligand (FasL) to the peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) that selectively targets avβ3-integrins on tumor endothelial cells. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of RGD-FasL on tumor growth and survival in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model. Treatment with RGD-FasL displaying an obvious suppressive effect on the HCC tumor model as compared to that with FasL (p < 0.05) and resulted in a more additive effect on tumor growth delay in this model. RGD-FasL treatment significantly enhanced mouse survival and caused no toxic effect, such as weight loss, organ failure, or other treatment-related toxicities. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis and TUNEL assays; those results also showed that RGD-FasL is a more potent inducer of cell apoptosis for H22 and H9101 cell lines than FasL (p < 0.05). In conclusion, RGD-FasL appears to be a low-toxicity selective inducer of tumor cell death, which merits further investigation in preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, this approach offers a versatile technology for complexing target ligands with therapeutic recombinant proteins. To distinguish the anti-tumor effects of FasL in vivo, tumor and liver tissues were harvested to examine for evidence of necrotic cells, tumor cells, or apoptotic cells by Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. PMID:19728930

  18. RGD-functionalized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Yan, Yu; Li, Jingchao; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Mignani, Serge; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration range, and display targeting specificity to glioma cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in vitro. With the relatively high r1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.4 mM-1 s-1), the Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles can be used as an efficient nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted positive MR imaging of glioma cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active RGD-mediated targeting pathway. The developed RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 NPs may hold great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of different αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells or biological systems.We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration

  19. Amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide is a promising therapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    De, Gejing; Ko, Jae-Kyun; Tan, Tao; Zhu, Hua; Li, Haichang; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide (ATAP) derived from the human anti-apoptotic protein Bfl-1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis by targeting mitochondria permeability transition. By linking ATAP to an internalizing RGD peptide (iRGD), selective targeting for ATAP to tumor cell was achieved. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that ATAP-iRGD could penetrate into cancer cells and distribute along the mitochondria network. ATAP-iRGD triggered mitochondria-dependent cell death through release of cytochrome c. In an effort to promote ATAP-iRGD physiochemical properties to approach clinic application, amino acid substitution and chemical modification were made with ATAP-iRGD to improve its bioactivity. One of these modified peptides, ATAP-iRGD-M8, was with improved stability and aqueous solubility without compromising in vitro cytotoxicity in cultured cancer cells. In vivo xenograft studies with multiple prostate cancer cell lines showed that intravenous administration of ATAP-iRGD-M8 suppressed tumor growth. Toxicological studies revealed that repetitive intravenous administration of ATAP-iRGD-M8 did not produce significant toxicity in the SV129 mice. Our data suggest that ATAP-iRGD-M8 is a promising agent with high selectivity and limited systemic toxicity for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25245280

  20. cRGD-functionalized mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticles for imaging and therapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Qin, Liubin; Wang, Qi; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Mingjie; Shen, Ming; Duan, Yourong

    2012-10-01

    Cyclic peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic-glutamic-valine acid, cRGD)-modified monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (L-lysine) nanoparticles (mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs) with antitumor drug Mitoxantrone (DHAQ) or fluorescence agent Rhodamine B (Rb) encapsulated in their interior were prepared. The remarkable features of the mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs are the effective improvement for the cytotoxicity and uptake of the cell in vitro, and the significant enhancement of delivery ability for DHAQ or Rb in vivo. As a consequence, an excellent therapeutic efficiency for cancer is obtained, demonstrating the mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs play a key role in enhancing cancer therapeutic efficiency.

  1. An assessment of covalent grafting of RGD peptides to the surface of a compliant poly(carbonate-urea)urethane vascular conduit versus conventional biological coatings: its role in enhancing cellular retention.

    PubMed

    Krijgsman, Brandon; Seifalian, Alexander M; Salacinski, Henryk J; Tai, Nigel R; Punshon, Geoff; Fuller, Barry J; Hamilton, George

    2002-08-01

    The aim of sodding prosthetic grafts with endothelial cells (EC) is to establish a functioning antithrombogenic monolayer of EC. Application of basement membrane proteins improves EC adherence on ePTFE grafts. Their addition to a biodurable compliant poly(carbonate-urea)urethane graft (CPU) was studied with respect to EC adherence. Preclot, fibronectin, gelatin, and collagen were coated onto CPU. RGD peptide, heparin, and both RGD and heparin were chemically bonded to CPU. Human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) labeled with 111-Indium oxine were sodded (1.8 x 10(6) EC/cm(2)) onto native and the modified CPU. The grafts were washed after 90 min and EC retention determined. The experiments were repeated six times. EC retention on native CPU was 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(5) EC/cm(2). The application of preclot, fibronectin, gelatin, and collagen did not improve EC retention, which was 0.8 +/- 0.1, 0.4 +/- 0.1, 0.3 +/- 0.08, and 0.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(5) EC/cm(2), respectively. Bonding RGD, heparin, and both RGD and heparin significantly improved EC retention to 1.9 +/- 0.6, 1.7 +/- 0.5, and 2.6 +/- 0.6 x 10(5) EC/cm(2), respectively (p < 0.01). Bonding of RGD, heparin, and both RGD and heparin accelerates and enhances EC retention onto CPU. Simple coating of basement membrane proteins confers no advantage over native CPU.

  2. Modeling the Interaction between Integrin-Binding Peptide (RGD) and Rutile Surface: The Effect of Cation Mediation on Asp Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chunya; Skelton, Adam; Chen, Mingjun; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    The binding of a negatively charged residue, aspartic acid (Asp) in tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, onto a negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution, containing divalent (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, or Sr{sup 2+}) or monovalent (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, or Rb{sup +}) cations, was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that ionic radii and charges will significantly affect the hydration, adsorption geometry, and distance of cations from the rutile surface, thereby regulating the Asp/rutile binding mode. The adsorption strength of monovalent cations on the rutile surface in the order Na{sup +} > K{sup +} > Rb{sup +} shows a 'reverse' lyotropic trend, while the divalent cations on the same surface exhibit a 'regular' lyotropic behavior with decreasing crystallographic radii (the adsorption strength of divalent cations: Sr{sup 2+} > Ca{sup 2+} > Mg{sup 2+}). The Asp side chain in NaCl, KCl, and RbCl solutions remains stably H-bonded to the surface hydroxyls and the inner-sphere adsorbed compensating monovalent cations act as a bridge between the COO{sup -} group and the rutile, helping to 'trap' the negatively charged Asp side chain on the negatively charged surface. In contrast, the mediating divalent cations actively participate in linking the COO{sup -} group to the rutile surface; thus the Asp side chain can remain stably on the rutile (110) surface, even if it is not involved in any hydrogen bonds with the surface hydroxyls. Inner- and outer-sphere geometries are all possible mediation modes for divalent cations in bridging the peptide to the rutile surface.

  3. Retargeting FX-binding-ablated HAdV-5 to vascular cells by inclusion of the RGD-4C peptide in hexon hypervariable region 7 and the HI loop.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stacy; Parker, Alan L; Clarke, Carolyn; Duffy, Margaret R; Alba, Raul; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have generated interest in the function of human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) hexon:  factor X (FX) binding and subsequent hepatocyte transduction and interaction with the immune system. Here, we retargeted adenovirus serotype 5 vectors, ablated for FX interaction, by replacing amino acids in hexon HVR7 with RGD-4C or inserting the peptide into the fibre HI loop. These genetic modifications in the capsid were compatible with virus assembly, and could efficiently retarget transduction of the vector via the αvβ3/5 integrin-mediated pathway, but did not alter immune recognition by pre-existing human neutralizing anti-HAdV-5 antibodies or by natural antibodies in mouse serum. Thus, FX-binding-ablated HAdV-5 can be retargeted but remain sensitive to immune-mediated attack. These findings further refine HAdV-5-based vectors for human gene therapy and inform future vector development. PMID:27189759

  4. Bioabsorbable Bypass Grafts Biofunctionalised with RGD Have Enhanced Biophysical Properties and Endothelialisation Tested In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Antonova, Larisa V.; Seifalian, Alexander M.; Kutikhin, Anton G.; Sevostyanova, Victoria V.; Krivkina, Evgeniya O.; Mironov, Andrey V.; Burago, Andrey Y.; Velikanova, Elena A.; Matveeva, Vera G.; Glushkova, Tatiana V.; Sergeeva, Evgeniya A.; Vasyukov, Georgiy Y.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2016-01-01

    Small diameter arterial bypass grafts are considered as unmet clinical need since the current grafts have poor patency of 25% within 5 years. We have developed a 3D scaffold manufactured from natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(𝜀-caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. Further to improve the biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation, the grafts were covalently conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) bioactive peptides. The biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation of PHBV/PCL and PCL 2 mm diameter bypass grafts were assessed with and without biofunctionalisation with RGD peptides in vitro and in vivo. Morphology of the grafts was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, whereas physico-mechanical properties were evaluated using a physiological circulating system equipped with a state of art ultrasound vascular wall tracking system. Endothelialisation of the grafts in vitro and in vivo were assessed using a cell viability assay and rat abdominal aorta replacement model, respectively. The biofunctionalisation with RGD bioactive peptides decreased mean fiber diameter and mean pore area in PHBV/PCL grafts; however, this was not the case for PCL grafts. Both PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides had lower durability compared to those without; these durability values were similar to those of internal mammary artery. Modification of PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides increased endothelial cell viability in vitro by a factor of eight and enhanced the formation of an endothelial cell monolayer in vivo 1 month postimplantation. In conclusion, PHBV/PCL small-caliber graft can be a suitable 3D scaffold for the development of a tissue engineering arterial bypass graft. PMID:27252652

  5. New Glucocyclic RGD Dimers for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Integrin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Woong; Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Shin, Un Chol; Kim, Suhng Wook; Kim, Byung Il; Lim, Sang Moo; An, Gwang Il; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Kyo Chul

    2016-08-01

    Most studies of radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have shown in vitro affinity for integrin ανβ3, allowing for the targeting of receptor-positive tumors in vivo. However, major differences have been found in the pharmacokinetic profiles of different radiolabeled RGD peptide analogs. The purposes of this study were to prepare (64)Cu-DOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R8), (64)Cu-NOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R9), and (64)Cu-NODAGA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R10) and compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). All three compounds were produced with high specific activity within 10 minutes. The IC50 values were similar for all the substances, and their affinities were greater than that of c(RGDyK). R8, R9, and R10 were stable for 24 hours in human and mouse serums and showed high uptake in U87MG tumors with high tumor-to-blood ratios. Compared to the control, a cyclic RGD peptide dimer without glucosamine, R10, showed low uptake in the liver. Because of their good imaging qualities and improved pharmacokinetics, (64)Cu-labeled dimer RGD conjugates (R8, R9, and R10) may have potential applications as PET radiotracers. R9 (NOTA) with highly in vivo stability consequentially showed an improved PET tumor uptake than R8 (DOTA) or R10 (NODAGA). PMID:27403677

  6. Localization of the cross-linking sites of RGD and KQAGDV peptides to the isolated fibrinogen receptor, the human platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Influence of peptide length.

    PubMed

    Calvete, J J; Schäfer, W; Mann, K; Henschen, A; González-Rodríguez, J

    1992-06-15

    The non-covalent and Ca(2+)-dependent heterodimer GPIIb/IIIa, formed by platelet glycoproteins IIb (GPIIb) and IIIa (GPIIIa), also known as the integrin alpha IIb beta 3, is the inducible receptor for fibrinogen and other adhesive proteins on the surface of activated platelets. A fraction of the isolated GPIIb/IIIa in solution binds RGD or KQAGDV inhibitory peptides and, upon peptide removal, apparently acquires the capacity to bind fibrinogen ('activated' GPIIb/IIIa) [Du, X., Plow, E. F., Frelinger, A. L., III, O'Toole, T. E., Loftus, J. C. & Ginsberg, M. H. (1991) Cell 65, 409-416]. Photoaffinity labelling was used here to study the ligand binding site(s) of GPIIb/IIIa in solution, for which the peptides CKRKRKRKRRGDV (alpha 1), CGRGDF (alpha 2), CYHHLGGAKQAGDV (gamma 1) and CGAKQAGDV (gamma 2) were synthesized with a photoactivable cross-linker group and a fluorescent reporter group attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue. Contrary to the situation in activated platelets, both GPIIb and GPIIIa were equally labelled by the four peptides and the cross-linking sites were localized by protein chemical analyses of the fluorescently labelled tryptic peptides of both subunits. Thus, the localization of the cross-linking sites in GPIIb varies considerably with the peptide length and is very different from that localization observed in activated platelets: alpha 2 and gamma 2 were found cross-linked to the N-terminal of both the heavy (GPIIbH 42-73) and the light (GPIIbL2 30-75) chains of GPIIb; while the longer peptides alpha 1 and gamma 1 were cross-linked to the C-terminal of GPIIbH within the 696-724 and 752-768 peptide stretches, respectively. On the other hand, the cross-linking sites of the four inhibitory peptides in GPIIIa were found mainly within the proteolysis susceptible region, between the N-terminal (GPIIIa 1-52) and the core (GPIIb 423-622) highly disulphide-bonded domains, observing that the longer the peptide the closer the cross-linking site is to

  7. 18F-FP-PEG2-β-Glu-RGD2: A Symmetric Integrin αvβ3-Targeting Radiotracer for Tumor PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ganghua; Yao, Shaobo; Yao, Baoguo; Wang, Hongliang; Nie, Dahong; Liang, Xiang; Tang, Caihua; He, Shanzhen

    2015-01-01

    Radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) peptides can be used for noninvasive determination of integrin αvβ3 expression in tumors. In this study, we performed radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of a new 18F-labeled RGD homodimeric peptide with one 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (PEG2) linker on the glutamate β-amino group (18F-FP-PEG2-β-Glu-RGD2) as a symmetric PET tracer for tumor imaging. Biodistribution studies showed that radioactivity of 18F-FP-PEG2-β-Glu-RGD2 was rapidly cleared from blood by predominately renal excretion. MicroPET-CT imaging with 18F-FP-PEG2-β-Glu-RGD2 revealed high tumor contrast and low background in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mouse models, PC-3 prostate cancer-bearing mouse models, and orthotopic transplanted C6 brain glioma models. 18F-FP-PEG2-β-Glu-RGD2 exhibited good stability in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that this tracer is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging. PMID:26397833

  8. A free cysteine prolongs the half-life of a homing peptide and improves its tumor-penetrating activity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hong-Bo; Braun, Gary B; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata R; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-02-10

    The accessibility of extravascular tumor tissue to drugs is critical for therapeutic efficacy. We previously described a tumor-targeting peptide (iRGD) that elicits active transport of drugs and macromolecules (covalently coupled or co-administered) across the vascular wall into tumor tissue. Short peptides (iRGD is a 9-amino acid cyclic peptide) generally have a plasma half-life measured in minutes. Since short half-life limits the window of activity obtained with a bolus injection of iRGD, we explored to extend the half-life of the peptide. We show here that addition of a cysteine residue prolongs the plasma half-life of iRGD and increases the accumulation of the peptide in tumors. This modification prolongs the activity of iRGD in inducing macromolecular extravasation and leads to greater drug accumulation in tumors than is obtained with the unmodified peptide. This effect is mediated by covalent binding of iRGD to plasma albumin through a disulfide bond. Our study provides a simple strategy to improve peptide pharmacokinetics and activity. Applied to RGD, it provides a means to increase the entry of therapeutic agents into tumors.

  9. An investigation into plasmolysis in the oomycete Achlya bisexualis reveals that membrane-wall attachment points are sensitive to peptides containing the sequence RGD and that cell wall deposition can occur despite retraction of the protoplast.

    PubMed

    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Harris, Elisa; Yu, YuPing; Harland, Chad; Garrill, Ashley

    2012-10-01

    The structure and function of membrane-wall attachment sites in walled cells, and how these relate to animal focal adhesions, is an area that is poorly understood. In view of this, we investigated how membrane-wall attachments that form upon plasmolysis, respond to peptides that disrupt animal focal adhesions. The degree of cytoplasmic disruption during plasmolysis was also investigated. Upon hyperosmotic challenge, the protoplast in hyphae of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis typically retracted incompletely due to membrane-wall attachments. The inclusion, in the plasmolysing solution, of peptides containing the sequence RGD disrupted these attachments in a dose-dependent manner. In some hyphae, protoplast retraction stopped temporarily at attachment points - upon resumption of retraction, material was left that traced the outline of the static protoplast. Staining of this material with fluorescence brightener indicated the presence of cellulose, which suggests that wall deposition was able to occur despite plasmolysis. The F-actin cytoskeleton was disrupted during plasmolysis; peripheral F-actin staining was observed, but there was no distinct F-actin cap; staining was more diffuse; and there were fewer plaques compared with nonplasmolysed hyphae. Our data indicate that membrane-wall attachment points are sensitive to RGD-containing peptides and that wall deposition continues despite protoplast retraction and F-actin disruption.

  10. An investigation into plasmolysis in the oomycete Achlya bisexualis reveals that membrane-wall attachment points are sensitive to peptides containing the sequence RGD and that cell wall deposition can occur despite retraction of the protoplast.

    PubMed

    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Harris, Elisa; Yu, YuPing; Harland, Chad; Garrill, Ashley

    2012-10-01

    The structure and function of membrane-wall attachment sites in walled cells, and how these relate to animal focal adhesions, is an area that is poorly understood. In view of this, we investigated how membrane-wall attachments that form upon plasmolysis, respond to peptides that disrupt animal focal adhesions. The degree of cytoplasmic disruption during plasmolysis was also investigated. Upon hyperosmotic challenge, the protoplast in hyphae of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis typically retracted incompletely due to membrane-wall attachments. The inclusion, in the plasmolysing solution, of peptides containing the sequence RGD disrupted these attachments in a dose-dependent manner. In some hyphae, protoplast retraction stopped temporarily at attachment points - upon resumption of retraction, material was left that traced the outline of the static protoplast. Staining of this material with fluorescence brightener indicated the presence of cellulose, which suggests that wall deposition was able to occur despite plasmolysis. The F-actin cytoskeleton was disrupted during plasmolysis; peripheral F-actin staining was observed, but there was no distinct F-actin cap; staining was more diffuse; and there were fewer plaques compared with nonplasmolysed hyphae. Our data indicate that membrane-wall attachment points are sensitive to RGD-containing peptides and that wall deposition continues despite protoplast retraction and F-actin disruption. PMID:23051153

  11. RGD peptides protects against acute lung injury in septic mice through Wisp1-integrin β6 pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xibing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Xiang; Jin, Shuqing; Tong, Yao; Ren, Hao; Chen, Zhixia; Li, Quan

    2015-04-01

    Acute lung injury is a common consequence of sepsis, a life-threatening inflammatory response caused by severe infection. In this study, we elucidate the attenuating effects of synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptides (RGDs) on acute lung injury in a sepsis mouse model. We further reveal that the beneficial effects of RGDs stem from their negative regulation of the Wisp1 (WNT1-inducible signaling pathway)-integrin β6 pathway. After inducing sepsis using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), mice were randomized into experimental and control groups, and survival rates were recorded over 7 days, whereas only 20% of mice subjected to CLP survived when compared with untreated controls; the addition of RGDs to this treatment regimen dramatically increased the survival rate to 80%. Histological analysis revealed acute lung injury in CLP-treated mice, whereas those subjected to the combined treatment of CLP and RGDs showed a considerable decrease in lung injury severity. The addition of RGDs also dramatically attenuated other common sepsis-associated effects, such as increased white blood cell number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased pulmonary capillary barrier function. Furthermore, treatment with RGDs decreased the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, contrary to the CLP treatment alone that increased the levels of these proteins. Interestingly, however, RGDs had no detectable effect on bacterial invasion following sepsis induction. In addition, mice treated with RGDs showed decreased levels of wisp1 and integrin β6 when compared with CLP-treated mice. In the present study, a linkage between Wisp1 and integrin β6 was evaluated in vivo. Most strikingly, RGDs resulted in a decreased association of Wisp1 with integrin β6 based on coimmunoprecipitation analyses. These data suggest that RGDs ameliorate acute lung injury in a sepsis mouse model by inhibiting the Wisp1-integrin β6

  12. Rhenium and technetium tricarbonyl complexes of 1,4-Substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole bidentate 'click' ligands conjugated to a targeting RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Connell, Timothy U; Hayne, David J; Ackermann, Uwe; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J; White, Jonathan M; Donnelly, Paul S

    2014-04-01

    New 1,4-substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligands with pendent phenyl isothiocyanate functional groups linked to the heterocycle through a short methylene or longer polyethylene glycol spacers were prepared and conjugated to a peptide containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide motif. Rhenium and technetium carbonyl complexes, [M(CO)3 L(x) (py)](+) (where M = Re(I) or (99m) Tc(I) ; L(x)  = 1,4-substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligands and py = pyridine) were prepared. One rhenium complex has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and the luminescent properties of [M(CO)3 L(x) (py)](+) are reported.

  13. A fluorescent Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-naphthalenediimide (NDI) conjugate for imaging integrin α(v)β(3) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyuan; Arrowsmith, Rory L; Tyson, James A; Mirabello, Vincenzo; Ge, Haobo; Eggleston, Ian M; Botchway, Stanley W; Pantos, G Dan; Pascu, Sofia I

    2015-04-25

    We have developed a fluorescent peptide conjugate (TrpNDIRGDfK) based on the coupling of cyclo(RGDfK) to a new tryptophan-tagged amino acid naphthalenediimide (TrpNDI). Confocal fluorescence microscopy coupled with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) mapping, single and two-photon fluorescence excitation, lifetime components and corresponding decay profiles were used as parameters able to investigate qualitatively the cellular behavior regarding the molecular environment and biolocalisation of TrpNDI and TrpNDI-RGDfK in cancer cells. PMID:25647279

  14. rLj-RGD3, a Novel Recombinant Toxin Protein from Lampetra japonica, Protects against Cerebral Reperfusion Injury Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Involving the Integrin-PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junshu; Wang, Shengnan; Jia, Qilan; Wang, Yue; Li, Weiping; Zhou, Qin; Lv, Li; Li, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Background The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model. We also explored the mechanism by which rLj-RGD3 acts by measuring protein and mRNA expression levels, with an emphasis on the FAK and integrin-PI3K/Akt anti-apoptosis pathways. Methods rLj-RGD3 was obtained from the buccal secretions of Lampetra japonica using gene recombination technology. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the following seven groups: a sham group; a vehicle-treated (VT) group; 100.0 μg·kg-1, 50.0 μg·kg-1 and 25.0 μg·kg-1 dose rLj-RGD3 groups; and two positive controls, including 1.5 mg·kg-1 Edaravone (ED) and 100.0 μg·kg-1 Eptifibatide (EP). MCAO was induced using a model consisting of 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Behavioral changes were observed in the normal and operation groups after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was applied. In addition, behavioral scores were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Brain infarct volumes were determined based on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Pathological changes in brain tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays. We determined the expression levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K

  15. Coupling Gd-DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI

    PubMed Central

    XIN, XIAOYAN; SHA, HUIZI; SHEN, JINGTAO; ZHANG, BING; ZHU, BIN; LIU, BAORUI

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (anti-EGFR single-domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor-targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti-EGFR-iRGD protein. The anti-EGFR-iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single-targeting agent anti-EGFR-DTPA-Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd exhibited no significant cyto toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor-targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd-DTPA alone or the anti-EGFR-Gd control. Thus, Gd-labelled anti-EGFR-iRGD has potential as a tumor-targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  16. RGD-Xyloside Conjugates Prime Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Vy M.; Victor, Xylophone V.; Yockman, James W.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) play decisive roles in various cardio-vascular & cancer-associated processes. Changes in the expression of GAG fine structures, attributed to deregulation of their biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes, are hallmarks of vascular dysfunction and tumor progression. Wide spread role of GAG chains in blood clotting, wound healing and tumor biology has led to the development of modified GAG chains, GAG binding peptides and GAG based enzyme inhibitors as therapeutic agents. Xylosides, carrying hydrophobic aglycone, are known to induce GAG biosynthesis in various systems. Given the important roles of GAG chains in vascular and tumor biology, we envision that RGD-conjugated xylosides could be targeted to activated endothelial and cancer cells, which are known to express αvβ3 integrin, and thereby, modulate the pathological processes. To accomplish this vision, xylose residue was conjugated to linear and cyclic RGD containing peptides using click chemistry. Our results demonstrate that RGD-conjugated xylosides are able to prime GAG chains in various cell types, and future studies are aimed toward evaluating potential utility of such xylosides in treating myocardial infarction as well as cancer-associated thrombotic complications. PMID:20717719

  17. Characterization and optimization of RGD-containing silk blends to support osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Abby W; Roskov, Kristen E; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Kaplan, David L; Becker, Matthew L; Simon, Carl G

    2008-06-01

    The effect of blending two silk proteins, regenerated Bombyx mori fibroin and synthetic spidroin containing RGD, on silk film material structure (beta-sheet content) and properties (solubility), as well as on biological response (osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and differentiation) was investigated. Although the elasticity and strength of silks make them attractive candidates for bone, ligament, and cartilage tissue engineering applications, silk proteins generally lack bioactive peptides for enhancing cell functions. Thus, a synthetic spider silk, spidroin, containing two RGD cell adhesive sequences (RGD-spidroin) was engineered. RGD-spidroin was blended with different ratios of fibroin and spun coat into films on glass coverslips. beta-Sheet formation, contact angle, surface topography and RGD surface presentation were characterized and correlated with cell behavior. We found that the amount of beta-sheet formation was directly related to the RGD-spidroin content of the blends after annealing, with the pure RGD-spidroin demonstrating the highest amount of beta-sheet content. The increased beta-sheet content improved film stability under culture conditions. A new visualization technique demonstrated that the RGD presentation on the film surface was affected by both the RGD-spidroin content and annealing conditions. It was determined that 10mass% RGD-spidroin was necessary to improve film stability and to achieve osteoblast attachment and differentiation. PMID:18325585

  18. Gold Nanorods Conjugated with Doxorubicin and cRGD for Combined Anticancer Drug Delivery and PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuling; Hong, Hao; Matson, Vyara Z.; Javadi, Alireza; Xu, Wenjin; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Engle, Jonathan W.; Nickles, Robert J.; Cai, Weibo; Steeber, Douglas A.; Gong, Shaoqin

    2012-01-01

    A multifunctional gold nanorod (GNR)-based nanoplatform for targeted anticancer drug delivery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumors was developed and characterized. An anti-cancer drug (i.e., doxorubicin (DOX)) was covalently conjugated onto PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) GNR nanocarriers via a hydrazone bond to achieve pH-sensitive controlled drug release. Tumor-targeting ligands (i.e., the cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptides, cRGD) and 64Cu-chelators (i.e., 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N''-triacetic acid (NOTA)) were conjugated onto the distal ends of the PEG arms to achieve active tumor-targeting and PET imaging, respectively. Based on flow cytometry analysis, cRGD-conjugated nanocarriers (i.e., GNR-DOX-cRGD) exhibited a higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity than non-targeted ones (i.e., GNR-DOX) in vitro. However, GNR-DOX-cRGD and GNR-DOX nanocarriers had similar in vivo biodistribution according to in vivo PET imaging and biodistribution studies. Due to the unique optical properties of GNRs, this multifunctional GNR-based nanoplatform can potentially be optimized for combined cancer therapies (chemotherapy and photothermal therapy) and multimodality imaging (PET, optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT), etc.). PMID:22916075

  19. A Gene Expression-Based Comparison of Cell Adhesion to Extracellular Matrix and RGD-Terminated Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Sobers, Courtney J.; Wood, Sarah E.; Mrksich, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This work uses global gene expression analysis to compare the extent to which model substrates presenting peptide adhesion motifs mimic the use of conventional extracellular matrix protein coated substrates for cell culture. We compared the transcriptional activities of genes in cells that were cultured on matrix-coated substrates with those cultured on self-assembled monolayers presenting either a linear or cyclic RGD peptide. Cells adherent to cyclic RGD were most similar to those cultured on native ECM, while cells cultured on monolayers presenting the linear RGD peptide had transcriptional activities that were more similar to cells cultured on the uncoated substrates. This study suggests that biomaterials presenting the cyclic RGD peptide are substantially better mimics of extracellular matrix than are uncoated materials or materials presenting the common linear RGD peptide. PMID:25818445

  20. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-01

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  1. Inhibition of adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to basement membrane components by receptor competition with RGD- or YIGSR-containing synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Ping; Huang, Qi-Ping; Qin, Jian; Xiao, Guo-Hui; Cai, Shao-Xi

    2003-01-01

    A micropipette technique was used to investigate the effects of four synthetic peptides, YIGSR, CDPGYIGSR, RGDS and GRGDTP, on the adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells onto type IV collagen/laminin/fibronectin coated surfaces. Adhesion of HCC cells to laminin was found to be YIGSR- or CDPGYIGSR-dependent while that to fibronectin and type IV collagen was RGDS- or GRGDTP-dependent. The reduction in adhesion strengths of HCC cells was slight to moderate (up to 55%), and was dependent on the peptide concentration. The decrease in adhesion strengths was reversed by an increase in ligand coating concentration and was compromised by prolonged interaction of the cells with the surfaces. These results suggested that the inhibition was due to competitive retardation rather than to a blockade of adhesion strengthening. A simple asymptotic function was adopted to fit the correlation between the mean of cell adhesion strengths and peptide concentration within defined concentration ranges. Regression analysis showed that cell adhesion strengths appeared to approach a plateau with increasing concentration of the inhibitory peptides, which was not always uniform over the entire concentration range tested. Further reduction in adhesion strengths was observed at higher peptide concentrations. It is suggested that the constants obtained by fitting over a low peptide concentration range might be kinetically representative of the inhibition during early events of adhesion or attachment.

  2. F-18 Labeled RGD Probes Based on Bioorthogonal Strain-Promoted Click Reaction for PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Lan; Sachin, Kalme; Jeong, Hyeon Jin; Choi, Wonsil; Lee, Hyun Soo; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    A series of fluorine-substituted monomeric and dimeric cRGD peptide derivatives, such as cRGD-ADIBOT-F (ADIBOT = azadibenzocyclooctatriazole), di-cRGD-ADIBOT-F, cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-F, and di-cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-F, were prepared by strain-promoted alkyne azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction of the corresponding aza-dibenzocyclooctyne (ADIBO) substituted peptides with a fluorinated azide 3. Among these cRGD derivatives, di-cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-F had the highest binding affinity in a competitive binding assay compared to other derivatives and even the original cRGDyk. On the basis of the in vitro study results, di-cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-(18)F was prepared from a SPAAC reaction with (18)F-labeled azide and subsequent chemo-orthogonal scavenger-assisted separation without high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification in 92% decay-corrected radiochemical yield (dcRCY) with high specific activity for further in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging study. In vivo PET imaging study and biodistribution data showed that this radiotracer allowed successful visualization of tumors with good tumor-to-background contrast and significantly higher tumor uptake compared to other major organs.

  3. Synergistic enhancement of human bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on BMP-2-derived and RGD peptide concentration gradients.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole M; Lin, Nancy J; Gallant, Nathan D; Becker, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Rational design of bioactive tissue engineered scaffolds for directing bone regeneration in vivo requires a comprehensive understanding of cell interactions with the immobilized bioactive molecules. In the current study, substrates possessing gradient concentrations of immobilized peptides were used to measure the concentration-dependent proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Two bioactive peptides, one derived from extracellular matrix protein (ECM), GRGDS, and one from bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYL, were found to synergistically enhance cell proliferation, up-regulate osteogenic mRNA markers bone sialoprotein (BSP) and Runt-related transcription factor 2, and produce mineralization at densities greater than 130 pmol cm(-2) (65 pmol cm(-2) for each peptide). In addition, COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers alone led to up-regulated BSP mRNA levels at densities above 200 pmol cm(-2) and increased cell proliferation from day 3 to day 14. Taking further advantage of both the synergistic potentials and the concentration-dependent activities of ECM and growth-factor-derived peptides on proliferative activity and osteogenic differentiation, without the need for additional osteogenic supplements, will enable the successful incorporation of the bioactive species into biorelevant tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:21272672

  4. Radiolabeling of a cyclic RGD (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys) peptide using sodium hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent.

    PubMed

    Doll, Stephanie; Woolum, Karen; Kumar, Krishan

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid nonradioactive iodide labeling/radiolabeling method for peptides, using an inexpensive oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite and a cyclic peptide, cRGDyK (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys), was developed in this work. Labeling reaction was optimized by conducting experiments under variable ratios of the reagents, the reaction times, and the pH. The study demonstrated that radiolabeling of the cyclic peptide was fast and pH independent. Monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK were formed under all conditions and varied with the ratio of the reagents and the reaction time. Total percent of the iodinated cRGDyK (monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK) varied between 44 and 100 depending on the reaction conditions. Excess cyclic peptide over equal molar ratio of sodium iodide and sodium hypochlorite yielded in predominant amounts of monoiodinated cRGDyK, ie, >60% under 2:1:1 ratio and ~88% under 5:1:1 ratio of cRGDyK:sodium iodide:sodium hypochlorite. PMID:27577980

  5. A stapled peptide antagonist of MDM2 carried by polymeric micelles sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide treatment through p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xishan; Tai, Lingyu; Gao, Jie; Qian, Jianchang; Zhang, Mingfei; Li, Beibei; Xie, Cao; Lu, Linwei; Lu, Wuyuan; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-11-28

    Antagonizing MDM2 and MDMX to activate the tumor suppressor protein p53 is an attractive therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, challenges remain with respect to the poor ability of p53 activators to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and/or blood-brain tumor barrier and to specifically target tumor cells. To circumvent these problems, we developed a cyclic RGD peptide-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(lactic acid) polymeric micelle (RGD-M) that carried a stapled peptide antagonist of both MDM2 and MDMX (sPMI). The peptide-carrying micelle RGD-M/sPMI was prepared via film-hydration method with high encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity as well as ideal size distribution. Micelle encapsulation dramatically increased the solubility of sPMI, thus alleviating its serum sequestration. In vitro studies showed that RGD-M/sPMI efficiently inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells in the presence of serum by activating the p53 signaling pathway. Further, RGD-M/sPMI exerted potent tumor growth inhibitory activity against human glioblastoma in nude mouse xenograft models. Importantly, the combination of RGD-M/sPMI and temozolomide--a standard chemotherapy drug for GBM increased antitumor efficacy against glioblastoma in experimental animals. Our results validate a combination therapy using p53 activators with temozolomide as a more effective treatment for GBM. PMID:26428461

  6. Exploiting protected maleimides to modify oligonucleotides, peptides and peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Paris, Clément; Brun, Omar; Pedroso, Enrique; Grandas, Anna

    2015-04-10

    This manuscript reviews the possibilities offered by 2,5-dimethylfuran-protected maleimides. Suitably derivatized building blocks incorporating the exo Diels-Alder cycloadduct can be introduced at any position of oligonucleotides, peptide nucleic acids, peptides and peptoids, making use of standard solid-phase procedures. Maleimide deprotection takes place upon heating, which can be followed by either Michael-type or Diels-Alder click conjugation reactions. However, the one-pot procedure in which maleimide deprotection and conjugation are simultaneously carried out provides the target conjugate more quickly and, more importantly, in better yield. This procedure is compatible with conjugates involving oligonucleotides, peptides and peptide nucleic acids. A variety of cyclic peptides and oligonucleotides can be obtained from peptide and oligonucleotide precursors incorporating protected maleimides and thiols.

  7. Fatty acid conjugation enhances the activities of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhining; Yuan, Penghui; Xing, Meng; He, Zhumei; Dong, Chuanfu; Cao, Yongchang; Liu, Qiuyun

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity in multi-cellular organisms, and usually expressed and secreted constantly at basal levels to prevent infection, but local production can be augmented upon an infection. The clock is ticking as rising antibiotic abuse has led to the emergence of many drug resistance bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal activities as well as anti-viral and anti-tumor activities, efforts are being made to develop antimicrobial peptides into future microbial agents. This article describes some of the recent patents on antimicrobial peptides with fatty acid conjugation. Potency and selectivity of antimicrobial peptide can be modulated with fatty acid tails of variable length. Interaction between membranes and antimicrobial peptides was affected by fatty acid conjugation. At concentrations above the critical miscelle concentration (CMC), propensity of solution selfassembly hampered binding of the peptide to cell membranes. Overall, fatty acid conjugation has enhanced the activities of antimicrobial peptides, and occasionally it rendered inactive antimicrobial peptides to be bioactive. Antimicrobial peptides can not only be used as medicine but also as food additives.

  8. Electrically-driven modulation of surface-grafted RGD peptides for manipulation of cell adhesion† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc06649a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lashkor, Minhaj; Rawson, Frankie J.; Stephenson-Brown, Alex; Preece, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Reported herein is a switchable surface that relies on electrically-induced conformational changes within surface-grafted arginine–glycine–aspartate (RGD) oligopeptides as the means of modulating cell adhesion. PMID:25360452

  9. RGD-Targeted Liposome Binding and Uptake on Breast Cancer Cells Is Dependent on Elastin Linker Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    Veneti, Eleftheria; Tu, Raymond S; Auguste, Debra T

    2016-08-17

    The linker between the targeting moiety and the nanoparticle is often overlooked when engineering targeted drug delivery vehicles. We hypothesized that pH-triggered conformational changes of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) linker, with repeating VPGVG sequences, could alter the binding affinity of the well-established targeting moiety arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), which is known to enhance the delivery of nanoparticles to tumor cells via integrin overexpression. The pH change from blood (pH 7.4) to the tumor environment (pH 6) was used to elicit a conformational change in the ELP linker, as described by circular dichroism. Atomic force microscopy confirmed that RGD-ELP resulted in stronger adhesion to both MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 breast cancer cells at pH 6 relative to pH 7.4. No change in adhesion force was measured as a function of pH for the non-neoplastic MCF-10A cell line and the nontargeting GDR-ELP peptide. This translated to significant binding and uptake of RGD-ELP modified liposomes at pH 6.0 relative to pH 7.4. These results indicate that the pH-triggered conformational structure of the ELP linker shifts RGD-mediated cancer cell targeting from non-active (pH 7.4) to active (pH 6). The reversible shift in ELP secondary structure may be used to engineer targeted drug delivery vehicles with tunable uptake. PMID:27463763

  10. Ribosomal Synthesis of Peptides with Multiple β-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Tomoshige; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2016-02-17

    The compatibility of β-amino acids with ribosomal translation was studied for decades, but it has been still unclear whether the ribosome can accept various β-amino acids, and whether the ribosome can introduce multiple β-amino acids in a peptide. In the present study, by using the Escherichia coli reconstituted cell-free translation system with a reprogramed genetic code, we screened β-amino acids that give high single incorporation efficiency and used them to synthesize peptides containing multiple β-amino acids. The experiments of single β-amino acid incorporation into a peptide revealed that 13 β-amino acids are compatible with ribosomal translation. Six of the tested β-amino acids (βhGly, l-βhAla, l-βhGln, l-βhPhg, l-βhMet, and d-βhPhg) showed high incorporation efficiencies, and seven (l-βhLeu, l-βhIle, l-βhAsn, l-βhPhe, l-βhLys, d-βhAla, and d-βhLeu) showed moderate incorporation efficiencies; whereas no full-length peptide was produced using other β-amino acids (l-βhPro, l-βhTrp, and l-βhGlu). Subsequent double-incorporation experiments using β-amino acids with high single incorporation efficiency revealed that elongation of peptides with successive β-amino acids is prohibited. Efficiency of the double-incorporation of the β-amino acids was restored by the insertion of Tyr or Ile between the two β-amino acids. On the basis of these experiments, we also designed mRNA sequences of peptides, and demonstrated the ribosomal synthesis of peptides containing different types of β-amino acids at multiple positions.

  11. Anti-tumor effect of RGD modified PTX loaded liposome on prostatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunjie; Zhou, Yaojun; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Cui, Li; Xu, Xianlin; Xu, Renfang; He, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report an active targeting liposomal formulation directed by a novel peptide (RGD) that specifically binds to the integrins receptors overexpressed on prostatic cancer cells. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo tumor drug targeting delivery of RGD modified liposomes on PC-3 cells and DU145 cells. The uptake efficiency of RGD-LP was 5.2 times higher than that of LP on PC-3 cells. The uptake efficiency of RGD-LP was 3.2 times higher than that of LP on DU145 cells. The anti-proliferative activity of RGD-LP-PTX against PC-3 cells and DU145 cells were much stronger compared to that of LP-PTX and free PTX, respectively. The tumor spheroids experiment revealed that RGD-LP-PTX was more efficaciously internalized into tumor spheroids than LP in both PC-3 cells and DU145 cells. Compared to LP-PTX and free PTX, RGD-LP-PTX showed the greatest tumor growth inhibitory effect in vivo. In brief, the RGD-LP may be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for prostatic cancer. PMID:26550128

  12. cRGD-functionalized, DOX-conjugated, and 64Cu-labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted anticancer drug delivery and PET/MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoqiang; Hong, Hao; Grailer, Jamison J.; Rowland, Ian J.; Javadi, Alireza; Hurley, Samuel A.; Xiao, Yuling; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Nickles, Robert J.; Cai, Weibo; Steeber, Douglas A.; Gong, Shaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Multifunctional and water-soluble superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanocarriers were developed for targeted drug delivery and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) dual-modality imaging of tumors with integrin αvβ3 expression. An anticancer drug was conjugated onto the PEGylated SPIO nanocarriers via pH-sensitive bonds. Tumor targeting ligands, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) (c(RGDfC)) peptides, and PET 64Cu chelators, macrocyclic 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N, N′, N″-triacetic acid (NOTA), were conjugated onto the distal ends of the PEG arms. The effectiveness of the SPIO nanocarriers as an MRI contrast agent was evaluated via an in vitro r2 MRI relaxivity measurement. cRGD-conjugated SPIO nanocarriers exhibited a higher level of cellular uptake than cRGD-free ones in vitro. Moreover, cRGD-conjugated SPIO nanocarriers showed a much higher level of tumor accumulation than cRGD-free ones according to noninvasive and quantitative PET imaging, and ex vivo biodistribution studies. Thus, these SPIO nanocarriers demonstrated promising properties for combined targeted anticancer drug delivery and PET/MRI dual-modality imaging of tumors. Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide; drug delivery; Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI); nanomedicine PMID:21367450

  13. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, a growth factor for AIDS Kaposi sarcoma and cytokine-activated vascular cells, induces adhesion of the same cell types by using integrin receptors recognizing the RGD amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Barillari, G; Gendelman, R; Gallo, R C; Ensoli, B

    1993-01-01

    Spindle-shaped cells of vascular origin are the probable tumor cells of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). These cells, derived from patients with KS and AIDS, proliferate in response to extracellular Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Normal vascular cells, believed to be the progenitors of AIDS-KS cells, acquire spindle morphology and become responsive to the mitogenic effect of Tat after culture with inflammatory cytokines. Such cytokines are increased in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected people, suggesting that immune stimulation (rather than immune deficiency) is a component of AIDS-KS pathogenesis. Here we show that (i) Tat promotes adhesion of AIDS-KS and normal vascular cells; (ii) adhesion of normal vascular cells to Tat is induced by exposure of the cells to the same cytokines; (iii) adhesion is associated with the amino acid sequence RGD of Tat through a specific interaction with the integrin receptors alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha v beta 3, although it is augmented by the basic region; and (iv) the expression of both integrins is increased by the same cytokines that promote these cells to acquire spindle morphology and become responsive to the adhesion and growth effects of Tat. The results also suggest that RGD-recognizing integrins mediate the vascular cell-growth-promoting effect of Tat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7690138

  14. Increasing Tumor Accessibility with Conjugatable Disulfide-Bridged Tumor-Penetrating Peptides for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Sharma, Shweta; Kolhar, Poornima; Agemy, Lilach; Pavlovich, James; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides with tissue-penetrating properties increase the efficacy of targeted cancer therapy by delivering an anticancer agent to the tumor interior. LyP-1 (CGNKRTRGC) and iRGD (CRGDKGPDC) are founding members of this class of peptides. The presence of the cysteines forming the cyclizing disulfide bond complicates conjugation of these peptides with other molecules, such as drugs. Here, we report the synthesis of conjugatable disulfide-bridged peptides and their conjugation to biologically important molecules. We have synthesized the LyP-1, iRGD, and CRGDC (GACRGDCLGA) peptides with a cysteine or maleimidohexanoic acid added externally at N-terminus of the sequences. Subsequent conjugation to payloads yielded stable compounds in which the tumor-homing properties of the peptide and the biological activity of the payload were retained. PMID:27385913

  15. Analysis of Peptides and Conjugates by Amino Acid Analysis.

    PubMed

    Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is a highly accurate method for characterization of the composition of synthetic peptides. Together with mass spectrometry, it gives a reliable control of peptide quality and quantity before conjugation and immunization. Peptides are hydrolyzed, preferably in gas phase, with 6 M HCl at 110 °C for 20-24 h and the resulting amino acids analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization. Depending on the hydrolysis conditions, tryptophan is destroyed, and cysteine also, unless derivatized, and the amides, glutamine and asparagine, are deamidated to glutamic acid and aspartic acid, respectively. Three different ways of calculating results are suggested, and taking the above limitations into account, a quantitation better than 5% can usually be obtained. PMID:26424264

  16. Two RGD-independent alpha vbeta 3 integrin binding sites on tumstatin regulate distinct anti-tumor properties.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Y; Colorado, P C; Kalluri, R

    2000-08-01

    Vascular basement membrane is an important regulator of angiogenesis and undergoes many alterations during angiogenesis and these changes are speculated to influence neovascularization. Recently, fragments of collagen molecules have been identified to possess anti-angiogenic activity. Tumstatin (alpha3(IV)NC1 domain) is one such novel molecule with distinct anti-tumor properties and possesses an N-terminal (amino acids 54-132) anti-angiogenic and a C-terminal (amino acids 185-203) anti-tumor cell activity (Maeshima, Y., et al. 2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 21340-21348). Previous studies have identified the 185-203 amino acid sequence as a ligand for alpha(v)beta(3) integrin (Shahan, T. A., et al. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 4584-4590). In the present study, we found distinct additional RGD-independent alpha(v)beta(3) integrin binding site within 54-132 amino acids of tumstatin. This site is not essential for inhibition of tumor cell proliferation but necessary for the anti-angiogenic activity. A fragment of tumstatin containing 54-132 amino acid (tum-2) binds both endothelial cells and melanoma cells but only inhibited proliferation of endothelial cells, with no effect on tumor cell proliferation. A similar experiment with fragment of tumstatin containing the 185-203 amino acid (tum-4) demonstrates that it binds both endothelial cells and melanoma cells but only inhibits the proliferation of melanoma cells. The presence of cyclic RGD peptides did not affect the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-mediated activity of tumstatin, although significant inhibition of endothelial cell binding to vitronectin was observed. The two distinct RGD-independent binding sites on tumstatin suggest unique alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-mediated mechanisms governing the two distinct anti-tumor properties of tumstatin. PMID:10837460

  17. Peptide-modified Substrate for Modulating Gland Tissue Growth and Morphology In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Hiroaki; Sathi, Gulsan Ara; Farahat, Mahmoud; Rahman, Kazi Anisur; Sakai, Takayoshi; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kuboki, Takuo; Torii, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    In vitro fabricated biological tissue would be a valuable tool to screen newly synthesized drugs or understand the tissue development process. Several studies have attempted to fabricate biological tissue in vitro. However, controlling the growth and morphology of the fabricated tissue remains a challenge. Therefore, new techniques are required to modulate tissue growth. RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid), which is an integrin-binding domain of fibronectin, has been found to enhance cell adhesion and survival; it has been used to modify substrates for in vitro cell culture studies or used as tissue engineering scaffolds. In addition, this study shows novel functions of the RGD peptide, which enhances tissue growth and modulates tissue morphology in vitro. When an isolated submandibular gland (SMG) was cultured on an RGD-modified alginate hydrogel sheet, SMG growth including bud expansion and cleft formation was dramatically enhanced. Furthermore, we prepared small RGD-modified alginate beads and placed them on the growing SMG tissue. These RGD-modified beads successfully induced cleft formation at the bead position, guiding the desired SMG morphology. Thus, this RGD-modified material might be a promising tool to modulate tissue growth and morphology in vitro for biological tissue fabrication. PMID:26098225

  18. Angiogenesis Imaging Using (68)Ga-RGD PET/CT: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Eo, Jae Seon; Jeong, Jae Min

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis imaging is important for diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of various malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence has been known to bind with the αvβ3 integrin that is expressed on the surface of angiogenic blood vessels or tumor cells. Thus, various radiolabeled derivatives of RGD peptides have been developed for angiogenesis imaging. Among the various radionuclides, (68)Ga was the most widely studied for RGD peptide imaging because of its excellent nuclear physical properties, easy-to-label chemical properties, and cost-effectiveness owing to the availability of a (68)Ge-(68)Ga generator. Thus, various (68)Ga-labeled RGD derivatives have been developed and applied for preclinical and clinical studies. Clinical trials were performed for both malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Breast cancer, glioma, and lung cancer were malignant, and myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and moyamoya disease were nonmalignant among the investigated diseases. Further, these (68)Ga-labeled RGD derivatives could be applied to assess the effects of antiangiogenic treatment or theragnosis or both, of cancers. In conclusion, the angiogenesis imaging technology using (68)Ga-labeled RGD derivatives might be useful for the development of new therapeutic assessments, and for diagnostic and theragnostic applications. PMID:27553467

  19. How amino acids and peptides shaped the RNA world.

    PubMed

    van der Gulik, Peter T S; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a "pure RNA ribosome" evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems "RNA only", we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the "RNA world" view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  20. RGD(F/S/V)-Dex: towards the development of novel, effective, and safe glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xueyun; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Zhu, Haimei; Zhao, Shurui; Wu, Jianhui; Song, Yuanbo; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) is an effective glucocorticoid in treating inflammation and preventing rejection reaction. However, the side effects limit its clinical application. To improve its druggable profile, the conjugates of RGD-peptide-modified Dex were presented and their enhanced anti-inflammation activity, minimized osteoporotic action, and nanoscaled assembly were explored. (RGD stands for Arg-Gly-Asp. Standard single letter biochemical abbreviations for amino acids have been used throughout this paper.) In respect of the rejection reaction, the survival time of the implanted myocardium of the mice treated with 1.43 µmol/kg/d of the conjugates for 15 consecutive days was significantly longer than that of the mice treated with 2.5 µmol/kg/d of Dex, and the conjugates, but not Dex, exhibited no toxic action. At a single dose of 14.3 µmol/kg (100 times minimal effective dose, 0.143 µmol/kg), the conjugates induced no liver, kidney, or systemic toxicity. At the dose of 1.43 µmol/kg, the conjugates, but not Dex, prolonged the bleeding time of the mice, and inhibited the thrombosis of the rats. In water and rat plasma, the conjugates formed nanoparticles of 14–250 and 101–166 nm in diameter, respectively. Since the nanoparticles of ~100 nm in size cannot be entrapped by macrophages in the circulation, RGDF-Dex would particularly be worthy of development, since its nanoparticle diameter is 101 nm. PMID:27022245

  1. Conjugation of iron oxide nanoparticles with RGD-modified dendrimers for targeted tumor MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia; Luo, Yu; Xu, Yanhong; Li, Jingchao; Zhang, Zaixian; Wang, Han; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Guixiang

    2015-03-11

    This article reports a new approach for the synthesis of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified dendrimers (G5.NHAc-RGD-Fe3O4 NPs) as a platform for targeted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of C6 glioma cells. Ultrasmall Fe3O4 NPs synthesized via a solvothermal route were conjugated with RGD peptide-modified generation-5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5.NH2-RGD). The final G5.NHAc-RGD-Fe3O4 NPs were formed following the acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The as-prepared multifunctional Fe3O4 NPs were characterized using various techniques. The results of a cell viability assay, cell morphological observation, and hemolysis assay indicated that the G5.NHAc-RGD-Fe3O4 NPs exhibit excellent cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility over the studied concentration range. In addition, RGD conjugated onto the Fe3O4 NPs allows for the efficient targeting of the particles to C6 cells that overexpress αvβ3 receptors, which was confirmed via in vitro cell MR imaging and cellular uptake. Finally, the G5.NHAc-RGD-Fe3O4 NPs were used in the targeted MR imaging of C6 glioma cells in mice. The results obtained from the current study indicate that the developed G5.NHAc-RGD-Fe3O4 NPs offer significant potential for use as contrast agents in the targeted MR imaging of different types of tumors.

  2. Noninvasive In Vivo Diagnosis of Brain Glioma Using RGD-Decorated Fluorescent Carbonaceous Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Shaobo; Chen, Jiantao; Cun, Xingli; Long, Yang; Tang, Jie; Qian, Jun; Shen, Shun; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhu, Jianhua; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescent carbonaceous nanospheres (CDs) have gained significant attention because of their promising applications, especially in biology and medicine, due to their unique properties. However, the application of CDs in the noninvasive imaging of diseased tissues has been restricted by the poor targeting efficiency of CDs. In this study, CDs were prepared from sucrose and glutamic acid with a particle size of 122.5 nm. Due to quantum confinement in the nanoparticles, CDs exhibited emission from 450 to 600 nm upon excitation at approximately 400 nm. This feature made it possible to use the CDs for low-background bioimaging of deep diseased tissues. RGD, a ligand that can target α(v)β3, which is highly expressed on most tumor and neovascular cells, was decorated onto the CDs after PEGylation. The product, RGD-PEG-CDs, possessed low cytotoxicity, as determined by MTT assay. In vitro, RGD-PEG-CDs targeted U87 (a human brain glioma cell line) cells with a higher cellular uptake intensity than CDs and PEGylated CDs (PEG-CDs), and endosomes were involved in the uptake procedure. The internalization of RGD-PEG-CDs, PEG-CDs and CDs all were primarily mediated by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-mediated pathway, which were energy-dependent. Additionally, the uptake of RGD-PEG-CDs could be significantly inhibited by free RGD, indicating that the uptake was mediated by the receptor of RGD. In vivo, RGD-PEG-CDs accumulated in U87 glioma at high intensity, at values that were 1.67- and 1.64-fold higher than those of PEG-CDs and CDs. Furthermore, RGD-PEG-CDs exhibited good colocalization with neovasculature. In conclusion, RGD-PEG-CDs could be successfully used for noninvasive U87 glioma imaging. PMID:26510309

  3. Amino Acid and Peptide Requirement of Fusiformis necrophorus

    PubMed Central

    Wahren, Ann; Holme, Tord

    1973-01-01

    Uptake of individual amino acids and peptides by Fusiformis necrophorus was studied in growing cultures and resting cell suspensions. The cells were able to incorporate 16 of 17 14C-labeled amino acids into cell protein, the exception being proline. Proline could neither be formed by the cells from any of the other tested amino acids nor be synthesized from glucose or serine when these were used as energy sources. The addition of di- and tripeptides, the octapeptides vasopressin and oxytocin, and the poly (24) peptide ACTH did not stimulate cell growth, but a marked stimulatory effect was noted after the addition of poly-l-proline (mean molecular weight 2,000). It is concluded that cells of F. necrophorus (i) possess transport systems for most amino acids but not for proline, (ii) are dependent on exogenous proline in the form of proline-containing peptides for growth, and (iii) may be cultivated in a defined amino acid medium provided the proline requirement is met by the addition of a proline-containing peptide. PMID:4745417

  4. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17440630

  5. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy. PMID:26356810

  6. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy.

  7. RGD-conjugated rod-like viral nanoparticles on 2D scaffold improved bone differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Pongkwan, Sitasuwan; Lee, L.; Li, Kai; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles have uniform and well-defined nano-structures and can be produced in large quantities. Several plant viral nanoparticles have been tested in biomedical applications due to the lack of mammalian cell infectivity. We are particularly interested in using Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which has been demonstrated to enhance bone tissue regeneration, as a tuneable nanoscale building block for biomaterials development. Unmodified TMV particles have been shown to accelerate osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells by synergistically upregulating BMP2 and IBSP expression with dexamethasone. However, the lack of affinity to mammalian cell surface resulted in low initial cell adhesion. In this study, to increase cell binding capacity of TMV based material the chemical functionalization of TMV with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide was explored. An azide-derivatized RGD peptide was “clicked” to tyrosine residues on TMV outer surface via an efficient copper(I) catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. The ligand spacing is calculated to be 2-4 nm, which could offer a polyvalent ligand clustering effect for enhanced cell receptor signalling, further promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  8. RGD-conjugated two-photon absorbing near-IR emitting fluorescent probes for tumor vascular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Yue, Xiling; Morales, Alma R.; Githaiga, Grace W.; Woodward, Adam W.; Tang, Simon; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Liu, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the activation and inhibition of angiogenesis processes is important in the progression of cancer. Application of targeting peptides, such as a small peptide that contains adjacent L-arginine (R), glycine (G) and L-aspartic acid (D) residues can afford high selectivity and deep penetration in vessel imaging. To facilitate deep tissue vasculature imaging, probes that can be excited via two-photon absorption (2PA) in the near-infrared (NIR) and subsequently emit in the NIR are essential. In this study, the enhancement of tissue image quality with RGD conjugates was investigated with new NIR-emitting pyranyl fluorophore derivatives in two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of the new probes were comprehensively characterized; significantly the probes exhibited good 2PA over a broad spectral range from 700-1100 nm. Cell and tissue images were then acquired and examined, revealing deep penetration and high contrast with the new pyranyl RGD-conjugates up to 350 μm in tumor tissue.

  9. Peptide-directed binding of quantum dots to integrins in human fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Chen, Hongfeng; Cho, Michael R; Stroscio, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    There is currently a major international effort aimed at integrating semiconductor nanostructures with biological structures. This paper reports the use of peptide sequences with certain motifs like artinine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV) to functionalize zinc sulfide (ZnS)-capped cadmiun selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, so that the quantum dot-peptide complexes selectively bind to integrins on HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells membrane. In this way, an interface between semiconductor nanocrystals and subcellular components was achieved, and the distribution pattern of RGD and LDV receptors on HT1080 cell membranes is revealed. These findings point the way to using a wide class of peptide-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots for the study of cellular processes involving integrins.

  10. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    van der Gulik, Peter T.S.; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The “RNA world” hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a “pure RNA ribosome” evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems “RNA only”, we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the “RNA world” view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  11. Biological activity and biotechnological aspects of peptide nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Karin E; Good, Liam; Strömberg, Roger; Gräslund, Astrid; Smith, C I Edvard

    2006-01-01

    During the latest decades a number of different nucleic acid analogs containing natural nucleobases on a modified backbone have been synthesized. An example of this is peptide nucleic acid (PNA), a DNA mimic with a noncyclic peptide-like backbone, which was first synthesized in 1991. Owing to its flexible and neutral backbone PNA displays very good hybridization properties also at low-ion concentrations and has subsequently attracted large interest both in biotechnology and biomedicine. Numerous modifications have been made, which could be of value for particular settings. However, the original PNA does so far perform well in many diverse applications. The high biostability makes it interesting for in vivo use, although the very limited diffusion over lipid membranes requires further modifications in order to make it suitable for treatment in eukaryotic cells. The possibility to use this nucleic acid analog for gene regulation and gene editing is discussed. Peptide nucleic acid is now also used for specific genetic detection in a number of diagnostic techniques, as well as for site-specific labeling and hybridization of functional molecules to both DNA and RNA, areas that are also discussed in this chapter.

  12. cRGD-installed polymeric micelles loading platinum anticancer drugs enable cooperative treatment against lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Makino, Jun; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yu; Wang, Ming; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Mochida, Yuki; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-12-28

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is correlated with decreased survival, indicating high tumor malignancy and being a potential source for subsequent fatal metastases. Targeted therapies inhibiting the formation of LNM, while eliminating established metastatic foci, could provide synergistic effects by reducing the incidence and growth of metastasis. Based on the inhibitory activity of cRGD peptide against the development of metastasis, and the LNM targeting ability of systemically injected drug-loaded polymeric micelles, herein, we studied the capability of cRGD-installed polymeric micelles incorporating the platinum anticancer drug (1,2-diaminocylohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt) for cooperatively inhibiting the formation and progression of LNM. As cRGD-installed DACHPt-loaded micelles (cRGD-DACHPt/m) presented similar size, drug loading and surface charge to non-conjugated micelles (MeO-DACHPt/m), the differences in the biological performance of the micelles were endorsed to the effect of the ligand. In a syngeneic melanoma model, both MeO-DACHPt/m and cRGD-DACHPt/m showed comparable antitumor activity against the primary tumors and the established metastatic foci in lymph nodes. However, cRGD-DACHPt/m significantly enhanced the efficacy against LNM draining from primary tumors through the effective inhibition of the spreading of cancer cells. This improved inhibition was associated with the ability of cRGD-DACHPt/m to reduce the migration of melanoma cells, which was higher than that of MeO-DACHPt/m, free cRGD and their combination. These results support our strategy of using cRGD-installed micelles for attaining cooperative therapies against LNM exploiting the inhibitory function of the peptide and the cytotoxic effect of the micelles. PMID:26474676

  13. Characterization of peptide immobilization on an acetylene terminated surface via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsi, Fahimeh; Coster, Hans; Jolliffe, Katrina A.

    2011-10-01

    Peptide (A-A-A-A-G-G-G-E-R-G-D)1A: Alanine; D: Glutamic acid; E: Aspartic acid; G: Glycine; R: Arginine. conjugated surfaces were prepared on silicon surfaces through click chemistry. The amino acid sequence RGD is the cellular attachment site of a large number of extracellular matrices such as blood and cell surface proteins. Recent research has focused on developing RGD peptides which mimic cell adhesion proteins and integrins [1,2].The steps involved the formation of an alkyne-terminated monolayer on Si(111), followed by linking the peptide to 4-azidophenyl isothiocyanate via a specific and gentle reaction. This was followed by the attachment of the azido peptide to the surface-bound alkynes using the Cu (I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The surface structures of the alkyne terminated monolayer and the attached peptide were characterized using high resolution impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy. EIS characterization revealed the alkyne layer and the hydrophobic and polar regions of the attached peptide. XPS analysis showed a high surface coverage of the peptide on the silicon substrates and this was confirmed by FTIR.Our results confirmed a specific covalent attachment of the peptide on the silicon surfaces. This approach offers a versatile, experimentally simple, method for the specific attachment of peptide ligands. This approach would have applications for cell attachment and biosensors.

  14. Characterization of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel and differential stem cell responses in the hydrogel microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungju; Park, Yongdoo; Tae, Giyoong; Lee, Kyu Back; Hwang, Chang Mo; Hwang, Soon Jung; Kim, In Sook; Noh, Insup; Sun, Kyung

    2009-03-15

    Hyaluronic acid is a natural glycosaminoglycan involved in biological processes. Low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kDa)-based hydrogel was synthesized using derivatized hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid was acrylated by two steps: (1) introduction of an amine group using adipic acid dihydrazide, and (2) acrylation by N-acryloxysuccinimide. Injectable hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel was prepared by using acrylated hyaluronic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) tetra-thiols via Michael-type addition reaction. Mechanical properties of the hydrogel were evaluated by varying the molecular weight of acrylated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kDa) and the weight percent of hydrogel. Hydrogel based on 50-kDa hyaluronic acid showed the shortest gelation time and the highest complex modulus. Next, human mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in cell-adhesive RGD peptide-immobilized hydrogels together with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Cells cultured in the RGD/BMP-2-incorporated hydrogels showed proliferation rates higher than that of control or RGD-immobilized hydrogels. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of osteoblast marker genes such as CBFalpha1 and alkaline phosphatase was increased in hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel, and the expression level was dependent on the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid, RGD peptide, and BMP-2. This study indicates that low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel can be applied to tissue regeneration as differentiation guidance materials of stem cells. PMID:18384163

  15. cRGD conjugated mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticles for SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells-targeted Delivery of fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Qi; Sun, Ying; Shen, Ming; Zhu, Mingjie; Wan, Zhiyong; Duan, Yourong

    2012-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the targeting effect of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptide (cRGD)-modified monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (L-lysine) nanoparticles (mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs) for gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. We prepared the 5-Fulorouracil (5Fu)-loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD (5Fu/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD) NPs that had an average particle size of 180 nm and a zeta potential 2.77 mV. The results of cytotoxicity demonstrated the mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs showed the ignorable cytotoxicity and the 5Fu/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs could significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of 5Fu. In vitro drug release experiments showed that the release of drug was effectively prolonged and sustained. The results of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometer analysis demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells treated with Rb/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs was significantly higher than that treated with Rb, this suggested that Rb/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs could effectively be internalized by SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. In summary, the above experimental results illustrate that mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs have great potential to be used as an effective delivery carriers.

  16. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-polyethylene glycol-polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugate improves liver-cell aggregation and function in 3-D spheroid culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanfei; Lian, Fen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yanling; Tang, Nanhong

    2016-01-01

    The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a type of macromolecule material, has been used in spheroidal cell culture and drug delivery in recent years. However, PAMAM is not involved in the study of hepatic cell-spheroid culture or its biological activity, particularly in detoxification function. Here, we constructed a PAMAM-dendrimer conjugate decorated by an integrin ligand: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Our studies demonstrate that RGD-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PAMAM conjugates can promote singly floating hepatic cells to aggregate together in a sphere-like growth with a weak reactive oxygen species. Moreover, RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates can activate the AKT-MAPK pathway in hepatic cells to promote cell proliferation and improve basic function and ammonia metabolism. Together, our data support the hepatocyte sphere treated by RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates as a potential source of hepatic cells for a biological artificial liver system. PMID:27621619

  17. Facilitation of cell adhesion by immobilized dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1): arginine-glycine-aspartic acid structural mimicry within the dengue viral NS1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Hou; Shyu, Huey-Fen; Wang, Yo-Ming; Sun, Der-Shan; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tang, Shiao-Shek; Huang, Yao-Shine

    2002-09-15

    Dengue virus infection causes life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. Increasing evidence implies that dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) exhibits a tendency to elicit potentially hazardous autoantibodies, which show a wide spectrum of specificity against extracellular matrix and platelet antigens. How NS1 elicits autoantibodies remains unclear. To address the hypothesis that NS1 and matrix proteins may have structural and functional similarity, cell-matrix and cell-NS1 interactions were evaluated using a cell-adhesion assay. The present study showed that dengue NS1 immobilized on coverslips resulted in more cell adhesion than did the control proteins. This cell adhesion was inhibited by peptides containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), a motif important for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. In addition, anti-NS1 antibodies blocked RGD-mediated cell adhesion. Although there is no RGD motif in the NS1 protein sequence, these data indicate that RGD structural mimicry exists within the NS1 antigen.

  18. Probing cell-matrix interactions in RGD-decorated macroporous poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogels for 3D chondrocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Mujeeb, Ayeesha; Du, Yanan; Lin, Jianhao; Ge, Zigang

    2015-06-01

    Macroporous hydrogels have shown great promise as scaffolds for cartilage engineering by facilitating nutrition transport and tissue in growth. Cell-matrix adhesion-a fundamental process in tissue engineering-has shown a profound effect on subsequent cell phenotype, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, and tissue reorganization. In this study, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was introduced to macroporous hydrogels of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) to fabricate PEG-G400 (with 0.4mM RGD) and PEG-G2000 (2mM RGD) to probe the cell-matrix interactions within hydrogels. Primary chondrocytes demonstrated a slightly stretched morphology with increasing RGD concentration and PEG-G2000 hydrogels boosted cell viability, proliferation, and deposition of collagen II and GAG, in comparison to the PEG-G400 and PEG-RED groups. Results also revealed chondrocytes within the cell aggregates underwent dedifferentiation and hypertrophy within RGD incorporated hydrogels, as evidenced by the high level of gene expression of collagen I on day 14 and strong immunohistological staining of collagen X and collagen I on day 35. Evidently, a high concentration of RGD (2mM RGD) enhanced cell-matrix interactions through elevating the expression of integrin β1 and vinculin. Thus, the integration of RGD in macroporous hydrogels with a concentration of 2 mM may be sufficient for improving cell functionality, with a slight probability of dedifferentiation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes. PMID:26107534

  19. RGD-conjugated copolymer incorporated into composite of poly(lactide-co-glycotide) and poly(L-lactide)-grafted nanohydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peibiao; Wu, Haitao; Wu, Han; Lù, Zhongwen; Deng, Chao; Hong, Zhongkui; Jing, Xiabin; Chen, Xuesi

    2011-07-11

    Various surface modification methods of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides on biomaterials have been developed to improve cell adhesion. This study aimed to examine a RGD-conjugated copolymer RGD/MPEG-PLA-PBLG (RGD-copolymer) for its ability to promote bone regeneration by mixing it with the composite of poly(lactide-co-glycotide) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles surface-grafted with poly(L-lactide) (g-HAP). The porous scaffolds were prepared using solvent casting/particulate leaching method and grafted to repair the rabbit radius defects after seeding with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) of rabbits. After incorporation of RGD-copolymer, there were no significant influences on scaffold's porosity and pore size. Nitrogen of RGD peptide, and calcium and phosphor of g-HAP could be exposed on the surface of the scaffold simultaneously. Although the cell viability of its leaching liquid was 92% that was lower than g-HAP/PLGA, its cell adhesion and growth of 3T3 and osteoblasts were promoted significantly. The greatest increment in cell adhesion ratios (131.2-157.1% higher than g-HAP/PLGA) was observed when its contents were 0.1-1 wt % but only at 0.5 h after cell seeding. All the defects repaired with the implants were bridged after 24 weeks postsurgery, but the RGD-copolymer contained composite had larger new bone formation and better fusion interface. The composites containing RGD-copolymer enhanced bone ingrowth but presented more woven bones than others. The combined application of RGD-copolymer and bone morphological protein 2 (BMP-2) exhibited the best bone healing quality and was recommended as an optimal strategy for the use of RGD peptides. PMID:21604718

  20. RGD-conjugated copolymer incorporated into composite of poly(lactide-co-glycotide) and poly(L-lactide)-grafted nanohydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peibiao; Wu, Haitao; Wu, Han; Lù, Zhongwen; Deng, Chao; Hong, Zhongkui; Jing, Xiabin; Chen, Xuesi

    2011-07-11

    Various surface modification methods of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides on biomaterials have been developed to improve cell adhesion. This study aimed to examine a RGD-conjugated copolymer RGD/MPEG-PLA-PBLG (RGD-copolymer) for its ability to promote bone regeneration by mixing it with the composite of poly(lactide-co-glycotide) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles surface-grafted with poly(L-lactide) (g-HAP). The porous scaffolds were prepared using solvent casting/particulate leaching method and grafted to repair the rabbit radius defects after seeding with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) of rabbits. After incorporation of RGD-copolymer, there were no significant influences on scaffold's porosity and pore size. Nitrogen of RGD peptide, and calcium and phosphor of g-HAP could be exposed on the surface of the scaffold simultaneously. Although the cell viability of its leaching liquid was 92% that was lower than g-HAP/PLGA, its cell adhesion and growth of 3T3 and osteoblasts were promoted significantly. The greatest increment in cell adhesion ratios (131.2-157.1% higher than g-HAP/PLGA) was observed when its contents were 0.1-1 wt % but only at 0.5 h after cell seeding. All the defects repaired with the implants were bridged after 24 weeks postsurgery, but the RGD-copolymer contained composite had larger new bone formation and better fusion interface. The composites containing RGD-copolymer enhanced bone ingrowth but presented more woven bones than others. The combined application of RGD-copolymer and bone morphological protein 2 (BMP-2) exhibited the best bone healing quality and was recommended as an optimal strategy for the use of RGD peptides.

  1. An RGD Helper Sequence in CagL of Helicobacter pylori Assists in Interactions with Integrins and Injection of CagA

    PubMed Central

    Conradi, Jens; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Woźna, Marta; Wissbrock, Marco; Michalek, Carmela; Gagell, Corinna; Cover, Timothy L.; Frank, Ronald; Sewald, Norbert; Backert, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a specific gastric pathogen that colonizes the stomach in more than 50% of the world’s human population. Infection with this bacterium can induce several types of gastric pathology, ranging from chronic gastritis to peptic ulcers and even adenocarcinoma. Virulent H. pylori isolates encode components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS), which form a pilus for the injection of virulence proteins such as CagA into host target cells. This is accomplished by a specialized adhesin on the pilus surface, the protein CagL, a putative VirB5 ortholog, which binds to host cell β1 integrin, triggering subsequent delivery of CagA across the host cell membrane. Like the human extracellular matrix protein fibronectin, CagL contains an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif and is able to trigger intracellular signaling pathways by RGD-dependent binding to integrins. While CagL binding to host cells is mediated primarily by the RGD motif, we identified an auxiliary binding motif for CagL–integrin interaction. Here, we report on a surface exposed FEANE (Phe-Glu-Ala-Asn-Glu) interaction motif in spatial proximity to the RGD sequence, which enhances the interactions of CagL with integrins. It will be referred to as RGD helper sequence (RHS). Competitive cell adhesion assays with recombinant wild type CagL and point mutants, competition experiments with synthetic cyclic and linear peptides, and peptide array experiments revealed amino acids essential for the interaction of the RHS motif with integrins. Infection experiments indicate that the RHS motif plays a role in the early interaction of H. pylori T4SS with integrin, to trigger signaling and to inject CagA into host cells. We thus postulate that CagL is a versatile T4SS surface protein equipped with at least two motifs to promote binding to integrins, thereby causing aberrant signaling within host cells and facilitating translocation of CagA into host cells, thus contributing directly to H. pylori pathogenesis. PMID

  2. High affinity RGD-binding sites at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana links the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, H; Carrasco, A; Galaud, J P; Cassan, C; Bouyssou, H; Vita, N; Ferrara, P; Pont-Lezica, R

    1998-10-01

    The heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD--the essential structure recognised by animal cells in substrate adhesion molecules) was tested on epidermal cells of onion and cultured cells of Arabidopsis upon plasmolysis. Dramatic changes were observed on both types of cells following treatment: on onion cells, Hechtian strands linking the cell wall to the membrane were lost, while Arabidopsis cells changed from concave to convex plasmolysis. A control heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Asp-Gly-Arg-Ser-Pro had no effect on the shape of plasmolysed cells. Protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cells agglutinate in the presence of ProNectinF, a genetically engineered protein of 72 kDa containing 13 RGD sequences: several protoplasts may adhere to a single molecule of ProNectinF. The addition of the RGD-heptapeptide disrupted the adhesion between the protoplasts. Purified plasma membrane from Arabidopsis cells exhibits specific binding sites for the iodinated RGD-heptapeptide. The binding is saturable, reversible, and two types of high affinity sites (Kd1 approximately 1 nM, and Kd2 approximately 40 nM) can be discerned. Competitive inhibition by several structurally related peptides and proteins noted the specific requirement for the RGD sequence. Thus, the RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis fulfils the adhesion features of integrins, i.e. peptide specificity, subcellular location, and involvement in plasma membrane-cell wall attachments.

  3. High affinity RGD-binding sites at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana links the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, H; Carrasco, A; Galaud, J P; Cassan, C; Bouyssou, H; Vita, N; Ferrara, P; Pont-Lezica, R

    1998-10-01

    The heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD--the essential structure recognised by animal cells in substrate adhesion molecules) was tested on epidermal cells of onion and cultured cells of Arabidopsis upon plasmolysis. Dramatic changes were observed on both types of cells following treatment: on onion cells, Hechtian strands linking the cell wall to the membrane were lost, while Arabidopsis cells changed from concave to convex plasmolysis. A control heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Asp-Gly-Arg-Ser-Pro had no effect on the shape of plasmolysed cells. Protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cells agglutinate in the presence of ProNectinF, a genetically engineered protein of 72 kDa containing 13 RGD sequences: several protoplasts may adhere to a single molecule of ProNectinF. The addition of the RGD-heptapeptide disrupted the adhesion between the protoplasts. Purified plasma membrane from Arabidopsis cells exhibits specific binding sites for the iodinated RGD-heptapeptide. The binding is saturable, reversible, and two types of high affinity sites (Kd1 approximately 1 nM, and Kd2 approximately 40 nM) can be discerned. Competitive inhibition by several structurally related peptides and proteins noted the specific requirement for the RGD sequence. Thus, the RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis fulfils the adhesion features of integrins, i.e. peptide specificity, subcellular location, and involvement in plasma membrane-cell wall attachments. PMID:9807828

  4. Kojic Acid Peptide: A New Compound with Anti-Tyrosinase Potential

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birendra Kumar; Park, Seok Hoon; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Goo, Young-Aae; Kim, Hyoung Shik; Cho, Seung Hee; Lee, Jeong Hun; Ahn, Ghe Whan; Kim, Jin Pyo; Kang, Su Myoung

    2016-01-01

    Background Kojic acid was used for decades in the cosmetic industry as an antimelanogenic agent. However, there are two major drawbacks of Kojic acid, one is cytotoxicity and second are instability on storage. These limitations led the scientist to synthesize the active Kojic acid peptides. Objective In the present study, we synthesize and investigate the effect of five Kojic acid peptides to overcome the limitation of Kojic acid. Methods The peptide was analyzed and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further, the tyrosinase activities of the Kojic acid and Kojic acid peptides were compared. The toxicity was measured and the melanin content is recorded in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Results Maximum tyrosinase activity was measured by Kojic acid peptides. Therefore, Kojic acid peptides were subjected to melanin assay and cytotoxicity assay and finally the stability of the Kojic acid peptide was measured. Conclusion It was observed that this newly synthesized Kojic acid peptide is stable and potent to inhibit the tyrosinase activity and melanin content of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells without exhibiting cell toxicity. Together, these preliminary results suggest that a further exploration is being needed to establish Kojic acid peptide as antimelanogenic agent. PMID:27746633

  5. RGD-conjugated PLA-PLL nanoparticles targeting to Bacp-37 breast cancer xenografts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Qi, Xuelian; Sun, Ying; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2011-12-01

    Targeted delivery carriers are receiving considerable attention, the development of a more precise targeted delivery carrier is critical for the advancement of cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of RGD-conjugated poly (lactic acid-co-lysine)-(Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic) nanoparticles (PLA-PLL-RGD NPs) on targeted delivery to Bacp-37 breast cancer bearing mice. PLA-PLL-RGD NPs were prepared by using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A subsequent MTT assay indicated that the NPs were non-toxic and had good biocompatibility. In vitro, the results of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and FAC Scan flow cytometry (FACS) indicated that the PLA-PLL-RGD NPs can bind more significantly to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, compared to PLA-PLL NPs. In vivo, the results of target imaging and biodistribution showed that PLA-PLL-RGD can significantly target to tumor of Bacp-37 breast cancer bearing mice. These results demonstrated that PLA-PLL-RGD NPs can effectively enhance targeted efficiency in vivo, and have the potential to be used as targeted delivery carrier.

  6. The interaction of amino acids, peptides, and proteins with DNA.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Andrey Y; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana I; Chernova, Irina A; Shataeva, Larisa K; Skorik, Yury A

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids that carry charges on their side groups can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and change the strength of the double helix. Measurement of the DNA melting temperature (Tm) confirmed that acidic amino acids (Glu, Asp) weaken the H-bonds between DNA strands, whereas basic amino acids (Arg, Lys) strengthen the interaction between the strands. A rank correlation exists between the amino acid isoelectric points and the observed changes in Tm. A similar dependence of the hyperchromic effect on the isoelectric point of a protein (pepsin, insulin, cortexin, and protamine) was observed for DNA-protein complexes at room temperature. Short peptides (KE, AEDG, and KEDP) containing a mixture of acidic and basic amino acid residues also affect Tm and the stability of the double helix. A model for binding Glu and Lys to dsDNA was explored by a docking simulation. The model shows that Glu, in an untwisted shape, binds to dsDNA in its major groove and disrupts three H-bonds between the strands, thereby destabilizing the double helix. Lys, in an untwisted shape, binds to the external side of the dsDNA and forms two bonds with O atoms of neighboring phosphodiester groups, thereby strengthening the DNA helix.

  7. Density-tunable conjugation of cyclic RGD ligands with polyion complex vesicles for the neovascular imaging of orthotopic glioblastomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Wataru; Miura, Yutaka; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Toh, Kazuko; Yamada, Naoki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Sueyoshi, Daiki; Liu, Xueying; Aoki, Ichio; Kano, Mitsunobu R.; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Kishimura, Akihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of ligands into 100 nm scaled hollow capsules has great potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in drug delivery systems. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEGylated) polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes) are promising hollow nano-capsules that can survive for long periods in the blood circulation and can be used to deliver water-soluble macromolecules to target tissues. In this study, cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide, which is specifically recognized by αVβ3 and αvβ5 integrins that are expressed at high levels in the neovascular system, was conjugated onto the distal end of PEG strands on PICsomes for active neovascular targeting. Density-tunable cRGD-conjugation was achieved using PICsomes with definite fraction of end-functionalized PEG, to substitute 20, 40, and 100% of PEG distal end of the PICsomes to cRGD moieties. Compared with control-PICsomes without cRGD, cRGD-PICsomes exhibited increased uptake into human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Intravital confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the 40%-cRGD-PICsomes accumulated mainly in the tumor neovasculature and remained in the perivascular region even after 24 h. Furthermore, we prepared superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded cRGD-PICsomes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and successfully visualized the neovasculature in an orthotopic glioblastoma model, which suggests that SPIO-loaded cRGD-PICsomes might be useful as a MRI contrast reagent for imaging of the tumor microenvironment, including neovascular regions that overexpress αVβ3 integrins.

  8. Membrane fusion by an RGD-containing sequence from the core protein VP3 of hepatitis A virus and the RGA-analogue: implications for viral infection.

    PubMed

    Chávez, A; Pujol, M; Haro, I; Alsina, M A; Cajal, Y

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an RGD-containing epitope from the hepatitis A virus VP3 capsid protein and its RGA-analogue with lipid membranes was studied by biophysical methods. Two types of model membrane were used: vesicles and monolayers spread at the air/water interface, with a composition that closely resembles the lipid moiety of hepatocyte membranes: PC/SM/PE/PC (40:33:12:15; PC: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-sn-3-phosphocholine; SM: sphingomyelin from chicken egg yolk; PE, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; PS: L-alpha-phosphatidyl-L-serine from bovine brain). In addition, zwitterionic PC/SM/PE (47:39:14) and cationic PC/SM/PE/DOTAP (40:33:12:15; DOTAP: 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) membranes were also prepared in order to dissect the electrostatic and hydrophobic components in the interaction. Changes in tryptophan fluorescence, acrylamide quenching, and resonance energy transfer experiments in the presence of vesicles, as well as the kinetics of insertion in monolayers, indicate that both peptides bind to the three types of membrane at neutral and acidic pH; however, binding is irreversible only at low pH. Membrane-destabilizing and fusogenic activities are triggered by acidification at pH 4-6, characteristic of the endosome. Fluorescence experiments show that VP3-RGD and VP3-RGA induce mixing of lipids and leakage or mixing of aqueous contents in anionic and cationic vesicles at pH 4-6, indicating leaky fusion. Interaction with zwitterionic vesicles (PC/SM/PE) results in leakage without lipid mixing, indicating pore formation. Replacement of aspartic acid in the RGD motif by alanine maintains the membrane-destabilizing properties of the peptide at low pH, but not its antigenicity. Since the RGD tripeptide is related to receptor-mediated cell adhesion and antigenicity, results suggest that receptor binding is not a molecular requirement for fusion. The possible involvement of peptide-induced membrane destabilization in the mechanism of hepatitis A

  9. Facile Analysis and Sequencing of Linear and Branched Peptide Boronic Acids by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Crumpton, Jason; Zhang, Wenyu; Santos, Webster

    2011-01-01

    Interest in peptides incorporating boronic acid moieties is increasing due to their potential as therapeutics/diagnostics for a variety of diseases such as cancer. The utility of peptide boronic acids may be expanded with access to vast libraries that can be deconvoluted rapidly and economically. Unfortunately, current detection protocols using mass spectrometry are laborious and confounded by boronic acid trimerization, which requires time consuming analysis of dehydration products. These issues are exacerbated when the peptide sequence is unknown, as with de novo sequencing, and especially when multiple boronic acid moieties are present. Thus, a rapid, reliable and simple method for peptide identification is of utmost importance. Herein, we report the identification and sequencing of linear and branched peptide boronic acids containing up to five boronic acid groups by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Protocols for preparation of pinacol boronic esters were adapted for efficient MALDI analysis of peptides. Additionally, a novel peptide boronic acid detection strategy was developed in which 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) served as both matrix and derivatizing agent in a convenient, in situ, on-plate esterification. Finally, we demonstrate that DHB-modified peptide boronic acids from a single bead can be analyzed by MALDI-MSMS analysis, validating our approach for the identification and sequencing of branched peptide boronic acid libraries. PMID:21449540

  10. The nature of peptide interactions with acid end-group PLGAs and facile aqueous-based microencapsulation of therapeutic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Andreas M; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Mazzara, J Maxwell; Tong, Ling; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Olsen, Karl F; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2013-12-28

    An important poorly understood phenomenon in controlled-release depots involves the strong interaction between common cationic peptides and low Mw free acid end-group poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) used to achieve continuous peptide release kinetics. The kinetics of peptide sorption to PLGA was examined by incubating peptide solutions of 0.2-4mM octreotide or leuprolide acetate salts in a 0.1M HEPES buffer, pH7.4, with polymer particles or films at 4-37°C for 24h. The extent of absorption/loading of peptides in PLGA particles/films was assayed by two-phase extraction and amino acid analysis. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and laser scanning confocal imaging, and microtome sectioning techniques were used to examine peptide penetration into the polymer phase. The release of sorbed peptide from leuprolide-PLGA particles was evaluated both in vitro (PBST+0.02% sodium azide, 37°C) and in vivo (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We found that when the PLGA-COOH chains are sufficiently mobilized, therapeutic peptides not only bind at the surface, a common belief to date, but also can be internalized and distributed throughout the polymer phase at physiological temperature forming a salt with low-molecular weight PLGA-COOH. Importantly, absorption of leuprolide into low MW PLGA-COOH particles yielded ~17 wt.% leuprolide loading in the polymer (i.e., ~70% of PLGA-COOH acids occupied), and the absorbed peptide was released from the polymer for >2 weeks in a controlled fashion in vitro and as indicated by sustained testosterone suppression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This new approach, which bypasses the traditional encapsulation method and associated production cost, opens up the potential for facile production of low-cost controlled-release injectable depots for leuprolide and related peptides.

  11. [Cellular delivery of modified peptide nucleic acids: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chundong; Wang, Jianhua; Zeng, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA surrogate in which the phosphate deoxyribose backbone of DNA is replaced by repeating N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units. PNA can hybridize to the complementary DNA and RNA with higher affinity than their oligonucleotide counterparts. This character of PNA not only makes it a new tool for the studies of molecular biology but also the potential candidate for gene-targeting drugs. The non-ionic backbone of PNA leads to stable hybrids with the nucleic acids, but at the same time, the neutral backbone results in poor cellular uptake. To address this problem, studies on modified PNA progress rapidly in recent years. We reviewed literature reports combined with our study about the delivery methods, including backbone modified PNA and PNA-ligand conjugates, and the cellular uptake of modified PNA. In addition, we summarized the problems and future prospect of the cellular delivery of modified PNA.

  12. Peptide nucleic acid films and capsules: assembly and enzymatic degradation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alisa L; Johnston, Angus P R; Caruso, Frank

    2010-05-14

    Sequence-directed hybridization of nucleic acids provides a high level of control for the bottom-up assembly of nanostructured materials. Altering the DNA sequence affords control and versatility over the film structure, but is limited by the chemical and physical properties of DNA. Here, we use DNA analogues, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), to introduce new properties to multilayered thin films and retain the advantages of sequence-directed assembly. Thin films, formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of PNA strands, were assembled from short PNA sequences on planar and colloidal substrates. In the case of PNA-coated particles, hollow capsules were obtained following removal of the sacrificial particle template. The PNA films were stable to both nuclease and protease degradation, and the nuclease degradation rate could be tuned by varying the amount of DNA incorporated into the films. These thin films may find use in biomedical applications.

  13. Improving surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides by chemical modification with fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Matemu, Athanasia Oswald; Katayama, Shigeru; Kayahara, Hisataka; Murasawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2012-04-01

    Effect of acylation with saturated fatty acids on surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides was investigated. Tofu whey (TW) and soy proteins (7S, 11S, and acid-precipitated soy protein [APP]) were hydrolyzed by Protease M 'Amano' G, and resulting peptide mixtures were acylated with esterified fatty acids of different chain length (6C to 18C) to form a covalent linkage between the carboxyl group of fatty acid and the free amino groups of peptide. Acylation significantly (P < 0.05) increased emulsifying properties of 7S, 11S, and APP peptides independent of fatty acid chain length. Acylation decreased water binding capacity although oil binding capacity of acylated tofu whey ultra filtered fraction (UFTW < 3 kDa), 7S- and 11S-peptides were improved compared to native peptides. 7S peptides acylated with long chain fatty acids had shown significant higher surface hydrophobicity as in contrast with acylated UFTW < 3 kDa and APP peptides. Fluorescence spectra studies revealed structural conformation of acylated soy peptides as compared to native peptides. This study shows that chemical modification with fatty acids can further affect functional properties of soy proteins.

  14. Application of a proapoptotic peptide to intratumorally spreading cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Renwei; Braun, Gary B; Luo, Xiuquan; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Bit1 is a pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein associated with anoikis. Upon cell detachment, Bit1 is released into the cytoplasm and triggers caspase-independent cell death. Bit1 consists of 179 amino acids; the C-terminal two thirds of the molecule functions as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, while the N-terminus contains a mitochondrial localization signal. Here, we localize the cell death domain (CDD) to the N-terminal 62 amino acids of Bit1 by transfecting cells with truncated Bit1 cDNA constructs. CDD was more potent in killing cells than the full-length Bit1 protein when equivalent amounts of cDNA were transfected. To develop Bit1 CDD into a cancer therapeutic we engineered a recombinant protein consisting of the CDD fused to iRGD, which is a tumor-specific peptide with unique tumor-penetrating and cell-internalizing properties. iRGD-CDD internalized into cultured tumor cells through a neuropilin-1-activated pathway and triggered cell death. Importantly, iRGD-CDD spread extensively within the tumor when injected intratumorally into orthotopically implanted breast tumors in mice. Repeated treatment with iRGD-CDD strongly inhibited tumor growth, resulting in an average reduction of 77% in tumor volume and eradication of some tumors. The caspase independence of Bit1-induced cell death makes CDD a potentially attractive anti-cancer agent because tumor resistance to the main mechanisms of apoptosis is circumvented. Using iRGD to facilitate the spreading of a therapeutic agent throughout the tumor mass may be a useful adjunct to local therapy of tumors that are surgically inoperable or difficult to treat systemically. PMID:23248118

  15. Di-heterometalation of thiol-functionalized peptide nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tanmaya; Patra, Malay; Spiccia, Leone; Gasser, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    As a proof-of-principle, two hetero-bimetallic PNA oligomers containing a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl and a cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex have been prepared by serial combination of solid-phase peptide coupling and in-solution thiol chemistry. Solid-phase N-terminus attachment of Ru(II)-polypyridyl carboxylic acid derivative, C1, onto the thiol-functionalized PNA backbone (H-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) has been performed by standard peptide coupling method. As two parallel approaches, the strong affinity of thiols for maleimide and haloacetyl group has been exploited for subsequent post-SPPS addition of cymantrene-based organometallic cores, C2 and C3. Michael-like addition and thioether ligation of thiol functionalized PNA1 (H-gly-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) and PNA2 (C1-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) to cymantrene maleimide and chloroacetyl derivatives, C2 and C3, respectively, has been performed. The synthesized ruthenium(II)-cymantrenyl PNA oligomers have been characterized by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and IR spectroscopy. The distinct Mn-CO vibrational IR stretches, between 1,924–2,074 cm−1, have been used as markers to confirm the presence of cymantrenyl units in the PNA sequences and the purity of the HPLC-purified PNA thioethers assessed using LC-MS. PMID:23422249

  16. New mechanisms that regulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae short peptide transporter achieve balanced intracellular amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melnykov, Artem V

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to take up large quantities of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides via a short peptide transporter, Ptr2p. It is known that PTR2 can be induced by certain peptides and amino acids, and the mechanisms governing this upregulation are understood at the molecular level. We describe two new opposing mechanisms of regulation that emphasize potential toxicity of amino acids: the first is upregulation of PTR2 in a population of cells, caused by amino acid secretion that accompanies peptide uptake; the second is loss of Ptr2p activity, due to transporter internalization following peptide uptake. Our findings emphasize the importance of proper amino acid balance in the cell and extend understanding of peptide import regulation in yeast.

  17. Identification of Equine Lactadherin-derived Peptides That Inhibit Rotavirus Infection via Integrin Receptor Competition*

    PubMed Central

    Civra, Andrea; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Donalisio, Manuela; Napolitano, Lorenzo; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S.; Conti, Amedeo; Lembo, David

    2015-01-01

    Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding. PMID:25814665

  18. The amino-acid sequences of sculpin islet somatostatin-28 and peptide YY.

    PubMed

    Cutfield, S M; Carne, A; Cutfield, J F

    1987-04-01

    Two pancreatic peptides, somatostatin-28 and peptide YY, have been isolated from the Brockmann bodies of the teleost fish Cottus scorpius (daddy sculpin). Following purification by reverse-phase HPLC, each peptide was sequenced completely through to the carboxyl-terminus by gas-phase Edman degradation. Somatostatin-28 was the major form of somatostatin detected and is similar to the gene II product from anglerfish. Peptide YY (36 amino acids) more closely resembles porcine neuropeptide YY and intestinal peptide YY than it does the pancreatic polypeptides. PMID:2883025

  19. 44Sc: An Attractive Isotope for Peptide-Based PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of integrin αvβ3 has been linked to tumor aggressiveness and metastasis in several cancer types. Because of its high affinity, peptides containing the arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) motif have been proven valuable vectors for noninvasive imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression and for targeted radionuclide therapy. In this study, we aim to develop a 44Sc-labeled RGD-based peptide for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression in a preclinical cancer model. High quality 44Sc (t1/2, 3.97 h; β+ branching ratio, 94.3%) was produced inexpensively in a cyclotron, via proton irradiation of natural Ca metal targets, and separated by extraction chromatography. A dimeric cyclic-RGD peptide, (cRGD)2, was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with 44Sc in high yield (>90%) and specific activity (7.4 MBq/nmol). Serial PET imaging of mice bearing U87MG tumor xenografts showed elevated 44Sc-DOTA-(cRGD)2 uptake in the tumor tissue of 3.93 ± 1.19, 3.07 ± 1.17, and 3.00 ± 1.25 %ID/g at 0.5, 2, and 4 h postinjection, respectively (n = 3), which were validated by ex vivo biodistribution experiments. The integrin αvβ3 specificity of the tracer was corroborated, both in vitro and in vivo, by competitive cell binding and receptor blocking assays. These results parallel previously reported studies showing similar tumor targeting and pharmacokinetic profiles for dimeric cRGD peptides labeled with 64Cu or 68Ga. Our findings, together with the advantageous radionuclidic properties of 44Sc, capitalize on the relevance of this isotope as an attractive alternative isotope to more established radiometals for small molecule-based PET imaging, and as imaging surrogate of 47Sc in theranostic applications. PMID:25054618

  20. In Vitro Bioactivity Study of RGD-Coated Titanium Alloy Prothesis for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Man, Zhentao; Sha, Dan; Sun, Shui; Li, Tao; Li, Bin; Yang, Guang; Wu, Changshun; Jiang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common procedure for the treatment of end-stage hip joint disease, and the demand for revision THA will double by 2026. Ti6Al4V (Titanium, 6% Aluminum, and 4% Vanadium) is a kind of alloy commonly used to make hip prothesis. To promote the osseointegration between the prothesis and host bone is very important for the revision THA. The peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) could increase cell attachment and has been used in the vascular tissue engineering. In this study, we combined the RGD with Ti6Al4V alloy using the covalent cross-linking method to fabricate the functional Ti6Al4V alloy (FTA). The distribution of RGD oligopeptide on the FTA was even and homogeneous. The FTA scaffolds could promote mouse osteoblasts adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the result of RT-qPCR indicated that the FTA scaffolds were more beneficial to osteogenesis, which may be due to the improvement of osteoblast adhesion by the RGD oligopeptide coated on FTA. Overall, the FTA scaffolds developed herein pave the road for designing and building more efficient prothesis for osseointegration between the host bone and prothesis in revision THA. PMID:27493968

  1. In Vitro Bioactivity Study of RGD-Coated Titanium Alloy Prothesis for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhentao; Sha, Dan; Sun, Shui; Li, Tao; Li, Bin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Laibo; Wu, Changshun; Jiang, Peng; Han, Xiaojuan; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common procedure for the treatment of end-stage hip joint disease, and the demand for revision THA will double by 2026. Ti6Al4V (Titanium, 6% Aluminum, and 4% Vanadium) is a kind of alloy commonly used to make hip prothesis. To promote the osseointegration between the prothesis and host bone is very important for the revision THA. The peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) could increase cell attachment and has been used in the vascular tissue engineering. In this study, we combined the RGD with Ti6Al4V alloy using the covalent cross-linking method to fabricate the functional Ti6Al4V alloy (FTA). The distribution of RGD oligopeptide on the FTA was even and homogeneous. The FTA scaffolds could promote mouse osteoblasts adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the result of RT-qPCR indicated that the FTA scaffolds were more beneficial to osteogenesis, which may be due to the improvement of osteoblast adhesion by the RGD oligopeptide coated on FTA. Overall, the FTA scaffolds developed herein pave the road for designing and building more efficient prothesis for osseointegration between the host bone and prothesis in revision THA. PMID:27493968

  2. Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Angiogenesis In Vivo using Polyvalent Cyclic RGD-Iron Oxide Microparticle Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Melemenidis, Stavros; Jefferson, Andrew; Ruparelia, Neil; Akhtar, Asim M; Xie, Jin; Allen, Danny; Hamilton, Alastair; Larkin, James R; Perez-Balderas, Francisco; Smart, Sean C; Muschel, Ruth J; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Sibson, Nicola R; Choudhury, Robin P

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential component of tumour growth and, consequently, an important target both therapeutically and diagnostically. The cell adhesion molecule αvβ3 integrin is a specific marker of angiogenic vessels and the most prevalent vascular integrin that binds the amino acid sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD). Previous studies using RGD-targeted nanoparticles (20-50 nm diameter) of iron oxide (NPIO) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumour angiogenesis, have identified a number of limitations, including non-specific extravasation, long blood half-life (reducing specific contrast) and low targeting valency. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether conjugation of a cyclic RGD variant [c(RGDyK)], with enhanced affinity for αvβ3, to microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) would provide a more sensitive contrast agent for imaging of angiogenic tumour vessels. Cyclic RGD [c(RGDyK)] and RAD [c(RADyK)] based peptides were coupled to 2.8 μm MPIO, and binding efficacy tested both in vitro and in vivo. Significantly greater specific binding of c(RGDyK)-MPIO to S-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro than PBS-treated cells was demonstrated under both static (14-fold increase; P < 0.001) and flow (44-fold increase; P < 0.001) conditions. Subsequently, mice bearing subcutaneous colorectal (MC38) or melanoma (B16F10) derived tumours underwent in vivo MRI pre- and post-intravenous administration of c(RGDyK)-MPIO or c(RADyK)-MPIO. A significantly greater volume of MPIO-induced hypointensities were found in c(RGDyK)-MPIO injected compared to c(RADyK)-MPIO injected mice, in both tumour models (P < 0.05). Similarly, administration of c(RGDyK)-MPIO induced a greater reduction in mean tumour T2* relaxation times than the control agent in both tumour models (melanoma P < 0.001; colorectal P < 0.0001). Correspondingly, MPIO density per tumour volume assessed immunohistochemically was

  3. Mutual Amino Acid Catalysis in Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Supports this Mechanism's Role in Prebiotic Peptide Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 °C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms

  4. Peptide immobilization onto radiation grafted PVDF-g-poly(acrylic acid) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clochard, M.-C.; Betz, N.; Goncalves, M.; Bittencourt, C.; Pireaux, J.-J.; Gionnet, K.; Déléris, G.; Moël, A. Le

    2005-07-01

    Introducing hydrophilic functions on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films surface allows the covalent immobilization of peptides. Therefore radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) in pre-irradiated PVDF films was achieved to allow surface functionalization with linear and cyclic peptides. Peptides were bound via spacer molecules using EDC as a coupling agent. The reactions were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode. The amount of immobilized peptides was determined by UV spectroscopy. As well, an uncommon method for PVDF characterization and reactions quantification was used: high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear mass spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR). Spacer saturation of the film surface corresponded to 25 mol% yield meaning that one spacer on 4 carboxylic acids was covalently bound. XPS experiments were also performed to deepen analysis of the surface composition. Peptide density is governed by steric hindrance. ELISA tests showed that the peptides' activity is maintained.

  5. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  6. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle.

  7. Self-assembling properties of all γ-cyclic peptides containing sugar amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Arcadio; Brea, Roberto J; Amorín, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; Granja, Juan R

    2012-11-28

    In this study, a novel dimer-forming cyclic peptide composed exclusively by cyclic γ-amino acids with a saccharide-like outer surface is described. The antiparallel β-sheet type hydrogen bonding interactions responsible for the large association constant in non-polar solvents constitute a suitable model for a novel class of self-assembling peptide nanotubes.

  8. Self-assembling properties of all γ-cyclic peptides containing sugar amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Arcadio; Brea, Roberto J; Amorín, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; Granja, Juan R

    2012-11-28

    In this study, a novel dimer-forming cyclic peptide composed exclusively by cyclic γ-amino acids with a saccharide-like outer surface is described. The antiparallel β-sheet type hydrogen bonding interactions responsible for the large association constant in non-polar solvents constitute a suitable model for a novel class of self-assembling peptide nanotubes. PMID:23060041

  9. Supramolecular control of self-assembling terthiophene-peptide conjugates through the amino acid side chain

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrman, Jessica A.; Cui, Honggang; Tsai, Wei-Wen; Moyer, Tyson J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2013-07-30

    The self-assembly of oligothiophene–peptide conjugates can be directed through the systematic variation of the peptide sequence into different nanostructures, including flat spicules, nanotubes, spiral sheets, and giant, flat sheets. Furthermore, the assembly of these molecules is not controlled by steric interactions between the amino acid side chains.

  10. A peptide & peptide nucleic acid synthesis technology for transporter molecules and theranostics--the SPPS.

    PubMed

    Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Koch, Mario; Semmler, Wolfhard; Komljenovic, Dorde

    2014-01-01

    Advances in imaging diagnostics using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence imaging including near infrared (NIR) imaging methods are facilitated by constant improvement of the concepts of peptide synthesis. Feasible patient-specific theranostic platforms in the personalized medicine are particularly dependent on efficient and clinically applicable peptide constructs. The role of peptides in the interrelations between the structure and function of proteins is widely investigated, especially by using computer-assisted methods. Nowadays the solid phase synthesis (SPPS) chemistry emerges as a key technology and is considered as a promising methodology to design peptides for the investigation of molecular pharmacological processes at the transcriptional level. SPPS syntheses could be carried out in core facilities producing peptides for large-scale scientific implementations as presented here. PMID:24843319

  11. A Peptide & Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthesis Technology for Transporter Molecules and Theranostics - The SPPS

    PubMed Central

    Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Koch, Mario; Semmler, Wolfhard; Komljenovic, Dorde

    2014-01-01

    Advances in imaging diagnostics using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence imaging including near infrared (NIR) imaging methods are facilitated by constant improvement of the concepts of peptide synthesis. Feasible patient-specific theranostic platforms in the personalized medicine are particularly dependent on efficient and clinically applicable peptide constructs. The role of peptides in the interrelations between the structure and function of proteins is widely investigated, especially by using computer-assisted methods. Nowadays the solid phase synthesis (SPPS) chemistry emerges as a key technology and is considered as a promising methodology to design peptides for the investigation of molecular pharmacological processes at the transcriptional level. SPPS syntheses could be carried out in core facilities producing peptides for large-scale scientific implementations as presented here. PMID:24843319

  12. Tetrazine-Containing Amino Acid for Peptide Modification and Live Cell Labeling.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Lanxia; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Shouliang

    2015-01-01

    A novel amino acid derivative 3-(4-(1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine-3-yl) phenyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid was synthesized in this study. The compound possessed better water-solubility and was synthesized more easily compared with the well-known and commercially available 3-(p-benzylamino)-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine. Tetrazine-containing amino acid showed excellent stability in biological media and might be used for cancer cell labeling. Moreover, the compound remained relatively stable in 50% TFA/DCM with little decomposition after prolonged exposure at room temperature. The compound could be utilized as phenylalanine or tyrosine analogue in peptide modification, and the tetrazine-containing peptide demonstrated more significant biological activity than that of the parent peptide. The combination of tetrazine group and amino acid offered broad development prospects of the bioorthogonal labeling and peptide synthesis.

  13. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  14. Tetrazine-Containing Amino Acid for Peptide Modification and Live Cell Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Lanxia; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Shouliang

    2015-01-01

    A novel amino acid derivative 3-(4-(1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine-3-yl) phenyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid was synthesized in this study. The compound possessed better water-solubility and was synthesized more easily compared with the well-known and commercially available 3-(p-benzylamino)-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine. Tetrazine-containing amino acid showed excellent stability in biological media and might be used for cancer cell labeling. Moreover, the compound remained relatively stable in 50% TFA/DCM with little decomposition after prolonged exposure at room temperature. The compound could be utilized as phenylalanine or tyrosine analogue in peptide modification, and the tetrazine-containing peptide demonstrated more significant biological activity than that of the parent peptide. The combination of tetrazine group and amino acid offered broad development prospects of the bioorthogonal labeling and peptide synthesis. PMID:26536589

  15. Multifunctional Drug Nanocarriers Formed by cRGD-Conjugated βCD-PAMAM-PEG for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pilla, Srikanth; Ashton, Randolph S.; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was conjugated with both carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Cyclic RGD peptide, used as a tumor targeting ligand, was then selectively conjugated onto the distal ends of the PEG arms. The resulting βCD-PAMAM-PEG-cRGD polymer was able to form stable and uniform nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution. Doxorubicin (Dox), a model hydrophobic anticancer drug, was effectively encapsulated in the NPs via an inclusion complex formed between the drug and βCD. The Dox loading level was 16.8 wt%. The cellular uptake of cRGD-conjugated Dox-loaded NPs in the U87MG cell line was much higher than that of non-targeted NPs. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effect of the cRGD-conjugated NPs was superior to that of free drug and non-targeted NPs. These results suggest that NPs formed by βCD-PAMAM-PEG-cRGD with a high drug payload may significantly improve the anticancer efficacy by tumor-targeted delivery and enhanced cellular uptake. PMID:25591850

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of a Novel Amphiphilic Polymer RGD-PEG-Chol for Target Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shi; Li, Bo; Song, Xiangrong; Zheng, Yu; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    An amphiphilic polymer RGD-PEG-Chol which can be produced in large scale at a very low cost has been synthesized successfully. The synthesized intermediates and final products were characterized and confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The paclitaxel- (PTX-) loaded liposomes based on RGD-PEG-Chol were then prepared by film formation method. The liposomes had a size within 100 nm and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel to B16F10 cell as demonstrated by MTT test (IC50 = 0.079 μg/mL of RGD-modified PTX-loaded liposomes compared to 9.57 μg/mL of free PTX). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the cellular uptake of coumarin encapsulated in the RGD-PEG-Chol modified liposome was increased for HUVEC cells. This work provides a reasonable, facile, and economic approach to prepare peptide-modified liposome materials with controllable performances and the obtained linear RGD-modified PTX-loaded liposomes might be attractive as a drug delivery system. PMID:24578646

  17. Expression and purification of rhIL-10-RGD from Escherichia coli as a potential wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangfang; Wan, Yi; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuekang; Wang, Hongtao; Tao, Ke; Han, Juntao; Shi, Jihong; Hu, Dahai

    2016-08-01

    Various protocols for recombinant Interleukin-10 (IL-10) purification in wound healing have been reported previously. However, the therapeutic effect was not obvious. Thus, it is of great importance to find new and effective approaches for therapy. In this study, we propose that IL-10 and Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic (RGD) peptide would be a valuable therapeutic for wound healing. To explore a high-efficiency and cost-effective approach for the production of IL-10 and RGD peptide with bioactivity, a synthetic gene was cloned into a recombinant pTWIN1 vector. As a consequence, rhIL-10-RGD and the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein as a fusion protein was highly expressed by IPTG induction in Escherichia coli Rosetta without extra residues in a bioreactor. After Ni affinity chromatographic purification, rhIL-10-RGD was released by the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated self-cleavage that is triggered by pH shift. SDS-PAGE and silver staining showed a major band with an estimated molecular mass of 19.3kDa. Cell proliferation assay confirmed its potent proliferation activity on MC/9 murine mast cells. In conclusion, we report a novel strategy to produce rhIL-10-RGD mediated by the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein, and show that rhIL-10-RGD could play an effective role in wound healing of BALB/c mice. PMID:27241829

  18. Expression and purification of rhIL-10-RGD from Escherichia coli as a potential wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangfang; Wan, Yi; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuekang; Wang, Hongtao; Tao, Ke; Han, Juntao; Shi, Jihong; Hu, Dahai

    2016-08-01

    Various protocols for recombinant Interleukin-10 (IL-10) purification in wound healing have been reported previously. However, the therapeutic effect was not obvious. Thus, it is of great importance to find new and effective approaches for therapy. In this study, we propose that IL-10 and Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic (RGD) peptide would be a valuable therapeutic for wound healing. To explore a high-efficiency and cost-effective approach for the production of IL-10 and RGD peptide with bioactivity, a synthetic gene was cloned into a recombinant pTWIN1 vector. As a consequence, rhIL-10-RGD and the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein as a fusion protein was highly expressed by IPTG induction in Escherichia coli Rosetta without extra residues in a bioreactor. After Ni affinity chromatographic purification, rhIL-10-RGD was released by the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated self-cleavage that is triggered by pH shift. SDS-PAGE and silver staining showed a major band with an estimated molecular mass of 19.3kDa. Cell proliferation assay confirmed its potent proliferation activity on MC/9 murine mast cells. In conclusion, we report a novel strategy to produce rhIL-10-RGD mediated by the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein, and show that rhIL-10-RGD could play an effective role in wound healing of BALB/c mice.

  19. Rational Evolution of Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acids to Combat Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Meng; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jue

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have long been raised as a promising strategy to combat bacterial infection in burn wounds. Here, we attempted to rationally design small antimicrobial peptides containing unnatural amino acids by integrating in silico analysis and in vitro assay. Predictive quantitative sequence-activity models were established and validated rigorously based on a large panel of nonamer antimicrobial peptides with known antibacterial activity. The best quantitative sequence-activity model predictor was employed to guide genetic evolution of a peptide population. In the evolution procedure, a number of unnatural amino acids with desired physicochemical properties were introduced, resulting in a genetic evolution-improved population, from which seven peptide candidates with top scores, containing 1-3 unnatural amino acids, and having diverse structures were successfully identified, and their antibacterial potencies against two antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains isolated from infected burn wounds were measured using in vitro susceptibility test. Consequently, four (WL-Orn-LARKIV-NH2 , ARKRWF-Dab-FL-NH2 , KFI-Hag-IWR-Orn-R-NH2 and YW-Hag-R-Cit-RF-Orn-N-NH2 ) of the seven tested peptides were found to be more potent than reference Bac2A, the smallest naturally occurring broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the designed peptides can fold into amphipathic helical structure that allows them to interact directly with microbial membranes. PMID:27062533

  20. CycloPs: generating virtual libraries of cyclized and constrained peptides including nonnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Fergal J; Verniere, Mélanie; Devocelle, Marc; Bernard, Elise; Shields, Denis C; Chubb, Anthony J

    2011-04-25

    We introduce CycloPs, software for the generation of virtual libraries of constrained peptides including natural and nonnatural commercially available amino acids. The software is written in the cross-platform Python programming language, and features include generating virtual libraries in one-dimensional SMILES and three-dimensional SDF formats, suitable for virtual screening. The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide synthesizability by standard peptide synthesis techniques, stability, and the druglike properties of the peptide. The software and accompanying Web interface is designed to enable the rapid generation of large, structurally diverse, synthesizable virtual libraries of constrained peptides quickly and conveniently, for use in virtual screening experiments. The stand-alone software, and the Web interface for evaluating these empirical properties of a single peptide, are available at http://bioware.ucd.ie .

  1. Installing amino acids and peptides on N-heterocycles under visible-light assistance

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yunhe; Jiang, Min; Wang, Hui; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Readily available natural α-amino acids are one of nature’s most attractive and versatile building blocks in synthesis of natural products and biomolecules. Peptides and N-heterocycles exhibit various biological and pharmaceutical functions. Conjugation of amino acids or peptides with N-heterocycles provides boundless potentiality for screening and discovery of diverse biologically active molecules. However, it is a great challenge to install amino acids or peptides on N-heterocycles through formation of carbon-carbon bonds under mild conditions. In this article, eighteen N-protected α-amino acids and three peptides were well assembled on phenanthridine derivatives via couplings of N-protected α-amino acid and peptide active esters with substituted 2-isocyanobiphenyls at room temperature under visible-light assistance. Furthermore, N-Boc-proline residue was successfully conjugated with oxindole derivatives using similar procedures. The simple protocol, mild reaction conditions, fast reaction, and high efficiency of this method make it an important strategy for synthesis of diverse molecules containing amino acid and peptide fragments. PMID:26830014

  2. The impact of α-hydrazino acids embedded in short fluorescent peptides on peptide interactions with DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Suć, Josipa; Tumir, Lidija-Marija; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica; Jukić, Marijana; Piantanida, Ivo; Jerić, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel hydrazino-based peptidomimetics and analogues comprising N-terminal lysine and C-terminal phenanthridinyl-l-alanine were prepared. The presented results demonstrate the up to now unknown possibility to finely modulate peptide interactions with DNA/RNA by α-hydrazino group insertion and how the different positioning of two α-hydrazino groups in peptides controls binding to various double stranded and single stranded DNA and RNA. All peptidomimetics bind with 1-10 micromolar affinity to ds-DNA/RNA, whereby the binding mode is a combination of electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions within DNA/RNA grooves. Insertion of the α-hydrazino group into the peptide systematically decreased its fluorimetric response to DNA/RNA binding in the order: mono-hydrazino < alternating-hydrazino < sequential-hydrazino group. Binding studies of ss-polynucleotides suggest intercalation of phenanthridine between polynucleotide bases, whereby affinity and fluorimetric response decrease with the number of α-hydrazino groups in the peptide sequence. Particularly interesting was the interaction of two sequential α-hydrazino acids-peptidomimetic with poly rG, characterised by a specific strong increase of CD bands, while all other peptide/ssRNA combinations gave only a CD-band decrease. All mentioned interactions could also be reversibly controlled by adjusting the pH, due to the protonation of the fluorophore. PMID:27161341

  3. The impact of α-hydrazino acids embedded in short fluorescent peptides on peptide interactions with DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Suć, Josipa; Tumir, Lidija-Marija; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica; Jukić, Marijana; Piantanida, Ivo; Jerić, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel hydrazino-based peptidomimetics and analogues comprising N-terminal lysine and C-terminal phenanthridinyl-l-alanine were prepared. The presented results demonstrate the up to now unknown possibility to finely modulate peptide interactions with DNA/RNA by α-hydrazino group insertion and how the different positioning of two α-hydrazino groups in peptides controls binding to various double stranded and single stranded DNA and RNA. All peptidomimetics bind with 1-10 micromolar affinity to ds-DNA/RNA, whereby the binding mode is a combination of electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions within DNA/RNA grooves. Insertion of the α-hydrazino group into the peptide systematically decreased its fluorimetric response to DNA/RNA binding in the order: mono-hydrazino < alternating-hydrazino < sequential-hydrazino group. Binding studies of ss-polynucleotides suggest intercalation of phenanthridine between polynucleotide bases, whereby affinity and fluorimetric response decrease with the number of α-hydrazino groups in the peptide sequence. Particularly interesting was the interaction of two sequential α-hydrazino acids-peptidomimetic with poly rG, characterised by a specific strong increase of CD bands, while all other peptide/ssRNA combinations gave only a CD-band decrease. All mentioned interactions could also be reversibly controlled by adjusting the pH, due to the protonation of the fluorophore.

  4. Rapid complexing of oxoacylglycerols with amino acids, peptides and aminophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kurvinen, J P; Kuksis, A; Ravandi, A; Sjövall, O; Kallio, H

    1999-03-01

    We prepared model Schiff bases from 2-[9-oxo]nonanoyl glycerol (2-MAG-ALD) and various amino compounds. 2-MAG-ALD was obtained by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of trioleoyl glycerol and reductive ozonolysis of the resulting 2-monooleoyl glycerol. The reaction products were purified by thin-layer chromatography. Schiff bases were synthesized in greater than 50% yield by reacting 2-MAG-ALD with twofold molar excess of valine, Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester and the tripeptides glycyl-glycyl-glycine, glycyl-glycyl-histidine, and glycyl-histidyl-lysine in aqueous methanol and with 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl glycerophosphoethanolamine (PE) in chloroform/methanol for 16 h at room temperature. Prior to analysis the bases were reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol for 30 min at 4 degrees C. Reaction products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/MS). Reduced Schiff bases of 2-MAG-ALD with PE and amino acids were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC/ESI/MS and those with peptides by reversed-phase HPLC/ESI/MS. Single adducts were obtained in all cases and both the alpha-amino group of valine and the epsilon-amino group of Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester were reactive. Molecular ions of reaction products were the only detected ions in the negative ionization mode, whereas in the positive ion mode sodiated molecular ions were also detected. The present study suggests that 2-MAG-ALD may form Schiff base adducts with amino compounds in other aqueous media, such as the intestinal lumen and in the hydrophobic environment of cell membranes. PMID:10230725

  5. Phosphorylated Peptide Functionalization of Lanthanide Upconversion Nanoparticles for Tuning Nanomaterial-Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chi; Wei, Caiyi; Huang, Zhi; Lu, Yiqing; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Ju, Dianwen; Zhang, Xiangmin; Wang, Wenning; Zhang, Fan

    2016-03-23

    Peptide modification of nanoparticles with high efficiency is critical in determining the properties and bioapplications of nanoparticles, but the methodology remains a challenging task. Here, by using the phosphorylated linear and cyclic peptide with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) targeting motifs as typical examples, the peptides binding efficiency for the inorganic metal compound nanoparticles was increased significantly after the phosphorylation treatment, and the modification allowed for improving the selectivity and signal-to-noise ratio for cancer targeting and reduced the toxicity derived from nonspecific interactions of nanoparticles with cells owing to the higher amount of phosphopeptide binding. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of various peptides on inorganic metal compound surfaces revealed that the peptide adsorption on the surface is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions between phosphate oxygen and the polarized interfacial water layer, consistent with the experimental observation of the strong binding propensity of phosphorylated peptides. Significantly, with the RGD phosphopeptide surface modification, these nanoparticles provide a versatile tool for tuning material-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy and may prove useful for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  6. Radical stability directs electron capture and transfer dissociation of β-amino acids in peptides.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Vorobyev, Aleksey; Larregola, Maud; Lukaszuk, Aneta; Tourwé, Dirk; Lavielle, Solange; Karoyan, Philippe; Tsybin, Yury O

    2010-04-19

    We report on the characteristics of the radical-ion-driven dissociation of a diverse array of β-amino acids incorporated into α-peptides, as probed by tandem electron-capture and electron-transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD) mass spectrometry. The reported results demonstrate a stronger ECD/ETD dependence on the nature of the amino acid side chain for β-amino acids than for their α-form counterparts. In particular, only aromatic (e.g., β-Phe), and to a substantially lower extent, carbonyl-containing (e.g., β-Glu and β-Gln) amino acid side chains, lead to N-Cβ bond cleavage in the corresponding β-amino acids. We conclude that radical stabilization must be provided by the side chain to enable the radical-driven fragmentation from the nearby backbone carbonyl carbon to proceed. In contrast with the cleavage of backbones derived from α-amino acids, ECD of peptides composed mainly of β-amino acids reveals a shift in cleavage priority from the N-Cβ to the Cα-C bond. The incorporation of CH2 groups into the peptide backbone may thus drastically influence the backbone charge solvation preference. The characteristics of radical-driven β-amino acid dissociation described herein are of particular importance to methods development, applications in peptide sequencing, and peptide and protein modification (e.g., deamidation and isomerization) analysis in life science research.

  7. Proteolytically stable peptides by incorporation of alpha-Tfm amino acids.

    PubMed

    Koksch, B; Sewald, N; Hofmann, H J; Burger, K; Jakubke, H D

    1997-01-01

    A series of model peptides containing alpha-trifluoromethyl-substituted amino acids in five different positions relative to the predominant cleavage site of the serine protease alpha-chymotrypsin was synthesized by solution methods to investigate the influence of alpha-Tfm substitution on the proteolytic stability of peptides. Proteolysis studies demonstrated absolute stability of peptides substituted to the P1 position and still considerable proteolytic stability for peptides substituted at the P2 and P'2 positions compared with the corresponding unsubstituted model peptide. Comparison with peptides containing the fluorine-free disubstituted amino acid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid allowed to separate electronic from steric effects. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of the alpha-Tfm-substituted amino acid was found to exert considerable effects on the proteolytic stability, especially in P'1 substituted peptides. Investigations of this phenomenon using empirical force field calculations revealed that in the (S,R,S)-diasteromer the steric constraints exhibited by the alpha-Tfm group can be outweighed by an advantageous interaction of the flourine atoms with the serine side chain of the enzyme. In contrast, a favourable interaction between substrate and enzyme is impossible for the (S,S,S)-diastereomer. PMID:9230481

  8. Discriminating D-amino acid-containing peptide epimers by radical-directed dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuanqi; Quebbemann, Neil R; Julian, Ryan R

    2012-08-01

    The presence of a single D-amino acid in a peptide is very difficult to detect. Mass spectrometry-based approaches rely on differences in fragmentation between all L-amino acid-containing peptides and single D-amino acid-containing peptides (which are epimers) for identification. The success of this approach is dependent on the structural sensitivity of the fragmentation method. Recently, experiments have demonstrated that fragmentation initiated by radical chemistry, or radical-directed dissociation (RDD), is particularly sensitive to the structure of the ion being fragmented. Herein, RDD is used to identify the presence of D-serine, D-alanine, or D-aspartic acid in eight biologically relevant peptides. It is demonstrated that chiral disambiguation by RDD is dependent on both the initial radical site and subsequent radical migration. Fortuitously, RDD can be initiated by a variety of different radical precursors which can be associated with the peptide via covalent or noncovalent means, and RDD can be examined in all observable charge states (both positive and negative). This diversity enables numerous initial radical sites and migration pathways to be explored. For all but one of the peptides that were examined, RDD provides significantly better chiral discrimination than CID. Quantitation of peptide epimers by RDD is also described.

  9. Effect of N-terminal glutamic acid and glutamine on fragmentation of peptide ions.

    PubMed

    Godugu, Bhaskar; Neta, Pedatsur; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Stein, Stephen E

    2010-07-01

    A prominent dissociation path for electrospray generated tryptic peptide ions is the dissociation of the peptide bond linking the second and third residues from the amino-terminus. The formation of the resulting b(2) and y(n-2) fragments has been rationalized by specific facile mechanisms. An examination of spectral libraries shows that this path predominates in diprotonated peptides composed of 12 or fewer residues, with the notable exception of peptides containing glutamine or glutamic acid at the N-terminus. To elucidate the mechanism by which these amino acids affect peptide fragmentation, we synthesized peptides of varying size and composition and examined their MS/MS spectra as a function of collision voltage in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Loss of water from N-terminal glutamic acid and glutamine is observed at a lower voltage than any other fragmentation, leading to cyclization of the terminal residue. This cyclization results in the conversion of the terminal amine group to an imide, which has a lower proton affinity. As a result, the second proton is not localized at the N-terminus but is readily transferred to other sites, leading to fragmentation near the center of the peptide. Further confirmation was obtained by examining peptides with N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and N-acetyl peptides. Peptides with N-terminal proline maintain the trend of forming b(2) and y(n-2) because their ring contains an imine rather than imide and has sufficient proton affinity to retain the proton at the N-terminus.

  10. Formation of Amino Acid Thioesters for Prebiotic Peptide Synthesis: Catalysis By Amino Acid Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The origin of life can be described as a series of events in which a prebiotic chemical process came increasingly under the control of its catalytic products. In our search for this prebiotic process that yielded catalytic takeover products (such as polypeptides), we have been investigating a reaction system that generates peptide-forming amino acid thioesters from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia in the presence of thiols. As shown below, this model process begins by aldol condensation of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde to give trioses and releases. These sugars then undergo beta-dehydration yielding their respective alpha-ketoaldehydes. Addition of ammonia to the alpha-ketoaldehydes yields imines which can either: (a) rearrange in the presence of thesis to give amino acid thioesters or (be react with another molecule of aldehyde to give imidazoles. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modem amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to products by energy-yielding redox reactions. Recently, we discovered that amino acids, such as the alanine reaction product, catalyze the first and second steps of the process. In the presence of ammonia the process also generates other synthetically useful products, like the important biochemical -- pyruvic acid.

  11. Between peptides and bile acids: self-assembly of phenylalanine substituted cholic acids.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Leana; D'Annibale, Andrea; di Gregorio, Maria Chiara; Schillén, Karin; Olsson, Ulf; Sennato, Simona; Pavel, Nicolae V; Galantini, Luciano

    2013-08-01

    Biocompatible molecules that undergo self-assembly are of high importance in biological and medical applications of nanoscience. Peptides and bile acids are among the most investigated due to their ability to self-organize into many different, often stimuli-sensitive, supramolecular structures. With the aim of preparing molecules mixing the aggregation properties of bile acid and amino acid-based molecules, we report on the synthesis and self-association behavior of two diastereomers obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group of cholic acid with a l-phenylalanine residue. The obtained molecules are amphoteric, and we demonstrate that they show a pH-dependent self-assembly. Both molecules aggregate in globular micelles at high pH, whereas they form tubular superstructures under acid conditions. Unusual narrow nanotubes with outer and inner cross-section diameters of about 6 and 3 nm are formed by the derivatives. The diasteroisomer with α orientation of the substituent forms in addition a wider tubule (17 nm cross-section diameter). The ability to pack in supramolecular tubules is explained in terms of a wedge-shaped bola-form structure of the derivatives. Parallel or antiparallel face-to-face dimers are hypothesized as fundamental building blocks for the formation of the narrow and wide nanotubes, respectively.

  12. Delineation of a neutralizing subregion within the immunodominant epitope (GH loop) of foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 which does not contain the RGD motif.

    PubMed

    Brown, F; Benkirane, N; Limal, D; Halimi, H; Newman, J F; Van Regenmortel, M H; Briand, J P; Muller, S

    1999-08-20

    The major immunogenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is contained in a disordered loop comprising residues 134-158 of capsid protein VP1, located on the surface of the viral particle. Peptides corresponding to this sequence generally elicit protective levels of neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. In some instances, however, the level of neutralizing antibodies is low although the level of antibodies against the peptide, determined by ELISA, is as high as that in the sera with high neutralizing antibody titres. In an attempt to ascertain the reason for this difference, we have synthesized on a cellulose membrane 10 overlapping decapeptides, offset by one residue, covering the segment 141-159 of VP1 of two viruses belonging to serotypes A12 and O1, and tested them with guinea pig antisera raised against peptide 141-159, VP1 and FMDV particles (SPOTscan method). With type A, some peptides which were strongly positive with highly neutralizing antisera did not include the RGD triplet located at residues 145-147. In contrast, antisera with low neutralization titres reacted only with decapeptides which included the RGD motif. Moreover, peptide 147-156 coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin, but not peptide 141-149 coupled to the same carrier, elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. In the case of serotype O, highly neutralizing antisera to virus reacted in ELISA with peptides 141-150 (containing the RGD motif) and 135-144 (located upstream from the RGD motif). The results suggest that the RGD triplet is not an indispensable constituent of peptides able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against the virus. PMID:10501234

  13. Molecular mechanics and dynamics studies on the interaction of gallic acid with collagen-like peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhan, B.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Subramanian, V.; Raghava Rao, J.; Unni Nair, Balachandran; Ramasami, T.

    2001-10-01

    Molecular modelling approaches have been used to understand the interaction of collagen-like peptides with gallic acid, which mimic vegetable tanning processes involved in protein stabilization. Several interaction sites have been identified and the binding energies of the complexes have been calculated. The calculated binding energies for various geometries are in the range 6-13 kcal/mol. It is found that some complexes exhibit hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction plays a dominant role in the stabilization of the peptide by gallic acid. The π-OH type of interaction is also observed in the peptide stabilization. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for 600 ps revealed the possibility of hydrogen bonding between the collagen-like peptide and gallic acid.

  14. Peptides containing β-amino acid patterns: challenges and successes in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cabrele, Chiara; Martinek, Tamás A; Reiser, Oliver; Berlicki, Łukasz

    2014-12-11

    The construction of bioactive peptides using β-amino acid-containing sequence patterns is a very promising strategy to obtain analogues that exhibit properties of high interest for medicinal chemistry applications. β-Amino acids have been shown to modulate the conformation, dynamics, and proteolytic susceptibility of native peptides. They can be either combined with α-amino acids by following specific patterns, which results in backbone architectures with well-defined orientations of the side chain functional groups, or assembled in de novo-designed bioactive β- or α,β-peptidic sequences. Such peptides display various biological functions, including antimicrobial activity, inhibition of protein-protein interactions, agonism/antagonism of GPCR ligands, and anti-angiogenic activity.

  15. Butelase-Mediated Macrocyclization of d-Amino-Acid-Containing Peptides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Hemu, Xinya; Quek, Jun-Ping; Tam, James P

    2016-10-01

    Macrocyclic compounds have received increasing attention in recent years. With their large surface area, they hold promise for inhibiting protein-protein interactions, a chemical space that was thought to be undruggable. Although many chemical methods have been developed for peptide macrocyclization, enzymatic methods have emerged as a promising new economical approach. Thus far, most enzymes have been shown to act on l-peptides; their ability to cyclize d-amino-acid-containing peptides has rarely been documented. Herein we show that macrocycles consisting of d-amino acids, except for the Asn residue at the ligating site, were efficiently synthesized by butelase 1, an Asn/Asp-specific ligase. Furthermore, by using a peptide-library approach, we show that butelase 1 tolerates most of the d-amino acid residues at the P1'' and P2'' positions. PMID:27624217

  16. Amino acids, peptides, and proteins as chemically bonded stationary phases--A review.

    PubMed

    Bocian, Szymon; Skoczylas, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity of chromatographic separation depends mostly on the stationary phase and mobile phase composition. Despite being a material with bonded simple organic molecule, a wide group of stationary phases contain immobilized compound that possesses biological activity. Stationary phases that contain amino acids and peptides as well as enzymes and proteins are alternative materials that may be used for liquid chromatographic separations and are reviewed in this work. In the case of peptide-bonded stationary phases, most of these types of materials were elaborated in the 1970s and 1980s; however, over the last few years a growing interest has been observed which is connected with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The most important application of amino acid and peptide-bonded stationary phases is connected with separation of amino acids, their derivatives, and peptides. The main advantage of such materials is the ability for chiral separations.

  17. Relationship between cadmium, zinc, Cd-peptide, and organic acid in tobacco suspension cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krotz, R.M.; Evangelou, B.P.; Wagner, G.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells to Cd and Zn were studied in the presence and absence of ligand of Cd-peptide in order to understand the role of this peptide versus other mechanisms in Cd and Zn accumulation and accommodation in plants. With 45 micromolar Cd and 300 micromolar Zn (non-growth-inhibiting levels), metals appeared rapidly within cells, and intracellular Cd and Zn reached medium concentrations after 6 to 10 hours. Cd-peptide was observed in response to Cd after 2 hours, but this form only accounted for {approximately}30% of soluble Cd after 24 hours. Peptide was not observed in cells exposed to 300 micromolar Zn for up to 7 days. Organic acid-to-metal stoichiometry indicated that endogenous organic acid content of cells was more than sufficient to complex absorbed metals and no evidence was found for stimulation of organic acid biosynthesis by Cd or Zn. Metal-complexing potential of organic acids for Cd and Zn versus endogenous cations is discussed as is vacuolar-extravacuolar distribution of metals. The absence of Cd-peptide does not limit Cd-accumulation in the system studied. Results suggest that tobacco suspension cells accommodte the presence of non-growth-inhibiting and growth-inhibiting levels of Cd and Zn by sequestration in the vacuole as complexes with endogenous organic acids and that this may be a principal means for accommodation of Cd as well as Zn in the presence and absence of Cd-peptide.

  18. Synthesis and biological properties of amino acids and peptides containing a tetrazolyl moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Trifonov, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Literature data published mainly in the last 15 years on the synthesis and biological properties of amino acid analogues and derivatives containing tetrazolyl moieties are analyzed. Tetrazolyl analogues and derivatives of amino acids and peptides are shown to be promising for medicinal chemistry. Being polynitrogen heterocyclic systems comprising four endocyclic nitrogen atoms, tetrazoles can behave as acids and bases and form strong hydrogen bonds with proton donors (more rarely, with acceptors). They have high metabolic stability and are able to penetrate biological membranes. The review also considers the synthesis and properties of linear and cyclic peptides based on modified amino acids incorporating a tetrazolyl moiety. A special issue is the discussion of the biological properties of tetrazole-containing amino acids and peptides, which exhibit high biological activity and can be used to design new drugs. The bibliography includes 200 references.

  19. The effect of RGD fluorosurfactant polymer modification of ePTFE on endothelial cell adhesion, growth, and function

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Coby C.; Kligman, Faina; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E.

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a novel peptide fluorosurfactant polymer (PFSP) modification that facilitates the adhesion and growth of endothelial cells on ePTFE vascular graft material. This PFSP consists of a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone with integrin binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides and perfluorocarbon pendant branches for adsorption and stable adhesion to underlying ePTFE. Aqueous PFSP solution was used to modify the surface of fluorocarbon substrates. Following subconfluent seeding, endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and growth on PFSP was assessed by determining cell population at different time points. Spectroscopic results indicated successful synthesis of PFSP. PFSP modification of ePTFE reduced the receding water contact angle measurement from 120° to 6°, indicating successful surface modification. Quantification of cell population demonstrated reduced EC attachment efficiency but increased growth rate on RGD PFSP compared with fibronectin (FN). Actin staining revealed a well-developed cytoskeleton for ECs on RGD PFSP indicative of stable adhesion. Uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and positive staining for VE-Cadherin confirm EC phenotype for adherent cells. Production of prostacyclin, a potent antiplatelet agent, was equivalent between ECs on FN and RGD PFSP surfaces. Our results indicate successful synthesis and surface modification with PFSP; this is a simple, quantitative, and effective approach to modifying ePTFE to encourage endothelial cell attachment, growth, and function. PMID:16762410

  20. Analysis of Endogenous D-Amino Acid-Containing Peptides in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Sheeley, Sarah; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides are chiral molecules with their structure determined by the composition and configuration of their amino acid building blocks. The naturally occurring amino acids, except glycine, possess two chiral forms. This allows the formation of multiple peptide diastereomers that have the same sequence. Although living organisms use L-amino acids to make proteins, a group of D-amino acid-containing peptides (DAACPs) has been discovered in animals that have at least one of their residues isomerized to the D-form via an enzyme-catalyzed process. In many cases, the biological functions of these peptides are enhanced due to this structural conversion. These DAACPs are different from those known to occur in bacterial cell wall and antibiotic peptides, the latter of which are synthesized in a ribosome-independent manner. DAACPs have now also been identified in a number of distinct groups throughout the Metazoa. Their serendipitous discovery has often resulted from discrepancies observed in bioassays or in chromatographic behavior between natural peptide fractions and peptides synthesized according to a presumed all-L sequence. Because this L-to-D post-translational modification is subtle and not detectable by most sequence determination approaches, it is reasonable to suspect that many studies have overlooked this change; accordingly, DAACPs may be more prevalent than currently thought. Although diastereomer separation techniques developed with synthetic peptides in recent years have greatly aided in the discovery of natural DAACPs, there is a need for new, more robust methods for naturally complex samples. In this review, a brief history of DAACPs in animals is presented, followed by discussion of a variety of analytical methods that have been used for diastereomeric separation and detection of peptides. PMID:20490347

  1. The Prebiotic Synthesis of Ethylenediamine Monoacetic Acid, The Repeating Unit of Peptide Nucleic Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Kevin E.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1992-01-01

    The polymerization of ribonucleic acids or their precursors constitutes an important event in prebiotic chemistry. The various problems using ribonucleotides to make RNA suggest that there may have been a precursor. An attractive possibility are the peptide nucleic acids (PNA). PNAs are nucleotide analogs that make use of a polymer of ethylenediamine monoacetic acid (EDMA or 2-amninoethyl glycine) with the bases attached by an acetic acid. EDMA is an especially attractive alternative to the ribose phosphate or deoxyribose phosphate backbone because it contains no chiral centers and is potentially prebiotic, but there is no reported prebiotic synthesis. We have synthesized both EDMA and ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) from the prebiotic compounds ethylenediamine, formaldehyde, and hydrogen cyanide. The yields of EDMA range from 11 to 79% along with some sEDDA and uEDDA. These reactions work with concentrations of 10(exp -1)M and as low as 10(exp -4)M, and the reaction is likely to be effective at even lower concentrations. Ethylenediamine is a likely prebiotic compound, but it has not yet been demonstrated, although compounds such as ethanolamine and cysteamine have been proven to be prebiotic. Under neutral pH and heating at l00 C, EDMA is converted to the lactam, monoketopiperazine (MKP). The cyclization occurs and has an approximate ratio of MKP/EDMA = 3 at equilibrium. We have measured the solubilities of EDMA center dot H20 as 6.4 m, EDMA center dot HCl center dot H20 as 13.7 m, and EDMA center dot 2HCl center dot H20 as 3.4 m. These syntheses together with the high solubility of EDMA suggest that EDMA would concentrate in drying lagoons and might efficiently form polymers. Given the instability of ribose and the poor polymerizability of nucleotides, the prebiotic presence of EDMA and the possibility of its polymerization raises the possibility that PNAs are the progenitors of present day nucleic acids. A pre-RNA world may have existed in which PNAs or

  2. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Kan; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future.

  3. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future. PMID:24948888

  4. A method for the 32P labeling of peptides or peptide nucleic acid oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach to the radioactive labeling of peptides and PNA oligomers is described. It is based on the conjugation of a deoxynucleoside 3'-phosphate with the terminal amine of the substrate, followed by phosphorylation of the 5'-hydroxyl group of the nucleotide using T4 polynucleotide kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP.

  5. From amino acid sequence to bioactivity: The biomedical potential of antitumor peptides.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Gutiérrez-Jácome, Alberto; Pérez-Pérez, Martín; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Catalán-García, Sandra; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália; Sánchez, Borja

    2016-06-01

    Chemoprevention is the use of natural and/or synthetic substances to block, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. In this field, the use of antitumor peptides is of interest as, (i) these molecules are small in size, (ii) they show good cell diffusion and permeability, (iii) they affect one or more specific molecular pathways involved in carcinogenesis, and (iv) they are not usually genotoxic. We have checked the Web of Science Database (23/11/2015) in order to collect papers reporting on bioactive peptide (1691 registers), which was further filtered searching terms such as "antiproliferative," "antitumoral," or "apoptosis" among others. Works reporting the amino acid sequence of an antiproliferative peptide were kept (60 registers), and this was complemented with the peptides included in CancerPPD, an extensive resource for antiproliferative peptides and proteins. Peptides were grouped according to one of the following mechanism of action: inhibition of cell migration, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, antioxidative mechanisms, inhibition of gene transcription/cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, disorganization of tubulin structure, cytotoxicity, or unknown mechanisms. The main mechanisms of action of those antiproliferative peptides with known amino acid sequences are presented and finally, their potential clinical usefulness and future challenges on their application is discussed.

  6. ATP selection in a random peptide library consisting of prebiotic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shou-Kai; Chen, Bai-Xue; Tian, Tian; Jia, Xi-Shuai; Chu, Xin-Yi; Liu, Rong; Dong, Peng-Fei; Yang, Qing-Yong; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2015-10-23

    Based upon many theoretical findings on protein evolution, we proposed a ligand-selection model for the origin of proteins, in which the most ancient proteins originated from ATP selection in a pool of random peptides. To test this ligand-selection model, we constructed a random peptide library consisting of 15 types of prebiotic amino acids and then used cDNA display to perform six rounds of in vitro selection with ATP. By means of next-generation sequencing, the most prevalent sequence was defined. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the selected peptide showed that it was stable and foldable and had ATP-hydrolysis activity as well.

  7. Synthesis and application of acid labile anchor groups for the synthesis of peptide amides by Fmoc-solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Breipohl, G; Knolle, J; Stüber, W

    1989-10-01

    The preparation and application of a new linker for the synthesis of peptide amides using a modified Fmoc-method is described. The new anchor group was developed based on our experience with 4,4'-dimethoxybenzhydryl (Mbh)-protecting group for amides. Lability towards acid treatment was increased dramatically and results in an easy cleavage procedure for the preparation of peptide amides. The synthesis of N-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl- ([5-carboxylatoethyl-2.4-dimethoxyphenyl)- 4'-methoxyphenyl]-methylamin is reported in detail. This linker was coupled to a commercially available aminomethyl polystyrene resin. Peptide synthesis proceeded smoothly using HOOBt esters of Fmoc-amino acids. Release of the peptide amide and final cleavage of the side chain protecting groups was accomplished by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid-dichloromethane mixtures in the presence of scavengers. The synthesis of peptide amides such as LHRH and C-terminal hexapeptide of secretin are given as examples.

  8. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  9. Predicting three-dimensional conformations of peptides constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine.

    PubMed

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  10. HPLC monitoring of spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of selected amino acids in solution.

    PubMed

    Godziek, Agnieszka; Maciejowska, Anna; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Kowalska, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    This is our new study in a series of publications devoted to exploration of applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to providing answers to difficult questions from the area of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms with non-linear reactions. Although an excellent analytical performance of HPLC is an indisputable fact, so far its performance as a tool in the kinetic and mechanistic studies has been tested to a lesser extent. In our earlier studies, spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids in solution was demonstrated by means of HPLC upon a few amino acid examples, and on that basis a theoretical model has been developed, anticipating an interdependence of dynamics on chemical structures of amino acids involved. In order to expand the spectrum of experimentally investigated amino acid cases, in this study we present the results valid for three novel amino acids of significant life sciences importance, which differ in terms of peptidization dynamics. Experimental evidence originates from the achiral HPLC with the evaporative light scattering detection and MS detection. A conclusion is drawn that different spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids may significantly influence chemical composition of proteins encountered in living organisms. Hence, a need emerges for systematic physicochemical studies on spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of proteinogenic amino acids in liquid abiotic (but also in the biotic) systems.

  11. Peptide modules for overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport to cells.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Anna A; Kiselev, Anton V

    2016-01-01

    Absence of safe and efficient methods of nucleic acids delivery is one of the major issues which limits the development of human gene therapy. Highly efficient viral vectors raise questions due to safety reasons. Among non-viral vectors peptide-based carriers can be considered as good candidates for the development of "artificial viruses"--multifunctional polyplexes that mimic viruses. Suggested strategy to obtain multifunctionality is to combine several peptide modules into one modular carrier. Different kinds of peptide modules are needed for successful overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport into the cells. Design of such modules and establishment of structure-function relationships are issues of importance to researchers working in the field of nucleic acids delivery.

  12. Targeting pre-miRNA by Peptide Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Concetta; Saviano, Michele; D'Andrea, Luca; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Fabbri, Enrica; Brognara, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    PNAs conjugated to carrier peptides have been employed for the targeting of miRNA precursor, with the aim to develop molecules able to interfere in the pre-miRNA processing. The capability of the molecules to bind pre-miRNA has been tested in vitro by fluorescence assayes on Thiazole Orange labeled molecules and in vivo, in K562 cells, evaluating the amount of miRNA produced after treatment of cells with two amounts of PNAs. PMID:22699795

  13. Uptake and transfection efficiency of PEGylated cationic liposome–DNA complexes with and without RGD-tagging

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K.; Silva, Bruno F. B.; Liang, Keng S.; Jacovetty, Erica L.; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Steric stabilization of cationic liposome–DNA (CL–DNA) complexes is required for in vivo applications such as gene therapy. PEGylation (PEG: poly(ethylene glycol)) of CL–DNA complexes by addition of PEG2000-lipids yields sterically stabilized nanoparticles but strongly reduces their gene delivery efficacy. PEGylation-induced weakening of the electrostatic binding of CL–DNA nanoparticles to cells (leading to reduced uptake) has been considered as a possible cause, but experimental results have been ambiguous. Using quantitative live-cell imaging in vitro, we have investigated cell attachment and uptake of PEGylated CL–DNA nanoparticles with and without a custom synthesized RGD-peptide grafted to the distal ends of PEG2000-lipids. The RGD-tagged nanoparticles exhibit strongly increased cellular attachment as well as uptake compared to nanoparticles without grafted peptide. Transfection efficiency of RGD-tagged PEGylated CL-DNA NPs increases by about an order of magnitude between NPs with low and high membrane charge density (σM; the average charge per unit area of the membrane; controlled by the molar ratio of cationic to neutral lipid), even though uptake of RGD-tagged particles is only slightly enhanced by high σM. This suggests that endosomal escape and subsequent transfection efficiency of RGD-tagged NPs is facilitated by high σM. We present a model describing the interactions between PEGylated CL–DNA nanoparticles and the anionic cell membrane which shows how the PEG grafting density and membrane charge density affect adhesion of nanoparticles to the cell surface. PMID:24661552

  14. Intercalation of amino acids and peptides into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by reconstruction method.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Wada, Natsuko; Tsuhako, Mitsutomo

    2004-01-28

    The intercalation of amino acids and some peptides into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide known as hydrotalcite was examined. Although the intercalation by ion-exchange method was unsuccessful, all the amino acids except for Lys and Arg, and peptides examined could be intercalated into the layered double hydroxide by reconstruction method using Mg-Al oxide precursor. The uptake amounts of amino acids and peptides were 0.9-2.7 mmol per 1 g of LDH. Intercalation compounds were examined by using XRD and solid-state NMR. For Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr, Pro, Asn, Gln, Asp, Glu, and aspartame the intercalation accompanied the expansion of interlayer distance of the solid products, whereas the other amino acids and oligoglycine showed no expansion. The intercalation mechanism and release profile in K(2)CO(3) aqueous solution were also investigated. And the cointercalation of amino acids and peptides into Mg-Al LDH and easy release of amino acids from the LDH layer were found.

  15. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures.

  16. [Amino acid composition and peptide maps of udder and serum albumins in lactating and nonlactating cows].

    PubMed

    Lagodiuk, P Z; Klos, Iu S; Charkin, V A; Kisil', I O

    1983-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides of albumin hydrolyzates from the mammary gland and blood serum were studied for lactating and nonlactating (dry, pregnant 1-4.5 and 4.5-9 months) black-and-white cows. Most pronounced difference between the content of certain amino acids of the mammary gland and blood serum albumins are established for lactating cows and least pronounced for nonlactating dry cows. Dactylography detected 55-57 fragments of products resulted from trypsin hydrolysis of the mammary gland and blood serum albumins of the animals under study. Differences are found in the content and mobility of certain peptides. PMID:6829076

  17. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  18. Tumor targeting and imaging with dual-peptide conjugated multifunctional liposomal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rangger, Christine; Helbok, Anna; Sosabowski, Jane; Kremser, Christian; Koehler, Gottfried; Prassl, Ruth; Andreae, Fritz; Virgolini, Irene J; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Background The significant progress in nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of nanosized material for various applications, including tumor targeting and molecular imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate multifunctional liposomal nanoparticles for targeting approaches and detection of tumors using different imaging modalities. The concept of dual-targeting was tested in vitro and in vivo using liposomes derivatized with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide binding to αvβ3 integrin receptors and a substance P peptide binding to neurokinin-1 receptors. Methods For liposome preparation, lipids, polyethylene glycol building blocks, DTPA-derivatized lipids for radiolabeling, lipid-based RGD and substance P building blocks and imaging labels were combined in defined molar ratios. Liposomes were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements, and in vitro binding properties were tested using fluorescence microscopy. Standardized protocols for radiolabeling were developed to perform biodistribution and micro-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) studies in nude mice bearing glioblastoma and/or melanoma tumor xenografts. Additionally, an initial magnetic resonance imaging study was performed. Results Liposomes were radiolabeled with high radiochemical yields. Fluorescence microscopy showed specific cellular interactions with RGD-liposomes and substance P-liposomes. Biodistribution and micro-SPECT/CT imaging of 111In-labeled liposomal nanoparticles revealed low tumor uptake, but in a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study with a single-targeted RGD-liposome, uptake in the tumor xenografts could be visualized. Conclusion The present study shows the potential of liposomes as multifunctional targeted vehicles for imaging of tumors combining radioactive, fluorescent, and magnetic resonance signaling. Specific in vitro tumor targeting by fluorescence microscopy and radioactivity was

  19. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberger, Thomas J.; Rogness, Donald C.; Kohrt, Jeffrey T.; Stepan, Antonia F.; White, M. Christina

    2016-09-01

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C-H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C-H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four ‘chiral pool’ amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C-H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C-H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  20. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberger, Thomas J.; Rogness, Donald C.; Kohrt, Jeffrey T.; Stepan, Antonia F.; White, M. Christina

    2016-09-01

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C–H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C–H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four ‘chiral pool’ amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C–H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C–H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  1. Identification of potent 11mer glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist peptides with novel C-terminal amino acids: Homohomophenylalanine analogs.

    PubMed

    Haque, Tasir S; Lee, Ving G; Riexinger, Douglas; Lei, Ming; Malmstrom, Sarah; Xin, Li; Han, Songping; Mapelli, Claudio; Cooper, Christopher B; Zhang, Ge; Ewing, William R; Krupinski, John

    2010-05-01

    We report the identification of potent agonists of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R). These compounds are short, 11 amino acid peptides containing several unnatural amino acids, including (in particular) analogs of homohomophenylalanine (hhPhe) at the C-terminal position. Typically the functional activity of the more potent peptides in this class is in the low picomolar range in an in vitro cAMP assay, with one example demonstrating excellent in vivo activity in an ob/ob mouse model of diabetes.

  2. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  3. Synthesis of peptides from amino acids and ATP with lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the synthesis of peptides from aminoacids and ATP with a lysine-rich protenoid. The latter in aqueous solution catalyzes the formation of peptides from free amino acids and ATP; this catalytic activity is not found in acidic protenoids, even though the latter contain a basic aminoacid. The pH optimum for the synthesis is about 11, but it is appreciable below 8 and above 13. Temperature data indicate an optimum at 20 C or above, with little increase in rate up to 60 C. Pyrophosphate can be used instead of ATP, but the yields are lower. The ATP-aided syntheses of peptides in aqueous solution occur with several types of proteinous aminoacids.

  4. Binding of small basic peptides to membranes containing acidic lipids: theoretical models and experimental results.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tal, N; Honig, B; Peitzsch, R M; Denisov, G; McLaughlin, S

    1996-01-01

    We measured directly the binding of Lys3, Lys5, and Lys7 to vesicles containing acidic phospholipids. When the vesicles contain 33% acidic lipids and the aqueous solution contains 100 mM monovalent salt, the standard Gibbs free energy for the binding of these peptides is 3, 5, and 7 kcal/mol, respectively. The binding energies decrease as the mol% of acidic lipids in the membrane decreases and/or as the salt concentration increases. Several lines of evidence suggest that these hydrophilic peptides do not penetrate the polar headgroup region of the membrane and that the binding is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. To calculate the binding energies from classical electrostatics, we applied the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation to atomic models of the phospholipid bilayers and the basic peptides in aqueous solution. The electrostatic free energy of interaction, which arises from both a long-range coulombic attraction between the positively charged peptide and the negatively charged lipid bilayer, and a short-range Born or image charge repulsion, is a minimum when approximately 2.5 A (i.e., one layer of water) exists between the van der Waals surfaces of the peptide and the lipid bilayer. The calculated molar association constants, K, agree well with the measured values: K is typically about 10-fold smaller than the experimental value (i.e., a difference of about 1.5 kcal/mol in the free energy of binding). The predicted dependence of K (or the binding free energies) on the ionic strength of the solution, the mol% of acidic lipids in the membrane, and the number of basic residues in the peptide agree very well with the experimental measurements. These calculations are relevant to the membrane binding of a number of important proteins that contain clusters of basic residues. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8842196

  5. Distinguishing Aspartic and Isoaspartic Acids in Peptides by Several Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Zhang, Jun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-09-01

    Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging. c•+57 and z-57 ions are observed in ETD and FRIPS experiments. For some molecules, aspartic and isoaspartic acid yield ion fragments with significantly different intensities. ETD and charge tagging appear to be most effective at distinguishing these residues.

  6. Biologically inspired stealth peptide-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Ann K; White, Andrew D; Keefe, Andrew J; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2014-02-25

    Introduction into the human body makes most nanoparticle systems susceptible to aggregation via nonspecific protein binding. Here, we developed a peptide-capped gold nanoparticle platform that withstands aggregation in undiluted human serum at 37 °C for 24 h. This biocompatible and natural system is based on mimicking human proteins which are enriched in negatively charged glutamic acid and positively charged lysine residues on their surface. The multifunctional EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am peptide sequence consists of a stealth glutamic acid/lysine portion combined with a surface anchoring linker containing four prolines and a cysteine. Particle stability was measured via optical spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering in single protein, high salt, and undiluted human serum solutions. In vitro cell experiments demonstrate EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am capped gold nanoparticles effectively minimize nonspecific cell uptake by nonphagocytic bovine aortic endothelial cells and phagocytic murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Cytotoxicity studies show that peptide-capped gold nanoparticles do not affect cell viability. Finally, the peptide EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am was extended with cyclic RGD to demonstrate specific cell targeting and stealth without using poly(ethylene glycol). Adding the functional peptide via peptide sequence extension avoids complex conjugation chemistries that are used for connection to synthetic materials. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy results indicate high aortic bovine endothelial cell uptake of c[RGDfE(SGG-KEKEKE-PPPPC-Am)] capped gold nanoparticles and low uptake of the control scrambled sequence c[RDGfE(SGG-KEKEKE-PPPPC-Am)] capped gold nanoparticles.

  7. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  8. Phytochemicals that modulate amino acid and peptide catabolism by caprine rumen microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Microbe-derived ionophores and macrolide antibiotics are often added to ruminant diets, and growth promotion and feed efficiency are among the benefits. One mechanism is inhibition of microbes that catabolize amino acids or peptides and produce ammonia. Plants also produce antimicrobial ...

  9. One-pot nanoparticulation of potentially bioactive peptides and gallic acid encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Himan; Madadlou, Ashkan; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2016-11-01

    Whey protein isolate was hydrolyzed to an in vitro antioxidative hydrolysate, followed by transglutaminase-induced cross-linking and microemulsification in an oil phase. The obtained microemulsion was then dispersed in a gallic acid-rich model wastewater which caused gallic acid transportation into internal nanodroplets. Whey peptides were consequently gelled, yielding nanoparticles. Electrophoresis showed that β-lactoglobulin and low molecular weight peptides were cross-linked by transglutaminase. Protein hydrolysis and subsequent enzymatic cross-linking increased the ζ-potential value. Microscopic investigation indicated that most particles were non-spherical. Non-cross-linked and cross-linked peptides underwent a form of heat-triggered self-assembly in the dry state, while nanoparticles did not show such behavior. Peptide crystallites size was increased by cross-linking and acid-induced particle formation. The latter also caused a reduction in intensity of C-H stretching and C-N bending peaks in infra-red spectrum. Gallic acid release from particles to simulated gastrointestinal fluids was through diffusion from swollen particles, and reached almost 70% release. PMID:27211653

  10. One-pot nanoparticulation of potentially bioactive peptides and gallic acid encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Himan; Madadlou, Ashkan; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2016-11-01

    Whey protein isolate was hydrolyzed to an in vitro antioxidative hydrolysate, followed by transglutaminase-induced cross-linking and microemulsification in an oil phase. The obtained microemulsion was then dispersed in a gallic acid-rich model wastewater which caused gallic acid transportation into internal nanodroplets. Whey peptides were consequently gelled, yielding nanoparticles. Electrophoresis showed that β-lactoglobulin and low molecular weight peptides were cross-linked by transglutaminase. Protein hydrolysis and subsequent enzymatic cross-linking increased the ζ-potential value. Microscopic investigation indicated that most particles were non-spherical. Non-cross-linked and cross-linked peptides underwent a form of heat-triggered self-assembly in the dry state, while nanoparticles did not show such behavior. Peptide crystallites size was increased by cross-linking and acid-induced particle formation. The latter also caused a reduction in intensity of C-H stretching and C-N bending peaks in infra-red spectrum. Gallic acid release from particles to simulated gastrointestinal fluids was through diffusion from swollen particles, and reached almost 70% release.

  11. Alkylating potency of nitrosated amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Shephard, S E; Meier, I; Lutz, W K

    1991-01-01

    The alkylating potency of unstable N-nitrosamino acids and N-nitrosopeptides was investigated in vitro using 4-(para-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) as nucleophile. Of the amino acids, Met and those with an aromatic side chain were the most potent. The relative overall alkylating potency was 23:10:5:4:2:1: for Trp, Met, His, Tyr, Phe and Gly, respectively. The homo-dipeptides were much more potent than the amino acids, with relative potencies of 400:110:100:8:3:1, for Trp-Trp, Tyr-Tyr, Met-Met, Asp-Asp, Phe-Phe and Gly, respectively. In the one-phase reaction system (in which NBP is already present during the nitrosation reaction at acidic pH), all amino acids tested showed a second-order reaction for nitrite. In the two-phase system (in which NBP is added only after bringing the nitrosation reaction mixture to neutrality), all amino acids tested except one again showed a second-order reaction for nitrite (Phe, His, Asp and the dipeptide artificial sweetener aspartame); only Met under these conditions had a reaction order of one for nitrite. This could mean that nitrosation of the side chain of Met produces a second N-nitroso product which is relatively stable in acid but reacts with NBP under neutral conditions. In the human stomach, this side-chain nitrosation might become more important than the reactions at the primary amino group, firstly because of the greater stability of the product(s) in acid and secondly because of the first-order reaction rate for nitrite.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Enhancing growth human endothelial cells on Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) embedded poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) surface with nanometer scale of surface disturbance.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tze-Wen; Yang, Min-Gia; Liu, Der-Zen; Chen, Wen-Pin; Pan, Chin-I; Wang, Shoei-Shen

    2005-02-01

    To explore the application of PCL for the engineering of soft tissues, the PCL surface was first embedded in an amphiphilic moiety and then grafted with RGD peptide to enhance the growth rate of human endothelial cells (HUVEC) on the surface. To graft cell-adhesive peptide RGD on the PCL surface, the PCL surface was first etched by the selected solvent with only nanometer-scale of surface disturbance, and simultaneously embedded with DSPE-PEG [di-stearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)] moiety. Then the PCL-PEG surface was photochemically grafted by GRGD to form PCL-PEG-RGD surface. PCL and the modified surfaces were characterized by surface morphology, surface disturbance, contact angles, ATR-FTIR functional group analysis, and the growth rate of HUVEC. The surface disturbances of PCL and the modified surfaces were examined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and presented by the topography and a roughness parameter, Ra. The Ra values were 16.4 +/- 3.0, 34.8 +/- 1.6, and 12.8 +/- 0.3 nm (n = 3) for PCL, PCL-PEG, and PCL-PEG-RGD surfaces, respectively. The topographies of the surfaces and Ra values indicated that the PCL modified technique developed by this study resulted in only nanometer scale of surface disturbance. In addition to reducing surface disturbances, reducing contact angle from 73.7 degrees +/- 0.4 (n = 3) for the PCL surface to 56.9 degrees +/- 4.0 (n = 3) for the PCL-PEG surface, and the ATR-FTIR transmission spectra at 1660 cm(-1) for shoulder of amine I of PCL-PEG-RGD surface both confirmed the successful modification of PCL surfaces. HUVECs adhered well and grew on the PCL-PEG-RGD surface after 36 h incubation, whereas other surfaces did not support growth. Moreover, the viability for the relative growth rate of HUVECs on the PCL-PEG-RGD surface analyzed by MTT assay showed 8.5 times greater growth than that of the unmodified one. In conclusion, a PCL-PEG-RGD surface for enhancing the growth rate of HUVECs has been prepared

  13. Antimicrobial peptides targeting Gram-negative pathogens, produced and delivered by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Volzing, Katherine; Borrero, Juan; Sadowsky, Michael J; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2013-11-15

    We present results of tests with recombinant Lactococcus lactis that produce and secrete heterologous antimicrobial peptides with activity against Gram-negative pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella . In an initial screening, the activities of numerous candidate antimicrobial peptides, made by solid state synthesis, were assessed against several indicator pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Peptides A3APO and Alyteserin were selected as top performers based on high antimicrobial activity against the pathogens tested and on significantly lower antimicrobial activity against L. lactis . Expression cassettes containing the signal peptide of the protein Usp45 fused to the codon-optimized sequence of mature A3APO and Alyteserin were cloned under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and transformed into L. lactis IL1403. The resulting recombinant strains were induced to express and secrete both peptides. A3APO- and Alyteserin-containing supernatants from these recombinant L. lactis inhibited the growth of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella by up to 20-fold, while maintaining the host's viability. This system may serve as a model for the production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria to target Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria populations.

  14. Tumor-Specific Peptide, Selected from a Phage Peptide Library, Enhances Antitumor Activity of Lactaptin

    PubMed Central

    Makartsova, Anna A.; Fomin, Alexandr S.; Nushtaeva, Anna A.; Koval, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. The tumor suppression efficacy of RL2 was shown against mouse hepatoma-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The RL2-based therapeutic drug lactaptin is distributed evenly throughout the organism, which reduces its antitumor efficacy. In the current study, we obtained a genetic construct that allows production of the recombinant fusion protein T3-RL2, consisting of RL2 and T3 peptide (YTYDPWLIFPAN), in E. coli cells. T3 peptide was selected from a phage peptide library as a result of two screenings: in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cell culture and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It was shown that the displayed peptide T3 provides binding and internalization of phage particles by MDA-MB-231 cells and their specific accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue. In addition, based on the nucleotide sequences coding RL2 and the known tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, we obtained genetic constructs that provide synthesis of fusion proteins RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His. We studied the cytotoxic activity of fusion proteins T3-RL2, RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His in vitro using MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells. The in vitro results showed that the fusion proteins inhibit proliferation of both cell cultures, and their cytotoxic activity is higher than that of RL2. In vivo experiments on the study of the antitumor efficacy of the obtained fusion proteins demonstrated that T3-RL2 protein significantly inhibits MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft model compared with RL2, while the antitumor effect of RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His proteins is comparable to the effect of RL2. PMID:27513518

  15. Tumor-Specific Peptide, Selected from a Phage Peptide Library, Enhances Antitumor Activity of Lactaptin.

    PubMed

    Nemudraya, Anna A; Makartsova, Anna A; Fomin, Alexandr S; Nushtaeva, Anna A; Koval, Olga A; Richter, Vladimir A; Kuligina, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. The tumor suppression efficacy of RL2 was shown against mouse hepatoma-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The RL2-based therapeutic drug lactaptin is distributed evenly throughout the organism, which reduces its antitumor efficacy. In the current study, we obtained a genetic construct that allows production of the recombinant fusion protein T3-RL2, consisting of RL2 and T3 peptide (YTYDPWLIFPAN), in E. coli cells. T3 peptide was selected from a phage peptide library as a result of two screenings: in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cell culture and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It was shown that the displayed peptide T3 provides binding and internalization of phage particles by MDA-MB-231 cells and their specific accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue. In addition, based on the nucleotide sequences coding RL2 and the known tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, we obtained genetic constructs that provide synthesis of fusion proteins RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His. We studied the cytotoxic activity of fusion proteins T3-RL2, RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His in vitro using MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells. The in vitro results showed that the fusion proteins inhibit proliferation of both cell cultures, and their cytotoxic activity is higher than that of RL2. In vivo experiments on the study of the antitumor efficacy of the obtained fusion proteins demonstrated that T3-RL2 protein significantly inhibits MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft model compared with RL2, while the antitumor effect of RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His proteins is comparable to the effect of RL2. PMID:27513518

  16. Entropy reduction in unfolded peptides (and proteins) due to conformational preferences of amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Toal, Siobhan E

    2014-11-01

    As established by several groups over the last 20 years, amino acid residues in unfolded peptides and proteins do not exhibit the unspecific random distribution as assumed by the classical random coil model. Individual amino acid residues in small peptides were found to exhibit different conformational preferences. Here, we utilize recently obtained conformational distributions of guest amino acid residues in GxG peptides to estimate their conformational entropy, which we find to be significantly lower than the entropy of an assumed random coil like distribution. Only at high temperature do backbone entropies approach random coil like values. We utilized the obtained backbone entropies of the investigated amino acid residues to estimate the loss of conformational entropy caused by a coil → helix transition and identified two subsets of amino acid residues for which the thus calculated entropy losses correlate well with the respective Gibbs energy of helix formation obtained for alanine based host-guest systems. Calculated and experimentally derived entropic losses were found to be in good agreement. For most of the amino acid residues investigated entropic losses derived from our GxG distributions correlate very well with corresponding values recently obtained from MD simulations biased by conformational propensities derived from truncated coil libraries. Both, conformational entropy and the entropy of solvation exhibit a strong, residue specific temperature dependence, which can be expected to substantially affect the stability of unfolded states. Altogether, our results provide strong evidence for the notion that conformational preferences of amino acid residues matter with regard to the thermodynamics of peptide and protein folding.

  17. Peptide-Decorated Gold Nanoparticles as Functional Nano-Capping Agent of Mesoporous Silica Container for Targeting Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ganchao; Xie, Yusheng; Peltier, Raoul; Lei, Haipeng; Wang, Ping; Chen, Jun; Hu, Yi; Wang, Feng; Yao, Xi; Sun, Hongyan

    2016-05-11

    A stimuli-responsive drug delivery system (DDS) with bioactive surface is constructed by end-capping mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with functional peptide-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs). MSNs are first functionalized with acid-labile α-amide-β-carboxyl groups to carry negative charges, and then capped with positively charged GNPs that are decorated with oligo-lysine-containing peptide. The resulting hybrid delivery system exhibits endo/lysosomal pH triggered drug release, and the incorporation of RGD peptide facilitates targeting delivery to αvβ3 integrin overexpressing cancer cells. The system can serve as a platform for preparing diversified multifunctional nanocomposites using various functional inorganic nanoparticles and bioactive peptides. PMID:27102225

  18. Peptide-Decorated Gold Nanoparticles as Functional Nano-Capping Agent of Mesoporous Silica Container for Targeting Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ganchao; Xie, Yusheng; Peltier, Raoul; Lei, Haipeng; Wang, Ping; Chen, Jun; Hu, Yi; Wang, Feng; Yao, Xi; Sun, Hongyan

    2016-05-11

    A stimuli-responsive drug delivery system (DDS) with bioactive surface is constructed by end-capping mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with functional peptide-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs). MSNs are first functionalized with acid-labile α-amide-β-carboxyl groups to carry negative charges, and then capped with positively charged GNPs that are decorated with oligo-lysine-containing peptide. The resulting hybrid delivery system exhibits endo/lysosomal pH triggered drug release, and the incorporation of RGD peptide facilitates targeting delivery to αvβ3 integrin overexpressing cancer cells. The system can serve as a platform for preparing diversified multifunctional nanocomposites using various functional inorganic nanoparticles and bioactive peptides.

  19. Question 1: Peptide nucleic acids and the origin and homochirality of life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2007-10-01

    The possibilities of pseudo peptide DNA mimics like PNA (peptide nucleic acid) having a role for the prebiotic origin of life prior to an RNA world is discussed. In particular a scenario is proposed in which protocells with an achiral genetic material through several generations stepwise is converted into a chiral genetic material, e.g., by incorporation of RNA units. Provided that a sufficiently large sequence space is occupied, a selection process based on catalytic function in which a single cell (first common ancestor) has a definite evolutionary advantage, selection of this cell would by contingency also lock it into homochirality.

  20. Question 1: Peptide Nucleic Acids and the Origin and Homochirality of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2007-10-01

    The possibilities of pseudo peptide DNA mimics like PNA (peptide nucleic acid) having a role for the prebiotic origin of life prior to an RNA world is discussed. In particular a scenario is proposed in which protocells with an achiral genetic material through several generations stepwise is converted into a chiral genetic material, e.g., by incorporation of RNA units. Provided that a sufficiently large sequence space is occupied, a selection process based on catalytic function in which a single cell (first common ancestor) has a definite evolutionary advantage, selection of this cell would by contingency also lock it into homochirality.

  1. Applications of hydrophilic interaction chromatography to amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Periat, Aurélie; Krull, Ira S; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-02-01

    This review summarizes the recent advances in the analysis of amino acids, peptides, and proteins using hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Various reports demonstrate the successful analysis of amino acids under such conditions. However, a baseline resolution of the 20 natural amino acids has not yet been published and for this reason, there is often a need to use mass spectrometry for detection to further improve selectivity. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography is also recognized as a powerful technique for peptide analysis, and there are a lot of papers showing its applicability for proteomic applications (peptide mapping). It is expected that its use for peptide mapping will continue to grow in the future, particularly because this analytical strategy can be combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography, in a two-dimensional setup, to reach very high resolving power. Finally, the interest in hydrophilic interaction chromatography for intact proteins analysis is less evident due to possible solubility issues and a lack of suitable hydrophilic interaction chromatography stationary phases. To date, it has been successfully employed only for the characterization of membrane proteins, histones, and the separation of glycosylated isoforms of an intact glycoprotein. From our point of view, the number of hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns compatible with intact proteins (higher upper temperature limit, large pore size, etc.) is still too limited.

  2. Acidity-Mediated, Electrostatic Tuning of Asymmetrically Charged Peptides Interactions with Protein Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Asandei, Alina; Chinappi, Mauro; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Mereuta, Loredana; Park, Yoonkyung; Luchian, Tudor

    2015-08-01

    Despite success in probing chemical reactions and dynamics of macromolecules on submillisecond time and nanometer length scales, a major impasse faced by nanopore technology is the need to cheaply and controllably modulate macromolecule capture and trafficking across the nanopore. We demonstrate herein that tunable charge separation engineered at the both ends of a macromolecule very efficiently modulates the dynamics of macromolecules capture and traffic through a nanometer-size pore. In the proof-of-principle approach, we employed a 36 amino acids long peptide containing at the N- and C-termini uniform patches of glutamic acids and arginines, flanking a central segment of asparagines, and we studied its capture by the α-hemolysin (α-HL) and the mean residence time inside the pore in the presence of a pH gradient across the protein. We propose a solution to effectively control the dynamics of peptide interaction with the nanopore, with both association and dissociation reaction rates of peptide-α-HL interactions spanning orders of magnitude depending upon solution acidity on the peptide addition side and the transmembrane electric potential, while preserving the amplitude of the blockade current signature. PMID:26144534

  3. Electroporation-based delivery of cell-penetrating peptide conjugates of peptide nucleic acids for antisense inhibition of intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Schroeder, Betsy; Sun, Chen; Loufakis, Despina Nelie; Cao, Zhenning; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used for a myriad of cellular delivery applications and were recently explored for delivery of antisense agents such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) for bacterial inhibition. Although these molecular systems (i.e. CPP-PNAs) have shown ability to inhibit growth of bacterial cultures in vitro, they show limited effectiveness in killing encapsulated intracellular bacteria in mammalian cells such as macrophages, presumably due to difficulty involved in the endosomal escape of the reagents. In this report, we show that electroporation delivery dramatically increases the bioavailability of CPP-PNAs to kill Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 inside macrophages. Electroporation delivers the molecules without involving endocytosis and greatly increases the antisense effect. The decrease in the average number of Salmonella per macrophage under a 1200 V cm(-1) and 5 ms pulse was a factor of 9 higher than that without electroporation (in an experiment with a multiplicity of infection of 2 : 1). Our results suggest that electroporation is an effective approach for a wide range of applications involving CPP-based delivery. The microfluidic format will allow convenient functional screening and testing of PNA-based reagents for antisense applications.

  4. Insights on peptide backbone N-H acidity: Structure of anions, hydration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Antoni; Henry, Bernard; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.

    2013-03-01

    Despite the key role played by deamidation reactions in biochemical phenomena such as aging processes, knowledge of factors determining peptide backbone N-H acidities is scarce. We report a theoretical study on this topic by means of quantum-chemical calculations. Gas-phase acidities and pKa's in water have been estimated. The results agree reasonably well with available experimental data. Further analysis suggests that the secondary peptide structure, in addition to hydration effects, is the main factor determining pKa. In particular, we predict N-H protons to be more acidic in β-turns than in α-helices, a finding that may have broad biological implications.

  5. Inspiration from the mirror: D-amino acid containing peptides in biomedical approaches.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhaoqianqi; Xu, Bing

    2016-06-01

    D-amino acids, the enantiomers of naturally abundant L-amino acids, bear unique stereochemistry properties that lead to the resistance towards most of the endogenous enzymes. Previous works have demonstrated applications of D-amino acids in therapeutic development with the aid of mirror-image phage display and retro-inverso peptide synthesis. In this review, we highlight the recent progress and challenges in the exploration of D-amino acids at the interface of chemistry and life science. First, we will introduce some progress made in traditional application of D-amino acids to enhance biostability of peptide therapeutics. Then, we discuss some works that explore the relatively underexplored interactions between the enzyme and D-amino acids and enzymatic reactions of D-amino acids. To highlight the enzymatic reactions of D-amino acids, we will describe several emerging works on the enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) and their potential application in selective anti-inflammatory or anticancer therapies. At the end, we briefly mention the challenges and possible future directions. PMID:27159920

  6. Synthesis of peptide nucleic acids containing a crosslinking agent and evaluation of their reactivities.

    PubMed

    Akisawa, Takuya; Ishizawa, Yuki; Nagatsugi, Fumi

    2015-03-13

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are structural mimics of nucleic acids that form stable hybrids with DNA and RNA. In addition, PNAs can invade double-stranded DNA. Due to these characteristics, PNAs are widely used as biochemical tools, for example, in antisense/antigene therapy. Interstrand crosslink formation in nucleic acids is one of the strategies for preparing a stable duplex by covalent bond formation. In this study, we have synthesized PNAs incorporating 4-amino-6-oxo-2-vinylpyrimidine (AOVP) as a crosslinking agent and evaluated their reactivities for targeting DNA and RNA.

  7. Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required. Infant formulas have been designed for infants who cannot be breastfed. They should be similar to breast milk in their composition and their functional outcomes, insuring appropriate growth, optimal development, maturation of the immune system, easy digestion and healthy metabolic programming. By modifying their protein components, specific infant formulas have also been developed for specific needs. For example, partially hydrolyzed (prevention of atopic dermatitis) and extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid-based infant formulas (reduction in allergy symptoms) have been designed for the management of cow's milk protein allergy. In conclusion, proteins provided via breast milk or infant formula are essential components of the infant's diet; therefore, the specific quality, quantity and conformation of proteins are of utmost importance for healthy growth and development. PMID:27336588

  8. Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required. Infant formulas have been designed for infants who cannot be breastfed. They should be similar to breast milk in their composition and their functional outcomes, insuring appropriate growth, optimal development, maturation of the immune system, easy digestion and healthy metabolic programming. By modifying their protein components, specific infant formulas have also been developed for specific needs. For example, partially hydrolyzed (prevention of atopic dermatitis) and extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid-based infant formulas (reduction in allergy symptoms) have been designed for the management of cow's milk protein allergy. In conclusion, proteins provided via breast milk or infant formula are essential components of the infant's diet; therefore, the specific quality, quantity and conformation of proteins are of utmost importance for healthy growth and development.

  9. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  11. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when sued as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. The authors study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  12. Selective rhodium-catalyzed reduction of tertiary amides in amino acid esters and peptides.

    PubMed

    Das, Shoubhik; Li, Yuehui; Bornschein, Christoph; Pisiewicz, Sabine; Kiersch, Konstanze; Michalik, Dirk; Gallou, Fabrice; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-10-12

    Efficient reduction of the tertiary amide bond in amino acid derivatives and peptides is described. Functional group selectivity has been achieved by applying a commercially available rhodium precursor and bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp) ligand together with phenyl silane as a reductant. This methodology allows for specific reductive derivatization of biologically interesting peptides and offers straightforward access to a variety of novel peptide derivatives for chemical biology studies and potential pharmaceutical applications. The catalytic system tolerates a variety of functional groups including secondary amides, ester, nitrile, thiomethyl, and hydroxy groups. This convenient hydrosilylation reaction proceeds at ambient conditions and is operationally safe because no air-sensitive reagents or highly reactive metal hydrides are needed. PMID:26189442

  13. Selective rhodium-catalyzed reduction of tertiary amides in amino acid esters and peptides.

    PubMed

    Das, Shoubhik; Li, Yuehui; Bornschein, Christoph; Pisiewicz, Sabine; Kiersch, Konstanze; Michalik, Dirk; Gallou, Fabrice; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-10-12

    Efficient reduction of the tertiary amide bond in amino acid derivatives and peptides is described. Functional group selectivity has been achieved by applying a commercially available rhodium precursor and bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp) ligand together with phenyl silane as a reductant. This methodology allows for specific reductive derivatization of biologically interesting peptides and offers straightforward access to a variety of novel peptide derivatives for chemical biology studies and potential pharmaceutical applications. The catalytic system tolerates a variety of functional groups including secondary amides, ester, nitrile, thiomethyl, and hydroxy groups. This convenient hydrosilylation reaction proceeds at ambient conditions and is operationally safe because no air-sensitive reagents or highly reactive metal hydrides are needed.

  14. A novel sea anemone peptide that inhibits acid-sensing ion channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Armando Alexei; Salceda, Emilio; Garateix, Anoland Georgina; Zaharenko, André Junqueira; Peigneur, Steve; López, Omar; Pons, Tirso; Richardson, Michael; Díaz, Maylín; Hernández, Yasnay; Ständker, Ludger; Tytgat, Jan; Soto, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    Sea anemones produce ion channels peptide toxins of pharmacological and biomedical interest. However, peptides acting on ligand-gated ion channels, including acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) toxins, remain poorly explored. PhcrTx1 is the first compound characterized from the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer, and it constitutes a novel ASIC inhibitor. This peptide was purified by gel filtration, ion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography followed by biological evaluation on ion channels of isolated rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using patch clamp techniques. PhcrTx1 partially inhibited ASIC currents (IC50∼100 nM), and also voltage-gated K(+) currents but the effects on the peak and on the steady state currents were lower than 20% in DRG neurons, at concentrations in the micromolar range. No significant effect was observed on Na(+) voltage-gated currents in DRG neurons. The N-terminal sequencing yielded 32 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 3477 Da by mass spectrometry. No sequence identity to other sea anemone peptides was found. Interestingly, the bioinformatic analysis of Cys-pattern and secondary structure arrangement suggested that this peptide presents an Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) scaffold, which has been found in other venomous organisms such as spider, scorpions and cone snails. Our results show that PhcrTx1 represents the first member of a new structural group of sea anemones toxins acting on ASIC and, with much lower potency, on Kv channels. Moreover, this is the first report of an ICK peptide in cnidarians, suggesting that the occurrence of this motif in venomous animals is more ancient than expected.

  15. Novel Bifunctional Cyclic Chelator for 89Zr Labeling–Radiolabeling and Targeting Properties of RGD Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years 89Zr has attracted considerable attention as long-lived radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. So far desferrioxamine B (DFO) has been mainly used as bifunctional chelating system. Fusarinine C (FSC), having complexing properties comparable to DFO, was expected to be an alternative with potentially higher stability due to its cyclic structure. In this study, as proof of principle, various FSC-RGD conjugates targeting αvß3 integrins were synthesized using different conjugation strategies and labeled with 89Zr. In vitro stability, biodistribution, and microPET/CT imaging were evaluated using [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates or [89Zr]triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Quantitative 89Zr labeling was achieved within 90 min at room temperature. The distribution coefficients of the different radioligands indicate hydrophilic character. Compared to [89Zr]DFO, [89Zr]FSC derivatives showed excellent in vitro stability and resistance against transchelation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (EDTA), and human serum for up to 7 days. Cell binding studies and biodistribution as well as microPET/CT imaging experiments showed efficient receptor-specific targeting of [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates. No bone uptake was observed analyzing PET images indicating high in vivo stability. These findings indicate that FSC is a highly promising chelator for the development of 89Zr-based PET imaging agents. PMID:25941834

  16. Novel Bifunctional Cyclic Chelator for (89)Zr Labeling-Radiolabeling and Targeting Properties of RGD Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chuangyan; Summer, Dominik; Rangger, Christine; Franssen, Gerben M; Laverman, Peter; Haas, Hubertus; Petrik, Milos; Haubner, Roland; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2015-06-01

    Within the last years (89)Zr has attracted considerable attention as long-lived radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. So far desferrioxamine B (DFO) has been mainly used as bifunctional chelating system. Fusarinine C (FSC), having complexing properties comparable to DFO, was expected to be an alternative with potentially higher stability due to its cyclic structure. In this study, as proof of principle, various FSC-RGD conjugates targeting αvß3 integrins were synthesized using different conjugation strategies and labeled with (89)Zr. In vitro stability, biodistribution, and microPET/CT imaging were evaluated using [(89)Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates or [(89)Zr]triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Quantitative (89)Zr labeling was achieved within 90 min at room temperature. The distribution coefficients of the different radioligands indicate hydrophilic character. Compared to [(89)Zr]DFO, [(89)Zr]FSC derivatives showed excellent in vitro stability and resistance against transchelation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (EDTA), and human serum for up to 7 days. Cell binding studies and biodistribution as well as microPET/CT imaging experiments showed efficient receptor-specific targeting of [(89)Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates. No bone uptake was observed analyzing PET images indicating high in vivo stability. These findings indicate that FSC is a highly promising chelator for the development of (89)Zr-based PET imaging agents.

  17. Fluorine containing amino acids: synthesis and peptide coupling of amino acids containing the all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexyl motif.

    PubMed

    Ayoup, Mohammed Salah; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2015-05-28

    A synthesis of two (S)-phenylalanine derivatives is described which have the all-cis, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorocyclohexyl motif attached to the aromatic ring at the meta and para positions; the para substituted isomer is elaborated into illustrative dipeptides via the free amine and carboxylate respectively demonstrating its utility as a novel amino acid for peptide synthesis and offering a vehicle for incorporation of this unique and facially polarized ring system into bioactive compounds.

  18. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement. PMID:26734728

  19. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  20. Transporters for ammonium, amino acids and peptides are expressed in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Frommer, W B; Ward, J M

    1999-03-01

    Insect capture and digestion contribute substantially to the nitrogen budget of carnivorous plants. In Nepenthes, insect-derived nitrogenous compounds are imported from the pitcher fluid and transported throughout the plant via the vascular tissue to support growth. Import and distribution of nutrients may require transmembrane nitrogen transporters. Representatives of three classes of genes encoding transporters for the nitrogenous compounds ammonium, amino acids and peptides were identified in Nepenthes pitchers. The expression at the cellular level of an ammonium transporter gene, three amino acid transporter genes, and one peptide transporter gene were investigated in the insect trapping organs of Nepenthes. Expression of the ammonium transporter gene NaAMT1 was detected in the head cells of digestive glands in the lower part of the pitcher where NaAMT1 may function in ammonium uptake from the pitcher fluid. One amino acid transporter gene, NaAAP1, was expressed in bundle sheath cells surrounding the vascular tissue. To understand the locations where transmembrane transport could be required within the pitcher, symplasmic and apoplasmic continuity was probed using fluorescent dyes. Symplasmic connections were not found between cortical cells and vascular bundles. Therefore, the amino acid transporter encoded by NaAAP1 may be involved in transport of amino acids into the vascular tissue. In contrast, expression of the peptide transporter gene NaNTR1 was detected in phloem cells of the vascular tissue within pitchers. NaNTR1 may function in the export of nitrogen from the pitcher by loading peptides into the phloem. PMID:10230062

  1. Nucleic Acid-Peptide Complex Phase Controlled by DNA Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, Jeffrey; Lueckheide, Michael; Leon, Lorraine; Marciel, Amanda; Tirrell, Matthew

    When polyanions and polycations are mixed, counterion release drives formation of polymer-rich complexes that can either be solid (precipitates) or liquid (coacervates) depending on the properties of the polyelectrolytes. These complexes are important in many fields, from encapsulation of industrial polymers to membrane-free segregation of biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. Condensation of long double-stranded DNA has been studied for several decades, but comparatively little attention has been paid to the polyelectrolyte behavior of oligonucleotides. We report here studies of DNA oligonucleotides (10 - 88 nt) complexed with polylysine (10 - 100 aa). Unexpectedly, we find that the phase of the resulting complexes is controlled by the hybridization state of the nucleic acid, with double-stranded DNA forming precipitates and single-stranded DNA forming coacervates. Stability increases with polyelectrolyte length and decreases with solution salt concentration, with complexes of the longer double-stranded polymers undergoing precipitate/coacervate/soluble transitions as ionic strength is increased. Mixing coacervates formed by complementary single-stranded oligonucleotides results in precipitate formation, raising the possibility of stimulus-responsive material design.

  2. G-CSF receptor-binding cyclic peptides designed with artificial amino-acid linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Kenji . E-mail: kshibata@kyowa.co.jp; Maruyama-Takahashi, Kumiko; Yamasaki, Motoo; Hirayama, Noriaki . E-mail: hirayama@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2006-03-10

    Designing small molecules that mimic the receptor-binding local surface structure of large proteins such as cytokines or growth factors is fascinating and challenging. In this study, we designed cyclic peptides that reproduce the receptor-binding loop structures of G-CSF. We found it is important to select a suitable linker to join two or more discontinuous sequences and both termini of the peptide corresponding to the receptor-binding loop. Structural simulations based on the crystallographic structure of KW-2228, a stable and potent analog of human G-CSF, led us to choose 4-aminobenzoic acid (Abz) as a part of the linker. A combination of 4-Abz with {beta}-alanine or glycine, and disulfide bridges between cysteins or homocysteins, gave a structure suitable for receptor binding. In this structure, the side-chains of several amino acids important for the interactions with the receptor are protruding from one side of the peptide ring. This artificial peptide showed G-CSF antagonistic activity in a cell proliferation assay.

  3. Novel osteoblast-adhesive peptides for dental/orthopedic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Dettin, Monica; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Gambaretto, Roberta; Pasquato, Antonella; Folin, Marcella; Di Bello, Carlo; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo

    2002-06-01

    Next generation dental/orthopedic biomaterials must be designed to enhance and support osteoblast adhesion. The osteoblasts use different ways to adhere, that is, integrin- and proteoglycan-mediated mechanisms. The present study reports on the synthesis and osteoblast-adhesive properties of peptides carrying RGD motifs and of sequences mapped on human vitronectin. Our data suggest that osteoblast adhesion on polystyrene plates modified with a linear peptide, in which the GRGDSP sequence is repeated four times, was significantly higher when compared to the adhesion obtained using branched peptides, interestingly containing the same motif. Osteoblast adhesion assays on acellular bone matrix using this active peptide gave very promising results. We also demonstrated that a novel peptide, carrying the X-B-B-B-X-B-B-X motif (where B is a basic amino acid and X is a nonbasic residue), promotes proteoglycan-mediated osteoblast adhesion more efficiently with respect to the KRSR sequence that was recently proposed as heparan-sulfate binding peptide. PMID:11920671

  4. Enzymatic generation of peptides flanked by basic amino acids to obtain MS/MS spectra with 2× sequence coverage

    PubMed Central

    Ebhardt, H Alexander; Nan, Jie; Chaulk, Steven G; Fahlman, Richard P; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra generated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) typically lack redundant peptide sequence information in the form of e.g. b- and y-ion series due to frequent use of sequence-specific endopeptidases cleaving C- or N-terminal to Arg or Lys residues. METHODS Here we introduce arginyl-tRNA protein transferase (ATE, EC 2.3.2.8) for proteomics. ATE recognizes acidic amino acids or oxidized Cys at the N-terminus of a substrate peptide and conjugates an arginine from an aminoacylated tRNAArg onto the N-terminus of the substrate peptide. This enzymatic reaction is carried out under physiological conditions and, in combination with Lys-C/Asp-N double digest, results in arginylated peptides with basic amino acids on both termini. RESULTS We demonstrate that in vitro arginylation of peptides using yeast arginyl tRNA protein transferase 1 (yATE1) is a robust enzymatic reaction, specific to only modifying N-terminal acidic amino acids. Precursors originating from arginylated peptides generally have an increased protonation state compared with their non-arginylated forms. Furthermore, the product ion spectra of arginylated peptides show near complete 2× fragment ladders within the same MS/MS spectrum using commonly available electrospray ionization peptide fragmentation modes. Unexpectedly, arginylated peptides generate complete y- and c-ion series using electron transfer dissociation (ETD) despite having an internal proline residue. CONCLUSIONS We introduce a rapid enzymatic method to generate peptides flanked on either terminus by basic amino acids, resulting in a rich, redundant MS/MS fragment pattern. © 2014 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25380496

  5. Effects of salt concentration on the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Noumi, Yuri; Nakajima, Katsumi; Nagatsuka, Chiharu; Aizawa, Haruko; Nakawaki, Rie; Mizude, Eri; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Homma, Takeshi; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

    2009-11-01

    The reaction between the amino group and the carbonyl group is important in food quality control. Furthermore, advanced glycation end products from foods are considered to relate to aging and diabetes. Thus, it is important to control this reaction. In this study, we investigated the effects of salt concentration on the rates of browning reaction of amino acid, peptides, and proteins. A high concentration of sodium chloride retarded the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids as measured with the absorbance at 470 nm, but did not change the browning rate of Glc with peptides. On the other hand, sodium chloride retarded the browning reaction rate of proteins as measured with polymerization degree or by the loss of Lys. It is hoped that the results of this study will be applied in the control of amino-carbonyl reaction rates in the food industry. PMID:19897911

  6. Kinetics of interaction of vanillin with amino acids and peptides in model systems.

    PubMed

    Chobpattana, W; Jeon, I J; Smith, J S

    2000-09-01

    Model systems were used to study the reaction kinetics of vanillin and pentalysine, lysine, glutathione, cysteine, aspartame, or phenylalanine (molar ratio 1:1) in phosphate buffer. The buffer pH was adjusted to the pK(a)(2) of the available alpha-amino group of each amino acid or peptide. Reductions of vanillin followed first-order kinetics at 55, 65, and 75 degrees C in the presence of each of the amino acids or peptides used. The reaction rates were accelerated as the temperature increased. The rate constants were highest for pentalysine followed by lysine, phenylalanine, glutathione/cysteine, and aspartame. The reduction of phenylalanine followed first-order kinetics, whereas the formation of its reaction product followed zero-order kinetics. The activation energy (E(a)) for the reaction ranged from 5.6 to 14.5 kcal/mol.

  7. A molecular peptide beacon for the ratiometric sensing of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junchen; Zou, Ying; Li, Chunyan; Sicking, Wilhelm; Piantanida, Ivo; Yi, Tao; Schmuck, Carsten

    2012-02-01

    A pyrene-functionalized cationic oligopeptide 1 efficiently binds to double-stranded DNA, as shown by different spectrophotochemical studies. Upon binding, the conformation of 1 changes from a folded to an extended form, which leads to a distinct change in the fluorescence properties. Thus, 1 functions as a molecular peptide beacon, and as it is easily taken up by cells, 1 can also be used for imaging of nucleic acids within cells.

  8. Development of SI-traceable C-peptide certified reference material NMIJ CRM 6901-a using isotope-dilution mass spectrometry-based amino acid analyses.

    PubMed

    Kinumi, Tomoya; Goto, Mari; Eyama, Sakae; Kato, Megumi; Kasama, Takeshi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2012-07-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) is a higher-order calibration material used to enable a traceable analysis. This paper describes the development of a C-peptide CRM (NMIJ CRM 6901-a) by the National Metrology Institute of Japan using two independent methods for amino acid analysis based on isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. C-peptide is a 31-mer peptide that is utilized for the evaluation of β-cell function in the pancreas in clinical testing. This CRM is a lyophilized synthetic peptide having the human C-peptide sequence, and contains deamidated and pyroglutamylated forms of C-peptide. By adding water (1.00 ± 0.01) g into the vial containing the CRM, the C-peptide solution in 10 mM phosphate buffer saline (pH 6.6) is reconstituted. We assigned two certified values that represent the concentrations of total C-peptide (mixture of C-peptide, deamidated C-peptide, and pyroglutamylated C-peptide) and C-peptide. The certified concentration of total C-peptide was determined by two amino acid analyses using pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and hydrophilic chromatography-mass spectrometry following acid hydrolysis. The certified concentration of C-peptide was determined by multiplying the concentration of total C-peptide by the ratio of the relative area of C-peptide to that of the total C-peptide measured by liquid chromatography. The certified value of C-peptide (80.7 ± 5.0) mg/L represents the concentration of the specific entity of C-peptide; on the other hand, the certified value of total C-peptide, (81.7 ± 5.1) mg/L can be used for analyses that does not differentiate deamidated and pyroglutamylated C-peptide from C-peptide itself, such as amino acid analyses and immunochemical assays.

  9. Binding of acylated peptides and fatty acids to phospholipid vesicles: pertinence to myristoylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Peitzsch, R M; McLaughlin, S

    1993-10-01

    We studied the binding of fatty acids and acylated peptides to phospholipid vesicles by making electrophoretic mobility and equilibrium dialysis measurements. The binding energies of the anionic form of the fatty acids and the corresponding acylated glycines were identical; the energies increased by 0.8 kcal/mol per number of carbons in the acyl chain (Ncarbon = 10, 12, 14, 16), a value identical to that for the classical entropy-driven hydrophobic effect discussed by Tanford [The Hydrophobic Effect (1980) Wiley, New York]. The unitary Gibbs free binding energy, delta Gou, of myristoylated glycine, 8 kcal/mol, is independent of the nature of the electrically neutral lipids used to form the vesicles. Similar binding energies were obtained with other myristoylated peptides (e.g., Gly-Ala, Gly-Ala-Ala). The 8 kcal/mol, which corresponds to an effective dissociation constant of 10(-4) M for myristoylated peptides with lipids, provides barely enough energy to attach a myristoylated protein in the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Thus, other factors that reduce (e.g., hydrophobic interaction of myristate with the covalently attached protein) or enhance (e.g., electrostatic interactions of basic residues with acidic lipids; protein-protein interactions with intrinsic receptor proteins) the interaction of myristoylated proteins with membranes are likely to be important and may cause reversible translocation of these proteins to the membrane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Acid-base titration of melanocortin peptides: evidence of Trp rotational conformers interconversion.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto M; Vieira, Renata F F; Nakaie, Clóvis R; Lamy, M Teresa; Ito, Amando S

    2005-01-01

    Tryptophantime-resolved fluorescence was used to monitor acid-base titration properties of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and the biologically more potent analog [Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha -MSH (NDP-MSH), labeled or not with the paramagnetic amino acid probe 2,2,6,6-tetramthylpiperidine-N-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (Toac). Global analysis of fluorescence decay profiles measured in the pH range between 2.0 and 11.0 showed that, for each peptide, the data could be well fitted to three lifetimes whose values remained constant. The less populated short lifetime component changed little with pH and was ascribed to Trp g+ chi1 rotamer, in which electron transfer deactivation predominates over fluorescence. The long and intermediate lifetime preexponential factors interconverted along that pH interval and the result was interpreted as due to interconversion between Trp g- and trans chi1 rotamers, driven by conformational changes promoted by modifications in the ionization state of side-chain residues. The differences in the extent of interconversion in alpha-MSH and NDP-MSH are indicative of structural differences between the peptides, while titration curves suggest structural similarities between each peptide and its Toac-labeled species, in aqueous solution. Though less sensitive than fluorescence, the Toac electron spin resonance (ESR) isotropic hyperfine splitting parameter can also monitor the titration of side-chain residues located relatively far from the probe.

  11. Reaction of chlorine dioxide with amino acids and peptides: kinetics and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, H K; Wheeler, W B; Wei, C I

    1987-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for water treatment. Many organic compounds present in water and food treated with ClO2 are subject to oxidation. 21 amino acids and 3 peptides (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame), L-glycyl-L-tryptophan and L-tryptophylglycine) were studied for their reactivity with ClO2. Chlorine dioxide reacted only with 6 amino acids in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0. The reaction with cysteine, tryptophan and tyrosine was too rapid to be monitored either iodometrically or spectrophotometrically. The reaction with histidine, hydroxyproline and proline was found to be pseudo-first order. ClO2 readily reacted with L-glycyl-L-tryptophan and L-tryptophylglycine but not with aspartame. Mutagenicity studies with the Salmonella microsome assay of the reaction mixtures of ClO2 with those 6 reactive amino acids and the 3 peptides indicated that the reaction products of the 3 peptides, hydroxyproline, and tyrosine exerted mutagenic activity toward both tester strains of TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of rat-liver S9 mix.

  12. Investigating the inclusion properties of aromatic amino acids complexing beta-cyclodextrins in model peptides.

    PubMed

    Caso, Jolanda Valentina; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Malgieri, Gaetano; Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Isernia, Carla; Iacovino, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as complexing agents in biological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications since they have an effect on protein thermal and proteolytic stability, refolding yields, solubility, and taste masking. β-cyclodextrins (β-CD), because of their cavity size are a perfectly suited complexing agent for many common guest moieties. In the case of peptide-cyclodextrin and protein-cyclodextrin host-guest complexes the aromatic amino acids are reported to be the principal responsible of the interaction. For these reasons, we have investigated the inclusion properties of nine designed tripeptides, obtained permuting the position of two L-alanines (Ala, A) with that of one L-tryptophan (Trp, W), L-phenylalanine (Phe, F), or L-tyrosine (Tyr, Y), respectively. Interestingly, the position of the aromatic side-chain in the sequence appears to modulate the β-CD:peptide binding constants, determined via UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy, which in turn assumes values higher than those reported for the single amino acid. The tripeptides containing a tyrosine showed the highest binding constants, with the central position in the Ac-AYA-NH2 peptide becoming the most favorite for the interaction. A combined NMR and Molecular Docking approach permitted to build detailed complex models, highlighting the stabilizing interactions of the neighboring amino acids backbone atoms with the upper rim of the β-CD.

  13. Application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography retention coefficients for predicting peptide elution with TFA and methanesulfonic acid ion-pairing reagents.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, Chad E; Tweed, Joseph; Kadar, Eugene P

    2010-03-01

    Hydrophilic retention coefficients for 17 peptides were calculated based on retention coefficients previously published for TSKgel silica-60 and were compared with the experimental elution profile on a Waters Atlantis HILIC silica column using TFA and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as ion-pairing reagents. Relative peptide retention could be accurately determined with both counter-ions. Peptide retention and chromatographic behavior were influenced by the percent acid modifier used with increases in both retention and peak symmetry observed at increasing modifier concentrations. The enhancement of net peptide polarity through MSA pairing shifted retention out by nearly five-fold for the earliest eluting peptide, compared with TFA. Despite improvements in retention and efficiency (N(eff)) for MSA over TFA, a consistent reduction in calculated selectivity (alpha) was observed. This result is believed to be attributed to the stronger polar contribution of MSA masking and diminishing the underlying influence of the amino acid residues of each associated peptide. Finally, post-column infusion of propionic acid and acetic acid was evaluated for their potential to recover signal intensity for TFA and MSA counter-ions for LC-ESI-MS applications. Acetic acid generally yielded more substantial signal improvements over propionic acid on the TFA system while minimal benefits and some further reductions were noted with MSA.

  14. Formation pathways and opioid activity data for 3-hydroxypyridinium compounds derived from glucuronic acid and opioid peptides by Maillard processes.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Stefica; Roscić, Maja; Lemieux, Carole; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Schiller, Peter W

    2007-07-01

    The kinetics of formation and identity of the reaction products of the glucuronic acid with three representative opioid peptides were investigated in vitro. Peptides were conjugated with glucuronic acid either in solution or under dry-heating conditions. From the incubations performed in solution N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranos-1-yluronic acid)-peptide derivatives (Amadori compounds) were isolated, whereas from the dry-heated reactions products containing the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety at the N-terminal of the peptide chain were obtained. Experiments performed under mild dry-heating conditions (40 degrees C) in model systems based on Leu-enkephalin and glucuronic acid, and in environment of either 40% or 75% relative humidity, revealed that the higher level of humidity promoted a process that enhanced 3-hydroxypyridinium compound generation. The mechanism of 3-hydroxypyridinium formation is discussed. In comparison with their respective parent peptides, the N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranosyl-uronic acid) derivatives of the opioid peptides showed three- to 11-fold lower mu- and delta-receptor-binding affinities and agonist potencies in the functional assays, likely as a consequence of the steric bulk introduced at the N-terminal amino group. The further decrease in opioid activity observed with the 3-hydroxypyridinium-containing peptides may be due to the lower pK(a) of the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety and to delocalization of the positive charge in the pyridinium ring system. PMID:17630992

  15. Remote Enantioselection Transmitted by an Achiral Peptide Nucleic Acid Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, Igor A.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2000-01-01

    short homochiral segment of DNA into a PNA helix could have guaranteed that the next short segment of DNA to be incorporated would have the same handedness as the first. Once two segments of the same handedness were present, the probability that a third segment would have the same handedness would increase, and so on. Evolution could then slowly dilute out the PNA part. This scenario would ultimately allow the formation of a chiral oligonucleotide by processes that are largely resistant to enantiomeric crossinhibition. It is important to note that the ligation of homochiral dinucleotides on a nucleic acid template would probably be at least as enantiospecific as the reaction that we have studied. The disadvantage of using chiral monomers as components of a replicating system arises from the difficulty of generating a first long homochiral template from a racemic mixture of monomers, although results of experiments designed to overcome this difficulty by employing homochiral tetramers have been reported.l l The probability of obtaining a homochiral n-mer from achiral substrates is approximately 1P-I if the nontemplate-directed extension of the primer is not enantioselective. Hence, it would be very hard to get started with a homochiral 40-mer, for example. No such difficulty exists in a scenario that originates with an achiral genetic material and in which the incorporation of very few chiral monomers in this achiral background gradually progresses towards homochirality. It seems possible that some PNA sequences could act as catalysts, analogous to ribozymes, even though PNA lacks clear metal binding sites. Although such catalysts could not be enantioselective, the incorporation of as few as two chiral nucleotides could then impose chiral specificity on the system. Furthermore, such patch chimeras could help to bridge the gap in catalytic potential between PNA and RNA, while guaranteeing enantioselectivity.

  16. Novel tumor-targeting, self-assembling peptide nanofiber as a carrier for effective curcumin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinjian; Xu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yumin; Chu, Liping; Liu, Qingfen; Song, Naling; Yang, Cuihong

    2014-01-01

    The poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin restrict its clinical application for cancer treatment. In this study, a novel tumor-targeting nanofiber carrier was developed to improve the solubility and tumor-targeting ability of curcumin using a self-assembled Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide. The morphologies of the peptide nanofiber and the curcumin-encapsulated nanofiber were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The tumor-targeting activity of the curcumin-encapsulated Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide nanofiber (f-RGD-Cur) was studied in vitro and in vivo, using Nap-GFFYG-RGE peptide nanofiber (f-RGE-Cur) as the control. Curcumin was encapsulated into the peptide nanofiber, which had a diameter of approximately 10–20 nm. Curcumin showed sustained-release behavior from the nanofibers in vitro. f-RGD-Cur showed much higher cellular uptake in αvβ3 integrin-positive HepG2 liver carcinoma cells than did non-targeted f-RGE-Cur, thereby leading to significantly higher cytotoxicity. Ex vivo studies further demonstrated that curcumin could accumulate markedly in mouse tumors after administration of f-RGD-Cur via the tail vein. These results indicate that Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide self-assembled nanofibers are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system for targeted treatment of cancer. PMID:24399876

  17. Targeting B16 tumors in vivo with peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Wilson; Zhang, Xuan; Bekah, Devesh; Teodoro, Jose G.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and peptide conjugation on the biodistribution of ultrasmall (2.7 nm) gold nanoparticles in mice bearing B16 melanoma allografts. Nanoparticles were delivered intravenously, and biodistribution was measured at specific timepoints by organ digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All major organs were examined. Two peptides were tested: the cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD, which targets integrins); and a recently described peptide derived from the myxoma virus. We found the greatest specific tumor delivery using the myxoma peptide, with or without PEGylation. Un-PEGylated cRGD performed poorly, but PEGylated RGD showed a significant transient collection in the tumor. Liver and kidney were the primary targets of all constructs. None of the particles were able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Although it was able to deliver Au to B16 cells, the myxoma peptide did not show any cytotoxic activity against these cells, in contrast to previous reports. These results indicate that the effect of passive targeting by PEGylation and active targeting by peptides can be independent or combined, and that they should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis when designing new nanosystems for targeted therapies. Both myxoma peptide and cRGD should be considered for specific targeting to melanoma, but a thorough investigation of the cytotoxicity of the myxoma peptide to different cell lines remains to be performed.

  18. Osmotic Pressure Simulations of Amino Acids and Peptides Highlight Potential Routes to Protein Force Field Parameterization.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark S; Lay, Wesley K; Elcock, Adrian H

    2016-08-25

    Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins have suggested that common force fields overestimate the strength of amino acid interactions in aqueous solution. In an attempt to determine the causes of these effects, we have measured the osmotic coefficients of a number of amino acids using the AMBER ff99SB-ILDN force field with two popular water models, and compared the results with available experimental data. With TIP4P-Ew water, interactions between aliphatic residues agree well with experiment, but interactions of the polar residues serine and threonine are found to be excessively attractive. For all tested amino acids, the osmotic coefficients are lower when the TIP3P water model is used. Additional simulations performed on charged amino acids indicate that the osmotic coefficients are strongly dependent on the parameters assigned to the salt ions, with a reparameterization of the sodium/carboxylate interaction reported by the Aksimentiev group significantly improving description of the osmotic coefficient for glutamate. For five neutral amino acids, we also demonstrate a decrease in solute-solute attractions using the recently reported TIP4P-D water model and using the KBFF force field. Finally, we show that for four two-residue peptides improved agreement with experiment can be achieved by rederiving the partial charges for each peptide. PMID:27052117

  19. Ribosomal Synthesis of Macrocyclic Peptides in Vitro and in Vivo Mediated by Genetically Encoded Amino-Thiol Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Frost, John R.; Jacob, Nicholas T.; Papa, Louis J.; Owens, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A versatile method for orchestrating the formation of side-chain-to-tail cyclic peptides from ribosomally derived polypeptide precursors is reported. Upon ribosomal incorporation into intein-containing precursor proteins, designer unnatural amino acids bearing side-chain 1,3- or 1,2-aminothiol functionalities are able to promote the cyclization of a downstream target peptide sequence via a C-terminal ligation/ring contraction mechanism. Using this approach, peptide macrocycles of variable size and composition could be generated in a pH-triggered manner in vitro, or directly in living bacterial cells. This methodology furnishes a new platform for the creation and screening of genetically encoded libraries of conformationally constrained peptides. This strategy was applied to identify and isolate a low micromolar streptavidin binder (KD = 1.1 µM) from a library of cyclic peptides produced in E. coli, thereby illustrating its potential toward aiding the discovery of functional peptide macrocycles. PMID:25933125

  20. Engineered peptide-based nanobiomaterials for electrochemical cell chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafi, Md. Abdul; Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials having cell adhesion ability are considered to be integral part of a cell chip. A number of researches have been carried out to search for a suitable material for effective immobilization of cell on substrate. Engineered ECM materials or their components like collagen, Poly- l-Lysine (PLL), Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide have been extensively used for mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation with the aim of tissue regeneration or cell based sensing application. This review focuses on the various approaches for two- and three-dimensionally patterned nanostructures of a short peptide i.e. RGD peptide on chip surfaces together with their effects on cell behaviors and electrochemical measurements. Most of the study concluded with positive remarks on the well-oriented engineered RGD peptide over their homogenous thin film. The engineered RGD peptide not only influences cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation but also their periodic nano-arrays directly influence electrochemical measurements of the chips. The electrochemical signals found to be enhanced when RGD peptides were used in well-defined two-dimensional nano-arrays. The topographic alteration of three-dimensional structure of engineered RGD peptide was reported to be suitably contacted with the integrin receptors of cellular membrane which results indicated the enhanced cell-electrode adhesion and efficient electron exchange phenomenon. This enhanced electrochemical signal increases the sensitivity of the chip against the target analytes. Therefore, development of engineered cellular recognizable peptides and its 3D topological design for fabrication of cell chip will provide the synergetic effect on bio-affinity, sensitivity and accuracy for the in situ real-time monitoring of analytes.

  1. Improving Tumor-Targeting Capability and Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers with PEG4 Linkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Jia, Bing; Zhao, Huiyun; Liu, Zhaofei; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) conjugates, HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; 2PEG4-dimer = E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2; and PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (3PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), and evaluation of their 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-2PEG4-dimer: TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) and [99mTc(HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-3PEG4-dimer) as novel radiotracers for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer xenografts. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinities of RGD peptides were determined by competitive displacement of 125I-c(RGDyK) on U87MG glioma cells. It was found that the two PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs in HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.5 nM) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.4 ± 0.7 nM) are responsible for their higher integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than that of HYNIC-PEG4-dimer (PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2; IC50 = 7.5 ± 2.3 nM). Addition of extra PEG4 linker in HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer has little impact on integrin αvβ3 binding affinity. 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer were prepared in high yield with >95% radiochemical purity and the specific activity of > 10 Ci/μmol. Biodistribution studies clearly demonstrated that PEG4 linkers are particularly useful for improving the tumor uptake and clearance kinetics of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer from non-cancerous organs. It was also found that there was a linear relationship between the tumor size and radiotracer tumor uptake expressed as %ID (percentage of the injected dose) in U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor models. The blocking experiment showed that the tumor uptake of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer is integrin αvβ3-mediated. In the metabolism study, 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer had high metabolic stability during its excretion from renal and hepatobiliary routes

  2. Update of PROFEAT: a web server for computing structural and physicochemical features of proteins and peptides from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Rao, H B; Zhu, F; Yang, G B; Li, Z R; Chen, Y Z

    2011-07-01

    Sequence-derived structural and physicochemical features have been extensively used for analyzing and predicting structural, functional, expression and interaction profiles of proteins and peptides. PROFEAT has been developed as a web server for computing commonly used features of proteins and peptides from amino acid sequence. To facilitate more extensive studies of protein and peptides, numerous improvements and updates have been made to PROFEAT. We added new functions for computing descriptors of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions, segment descriptors for local properties of protein sequences, topological descriptors for peptide sequences and small molecule structures. We also added new feature groups for proteins and peptides (pseudo-amino acid composition, amphiphilic pseudo-amino acid composition, total amino acid properties and atomic-level topological descriptors) as well as for small molecules (atomic-level topological descriptors). Overall, PROFEAT computes 11 feature groups of descriptors for proteins and peptides, and a feature group of more than 400 descriptors for small molecules plus the derived features for protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. Our computational algorithms have been extensively tested and used in a number of published works for predicting proteins of specific structural or functional classes, protein-protein interactions, peptides of specific functions and quantitative structure activity relationships of small molecules. PROFEAT is accessible free of charge at http://bidd.cz3.nus.edu.sg/cgi-bin/prof/protein/profnew.cgi.

  3. RGD-TPGS decorated theranostic liposomes for brain targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Sonali; Singh, Rahul Pratap; Sharma, Gunjan; Kumari, Lakshmi; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Sanjay; Bharti, Shreekant; Rajinikanth, Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L; Muthu, Madaswamy S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate RGD-TPGS decorated theranostic liposomes, which contain both docetaxel (DTX) and quantum dots (QDs) for brain cancer imaging and therapy. RGD conjugated TPGS (RGD-TPGS) was synthesized and conjugation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The theranostic liposomes were prepared by the solvent injection method and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, zeta-potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and in-vitro release study. Biocompatibility and safety of theranostic liposomes were studied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation study and histopathology of brain. In-vivo study was performed for determination of brain theranostic effects in comparison with marketed formulation (Docel™) and free QDs. The particle sizes of the non-targeted and targeted theranostic liposomes were found in between 100 and 200nm. About 70% of drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved with liposomes. The drug release from RGD-TPGS decorated liposomes was sustained for more than 72h with 80% of drug release. The in-vivo results demonstrated that RGD-TPGS decorated theranostic liposomes were 6.47- and 6.98-fold more effective than Docel™ after 2h and 4h treatments, respectively. Further, RGD-TPGS decorated theranostic liposomes has reduced ROS generation effectively, and did not show any signs of brain damage or edema in brain histopathology. The results of this study have indicated that RGD-TPGS decorated theranostic liposomes are promising carrier for brain theranostics.

  4. Differentiating N-terminal aspartic and isoaspartic acid residues in peptides.

    PubMed

    Sargaeva, Nadezda P; Lin, Cheng; O'Connor, Peter B

    2011-09-01

    Formation of isoaspartic acid (isoAsp) is a common modification of aspartic acid (Asp) or asparagine (Asn) residue in proteins. Differentiation of isoAsp and Asp residues is a challenging task owing to their similar properties and identical molecular mass. It was recently shown that they can be differentiated using ion-electron or ion-ion interaction fragmentation methods (ExD) because these methods provide diagnostic fragments c + 57 and z(•) - 57 specific to the isoAsp residue. To date, however, the presence of such fragments has not been explored on peptides with an N-terminal isoAsp residue. To address this question, several N-terminal isoAsp-containing peptides were analyzed using ExD methods alone or combined with chromatography. A diagnostic fragment [M + 2H - 74](+•) was observed for the doubly charged precursor ions with N-terminal isoAsp residues. For some peptides, identification of the N-terminal isoAsp residue was challenging because of the low diagnostic ion peak intensity and the presence of interfering peaks. Supplemental activation was used to improve diagnostic ion detection. Further, N-terminal acetylation was offered as a means to overcome the interference problem by shifting the diagnostic fragment peak to [M + 2H - 116](+•).

  5. The Perseus Exobiology mission on MIR: behaviour of amino acids and peptides in Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Boillot, F; Chabin, A; Buré, C; Venet, M; Belsky, A; Bertrand-Urbaniak, M; Delmas, A; Brack, A; Barbier, B

    2002-08-01

    Leucine, alpha-methyl leucine and two peptides were exposed to space conditions on board the MIR station during the Perseus-Exobiology mission. This long duration space mission was aimed at testing the delivery of prebiotic building blocks. During this mission, two amino acids (leucine and alpha-methyl leucine) and two peptides (leucine-diketopiperazine and trileucine thioethylester) were exposed in Earth orbit for three months. Basalt, clay and meteorite powder were also mixed with the samples in order to simulate the effects of potential meteorite protection. Analysis of the material after the flight did not reveal any racemization or polymerisation but did provide information regarding photochemical pathways for the degradation of leucine and of the tripeptide. Amino acids appeared to be more sensitive to UV radiation than peptides, the cyclic dipeptide being found to be as particularly resistant. Meteorite powder which exhibits the highest absorption in Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) afforded the best protection to the organic molecules whereas montmorillonite clay, almost transparent in VUV, was the least efficient. By varying the thickness of the meteorite, we found that the threshold for efficient protection against radiation was about 5 microm. The possible exogenous origin of biological building blocks is discussed with respect to the stability to the molecules and the nature of the associated minerals.

  6. The Perseus Exobiology Mission on MIR: Behaviour of Amino Acids and Peptides in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boillot, F.; Chabin, A.; Buré, C.; Venet, M.; Belsky, A.; Bertrand-Urbaniak, M.; Delmas, A.; Brack, A.; Barbier, B.

    2002-08-01

    Leucine, α-methyl leucine and two peptides were exposed to space conditions on board the MIR station during the Perseus-Exobiology mission. This long duration space mission was aimed at testing the delivery of prebiotic building blocks. During this mission, two amino acids (leucine and α-methyl leucine) and two peptides (leucine-diketopiperazine and trileucine thioethylester) were exposed in Earth orbit for three months. Basalt, clay and meteorite powder were also mixed with the samples in order to simulate the effects of potential meteorite protection. Analysis of the material after the flight did not reveal any racemization or polymerisation but did provide information regarding photochemical pathways for the degradation of leucine and of the tripeptide. Amino acids appeared to be more sensitive to UV radiation than peptides, the cyclic dipeptide being found to be as particularly resistant. Meteorite powder which exhibits the highest absorption in Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) afforded the best protection to the organic molecules whereas montmorillonite clay, almost transparent in VUV, was the least efficient. By varying the thickness of the meteorite, we found that the threshold for efficient protection against radiation was about 5 μm. The possible exogenous origin of biological building blocks is discussed with respect to the stability to the molecules and the nature of the associated minerals.

  7. Protein fatty acid acylation: enzymatic synthesis of an N-myristoylglycyl peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-05-01

    Incubation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain JR153 with either (/sup 3/H)myristate or (/sup 3/H)palmitate demonstrates the synthesis of proteins that contain covalently bound fatty acids. A unique set of proteins is labeled by each fatty acid. Detailed analysis of a 20-kDa protein labeled with myristic acid demonstrates that myristate is linked to the amino-terminal glycine. We describe an enzymatic activity in yeast that will transfer myristic acid to the amino terminus of the octapeptide Gly-Asn-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Arg-Arg, whose sequence was derived from a known N-myristoylated acyl protein, the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase of bovine cardiac muscle. The acylation reaction is dependent on ATP and CoA, is enriched in a crude membrane fraction, and will use myristate but not palmitate as the acyl donor. Specificity of the glycyl peptide substrate is demonstrated by the observation that other glycyl peptides do not competitively inhibit myristoylation of Gly-Asn-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Arg-Arg.

  8. A new antifungal peptide from the seeds of Phytolacca americana: characterization, amino acid sequence and cDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Shao, F; Hu, Z; Xiong, Y M; Huang, Q Z; WangCG; Zhu, R H; Wang, D C

    1999-03-19

    An antifungal peptide from seeds of Phytolacca americana, designated PAFP-s, has been isolated. The peptide is highly basic and consists of 38 residues with three disulfide bridges. Its molecular mass of 3929.0 was determined by mass spectrometry. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained from automated Edman degradation, and cDNA cloning was successfully performed by 3'-RACE. The deduced amino acid sequence of a partial cDNA corresponded to the amino acid sequence from chemical sequencing. PAFP-s exhibited a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, and its activities differed among various fungi. PAFP-s displayed no inhibitory activity towards Escherichia coli. PAFP-s shows significant sequence similarities and the same cysteine motif with Mj-AMPs, antimicrobial peptides from seeds of Mirabilis jalapa belonging to the knottin-type antimicrobial peptide.

  9. Boronic acid functionalized peptidyl synthetic lectins: Combinatorial library design, peptide sequencing, and selective glycoprotein recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bicker, Kevin L.; Sun, Jing; Lavigne, John J.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of cell membrane and secreted glycoproteins is a hallmark of various disease states, including cancer. The natural lectins currently used in the recognition of these glycoproteins are costly, difficult to produce, and unstable towards rigorous use. Herein we describe the design and synthesis of several boronic acid functionalized peptide-based synthetic lectin (SL) libraries, as well as the optimized methodology for obtaining peptide sequences of these SLs. SL libraries were subsequently used to identify SLs with as high as 5-fold selectivity for various glycoproteins. SLs will inevitably find a role in cancer diagnositics, given that they do not suffer from the drawbacks of natural lectins and that the combinatorial nature of these libraries allows for the identification of an SL for nearly any glycosylated biomolecule. PMID:21405093

  10. Programmable Multivalent Display of Receptor Ligands using Peptide Nucleic Acid Nanoscaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Ethan A.; Wang, Deyun; Fujigaki, Hidetsugu; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Micklitsch, Christopher M.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Martin-Manso, Gema; Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.; Durell, Stewart R.; Appella, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Multivalent effects dictate the binding affinity of multiple ligands on one molecular entity to receptors. Integrins are receptors that mediate cell attachment through multivalent binding to peptide sequences within the extracellular matrix, and overexpression promotes the metastasis of some cancers. Multivalent display of integrin antagonists enhances their efficacy, but current scaffolds have limited ranges and precision for the display of ligands. Here we present an approach to study multivalent effects across wide ranges of ligand number, density, and three-dimensional arrangement. Using L-lysine γ-substituted peptide nucleic acids, the multivalent effects of an integrin antagonist were examined over a range of 1 to 45 ligands. The optimal construct improves the inhibitory activity of the antagonist by two orders of magnitude against the binding of melanoma cells to the extracellular matrix in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22233624

  11. Thioacetic acid/NaSH-mediated synthesis of N-protected amino thioacids and their utility in peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sachitanand M; Gopi, Hosahudya N

    2014-03-21

    Thioacids are recently gaining momentum due to their versatile reactivity. The reactivity of thioacids has been widely explored in the selective amide/peptide bond formation. Thioacids are generally synthesized from the reaction between activated carboxylic acids such as acid chlorides, active esters, etc., and Na2S, H2S, or NaSH. We sought to investigate whether the versatile reactivity of the thioacids can be tuned for the conversion of carboxylic acids into corresponding thioacids in the presence of NaSH. Herein, we report that thioacetic acid- and NaSH-mediated synthesis of N-protected amino thioacids from the corresponding N-protected amino acids, oxidative dimerization of thioacids, crystal conformations of thioacid oxidative dimers, and the utility of thioacids and oxidative dimers in peptide synthesis. Our results suggest that peptides can be synthesized without using standard coupling agents.

  12. Formation of peptides from amino acids by single or multiple additions of ATP to suspensions of nucleoproteinoid microparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of peptides from individual amino acids or pairs of amino acids and ATP in the presence of catalysis by nucleoproteinoid microparticles is investigated. Experiments were performed with suspensions formed from the condensation of lysine-rich and acidic proteinoids with polyadenylic acid, to which were added glycine, phenylalanine, proline, lysine or glycine-phenylalanine mixtures, and ATP either at once or serially. Peptide yields are found to be greatest for equal amounts of acidic and basic proteinoids. The addition of imidazole is found to alter the preference of glycine-phenylalanine mixtures to form mixed heteropeptides rather than homopeptides. A rapid ATP decay in the peptide synthesis reaction is observed, and a greater yield is obtained for repeated small additions than for a single addition of ATP. The experimental system has properties similar to modern cells, and represents an organizational unit ready for the evolution of associated biochemical pathways.

  13. Efficient targeting of adenoviral vectors to integrin positive vascular cells utilizing a CAR-cyclic RGD linker protein.

    PubMed

    Krom, Y D; Gras, J C E; Frants, R R; Havekes, L M; van Berkel, T J; Biessen, E A L; van Dijk, K Willems

    2005-12-16

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC) are particularly resistant to infection by type 5 adenovirus (Ad) vectors. To overcome this limitation and target Ad vectors to ubiquitously expressed alpha(V)beta(3/5) integrins, we have generated a linker protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) connected via avidin to a biotinylated cyclic (c) RGD peptide. After optimization of CAR to cRGD and to Ad coupling, infection of mouse heart endothelial cells (H5V) could be augmented significantly, as demonstrated by 600-fold increased transgene expression levels. In EOMAs, a hemangioendothelioma-derived cell line, the fraction of infected cells was enhanced 4- to 6-fold. Furthermore, the fraction of infected primary mouse VSMC was increased from virtually 0% to 25%. Finally, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the number of GFP positive cells was enhanced from 2% to 75%. In conclusion, CAR-cRGD is a versatile and highly efficient construct to target Ad vectors to both transformed and primary VSMC and EC.

  14. Synthesis of stable C-linked ferrocenyl amino acids and their use in solution-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anijamol T; Chacko, Shibin; Ramapanicker, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Incorporation of ferrocenyl group to peptides is an efficient method to alter their hydrophobicity. Ferrocenyl group can also act as an electrochemical probe when incorporated onto functional peptides. Most often, ferrocene is incorporated onto peptides post-synthesis via amide, ester or triazole linkages. Stable amino acids containing ferrocene as a C-linked side chain are potentially useful building units for the synthesis of ferrocene-containing peptides. We report here an efficient route to synthesize ferrocene-containing amino acids that are stable and can be used in peptide synthesis. Coupling of 2-ferrocenyl-1,3-dithiane and iodides derived from aspartic acid or glutamic acid using n-butyllithium leads to the incorporation of a ferrocenyl unit to the δ-position or ε-position of an α-amino acid. The reduction or hydrolysis of the dithiane group yields an alkyl or an oxo derivative. The usability of the synthesized amino acids is demonstrated by incorporating one of the amino acids in both C-terminus and N-terminus of tripeptides in solution phase.

  15. Solvation thermodynamics of amino acid side chains on a short peptide backbone

    SciTech Connect

    Hajari, Timir; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der

    2015-04-14

    The hydration process of side chain analogue molecules differs from that of the actual amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins owing to the effects of the peptide backbone on the aqueous solvent environment. A recent molecular simulation study has provided evidence that all nonpolar side chains, attached to a short peptide backbone, are considerably less hydrophobic than the free side chain analogue molecules. In contrast to this, the hydrophilicity of the polar side chains is hardly affected by the backbone. To analyze the origin of these observations, we here present a molecular simulation study on temperature dependent solvation free energies of nonpolar and polar side chains attached to a short peptide backbone. The estimated solvation entropies and enthalpies of the various amino acid side chains are compared with existing side chain analogue data. The solvation entropies and enthalpies of the polar side chains are negative, but in absolute magnitude smaller compared with the corresponding analogue data. The observed differences are large; however, owing to a nearly perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, the solvation free energies of polar side chains remain largely unaffected by the peptide backbone. We find that a similar compensation does not apply to the nonpolar side chains; while the backbone greatly reduces the unfavorable solvation entropies, the solvation enthalpies are either more favorable or only marginally affected. This results in a very small unfavorable free energy cost, or even free energy gain, of solvating the nonpolar side chains in strong contrast to solvation of small hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules in bulk water. The solvation free energies of nonpolar side chains have been furthermore decomposed into a repulsive cavity formation contribution and an attractive dispersion free energy contribution. We find that cavity formation next to the peptide backbone is entropically favored over formation of similar sized nonpolar side

  16. Cell adhesion on a polymerized peptide-amphiphile monolayer.

    PubMed

    Biesalski, Markus A; Knaebel, Alexandra; Tu, Raymond; Tirrell, Matthew

    2006-03-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a stable polymerized monolayer of peptide-amphihiles on a planar solid support that promotes mouse fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading. Peptide-amphiphiles consisting of a polymerizable fatty acid attached to a short RGD containing peptide sequence are self-assembled and polymerized at the water-air interface by means of the Langmuir- Blodgett technique. The surface concentration of the peptide-amphiphile is varied by co-spreading the peptide-amphiphile with an analogous non-modified polymerizable amphiphile at the water/air interface, prior to UV light-induced polymerization. The polymerized monolayer is transferred onto a hydrophobized smooth mica surface and the resulting surfaces have been investigated with respect to directing the cell adhesion and spreading of mouse fibroblast cells in a serum-free medium. Fibroblast cells adhere and spread on surfaces exposing the bioactive ligand but do not spread on reference surfaces without peptide. We find a maximum number of adherent cells at rather high peptide surface concentrations of about 10 mol% in the mixed monolayer, equivalent to more than 50 pmol/cm2 peptide on the surface of the film. We attribute this finding to a limited accessibility of the ligands by the integrins. Because of the stability of the polymerized peptide-amphiphile monolayer, these surfaces can be re-seeded multiple times with cells, i.e. adherent cells can be removed from the surface, the surface can be sterilized and cells can be re-attached. PMID:16157369

  17. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  18. Highly efficient peptide formation from N-acetylaminoacyl-AMP anhydride and free amino acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of formation of the N-blocked dipeptide, N-acetylglycylglycine, from N-acetylglycyl adenylate anhydride and glycine in aqueous solution at 25 C, and at various PH's are reported. The reaction is of interest in that over a physiologically relevant pH range (6-8), peptide synthesis proceeds more rapidly than hydrolysis, even at those pH's at which this compound becomes increasingly susceptible to base-catalyzed hydrolysis. Under similar conditions, the corresponding unblocked aminoacyl adenylate anhydrides are considerably more unstable, and undergo appreciable hydrlysis in the presence of free amino acid. Because N-blocked aminoacyl adenylate anhydrides serve as model compounds of peptidyl adenylate anhydrides, these results suggest that primitive amino acid polymerization systems may have operated by cyclic reactivation of the peptidyl carboxyl group, rather than that of the incoming amino acid.

  19. Detection of peptidic sequences in the ancient acidic sediments of Río Tinto, Spain.

    PubMed

    Colín-García, María; Kanawati, Basem; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; García, Miriam; Fernández-Remolar, David

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers are molecules that are produced by or can be associated with biological activities. They can be used as tracers that give us an idea of the ancient biological communities that produced them, the paleoenvironmental conditions where they lived, or the mechanism involved in their transformation and preservation. As a consequence, the preservation potential of molecules over time depends largely on their nature, but also on the conditions of the environment, which controls the decomposition kinetics. In this context, proteins and nucleic acids, which are biomolecules bearing biological information, are among the most labile molecules. In this research, we report the presence of short-chained peptides obtained from extracts of ferruginous sedimentary deposits that have been produced under the acidic and oxidizing solutions of Río Tinto, Spain. These preliminary results go against the paradigmatic idea that considers the acidic and oxidizing environments inappropriate for the preservation of molecular information.

  20. Interfacial self-assembly of amino acids and peptides: Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yibiao; Zhang, Xueji

    2011-12-01

    Proteins play important roles in human daily life. To take advantage of the lessons learned from nature, it is essential to investigate the self-assembly of subunits of proteins, i.e., amino acids and polypeptides. Due to its high resolution and versatility of working environment, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a powerful tool for studying interfacial molecular assembly structures. This review is intended to reflect the progress in studying interfacial self-assembly of amino acids and peptides by STM. In particular, we focus on environment-induced polymorphism, chiral recognition, and coadsorption behavior with molecular templates. These studies would be highly beneficial to research endeavors exploring the mechanism and nanoscale-controlling molecular assemblies of amino acids and polypeptides on surfaces, understanding the origin of life, unravelling the essence of disease at the molecular level and deeming what is necessary for the ``bottom-up'' nanofabrication of molecular devices and biosensors being constructed with useful properties and desired performance.

  1. Folic acid administration inhibits amyloid β-peptide accumulation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Liu, Huan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Meilin; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with malnutrition, altered one-carbon metabolism and increased hippocampal amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation. Aberrant DNA methylation may be an epigenetic mechanism that underlies AD pathogenesis. We hypothesized that folic acid acts through an epigenetic gene silencing mechanism to lower Aβ levels in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD. APP/PS1 mice were fed either folate-deficient or control diets and gavaged daily with 120 μg/kg folic acid, 13.3mg/kg S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or both. Examination of the mice after 60 days of treatment showed that serum folate concentration increased with intake of folic acid but not SAM. Folate deficiency lowered endogenous SAM concentration, whereas neither intervention altered S-adenosylhomocysteine concentration. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity increased with intake of folic acid raised DNMT activity in folate-deficient mice. DNA methylation rate was stimulated by folic acid in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) promoter and in the presenilin 1 (PS1) promoter. Folate deficiency elevated hippocampal APP, PS1 and Aβ protein levels, and these rises were prevented by folic acid. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with a mechanism in which folic acid increases methylation potential and DNMT activity, modifies DNA methylation and ultimately decreases APP, PS1 and Aβ protein levels.

  2. Stereochemical Sequence Ion Selectivity: Proline versus Pipecolic-acid-containing Protonated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Guan, Shanshan; Bythell, Benjamin J.

    2016-10-01

    Substitution of proline by pipecolic acid, the six-membered ring congener of proline, results in vastly different tandem mass spectra. The well-known proline effect is eliminated and amide bond cleavage C-terminal to pipecolic acid dominates instead. Why do these two ostensibly similar residues produce dramatically differing spectra? Recent evidence indicates that the proton affinities of these residues are similar, so are unlikely to explain the result [Raulfs et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 1705-1715 (2014)]. An additional hypothesis based on increased flexibility was also advocated. Here, we provide a computational investigation of the "pipecolic acid effect," to test this and other hypotheses to determine if theory can shed additional light on this fascinating result. Our calculations provide evidence for both the increased flexibility of pipecolic-acid-containing peptides, and structural changes in the transition structures necessary to produce the sequence ions. The most striking computational finding is inversion of the stereochemistry of the transition structures leading to "proline effect"-type amide bond fragmentation between the proline/pipecolic acid-congeners: R (proline) to S (pipecolic acid). Additionally, our calculations predict substantial stabilization of the amide bond cleavage barriers for the pipecolic acid congeners by reduction in deleterious steric interactions and provide evidence for the importance of experimental energy regime in rationalizing the spectra.

  3. Wide range of racemization of amino acids in peptides from human fossil bone and its implications for amino acid racemization dating

    SciTech Connect

    Kimber, R.W.L.; Hare, P.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Aspartic acid from an HCl hydrolyzed portion of 20-25th Dynasty Egyptian bone gave a D/L value of 0.28. Various peptide and molecular weight fractions separated before hydrolysis from another aliquot of the same bone portion yielded D/L aspartic acid values ranging from 0.09 to 0.68. Higher molecular weight and higher content of hydrophobic amino acids are factors leading to lower D/L aspartic acid values. Insoluble, high molecular weight polypeptide residues showed very low D/L aspartic acid values of 0.09. The authors propose that particularly stable peptides be isolated and characterized and then used for comparison with similarly isolated peptides from other fossil bone samples for purposes of age estimation.

  4. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide.

    PubMed

    Abushahba, Mostafa Fn; Mohammad, Haroon; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK) in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA) required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations) in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin). This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27434684

  5. The chain length of biologically produced (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid affects biological activity and structure of anti-cancer peptides.

    PubMed

    Szwej, Emilia; Devocelle, Marc; Kenny, Shane; Guzik, Maciej; O'Connor, Stephen; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Byrne, Annete T; Gallagher, William M; Zulian, Qun Ren; Zinn, Manfred; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-06-20

    Conjugation of DP18L peptide with (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, derived from the biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate, enhances its anti-cancer activity (O'Connor et al., 2013. Biomaterials 34, 2710-2718). However, it is unknown if other (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R3HAs) can enhance peptide activity, if chain length affects enhancement, and what effect R3HAs have on peptide structure. Here we show that the degree of enhancement of peptide (DP18L) anti-cancer activity by R3HAs is carbon chain length dependent. In all but one example the R3HA conjugated peptides were more active against cancer cells than the unconjugated peptides. However, R3HAs with 9 and 10 carbons were most effective at improving DP18L activity. DP18L peptide variant DP17L, missing a hydrophobic amino acid (leucine residue 4) exhibited lower efficacy against MiaPaCa cells. Circular dichroism analysis showed DP17L had a lower alpha helix content and the conjugation of any R3HA ((R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid to (R)-3-hydroxydodecanoic acid) to DP17L returned the helix content back to levels of DP18L. However (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic did not enhance the anti-cancer activity of DP17L and at least 7 carbons were needed in the R3HA to enhance activity of D17L. DP17L needs a longer chain R3HA to achieve the same activity as DP18L conjugated to an R3HA. As a first step to assess the synthetic potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate derived R3HAs, (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid was synthetically converted to (±)3-chlorodecanoic acid, which when conjugated to DP18L improved its antiproliferative activity against MiaPaCa cells.

  6. Cα-C bond cleavage of the peptide backbone in MALDI in-source decay using salicylic acid derivative matrices.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of 5-formylsalicylic acid (5-FSA) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as novel matrices for in-source decay (ISD) of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is described. The use of 5-FSA and 5-NSA generated a- and x-series ions accompanied by oxidized peptides [M - 2 H + H](+). The preferential formation of a- and x-series ions was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-accepting ability of matrix. The hydrogen-accepting ability estimated from the ratio of signal intensity of oxidized product [M - 2 H + H](+) to that of non-oxidized protonated molecule [M + H](+) of peptide was of the order 5-NSA > 5-FSA > 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) ≒ 2,5-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) ≒ 0. The results suggest that the hydrogen transfer reaction from peptide to 5-FSA and 5-NSA occurs during the MALDI-ISD processes. The hydrogen abstraction from peptides results in the formation of oxidized peptides containing a radical site on the amide nitrogen with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the Cα-C bond, leading to the formation of a- and x-series ions. The most significant feature of MALDI-ISD with 5-FSA and 5-NSA is the specific cleavage of the Cα-C bond of the peptide backbone without degradation of side-chain and post-translational modifications (PTM). The matrix provides a useful complementary method to conventional MALDI-ISD for amino acid sequencing and site localization of PTMs in peptides.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of radiometal-containing peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Holger; Foerster, Christian; Gasser, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have very attractive properties for applications in nuclear medicine. Because PNAs have high selectivity for DNA/RNA recognition, resistance to nuclease/protease degradation, and high thermal and radiolytic stabilities, PNA bioconjugates could transform the areas of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. In this book chapter, we report on the current developments towards the preparation of radiometal-containing PNA constructs and summarize the protocols for labeling these probes with (99m)Tc, (111)In, (64)Cu, (90)Y, and (177)Lu.

  8. Incorporation of Naked Peptide Nucleic Acids into Liposomes Leads to Fast and Efficient Delivery.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Concetta; Accardo, Antonella; Ringhieri, Paola; Morelli, Giancarlo; Saviano, Michele; Montagner, Giulia; Fabbri, Enrica; Gallerani, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-19

    The delivery of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to cells is a very challenging task. We report here that a liposomal formulation composed of egg PC/cholesterol/DSPE-PEG2000 can be loaded, according to different encapsulation techniques, with PNA or fluorescent PNA oligomers. PNA loaded liposomes efficiently and quickly promote the uptake of a PNA targeting the microRNA miR-210 in human erythroleukemic K562 cells. By using this innovative delivery system for PNA, down-regulation of miR-210 is achieved at a low PNA concentration.

  9. Binding of Eu(III) to 1,2-hydroxypyridinone-modified peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Arnie R; Olatunde, Abiola O; Morrow, Janet R; Achim, Catalina

    2012-12-01

    Substitution of a nucleobase pair with a pair of 1,2-hydroxypyridinone (1,2-HOPO) ligands in the center of a 10-base-pair peptide nucleic acid (PNA) duplex provides a strong binding site for Eu(III) as evidenced by UV thermal melting curves, UV titrations, and luminescence spectroscopy. Eu(III) excitation spectra and luminescence lifetime data are consistent with Eu(III) bound to both 1,2 HOPO ligands in a PNA-HOPO duplex as the major species present in solution.

  10. Incorporation of Naked Peptide Nucleic Acids into Liposomes Leads to Fast and Efficient Delivery.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Concetta; Accardo, Antonella; Ringhieri, Paola; Morelli, Giancarlo; Saviano, Michele; Montagner, Giulia; Fabbri, Enrica; Gallerani, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-19

    The delivery of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to cells is a very challenging task. We report here that a liposomal formulation composed of egg PC/cholesterol/DSPE-PEG2000 can be loaded, according to different encapsulation techniques, with PNA or fluorescent PNA oligomers. PNA loaded liposomes efficiently and quickly promote the uptake of a PNA targeting the microRNA miR-210 in human erythroleukemic K562 cells. By using this innovative delivery system for PNA, down-regulation of miR-210 is achieved at a low PNA concentration. PMID:26176882

  11. Sequence selective recognition of double-stranded RNA using triple helix-forming peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Zengeya, Thomas; Gupta, Pankaj; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are attractive targets for molecular recognition because of the central role they play in gene expression. Since most noncoding RNAs are in a double-helical conformation, recognition of such structures is a formidable problem. Herein, we describe a method for sequence-selective recognition of biologically relevant double-helical RNA (illustrated on ribosomal A-site RNA) using peptide nucleic acids (PNA) that form a triple helix in the major grove of RNA under physiologically relevant conditions. Protocols for PNA preparation and binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry are described in detail.

  12. Sequence selective double strand DNA cleavage by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting using nuclease S1.

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, V; Frank-Kamenetskii, M D; Egholm, M; Buchardt, O; Nielsen, P E

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for sequence specific double strand DNA cleavage using PNA (peptide nucleic acid) targeting is described. Nuclease S1 digestion of double stranded DNA gives rise to double strand cleavage at an occupied PNA strand displacement binding site, and under optimized conditions complete cleavage can be obtained. The efficiency of this cleavage is more than 10 fold enhanced when a tandem PNA site is targeted, and additionally enhanced if this site is in trans rather than in cis orientation. Thus in effect, the PNA targeting makes the single strand specific nuclease S1 behave like a pseudo restriction endonuclease. Images PMID:8502550

  13. Introduction of multiphosphonate ligand to peptide nucleic acid for metal ion conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuichiro; Honda, Yuta; Han, Yue; Komiyama, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is one of the most widely used synthetic DNA analogs. Conjugation of functional molecules to PNA is very effective to further widen its potential applications. For this purpose, here we report the synthesis of several ligand monomers and introduced them to PNA. These ligand-modified PNAs attract cerium ion and are useful for site-selective DNA hydrolysis. It should be noted that these ligands on PNA are also effective even under the conditions of invasion complex. PMID:22772037

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity in vitro of new amino acids and peptides containing thiazole and oxazole moieties.

    PubMed

    Stanchev, M; Tabakova, S; Videnov, G; Golovinsky, E; Jung, G

    1999-09-01

    2-(Pyrrolidinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid 5d, 2-(1-aminoalkyl)thiazole-4-carboxamides and hydrazides 8, 10 have been synthesized using alanine, valine, and proline as educts. In addition oxazole amino acids derived from leucine 20a and alanine 20b and some peptides 13, 14, 16 containing the 5-ring heterocyclic backbone modifications have been prepared. The thiazole and oxazole containing amino acids and peptides showed moderate antibacterial activity in vitro against various Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, etc.) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Protens vulgaris, etc.) bacteria, fungi (Candida albicans), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae, etc.). PMID:10520298

  15. Differentiating amino acid residues and side chain orientations in peptides using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Shelley A; Thomas, John C; Silverman, Miles A; Schwartz, Jeffrey J; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Weiss, Paul S

    2013-12-11

    Single-molecule measurements of complex biological structures such as proteins are an attractive route for determining structures of the large number of important biomolecules that have proved refractory to analysis through standard techniques such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance. We use a custom-built low-current scanning tunneling microscope to image peptide structures at the single-molecule scale in a model peptide that forms β sheets, a structural motif common in protein misfolding diseases. We successfully differentiate between histidine and alanine amino acid residues, and further differentiate side chain orientations in individual histidine residues, by correlating features in scanning tunneling microscope images with those in energy-optimized models. Beta sheets containing histidine residues are used as a model system due to the role histidine plays in transition metal binding associated with amyloid oligomerization in Alzheimer's and other diseases. Such measurements are a first step toward analyzing peptide and protein structures at the single-molecule level.

  16. Topical Delivery of Hyaluronic Acid into Skin using SPACE-peptide Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Gupta, Vivek; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Muraski, John A.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Topical penetration of macromolecules into skin is limited by their low permeability. Here, we report the use of a skin penetrating peptide, SPACE peptide, to enhance topical delivery of a macromolecule, hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 200–325 kDa). The peptide was conjugated to phospholipids and used to prepare an ethosomal carrier system (~110 nm diameter), encapsulating HA. The SPACE-ethosomal system (SES) enhanced HA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 7.8+/−1.1-fold compared to PBS. The system also enhanced penetration of HA in human skin in vitro, penetrating deep into the epidermis and dermis in skin of both species. In vivo experiments performed using SKH1 hairless mice also confirmed increased dermal penetration of HA using the delivery system; a 5-fold enhancement in penetration was found compared to PBS control. Concentrations of HA in skin were about 1000-fold higher than those in blood; confirming the localized nature of HA delivery into skin. The SPACE-ethosomal delivery system provides a formulation for topical delivery of macromolecules that are otherwise difficult to deliver into skin. PMID:24129342

  17. Effect of D-amino acid substitutions on Ni(II)-assisted peptide bond hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Hanieh H; Polkowska-Nowakowska, Agnieszka; Bal, Wojciech

    2013-03-01

    Previously we demonstrated the sequence-specific hydrolysis of the R1-(Ser/Thr)-peptide bond in Ni(II) complexes of peptides with a general R1-(Ser/Thr)-Xaa-His-Zaa-R2 sequence (R1 and R2 being any sequences) (Kopera, E.; Krezel, A.; Protas, A. M.; Belczyk, A.; Bonna, A.; Wyslouch-Cieszynska, A.; Poznanski, J.; Bal, W. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 6636). In order to refine our understanding of the mechanism of this reaction and to find ways to accelerate it, we undertook a systematic study of effects of d-amino acid substitutions in the template Ac-Gly-Ala-Ser-Arg-His-Trp-Lys-Phe-Leu-NH2 peptide on the hydrolysis rate constants. We found that all stereochemical alterations made around the Ni(II) chelate plane resulted in the decrease of the reaction rate. However, the Ni(II) coordination, a prerequisite to the reaction, was not compromised by these substitutions. We demonstrated that the reaction is only possible when either the side chain of the crucial Ser (or Thr) residue is on the same part of the chelate plane as the next residue in the sequence (Arg), or the side chain of the residue following His (Trp) resides on the opposite side of the plane. The rate of reaction is the fastest when both these conditions are fulfilled. Another novel effect is the strong dependence of the rate of the acyl shift step on the character of the leaving group. PMID:23427909

  18. Polyethylenimine derivate conjugated with RGD-TAT-NLS as a novel gene vector.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenfang; Liu, Kehai; Chen, Shunsheng; Zhu, Man Man; Lv, Hui; Hu, Jing; Mao, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    To solve the contradiction between the cell toxicity and transfection efficiency of polyethylenimine (PEI) derivate in non-viral gene therapy, a novel gene vector, P123-PEI-R18 was synthesized by using biodegradable PEI derivate conjugated with trifunctional peptide RGD-TAT-NLS. The particle size of P123-PEI-R18/DNA was around 100-250 nm. The gene vector could condense DNA at the weight ratio of 2 and protect plasmid DNA from being dissolved in the blood circulation. Importantly, the complexes exhibited lower cell toxicity and higher transfection efficiency contrasted with PEI 25 kDa in vitro. P123-PEI-R18 holds high potential as a safe and efficient gene vector. PMID:25226889

  19. Characterization and in vitro activity of a branched peptide boronic acid that interacts with HIV-1 RRE RNA.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jessica E; Zhang, Wenyu; Tebit, Denis M; Gray, Laurie R; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise; Rekosh, David; Santos, Webster L

    2016-09-01

    A branched peptide containing multiple boronic acids was found to bind RRE IIB selectively and inhibit HIV-1 p24 capsid production in a dose-dependent manner. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that branching in the peptide is crucial for the low micromolar binding towards RRE IIB, and the peptide demonstrates selectivity towards RRE IIB in the presence of tRNA. Footprinting studies suggest a binding site on the upper stem and internal loop regions of the RNA, which induces enzymatic cleavage of the internal loops of RRE IIB upon binding. PMID:27091070

  20. pH responsive micelle self-assembled from a new amphiphilic peptide as anti-tumor drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ju; Wu, Wen-Lan; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2014-02-01

    An acid-responsive amphiphilic peptide that contains KKGRGDS sequence in hydrophilic head and VVVVVV sequence in hydrophobic tail was designed and prepared. In neutral or basic medium, this amphiphilic peptide can self-assemble into micelles through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. If changing the solution pH to an acidic environment, the electrostatic repulsion interaction among the ionized lysine (K) residues will prevent the self-assembly of the amphiphilic peptide, leading to the dissociation of micelles. The anti-tumor drug of doxorubicin (DOX) was chosen and loaded into the self-assembled micelles of the amphiphilic peptide to investigate the influence of external pH change on the drug release behavior. As expected, the micelles show a sustained DOX release in neutral medium (pH 7.0) but fast release behavior in acidic medium (pH 5.0). When incubating these DOX-loaded micelles with HeLa and COS7 cells, due to the over-expression of integrins on cancer cells, the micelles can efficiently use the tumor-targeting function of RGD sequence to deliver the drug into HeLa cells. Combined with the low cytotoxicity of the amphiphilic peptide against both HeLa and COS7 cells, the amphiphilic peptide reported in this work may be promising in clinical application for targeted drug delivery.

  1. Cardiomyocytes In Vitro Adhesion Is Actively Influenced by Biomimetic Synthetic Peptides for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cantillo, Rocio; Comisso, Marina; Danesin, Roberta; Ghezzo, Francesca; Naso, Filippo; Gastaldello, Alessandra; Schittullo, Eleonora; Buratto, Edward; Spina, Michele; Gerosa, Gino; Dettin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering must be designed to direct desired events such as cell attachment, growth, and differentiation. The incorporation of extracellular matrix-derived peptides into biomaterials has been proposed to mimic biochemical signals. In this study, three synthetic fragments of fibronectin, vitronectin, and stromal-derived factor-1 were investigated for the first time as potential adhesive sequences for cardiomyocytes (CMs) compared to smooth muscle cells. CMs are responsive to all peptides to differing degrees, demonstrating the existence of diverse adhesion mechanisms. The pretreatment of nontissue culture well surfaces with the (Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid) RGD sequence anticipated the appearance of CMs' contractility compared to the control (fibronectin-coated well) and doubled the length of cell viability. Future prospects are the inclusion of these sequences into biomaterial formulation with the improvement in cell adhesion that could play an important role in cell retention during dynamic cell seeding. PMID:22011064

  2. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  3. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  4. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  5. Information transfer from peptide nucleic acids to RNA by template-directed syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. G.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are uncharged analogs of DNA and RNA in which the ribose-phosphate backbone is substituted by a backbone held together by amide bonds. PNAs are interesting as models of alternative genetic systems because they form potentially informational base paired helical structures. A PNA C10 oligomer has been shown to act as template for efficient formation of oligoguanylates from activated guanosine ribonucleotides. In a previous paper we used heterosequences of DNA as templates in sequence-dependent polymerization of PNA dimers. In this paper we show that information can be transferred from PNA to RNA. We describe the reactions of activated mononucleotides on heterosequences of PNA. Adenylic, cytidylic and guanylic acids were incorporated into the products opposite their complement on PNA, although less efficiently than on DNA templates.

  6. Separation of amino acids, peptides and corresponding Amadori compounds on a silica column at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhigang; Lu, Chih-Ying Joey; Xiao, Baiming; Weng, Naidong; Parker, Barry; Knapp, Michael; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2007-04-20

    Maillard reaction of glucose with amino acids and peptides has become a very important experimental model in the food flavor and pharmaceutical industries for better understanding the mechanism of food flavor generation and drug stability. Because of the amino acid and sugar functional groups present in their structures, most of the reaction components formed during the initial stages of Maillard reaction as well as the substrates are relatively polar. These compounds are poorly retained on a conventional reversed phase column. While polar stationary phases like HILIC column do provide better retention for these polar components, method selectivity could still be a challenge due to the structural similarity between these analytes. In this report, parameters such as pH, mobile phase composition and temperature were investigated using different brands of bare silica columns in order to separate glycine (G), diglycine (DG), triglycine (TG), and the corresponding Amadori compounds of glucose-glycine (GG), glucose-diglycine (GDG) and glucose-triglycine (GTG). An excellent separation for glycine, glycine peptides and their Amadori compounds was obtained on a bare silica column at an elevated temperature. PMID:17350634

  7. Bioplex technology: novel synthetic gene delivery pharmaceutical based on peptides anchored to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Oscar E; Svahn, Mathias G; Törnquist, Elisabeth; Lundin, Karin E; Smith, C I E

    2005-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery is an important approach in order to establish safe in vivo gene therapy in the clinic. Although viral vectors currently exhibit superior gene transfer efficacy, the safety aspect of viral gene delivery is a concern. In order to improve non-viral in vivo gene delivery we have designed a pharmaceutical platform called Bioplex (biological complex). The concept of Bioplex is to link functional entities via hybridising anchors, such as Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA), directly to naked DNA. In order to promote delivery functional entities consisting of biologically active peptides or carbohydrates, are linked to the PNA anchor. The PNA acts as genetic glue and hybridises with DNA in a sequence specific manner. By using functional entities, which elicit receptor-mediated endocytosis, improved endosomal escape and enhance nuclear entry we wish to improve the transfer of genetic material into the cell. An important aspect is that the functional entities should also have tissue-targeting properties in vivo. Examples of functional entities investigated to date are the Simian virus 40 nuclear localisation signal to improve nuclear uptake and different carbohydrate ligands in order to achieve receptor specific uptake. The delivery system is also endowed with regulatory capability, since the release of functional entities can be controlled. The aim is to create a safe, pharmaceutically defined and stable delivery system for nucleic acids with enhanced transfection properties that can be used in the clinic.

  8. In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Kelsey R; Mares, Jeremy W; Swartz, Caleb M; Zhao, Yiliang; Weiss, Sharon M; Duvall, Craig L

    2014-07-16

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are a unique class of synthetic molecules that have a peptide backbone and can hybridize with nucleic acids. Here, a versatile method has been developed for the automated, in situ synthesis of PNA from a porous silicon (PSi) substrate for applications in gene therapy and biosensing. Nondestructive optical measurements were performed to monitor single base additions of PNA initiated from (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane attached to the surface of PSi films, and mass spectrometry was conducted to verify synthesis of the desired sequence. Comparison of in situ synthesis to postsynthesis surface conjugation of the full PNA molecules showed that surface mediated, in situ PNA synthesis increased loading 8-fold. For therapeutic proof-of-concept, controlled PNA release from PSi films was characterized in phosphate buffered saline, and PSi nanoparticles fabricated from PSi films containing in situ grown PNA complementary to micro-RNA (miR) 122 generated significant anti-miR activity in a Huh7 psiCHECK-miR122 cell line. The applicability of this platform for biosensing was also demonstrated using optical measurements that indicated selective hybridization of complementary DNA target molecules to PNA synthesized in situ on PSi films. These collective data confirm that we have established a novel PNA-PSi platform with broad utility in drug delivery and biosensing.

  9. Potent Antibacterial Antisense Peptide–Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugates Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections in hospital settings, especially with immune compromised patients, and the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant strains urges search for new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we introduce antisense peptide–peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates as antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa. We have designed and optimized antisense peptide–PNA conjugates targeting the translation initiation region of the ftsZ gene (an essential bacterial gene involved in cell division) or the acpP gene (an essential bacterial gene involved in fatty acid synthesis) of P. aeruginosa (PA01) and characterized these compounds according to their antimicrobial activity and mode of action. Four antisense PNA oligomers conjugated to the H-(R-Ahx-R)4-Ahx-βala or the H-(R-Ahx)6-βala peptide exhibited complete growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa strains PA01, PA14, and LESB58 at 1–2 μM concentrations without any indication of bacterial membrane disruption (even at 20 μM), and resulted in specific reduction of the targeted mRNA levels. One of the four compounds showed clear bactericidal activity while the other significantly reduced bacterial survival. These results open the possibility of development of antisense antibacterials for treatment of Pseudomonas infections. PMID:23030590

  10. Peptide and amino acid transporters are differentially regulated during seed development and germination in faba bean.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Manoela; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Tewes, Annegret; Dietrich, Daniela; Rentsch, Doris; Weber, Hans; Wobus, Ulrich

    2003-08-01

    Two peptide transporter (PTR) homologs have been isolated from developing seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba). VfPTR1 was shown to be a functional peptide transporter through complementation of a yeast mutant. Expression patterns of VfPTR1 and VfPTR2 as well as of the amino acid permease VfAAP1 (Miranda et al., 2001) were compared throughout seed development and germination. In developing seeds, the highest levels of VfPTR1 transcripts were reached during midcotyledon development, whereas VfAAP1 transcripts were most abundant during early cotyledon development, before the appearance of storage protein gene transcripts, and were detectable until late cotyledon development. During early germination, VfPTR1 mRNA appeared first in cotyledons and later, during seedling growth, also in axes and roots. Expression of VfPTR2 and VfAAP1 was delayed compared with VfPTR1, and was restricted to the nascent organs of the seedlings. Localization of VfPTR1 transcripts showed that this PTR is temporally and spatially regulated during cotyledon development. In germinating seeds, VfPTR1 mRNA was localized in root hairs and root epidermal cells, suggesting a role in nutrient uptake from the soil. In seedling roots, VfPTR1 was repressed by a dipeptide and by an amino acid, whereas nitrate was without influence.

  11. Peptide nucleic acids rather than RNA may have been the first genetic molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, K. E.; Levy, M.; Miller, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous problems exist with the current thinking of RNA as the first genetic material. No plausible prebiotic processes have yet been demonstrated to produce the nucleosides or nucleotides or for efficient two-way nonenzymatic replication. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a promising precursor to RNA, consisting of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG) and the adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine-N-acetic acids. However, PNA has not yet been demonstrated to be prebiotic. We show here that AEG is produced directly in electric discharge reactions from CH(4), N(2), NH(3), and H(2)O. Electric discharges also produce ethylenediamine, as do NH(4)CN polymerizations. AEG is produced from the robust Strecker synthesis with ethylenediamine. The NH(4)CN polymerization in the presence of glycine leads to the adenine and guanine-N(9)-acetic acids, and the cytosine and uracil-N(1)-acetic acids are produced in high yield from the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde with hydantoic acid, rather than urea. Preliminary experiments suggest that AEG may polymerize rapidly at 100 degrees C to give the polypeptide backbone of PNA. The ease of synthesis of the components of PNA and possibility of polymerization of AEG reinforce the possibility that PNA may have been the first genetic material.

  12. A Statistical Analysis of the PPII Propensity of Amino Acid Guests in Proline-Rich Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Babin, Volodymyr; Sagui, Celeste; Roland, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the intrinsic PPII propensity of amino-acid residues in denatured polypeptides. Experimentally, the propensity scale is based on the behavior of guest amino-acid residues placed in the middle of polyproline hosts. We have used classical molecular dynamics simulations, with state-of-the-art force fields to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the conformational equilibria of the proline-based host oligopeptides with single guests. The tracked structural characteristics include the PPII content, the cis/trans isomerization of the prolyl bonds, the puckering of the pyrrolidine rings of the proline residues, and the secondary structural motifs. We find no evidence for an intrinsic PPII propensity in any of the guest amino acids other than proline. Instead, the PPII content as derived from experiments may be explained in terms of: 1), a local correlation between the dihedral angles of the guest amino acid and the proline residue immediately preceding it; and 2), a nonlocal correlation between the cis/trans states of the peptide bonds. In terms of the latter, we find that the presence of a guest (other than proline, tyrosine, or tryptophan) increases the trans content of most of the prolyl bonds, which results in an effective increase of the peptide PPII content. With respect to the local dihedral correlations, we find that these are well described in terms of the so-called odds-ratio statistic. Expressed in terms of free energy language, the PPII content based on the odds-ratio of the relevant residues correlate well with the experimentally measured PPII content. PMID:21320454

  13. In Vivo Biodegradation and Biocompatibility of PEG/Sebacic Acid-Based Hydrogels using a Cage Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinku; Dadsedan, Mahrokh; Ameenuddin, Syed; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Lu, Lichun

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive in vivo biodegradability and biocompatibility of unmodified and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-modified PEG/Sebacic acid based hydrogels were evaluated and compared to the control material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) using a cage implantation system, as well as direct subcutaneous implantation for up to 12 weeks. The total weight loss after 12 weeks of implantation for unmodified PEGSDA and RGD-modified PEGSDA in the cage was approximately 42% and 52%, respectively, with no statistical difference (p> 0.05). The exudate analysis showed that PEGSDA hydrogels induced minimal inflammatory response up to 21 days following implantation, similar to the controls (empty cage and the cage containing PLGA discs). Histology analysis from direct subcutaneous implantation of the hydrogels and PLGA scaffold showed statistically similar resolution of the acute and chronic inflammatory responses with development of the fibrous capsule between the PEGSDA hydrogels and the control (PLGA). The cage system, as well as the histology analysis, demonstrated that the degradation products of both hydrogels, with or without RGD peptide modification, are biocompatible without statistically significant differences in the inflammatory responses, as compared to PLGA. PMID:20574982

  14. A conjugate of the lytic peptide Hecate and gallic acid: structure, activity against cervical cancer, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Paulo R S; Carneiro, Bruno M; Batista, Mariana N; Braga, Ana Cláudia S; Lorenzón, Esteban N; Rahal, Paula; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud

    2015-07-01

    Conjugate compounds constitute a new class of molecules of important biological interest mainly for the treatment of diseases such as cancer. The N-terminus region of cationic peptides has been described as important for their biological activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lytic peptide Hecate (FALALKALKKALKKLKKALKKAL) and the effect of conjugating this macromolecule with gallic acid (C7H6O5) in terms of structure, anti-cancer activity, and toxicity. An N-terminus GA-Hecate peptide conjugate was synthesized to provide information regarding the relationship between the amino-terminal region and its charge and the secondary structure and biological activity of the peptide; and the effects of gallic acid on these parameters. Peptide secondary structure was confirmed using circular dichroism (CD). The CD measurements showed that the peptide has a high incidence of α-helical structures in the presence of SDS and LPC, while GA-Hecate presented lower incidence of α-helical structures in the same chemical environment. An evaluation of the anti-cancer activity in HeLa cancer cells indicated that both peptides are active, but that coupling gallic acid at the N-terminus decreased the activity of the free peptide. GA-Hecate showed lower activity in non-tumor keratinocyte cells but higher hemolytic activity. Our findings suggest that the N-terminus of Hecate plays an important role in its activity against cervical cancer by affecting it secondary structure, toxicity, and hemolytic activity. This study highlights the importance of the N-terminus in antitumor activity and could provide an important tool for developing new anti-cancer drugs.

  15. Isolation of alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula) glucagon, oxyntomodulin, and glucagon-like peptide: amino acid sequences of oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Pollock, H G; Kimmel, J R; Ebner, K E; Hamilton, J W; Rouse, J B; Lance, V; Rawitch, A B

    1988-01-01

    Oxyntomodulin, glucagon, and a glucagon-like peptide (GLP) have been isolated from the endocrine pancreas of the alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula), a ganoid fish. The three peptides were isolated by gel filtration and HPLC and were identified by size, composition, and glucagon-like immunoreactivity. The amino acid sequences of the oxyntomodulin and GLP were determined. The oxyntomodulin contains 36 amino acid residues and its sequence is H S Q G T F T N D Y S K Y L D T R R A Q D F V Q W L M S T K R S G G I T. The composition of the glucagon is identical to the N-terminal 29 residues of the gar oxyntomodulin. The single form of GLP found contains 34 amino acid residues in the following sequence: H A D G T Y T S D V S S Y L Q D Q A A K K F V T W L K Q G Q D R R E. These findings suggest that all three peptides are derived from a common precursor. PMID:3282974

  16. Isolation of alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula) glucagon, oxyntomodulin, and glucagon-like peptide: amino acid sequences of oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Pollock, H G; Kimmel, J R; Ebner, K E; Hamilton, J W; Rouse, J B; Lance, V; Rawitch, A B

    1988-01-01

    Oxyntomodulin, glucagon, and a glucagon-like peptide (GLP) have been isolated from the endocrine pancreas of the alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula), a ganoid fish. The three peptides were isolated by gel filtration and HPLC and were identified by size, composition, and glucagon-like immunoreactivity. The amino acid sequences of the oxyntomodulin and GLP were determined. The oxyntomodulin contains 36 amino acid residues and its sequence is H S Q G T F T N D Y S K Y L D T R R A Q D F V Q W L M S T K R S G G I T. The composition of the glucagon is identical to the N-terminal 29 residues of the gar oxyntomodulin. The single form of GLP found contains 34 amino acid residues in the following sequence: H A D G T Y T S D V S S Y L Q D Q A A K K F V T W L K Q G Q D R R E. These findings suggest that all three peptides are derived from a common precursor.

  17. Reversible Major Histocompatibility Complex I-Peptide Multimers Containing Ni2+-Nitrilotriacetic Acid Peptides and Histidine Tags Improve Analysis and Sorting of CD8+ T Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julien; Guillaume, Philippe; Irving, Melita; Baumgaertner, Petra; Speiser, Daniel; Luescher, Immanuel F.

    2011-01-01

    MHC-peptide multimers containing biotinylated MHC-peptide complexes bound to phycoerythrin (PE) streptavidin (SA) are widely used for analyzing and sorting antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe alternative T cell-staining reagents that are superior to conventional reagents. They are built on reversible chelate complexes of Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) with oligohistidines. We synthesized biotinylated linear mono-, di-, and tetra-NTA compounds using conventional solid phase peptide chemistry and studied their interaction with HLA-A*0201-peptide complexes containing a His6, His12, or 2×His6 tag by surface plasmon resonance on SA-coated sensor chips and equilibrium dialysis. The binding avidity increased in the order His6 < His12 < 2×His6 and NTA1 < NTA2 < NTA4, respectively, depending on the configuration of the NTA moieties and increased to picomolar KD for the combination of a 2×His6 tag and a 2×Ni2+-NTA2. We demonstrate that HLA-A2–2×His6-peptide multimers containing either Ni2+-NTA4-biotin and PE-SA- or PE-NTA4-stained influenza and Melan A-specific CD8+ T cells equal or better than conventional multimers. Although these complexes were highly stable, they very rapidly dissociated in the presence of imidazole, which allowed sorting of bona fide antigen-specific CD8+ T cells without inducing T cell death as well as assessment of HLA-A2-peptide monomer dissociation kinetics on CD8+ T cells. PMID:21990358

  18. Novel Method for Radiolabeling and Dimerizing Thiolated Peptides Using (18)F-Hexafluorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Orit; Yan, Xuefeng; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-21

    Hexafluorobenzene (HFB) reacts with free thiols to produce a unique and selective perfluoroaromatic linkage between two sulfurs. We modified this chemical reaction to produce dimeric (18)F-RGD-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB)-RGD, an integrin αvβ3 receptor ligand. (18)F-HFB was prepared by a fluorine exchange reaction using K(18)F/K2.2.2 at room temperature. The automated radiofluorination was optimized to minimize the amount of HFB precursor and, thus, maximize the specific activity. (18)F-HFB was isolated by distillation and subsequently reacted with thiolated c(RGDfk) peptide under basic and reducing conditions. The resulting (18)F-RGD-TFB-RGD demonstrated integrin receptor specific binding, cellular uptake, and in vivo tumor accumulation.(18)F-HFB can be efficiently incorporated into thiol-containing peptides at room temperature to provide novel imaging agents. PMID:26086295

  19. Radiolytic Modification of Sulfur Containing Acidic Amino Residues in Model Peptides: Fundamental Studies for Protein Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,G.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    Protein footprinting based on hydroxyl radical-mediated modification and quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis is a proven technique for examining protein structure, protein-ligand interactions, and structural allostery upon protein complex formation. The reactive and solvent-accessible amino acid side chains function as structural probes; however, correct structural analysis depends on the identification and quantification of all the relevant oxidative modifications within the protein sequence. Sulfur-containing amino acids are oxidized readily and the mechanisms of oxidation are particularly complex, although they have been extensively investigated by EPR and other spectroscopic methods. Here we have undertaken a detailed mass spectrometry study (using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry) of model peptides containing cysteine (Cys-SH), cystine (disulfide bonded Cys), and methionine after oxidation using {gamma}-rays or synchrotron X-rays and have compared these results to those expected from oxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature. Radiolysis of cysteine leads to cysteine sulfonic acid (+48 Da mass shift) and cystine as the major products; other minor products including cysteine sulfinic acid (+32 Da mass shift) and serine (-16 Da mass shift) are observed. Radiolysis of cystine results in the oxidative opening of the disulfide bond and generation of cysteine sulfonic acid and sulfinic acid; however, the rate of oxidation is significantly less than that for cysteine. Radiolysis of methionine gives rise primarily to methionine sulfoxide (+16 Da mass shift); this can be further oxidized to methionine sulfone (+32 Da mass shift) or another product with a -32 Da mass shift likely due to aldehyde formation at the {gamma}-carbon. Due to the high reactivity of sulfur-containing amino acids, the extent of oxidation is easily influenced by secondary oxidation events or the presence of redox reagents used in standard proteolytic

  20. Hydration studies of electrospray ions from amino acids and small peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong (Steve)

    This project was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the hydration behaviors of gas phase ions from solutions containing amino acids and peptides. In order to characterize their hydration behavior, the molecules of interest in solutions were first converted into gas phase ions by electrospray ionization (ESI). The completely desolvated ions were then deliberately dispersed into an inert bath gas, usually nitrogen, containing accurately known concentrations of solvent vapor. The resulting mixtures of ions and bath gas were subsequently passed into a vacuum chamber by way of an adiabatic supersonic free jet expansion. The cooling during that expansion caused solvation of the ions, the extent of which was determined by a quadrupole mass analyzer. Mass analysis of the solute ions in the absence of vapor showed peaks with the mass to charge ratios corresponding to the desolvated ions. On the other hand, mass spectrometric analyses of ions in the presence of solvent vapor showed sequences of peaks corresponding to the solvated ions with varying numbers of water molecules. The extent of the ion solvation was controlled by varying the concentration of solvent vapor in the bath gas. Two different scales were proposed for the evaluation of the relative affinities of amino acids for water molecules. One was based primarily on the assumption that the affinities of amino acids for water molecules are directly proportional to their gas phase solvation rate constants ( k). An alternative approach produced an affinity scale based on the extent of ion hydration occurred during the free jet expansion. It was found that the addition of a polar solvent vapor to the bath gas at low concentrations substantially enhanced the production of the bare solute ions from the evaporating charged droplets. This remarkable result not only provided a means to increase the ion production and thus detection sensitivity of mass spectrometric analyses, but also yielded important information

  1. PEI-g-PEG-RGD/Small Interference RNA Polyplex-Mediated Silencing of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor and Its Potential as an Anti-Angiogenic Tumor Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Sung Wan

    2011-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis appears to be achieved by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) within solid tumors that stimulate host vascular endothelial cell mitogenesis and possibly chemotaxis. VEGF's angiogenic actions are mediated through its high-affinity binding to 2 endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, Flt-1 (VEGFR1), and Flk-1/KDR (VEGFR2). RNA interference-mediated knockdown of protein expression at the messenger RNA level provides a new therapeutic strategy to overcome various diseases. To achieve high efficacy in RNA interference-mediated therapy, it is critical to develop an efficient delivering system to deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) into tissues or cells site-specifically. We previously reported an angiogenic endothelial cell-targeted polymeric gene carrier, PEI-g-PEG-RGD. This targeted carrier was developed by the conjugation of the ανβ3/ανβ5 integrin-binding RGD peptide (ACDCRGDCFC) to the cationic polymer, branched polyethylenimine, with a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer. In this study, we used PEI-g-PEG-RGD to deliver siRNA against VEGFR1 into tumor site. The physicochemical properties of PEI-g-PEG-RGD/siRNA complexes was evaluated. Further, tumor growth profile was also investigated after systemic administration of PEI-g-PEG-RGD/siRNA complexes. PMID:21375397

  2. Peptide nucleic acids inhibit growth of Brucella suis in pure culture and in infected murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Alexander, Jeffry C.; Seleem, Mohamed N.; Jain, Neeta; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Wattam, Alice R.; Setubal, João C.; Boyle, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are single-stranded, synthetic nucleic acid analogues containing a pseudopeptide backbone in place of the phosphodiester sugar–phosphate. When PNAs are covalently linked to cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) they readily penetrate the bacterial cell envelope, inhibit expression of targeted genes and cause growth inhibition both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effectiveness of PNAs against Brucella, a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, was unknown. The susceptibility of a virulent Brucella suis strain to a variety of PNAs was assessed in pure culture as well as in murine macrophages. The studies showed that some of the PNAs targeted to Brucella genes involved in DNA (polA, dnaG, gyrA), RNA (rpoB), cell envelope (asd), fatty acid (kdtA, acpP) and protein (tsf) synthesis inhibit the growth of B. suis in culture and in macrophages after 24 h of treatment. PNA treatment inhibited Brucella growth by interfering with gene expression in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner at micromolar concentrations. The most effective PNA in broth culture was that targeting polA at ca. 12 μM. In contrast, in B. suis-infected macrophages, the most effective PNAs were those targeting asd and dnaG at 30 μM; both of these PNAs had little inhibitory effect on Brucella in broth culture. The polA PNA that inhibits wild-type B. suis also inhibits the growth of wild-type Brucella melitensis 16M and Brucella abortus 2308 in culture. This study reveals the potential usefulness of antisense PNA constructs as novel therapeutic agents against intracellular Brucella. PMID:23305655

  3. Light-up probes: thiazole orange-conjugated peptide nucleic acid for detection of target nucleic acid in homogeneous solution.

    PubMed

    Svanvik, N; Westman, G; Wang, D; Kubista, M

    2000-05-15

    We have constructed light-up probes for nucleic acid detection. The light-up probe is a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide to which the asymmetric cyanine dye thiazole orange (TO) is tethered. It combines the excellent hybridization properties of PNA and the large fluorescence enhancement of TO upon binding to DNA. When the PNA hybridizes to target DNA, the dye binds and becomes fluorescent. Free probes have low fluorescence, which may increase almost 50-fold upon hybridization to complementary nucleic acid. This makes the light-up probes particularly suitable for homogeneous hybridization assays, where separation of the bound and free probe is not necessary. We find that the fluorescence enhancement upon hybridization varies among different probes, which is mainly due to variations in free probe fluorescence. For eight probes studied the fluorescence quantum yield at 25 degrees C in the unbound state ranged from 0.0015 to 0.08 and seemed to depend mainly on the PNA sequence. The binding of the light-up probes to target DNA is highly sequence specific and a single mismatch in a 10-mer target sequence was readily identified.

  4. Probing the Efficacy of Peptide-Based Inhibitors against Acid- and Zinc-Promoted Oligomerization of Amyloid-β Peptide via Single-Oligomer Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lyndsey R.; Dukes, Kyle D.; Lammi, Robin K.

    2011-01-01

    One avenue for prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease involves inhibiting the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Given the deleterious effects reported for Aβ dimers and trimers, it is important to investigate inhibition of the earliest association steps. We have employed quantized photobleaching of dye-labeled Aβ peptides to characterize four peptide-based inhibitors of fibrillogenesis and/or cytotoxicity, assessing their ability to inhibit association in the smallest oligomers (n = 2–5). Inhibitors were tested at acidic pH and in the presence of zinc, conditions that may promote oligomerization in vivo. Distributions of peptide species were constructed by examining dozens of surface-tethered monomers and oligomers, one at a time. Results show that all four inhibitors shift the distribution of Aβ species toward monomers; however, efficacies vary for each compound and sample environment. Collectively, these studies highlight promising design strategies for future oligomerization inhibitors, affording insight into oligomer structures and inhibition mechanisms in two physiologically significant environments. PMID:21945664

  5. Penetration depth of surfactant peptide KL4 into membranes is determined by fatty acid saturation.

    PubMed

    Antharam, Vijay C; Elliott, Douglas W; Mills, Frank D; Farver, R Suzanne; Sternin, Edward; Long, Joanna R

    2009-05-20

    KL(4) is a 21-residue functional peptide mimic of lung surfactant protein B, an essential protein for lowering surface tension in the alveoli. Its ability to modify lipid properties and restore lung compliance was investigated with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. KL(4) binds fluid lamellar phase PC/PG lipid membranes and forms an amphipathic helix that alters lipid organization and acyl chain dynamics. The binding and helicity of KL(4) is dependent on the level of monounsaturation in the fatty acid chains. At physiologic temperatures, KL(4) is more peripheral and dynamic in fluid phase POPC/POPG MLVs but is deeply inserted into fluid phase DPPC/POPG vesicles, resulting in immobilization of the peptide. Substantial increases in the acyl chain order are observed in DPPC/POPG lipid vesicles with increasing levels of KL(4), and POPC/POPG lipid vesicles show small decreases in the acyl chain order parameters on addition of KL(4). Additionally, a clear effect of KL(4) on the orientation of the fluid phase PG headgroups is observed, with similar changes in both lipid environments. Near the phase transition temperature of the DPPC/POPG lipid mixtures, which is just below the physiologic temperature of lung surfactant, KL(4) causes phase separation with the DPPC remaining in a gel phase and the POPG partitioned between gel and fluid phases. The ability of KL(4) to differentially partition into lipid lamellae containing varying levels of monounsaturation and subsequent changes in curvature strain suggest a mechanism for peptide-mediated lipid organization and trafficking within the dynamic lung environment. PMID:19450480

  6. Composition of free and peptide-bound amino acids in beef chuck, loin, and round cuts.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Cross, H R; Gehring, K B; Savell, J W; Arnold, A N; McNeill, S H

    2016-06-01

    Meat is a food for humans. However, beef consumption in the United States has steadily declined by >14% over the past decade due to a variety of factors, including insufficient knowledge of animal protein. This study quantified all proteinogenic AA as well as nutritionally and physiologically significant nonproteinogenic AA and small peptides in beef cuts from 3 subprimals (chuck, round, and loin). Beef carcasses ( = 10) were selected at 3 commercial packing plants in the United States. Retail-cut samples were analyzed for the nitrogenous substances after acid, alkaline, or enzymatic hydrolysis and after deproteinization. In these chuck, round, and loin cuts, total amounts of glutamate (free plus peptide bound) were the highest (69-75 mg/g dry weight) followed by lysine, leucine, arginine, and glutamine in descending order. This is the first study to determine aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, and glutamine in meat proteins of any animal species. In all the beef samples evaluated, glutamine was the most abundant free AA (4.0-5.7 mg/g dry weight) followed by taurine, alanine, glutamate, and β-alanine. Additionally, samples from all beef cuts had high concentrations of anserine, carnosine, and glutathione, which were 2.8 to 3.7, 15.2 to 24.2, and 0.68 to 0.79 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Beef top loin steaks appear to provide higher protein nutrition values than top round steaks and under blade roasts, but all are excellent sources of proteinogenic AA as well as antioxidant AA and peptides to improve human growth, development, and health. Our findings may help guide future decisions regarding human and animal nutrition. PMID:27285936

  7. β-Amino acids containing peptides and click-cyclized peptide as β-turn mimics: a comparative study with 'conventional' lactam- and disulfide-bridged hexapeptides.

    PubMed

    Larregola, Maud; Lequin, Olivier; Karoyan, Philippe; Guianvarc'h, Dominique; Lavielle, Solange

    2011-09-01

    The increasing interest in click chemistry and its use to stabilize turn structures led us to compare the propensity for β-turn stabilization of different analogs designed as mimics of the β-turn structure found in tendamistat. The β-turn conformation of linear β-amino acid-containing peptides and triazole-cyclized analogs were compared to 'conventional' lactam- and disulfide-bridged hexapeptide analogs. Their 3D structures and their propensity to fold in β-turns in solution, and for those not structured in solution in the presence of α-amylase, were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and by restrained molecular dynamics with energy minimization. The linear tetrapeptide Ac-Ser-Trp-Arg-Tyr-NH(2) and both the amide bond-cyclized, c[Pro-Ser-Trp-Arg-Tyr-D-Ala] and the disulfide-bridged, Ac-c[Cys-Ser-Trp-Arg-Tyr-Cys]-NH(2) hexapeptides adopt dominantly in solution a β-turn conformation closely related to the one observed in tendamistat. On the contrary, the β-amino acid-containing peptides such as Ac-(R)-β(3) -hSer-(S)-Trp-(S)-β(3) -hArg-(S)-β(3) -hTyr-NH(2) , and the triazole cyclic peptide, c[Lys-Ser-Trp-Arg-Tyr-βtA]-NH(2) , both specifically designed to mimic this β-turn, do not adopt stable structures in solution and do not show any characteristics of β-turn conformation. However, these unstructured peptides specifically interact in the active site of α-amylase, as shown by TrNOESY and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments performed in the presence of the enzyme, and are displaced by acarbose, a specific α-amylase inhibitor. Thus, in contrast to amide-cyclized or disulfide-bridged hexapeptides, β-amino acid-containing peptides and click-cyclized peptides may not be regarded as β-turn stabilizers, but can be considered as potential β-turn inducers.

  8. Amino Acid and Peptide Utilization Profiles of the Fluoroacetate-Degrading Bacterium Synergistetes Strain MFA1 Under Varying Conditions.

    PubMed

    Leong, Lex E X; Denman, Stuart E; Hugenholtz, Philip; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    Synergistetes strain MFA1 is an asaccharolytic ruminal bacterium isolated based on its ability to degrade fluoroacetate, a plant toxin. The amino acid and peptide requirements of the bacterium were investigated under different culturing conditions. The growth of strain MFA1 and its fluoroacetate degradation rate were enhanced by peptide-rich protein hydrolysates (tryptone and yeast extract) compared to casamino acid, an amino acid-rich protein hydrolysate. Complete utilization and preference for arginine, asparagine, glutamate, glycine, and histidine as free amino acids from yeast extract were observed, while the utilization of serine, threonine, and lysine in free form and peptide-bound glutamate was stimulated during growth on fluoroacetate. A predominant peptide in yeast extract preferentially utilized by strain MFA1 was partially characterized by high-liquid performance chromatography-mass spectrometry as a hepta-glutamate oligopeptide. Similar utilization profiles of amino acids were observed between the co-culture of strain MFA1 with Methanobrevibacter smithii without fluoroacetate and pure strain MFA1 culture with fluoroacetate. This suggests that growth of strain MFA1 could be enhanced by a reduction of hydrogen partial pressure as a result of hydrogen removal by a methanogen or reduction of fluoroacetate.

  9. The HDAC Inhibitors Scriptaid and LBH589 Combined with the Oncolytic Virus Delta24-RGD Exert Enhanced Anti-Tumor Efficacy in Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Berghauser Pont, Lotte M.E.; Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke J.; van den Bossche, Wouter; Kaufmann, Johanna K.; de Vrij, Jeroen; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens M.F.; Lamfers, Martine L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A phase I/II trial for glioblastoma with the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD was recently completed. Delta24-RGD conditionally replicates in cells with a disrupted retinoblastoma-pathway and enters cells via αvβ3/5 integrins. Glioblastomas are differentially sensitive to Delta24-RGD. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) affect integrins and share common cell death pathways with Delta24-RGD. We studied the combination treatment effects of HDACi and Delta24-RGD in patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC), and we determined the most effective HDACi. Methods SAHA, Valproic Acid, Scriptaid, MS275 and LBH589 were combined with Delta24-RGD in fourteen distinct GSCs. Synergy was determined by Chou Talalay method. Viral infection and replication were assessed using luciferase and GFP encoding vectors and hexon-titration assays. Coxsackie adenovirus receptor and αvβ3 integrin levels were determined by flow cytometry. Oncolysis and mechanisms of cell death were studied by viability, caspase-3/7, LDH and LC3B/p62, phospho-p70S6K. Toxicity was studied on normal human astrocytes. MGMT promotor methylation status, TCGA classification, Rb-pathway and integrin gene expression levels were assessed as markers of responsiveness. Results Scriptaid and LBH589 acted synergistically with Delta24-RGD in approximately 50% of the GSCs. Both drugs moderately increased αvβ3 integrin levels and viral infection in responding but not in non-responding GSCs. LBH589 moderately increased late viral gene expression, however, virus titration revealed diminished viral progeny production by both HDACi, Scriptaid augmented caspase-3/7 activity, LC3B conversion, p62 and phospho-p70S6K consumption, as well as LDH levels. LBH589 increased LDH and phospho-p70S6K consumption. Responsiveness correlated with expression of various Rb-pathway genes and integrins. Combination treatments induced limited toxicity to human astrocytes. Conclusion LBH589 and Scriptaid combined with Delta24-RGD revealed

  10. Gamma Peptide Nucleic Acids: As Orthogonal Nucleic Acid Recognition Codes for Organizing Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sacui, Iulia; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Manna, Arunava; Sahu, Bichismita; Ly, Danith H

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acids are an attractive platform for organizing molecular self-assembly because of their specific nucleobase interactions and defined length scale. Routinely employed in the organization and assembly of materials in vitro, however, they have rarely been exploited in vivo, due to the concerns for enzymatic degradation and cross-hybridization with the host's genetic materials. Herein we report the development of a tight-binding, orthogonal, synthetically versatile, and informationally interfaced nucleic acid platform for programming molecular interactions, with implications for in vivo molecular assembly and computing. The system consists of three molecular entities: the right-handed and left-handed conformers and a nonhelical domain. The first two are orthogonal to each other in recognition, while the third is capable of binding to both, providing a means for interfacing the two conformers as well as the natural nucleic acid biopolymers (i.e., DNA and RNA). The three molecular entities are prepared from the same monomeric chemical scaffold, with the exception of the stereochemistry or lack thereof at the γ-backbone that determines if the corresponding oligo adopts a right-handed or left-handed helix, or a nonhelical motif. These conformers hybridize to each other with exquisite affinity, sequence selectivity, and level of orthogonality. Recognition modules as short as five nucleotides in length are capable of organizing molecular assembly.

  11. Pipa carvalhoi skin secretion profiling: absence of peptides and identification of kynurenic acid as the major constitutive component.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Jared, Carlos; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The presence of peptides has been identified in all African pipid genera; nevertheless, little is known about skin secretion of South American frog genus Pipa. Skin secretion from captive and wild Pipa carvalhoi were obtained in the presence or absence of norepinephrine stimulation. The <10 kDa fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, searching for peptides. Chromatographic profiles show the presence of a major component in this secretion, regardless of the stimulation method (norepinephrine or mechanical stimulation) and the origin of the animal (captivity or wild), as well as in the absence of any stimulus. The general mass distribution profile in P. carvalhoi skin secretion shows numerous components below 800 Da. Moreover, no peptide could be identified, regardless of the chromatographic approach. The major component was purified and identified as kynurenic acid, an L-tryptophan derivative. P. carvalhoi does not secrete peptides as toxins in its skin. In addition, we here report that kynurenic acid is the main component of P. carvalhoi skin secretion. Although no biological activity was associated with kynurenic acid, we propose that this molecule is a pheromone that signals the presence of a co-specific in the shady environment in which this animal lives. In this study we demonstrate the absence of peptidic toxins in the skin secretion of P. carvalhoi, a break of paradigm in the pipid family.

  12. Rhizobins, a Group of Peptides in the Free-Amino-Acid Pool of the Soybean-Rhizobium System †

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Andrew S.; Ahlgren, Joy A.; Gonzalez, Mark A.; Stasney, Mark A.; Madtes, Paul C.

    1986-01-01

    Free-living Rhizobium (according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, [1984, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore], Bradyrhizobium) japonicum was found to release a peptide into the nutrient media. Soybean nodules contained this peptide and exuded it into the soil. The name “rhizobin A” is suggested for this peptide. Nodules also contained another peptide, rhizobin B, as well as an unidentified, ninhydrin-positive compound, rhizobin C. The three peptides were confined to the free-amino-acid pool of the soluble fraction and eluted consecutively from a cation-exchange column. Rhizobin A was isolated in a highly purified form; its molecular mass was approximately 1,600 daltons as determined by Sephadex gel filtration and mass spectrometry. The amino-acid composition could be determined only approximately, because a long time was necessary for acid hydrolysis, possibly due to unusual linkages. The rhizobin concentration in soybean nodules continually increased during 50 days of growth, from 2 to approximately 400 μg/g (fresh weight). When combined nitrogen was added to nodulated soybean and subsequently removed, nitrogenase activity, nodulation, and nodule growth first decreased and then recovered. The relative amount of rhizobin A followed a similar pattern. Rhizobins were not detected in the roots, stems, and leaves of nodulated soybean plants. They were present in Lupinus nodules, but absent in alder nodules. PMID:16347004

  13. Diphenylarsinic acid increased the synthesis and release of neuroactive and vasoactive peptides in rat cerebellar astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Matsunaga, Yuki; Hirano, Seishiro; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2012-06-01

    An incident of poisoning occurred in Japan in 2003 when high-level contamination with arsenic, mainly diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), was found in well water. People using this water particularly experienced cerebellar symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the adverse effects of DPAA on the cerebellum in vitro and in vivo to understand the biological mechanisms that cause cerebellar symptoms. Comprehensive gene expression analyses in primary cultured ratcerebellar cells exposed to 10 μM DPAA for 24 hours indicated significant alterations in the mRNA expression of genes encoding antioxidative stress proteins (heme oxigenase 1 and heat shock protein72) and neuroactive and vasoactive peptides (neuropeptide Y, adrenomedullin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and fibroblast growth factor 2). Further analyses of proteins revealed that cultured cerebellar astrocytes expressed these antioxidative stress proteins and peptides in response to exposure to DPAA. In addition, these adverseeffects were also observed in the cerebellum exposed in vivo to DPAA (100 mg/L) for 21 days. These results suggested that cerebellarastrocytes irregularly secrete neuroactive and vasoactive peptidesagainst DPAA-induced oxidative stress, which leads to abnormal neural functions and disrupted cerebellar autoregulation dynamics and results in the onset of cerebellar symptoms.

  14. Anti-biofilm activity of ultrashort cinnamic acid peptide derivatives against medical device-related pathogens.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; McCloskey, Alice P; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-10-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance has placed increasing emphasis on the development of innovative approaches to eradicate multidrug-resistant pathogens. Biofilm-forming microorganisms, for example, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are responsible for increased incidence of biomaterial infection, extended hospital stays and patient morbidity and mortality. This paper highlights the potential of ultrashort tetra-peptide conjugated to hydrophobic cinnamic acid derivatives. These peptidomimetic molecules demonstrate selective and highly potent activity against resistant biofilm forms of Gram-positive medical device-related pathogens. 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH2 displays particular promise with minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 125 µg/ml against methicillin sensitive (ATCC 29213) and resistant (ATCC 43300) S. aureus and activity shown against biofilm forms of Escherichia coli (MBEC: 1000 µg/ml). Kill kinetics confirms complete eradication of established 24-h biofilms at MBEC with 6-h exposure. Reduced cell cytotoxicity, relative to Gram-positive pathogens, was proven via tissue culture (HaCaT) and haemolysis assays (equine erythrocytes). Existing in nature as part of the immune response, antimicrobial peptides display great promise for exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry in order to increase the library of available therapeutic molecules. Ultrashort variants are particularly promising for translation as clinical therapeutics as they are more cost-effective, easier to synthesise and can be tailored to specific functional requirements based on the primary sequence allowing factors such as spectrum of activity to be varied.

  15. Effect of environment on the free and peptide amino acids in rice, wheat, and soybeans.

    PubMed

    Ahn, D J; Adeola, O; Nielsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    Controlled environments (CE) in which light, carbon dioxide, and nutrients are regulated are known to affect the chemical composition of plants. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environments are required for a Mars or lunar base where food resupply is both impractical and risky. Astronauts in a CELSS would need to grow and process edible biomass into foods. The complete nature of the changes in chemical composition of CE-grown plants is unknown but must be determined to ensure a safe and nutritionally adequate diet. In this article, we report the changes that occur in free and peptide-bound amino acids (AA) of select CELSS crops (rice, wheat, and soybean) grown in the field or in CE. The nonnitrate nonprotein nitrogen fraction was extracted and then analyzed for free and peptide AA. For grain or seeds, AA levels tended to increase from field to CE conditions; however, for vegetative material, AA levels remained the same or decreased from field to CE conditions. As such compositional changes are identified, researchers will be better able to design safe and nutritious diets for astronauts while minimizing needed energy and other resources.

  16. Anti-biofilm activity of ultrashort cinnamic acid peptide derivatives against medical device-related pathogens.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; McCloskey, Alice P; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-10-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance has placed increasing emphasis on the development of innovative approaches to eradicate multidrug-resistant pathogens. Biofilm-forming microorganisms, for example, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are responsible for increased incidence of biomaterial infection, extended hospital stays and patient morbidity and mortality. This paper highlights the potential of ultrashort tetra-peptide conjugated to hydrophobic cinnamic acid derivatives. These peptidomimetic molecules demonstrate selective and highly potent activity against resistant biofilm forms of Gram-positive medical device-related pathogens. 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH2 displays particular promise with minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 125 µg/ml against methicillin sensitive (ATCC 29213) and resistant (ATCC 43300) S. aureus and activity shown against biofilm forms of Escherichia coli (MBEC: 1000 µg/ml). Kill kinetics confirms complete eradication of established 24-h biofilms at MBEC with 6-h exposure. Reduced cell cytotoxicity, relative to Gram-positive pathogens, was proven via tissue culture (HaCaT) and haemolysis assays (equine erythrocytes). Existing in nature as part of the immune response, antimicrobial peptides display great promise for exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry in order to increase the library of available therapeutic molecules. Ultrashort variants are particularly promising for translation as clinical therapeutics as they are more cost-effective, easier to synthesise and can be tailored to specific functional requirements based on the primary sequence allowing factors such as spectrum of activity to be varied. PMID:26310860

  17. Effect of environment on the free and peptide amino acids in rice, wheat, and soybeans.

    PubMed

    Ahn, D J; Adeola, O; Nielsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    Controlled environments (CE) in which light, carbon dioxide, and nutrients are regulated are known to affect the chemical composition of plants. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environments are required for a Mars or lunar base where food resupply is both impractical and risky. Astronauts in a CELSS would need to grow and process edible biomass into foods. The complete nature of the changes in chemical composition of CE-grown plants is unknown but must be determined to ensure a safe and nutritionally adequate diet. In this article, we report the changes that occur in free and peptide-bound amino acids (AA) of select CELSS crops (rice, wheat, and soybean) grown in the field or in CE. The nonnitrate nonprotein nitrogen fraction was extracted and then analyzed for free and peptide AA. For grain or seeds, AA levels tended to increase from field to CE conditions; however, for vegetative material, AA levels remained the same or decreased from field to CE conditions. As such compositional changes are identified, researchers will be better able to design safe and nutritious diets for astronauts while minimizing needed energy and other resources. PMID:11676459

  18. Use of Peptide Nucleic Acids to Manipulate Gene Expression in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Shankar; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2014-01-01

    One of the major concerns in treating malaria by conventional small drug molecules is the rapid emergence of drug resistance. Specific silencing of essential genes by antisense oliogomers has been proposed as an alternative approach that may result in antimalarial activity which is not associated with drug resistance. In addition, such an approach could be an important biological tool for studying many genes' function by reverse genetics. Here we present a novel methodology of using peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as a useful tool for gene silencing in Plasmodium falciparum. PNAs, designed as specific antisense molecules, were conjugated to a cell penetrating peptide (CPP); namely, octa-D-lysine via the C-terminus, to allow facile delivery through cell membranes. PNAs added to P. falciparum cultures were found exclusively in infected erythrocytes and were eventually localized in nuclei of the parasites at all stages of intra erythrocytic development. We show that these PNAs specifically down regulated both a stably expressed transgene as well as an endogenous essential gene, which significantly reduced parasites' viability. This study paves the way for a simple approach to silence a variety of P. falciparum genes as means of deciphering their function and potentially to develop highly specific and potent antimalarial agents. PMID:24466246

  19. The world of beta- and gamma-peptides comprised of homologated proteinogenic amino acids and other components.

    PubMed

    Seebach, Dieter; Beck, Albert K; Bierbaum, Daniel J

    2004-08-01

    The origins of our nearly ten-year research program of chemical and biological investigations into peptides based on homologated proteinogenic amino acids are described. The road from the biopolymer poly[ethyl (R)-3-hydroxybutanoate] to the beta-peptides was primarily a step from organic synthesis methodology (the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds (EPCs)) to supramolecular chemistry (higher-order structures maintained through non-covalent interactions). The performing of biochemical and biological tests on the beta- and gamma-peptides, which differ from natural peptides/proteins by a single or two additional CH(2) groups per amino acid, then led into bioorganic chemistry and medicinal chemistry. The individual chapters of this review article begin with descriptions of work on beta-amino acids, beta-peptides, and polymers (Nylon-3) that dates back to the 1960s, even to the times of Emil Fischer, but did not yield insights into structures or biological properties. The numerous, often highly physiologically active, or even toxic, natural products containing beta- and gamma-amino acid moieties are then presented. Chapters on the preparation of homologated amino acids with proteinogenic side chains, their coupling to provide the corresponding peptides, both in solution (including thioligation) and on the solid phase, their isolation by preparative HPLC, and their characterization by mass spectrometry (HR-MS and MS sequencing) follow. After that, their structures, predominantly determined by NMR spectroscopy in methanolic solution, are described: helices, pleated sheets, and turns, together with stack-, crankshaft-, paddlewheel-, and staircase-like patterns. The presence of the additional C--C bonds in the backbones of the new peptides did not give rise to a chaotic increase in their secondary structures as many protein specialists might have expected: while there are indeed more structure types than are observed in the alpha-peptide realm - three different

  20. Enhanced lubrication on tissue and biomaterial surfaces through peptide-mediated binding of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anirudha; Corvelli, Michael; Unterman, Shimon A; Wepasnick, Kevin A; McDonnell, Peter; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2014-10-01

    Lubrication is key for the efficient function of devices and tissues with moving surfaces, such as articulating joints, ocular surfaces and the lungs. Indeed, lubrication dysfunction leads to increased friction and degeneration of these systems. Here, we present a polymer-peptide surface coating platform to non-covalently bind hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural lubricant in the body. Tissue surfaces treated with the HA-binding system exhibited higher lubricity values, and in vivo were able to retain HA in the articular joint and to bind ocular tissue surfaces. Biomaterials-mediated strategies that locally bind and concentrate HA could provide physical and biological benefits when used to treat tissue-lubricating dysfunction and to coat medical devices.

  1. Site-Selective Binding of Nanoparticles to Double-Stranded DNA via Peptide Nucleic Acid "Invasion"

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, A.L.; van der Lelie, D.; Sun, D.; Maye, M. M.; Gang, O.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for by-design placement of nano-objects along double-stranded (ds) DNA. A molecular intercalator, designed as a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-DNA chimera, is able to invade dsDNA at the PNA-side due to the hybridization specificity between PNA and one of the duplex strands. At the same time, the single-stranded (ss) DNA tail of the chimera, allows for anchoring of nano-objects that have been functionalized with complementary ssDNA. The developed method is applied for interparticle attachment and for the fabrication of particle clusters using a dsDNA template. This method significantly broadens the molecular toolbox for constructing nanoscale systems by including the most conventional not yet utilized DNA motif, double helix DNA.

  2. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E. S.; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs. PMID:27376281

  3. Evidence for extensive non-endocytotic translocation of peptide nucleic acids across mammalian plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Oehlke, Johannes; Turner, Yvonne; Pritz, Stephan; Bienert, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The ability of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) to enter and to cross filter-grown MDCK, HEK and CHO cells was studied by means of a protocol based on capillary electrophoresis combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The used approach avoided possible errors encountered in protocols based on confocal laserscanning microscopy and FACS analysis. In contradiction to the commonly anticipated unability of PNA to cross biomembranes, extensive translocation of unmodified PNA into and across the investigated cell types was found. The transport mode comprised a variety of energy dependent and -independent as well as temperature sensitive mechanisms being probably destined to natural substrates and hijacked by PNA. The presented results suggest active as well as passive export mechanisms rather than poor penetration into cells to be responsible for the only weak biological activity of unmodified PNA.

  4. Dimerization of a PACAP peptide analogue in DMSO via asparagine and aspartic acid residues.

    PubMed

    Severs, Joanne C; Froland, Wayne A

    2008-03-01

    To optimize the stability of a peptide development candidate for the treatment of type II diabetes, formulation studies were initiated in organic solvents and compared to results obtained in aqueous solutions. Stability was assessed by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Previous studies had shown deamidation and hydrolysis to be the primary mechanisms of degradation in aqueous formulations. Surprisingly, the use of an organic solvent did not decrease the rate of degradation and, as presented here, produced degradation products including dimers. We propose here that deamidation can readily occur in polar anhydrous organic solvents such as DMSO and that the dimer forms through intermolecular nucleophilic attack of an amino acid side chain on a stabilized cyclic imide intermediate.

  5. Development of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Detection of the HER2 Oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young K.; Evangelista, Jennifer; Aschenbach, Konrad; Johansson, Peter; Wen, Xinyu; Chen, Qingrong; Lee, Albert; Hempel, Heidi; Gheeya, Jinesh S.; Getty, Stephanie; Gomez, Romel; Khan, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have gained much interest as molecular recognition tools in biology, medicine and chemistry. This is due to high hybridization efficiency to complimentary oligonucleotides and stability of the duplexes with RNA or DNA. We have synthesized 15/16-mer PNA probes to detect the HER2 mRNA. The performance of these probes to detect the HER2 target was evaluated by fluorescence imaging and fluorescence bead assays. The PNA probes have sufficiently discriminated between the wild type HER2 target and the mutant target with single base mismatches. Furthermore, the probes exhibited excellent linear concentration dependence between 0.4 to 400 fmol for the target gene. The results demonstrate potential application of PNAs as diagnostic probes with high specificity for quantitative measurements of amplifications or over-expressions of oncogenes. PMID:23593123

  6. Stability analysis of glutamic acid linked peptides coupled to NOTA through different chemical linkages.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lixin; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-11-01

    Glutamic acid is a commonly used linker to form dimeric peptides with enhanced binding affinity than their corresponding monomeric counterparts. We have previously labeled NOTA-Bn-NCS-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (NOTA-PRGD2) [1] with [(18)F]AlF and (68)Ga for imaging tumor angiogenesis. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was attached to E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2] through a mini-PEG with a thiourea linkage, and the product [1] was stable at radiolabeling condition of 100 °C and pH 4.0 acetate buffer. However, when the same p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was directly attached to the α-amine of E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], the product NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] became unstable under similar conditions and the release of monomeric c(RGDfK) [5] was observed. The purpose of this work was to use HPLC and LC-MS to monitor the decomposition of glutamic acid linked dimeric peptides and their NOTA derivatives. A c(RGDyK) [6] and bombesin (BBN) [7] heterodimer c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and a dimeric bombesin E(BBN)2 [9], both with a glutamic acid as the linker, along with a model compound PhSCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10] were also studied. All the compounds were dissolved in 0.5 M pH 4.0 acetate buffer at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mL of each sample was heated at 100 °C for 10 min and the more stable compounds were heated for another 30 min. The samples at both time points were analyzed with analytical HPLC to monitor the decomposition of the heated samples. The samples with decomposition were further analyzed by LC-MS to determine the mass of products from the decomposition for possible structure elucidation. After 10 min heating, the obvious release of c(RGDfK) [5] was observed for NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] and Ph-SCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10]. Little or no release of monomers was observed for the remaining samples at this time point. After further heating, the release of monomers was clearly observed for E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2], E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and E(BBN)2 [9]. No decomposition or little decomposition was observed for NOTA

  7. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E S; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs. PMID:27376281

  8. Enhanced lubrication on tissue and biomaterial surfaces through peptide-mediated binding of hyaluronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anirudha; Corvelli, Michael; Unterman, Shimon A.; Wepasnick, Kevin A.; McDonnell, Peter; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2014-10-01

    Lubrication is key for the efficient function of devices and tissues with moving surfaces, such as articulating joints, ocular surfaces and the lungs. Indeed, lubrication dysfunction leads to increased friction and degeneration of these systems. Here, we present a polymer-peptide surface coating platform to non-covalently bind hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural lubricant in the body. Tissue surfaces treated with the HA-binding system exhibited higher lubricity values, and in vivo were able to retain HA in the articular joint and to bind ocular tissue surfaces. Biomaterials-mediated strategies that locally bind and concentrate HA could provide physical and biological benefits when used to treat tissue-lubricating dysfunction and to coat medical devices.

  9. DNA detection using water-soluble conjugated polymers and peptide nucleic acid probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, Brent S.; Heeger, Alan J.; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2002-08-01

    The light-harvesting properties of cationic conjugated polymers are used to sensitize the emission of a dye on a specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence for the purpose of homogeneous, "real-time" DNA detection. Signal transduction is controlled by hybridization of the neutral PNA probe and the negative DNA target. Electrostatic interactions bring the hybrid complex and cationic polymer within distances required for Förster energy transfer. Conjugated polymer excitation provides fluorescein emission >25 times higher than that obtained by exciting the dye, allowing detection of target DNA at concentrations of 10 pM with a standard fluorometer. A simple and highly sensitive assay with optical amplification that uses the improved hybridization behavior of PNA/DNA complexes is thus demonstrated.

  10. Peptide-based delivery of nucleic acids: design, mechanism of uptake and applications to splice-correcting oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Abes, S; Moulton, H; Turner, J; Clair, P; Richard, J P; Iversen, P; Gait, M J; Lebleu, B

    2007-02-01

    CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides) have given rise to much interest for the delivery of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins or ONs (oligonucleotides). CPPs and their conjugates were initially thought to translocate through the cell membrane by a non-endocytotic mechanism which has recently been re-evaluated. Basic-amino-acid-rich CPPs first interact with cell-surface proteoglycans before being internalized by endocytosis. Sequestration and degradation in endocytotic vesicles severely limits the cytoplasmic and nuclear delivery of the conjugated biomolecules. Accordingly, splicing correction by CPP-conjugated steric-block ON analogues is inefficient in the absence of endosomolytic agents. New arginine-rich CPPs allowing efficient splicing correction by conjugated PNAs (peptide nucleic acids) or PMO (phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer) steric blockers in the absence of endosomolytic agents have recently been defined in our group and are currently being characterized. They offer promising leads for the development of efficient cellular delivery vectors for therapeutic steric-block ON analogues.

  11. Quantification of glycated N-terminal peptide of hemoglobin using derivatization for multiple functional groups of amino acids followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2016-02-01

    A novel method of amino acid analysis using derivatization of multiple functional groups (amino, carboxyl, and phenolic hydroxyl groups) was applied to measure glycated amino acids in order to quantify glycated peptides and evaluate the degree of glycation of peptide. Amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids were derivatized with 1-bromobutane so that the hydrophobicities and basicities of the amino acids, including glycated amino acids, were improved. These derivatized amino acids could be detected with high sensitivity using LC-MS/MS. In this study, 1-deoxyfructosyl-VHLTPE and VHLTPE, which are N-terminal peptides of the β-chains of hemoglobin, were selected as target compounds. After reducing the peptide sample solution with sodium borohydride, the obtained peptides were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid. The released amino acids were then derivatized with 1-bromobutane and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The derivatized amino acids, including glycated amino acids, could be separated using an octadecyl silylated silica column and good sharp peaks were detected. We show a confirmatory experiment that the proposed method can be applied to evaluate the degree of glycation of peptides, using mixtures of glycated and non-glycated peptide.

  12. Electrostatic binding and hydrophobic collapse of peptide-nucleic acid aggregates quantified using force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Camunas-Soler, Joan; Frutos, Silvia; Bizarro, Cristiano V; de Lorenzo, Sara; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Ramsch, Roland; Vilchez, Susana; Solans, Conxita; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Albericio, Fernando; Eritja, Ramón; Giralt, Ernest; Dev, Sukhendu B; Ritort, Felix

    2013-06-25

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction between self-aggregating peptides and nucleic acids or other polyanions is key to the understanding of many aggregation processes underlying several human diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases). Determining the affinity and kinetic steps of such interactions is challenging due to the competition between hydrophobic self-aggregating forces and electrostatic binding forces. Kahalalide F (KF) is an anticancer hydrophobic peptide that contains a single positive charge that confers strong aggregative properties with polyanions. This makes KF an ideal model to elucidate the mechanisms by which self-aggregation competes with binding to a strongly charged polyelectrolyte such as DNA. We use optical tweezers to apply mechanical forces to single DNA molecules and show that KF and DNA interact in a two-step kinetic process promoted by the electrostatic binding of DNA to the aggregate surface followed by the stabilization of the complex due to hydrophobic interactions. From the measured pulling curves we determine the spectrum of binding affinities, kinetic barriers, and lengths of DNA segments sequestered within the KF-DNA complex. We find there is a capture distance beyond which the complex collapses into compact aggregates stabilized by strong hydrophobic forces and discuss how the bending rigidity of the nucleic acid affects this process. We hypothesize that within an in vivo context, the enhanced electrostatic interaction of KF due to its aggregation might mediate the binding to other polyanions. The proposed methodology should be useful to quantitatively characterize other compounds or proteins in which the formation of aggregates is relevant. PMID:23706043

  13. N- and C-capping preferences for all 20 amino acids in alpha-helical peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Doig, A. J.; Baldwin, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the N- and C-capping preferences of all 20 amino acids by substituting residue X in the peptides NH2-XAKAAAAKAAAAKAAGY-CONH2 and in Ac-YGAAKAAAAKAAAAKAX-CO2H. Helix contents were measured by CD spectroscopy to obtain rank orders of capping preferences. The data were further analyzed by our modified Lifson-Roig helix-coil theory, which includes capping parameters (n and c), to find free energies of capping (-RT ln n and -RT ln c), relative to Ala. Results were obtained for charged and uncharged termini and for different charged states of titratable side chains. N-cap preferences varied from Asn (best) to Gln (worst). We find, as expected, that amino acids that can accept hydrogen bonds from otherwise free backbone NH groups, such as Asn, Asp, Ser, Thr, and Cys generally have the highest N-cap preference. Gly and acetyl group are favored, as are negative charges in side chains and at the N-terminus. Our N-cap preference scale agrees well with preferences in proteins. In contrast, we find little variation when changing the identity of the C-cap residue. We find no preference for Gly at the C-cap in contrast to the situation in proteins. Both N-cap and C-cap results for Tyr and Trp are inaccurate because their aromatic groups affect the CD spectrum. The data presented here are of value in rationalizing mutations at capping sites in proteins and in predicting the helix contents of peptides. PMID:7670375

  14. Incorporation of extra amino acids in peptide recognition probe to improve specificity and selectivity of an electrochemical peptide-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Zaitouna, Anita J; Maben, Alex J; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2015-07-30

    We investigated the effect of incorporating extra amino acids (AA) at the n-terminus of the thiolated and methylene blue-modified peptide probe on both specificity and selectivity of an electrochemical peptide-based (E-PB) HIV sensor. The addition of a flexible (SG)3 hexapeptide is, in particular, useful in improving sensor selectivity, whereas the addition of a highly hydrophilic (EK)3 hexapeptide has shown to be effective in enhancing sensor specificity. Overall, both E-PB sensors fabricated using peptide probes with the added AA (SG-EAA and EK-EAA) showed better specificity and selectivity, especially when compared to the sensor fabricated using a peptide probe without the extra AA (EAA). For example, the selectivity factor recorded in the 50% saliva was ∼2.5 for the EAA sensor, whereas the selectivity factor was 7.8 for both the SG-EAA and EK-EAA sensors. Other sensor properties such as the limit of detection and dynamic range were minimally affected by the addition of the six AA sequence. The limit of detection was 0.5 nM for the EAA sensor and 1 nM for both SG-EAA and EK-EAA sensors. The saturation target concentration was ∼200 nM for all three sensors. Unlike previously reported E-PB HIV sensors, the peptide probe functions as both the recognition element and antifouling passivating agent; this modification eliminates the need to include an additional antifouling diluent, which simplifies the sensor design and fabrication protocol.

  15. Tumor-penetrating peptide fused EGFR single-domain antibody enhances cancer drug penetration into 3D multicellular spheroids and facilitates effective gastric cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Huizi; Zou, Zhengyun; Xin, Kai; Bian, Xinyu; Cai, Xueting; Lu, Wuguang; Chen, Jiao; Chen, Gang; Huang, Leaf; Blair, Andrew M.; Cao, Peng; Liu, Baorui

    2016-01-01

    Human tumors, including gastric cancer, frequently express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), which are associated with a poor prognosis. Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancerous tissues shows potential in sparing unaffected tissues. However, it has been a major challenge for drug penetration in solid tumor tissues due to the complicated tumor microenvironment. We have constructed a recombinant protein named anti-EGFR-iRGD consisting of an anti-EGFR VHH (the variable domain from the heavy chain of the antibody) fused to iRGD, a tumor-specific binding peptide with high permeability. Anti-EGFR-iRGD, which targets EGFR and αvβ3, spreads extensively throughout both the multicellular spheroids and the tumor mass. The recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD also exhibited antitumor activity in tumor cell lines, multicellular spheroids, and mice. Moreover, anti-EGFR-iRGD could improve anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin (DOX), bevacizumab, nanoparticle permeability and efficacy in multicellular spheroids. This study draws attention to the importance of iRGD peptide in the therapeutic approach of anti-EGFR-iRGD. As a consequence, anti-EGFR-iRGD could be a drug candidate for cancer treatment and a useful adjunct of other anticancer drugs. PMID:25553823

  16. Global analysis of myocardial peptides containing cysteines with irreversible sulfinic and sulfonic acid post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Paulech, Jana; Liddy, Kiersten A; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; White, Melanie Y; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    Cysteine (Cys) oxidation is a crucial post-translational modification (PTM) associated with redox signaling and oxidative stress. As Cys is highly reactive to oxidants it forms a range of post-translational modifications, some that are biologically reversible (e.g. disulfides, Cys sulfenic acid) and others (Cys sulfinic [Cys-SO2H] and sulfonic [Cys-SO3H] acids) that are considered "irreversible." We developed an enrichment method to isolate Cys-SO2H/SO3H-containing peptides from complex tissue lysates that is compatible with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acidity of these post-translational modification (pKa Cys-SO3H < 0) creates a unique charge distribution when localized on tryptic peptides at acidic pH that can be utilized for their purification. The method is based on electrostatic repulsion of Cys-SO2H/SO3H-containing peptides from cationic resins (i.e. "negative" selection) followed by "positive" selection using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Modification of strong cation exchange protocols decreased the complexity of initial flowthrough fractions by allowing for hydrophobic retention of neutral peptides. Coupling of strong cation exchange and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography allowed for increased enrichment of Cys-SO2H/SO3H (up to 80%) from other modified peptides. We identified 181 Cys-SO2H/SO3H sites from rat myocardial tissue subjected to physiologically relevant concentrations of H2O2 (<100 μm) or to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via Langendorff perfusion. I/R significantly increased Cys-SO2H/SO3H-modified peptides from proteins involved in energy utilization and contractility, as well as those involved in oxidative damage and repair.

  17. A bottom-up approach to build the hyperpolarizability of peptides and proteins from their amino acids.

    PubMed

    Duboisset, Julien; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Benichou, Emmanuel; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Lascoux, Noelle; Jonin, Christian; Hache, François; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2013-08-29

    We experimentally demonstrate that some peptides and proteins lend themselves to an elementary analysis where their first hyperpolarizability can be decomposed into the coherent superposition of the first hyperpolarizability of their elementary units. We then show that those elementary units can be associated with the amino acids themselves in the case of nonaromatic amino acids and nonresonant second harmonic generation. As a case study, this work investigates the experimentally determined first hyperpolarizability of rat tail Type I collagen and compares it to that of the shorter peptide [(PPG)10]3, where P and G are the one-letter code for Proline and Glycine, respectively, and that of the triamino acid peptides PPG and GGG. An absolute value of (0.16 ± 0.01) × 10(-30) esu for the first hyperpolarizability of nonaromatic amino acids is then obtained by using the newly defined 0.087 × 10(-30) esu reference value for water. By using a collagen like model, the microscopic hyperpolarizability along the peptide bond can be evaluated at (0.7 ± 0.1) × 10(-30) esu. PMID:23879840

  18. Bile acids induce glucagon-like peptide 2 secretion with limited effects on intestinal adaptation in early weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning is a stressful event characterized by a transient period of intestinal atrophy that may be mediated by reduced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2. We tested whether enterally fed bile acids or plant sterols could increase nutrient-dependent GLP-2 secretion and improve intestina...

  19. How mono-valent cations bend peptide turns and a first-principles database of amino acids and dipeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Carsten; Ropo, Matti; Blum, Volker; Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    In this contribution we detail our efforts to investigate the structural effects of cations binding to peptides and amino acids. We perform first-principles studies employing long-range dispersion-corrected approximate density-functional theory and compare to gas-phase experiments.

  20. Repetitive Gly-Leu-Lys-Gly-Glu-Asn-Arg-Gly-Asp peptide derived from collagen and fibronectin for improving cell-scaffold interaction.

    PubMed

    Chaisri, Patcharaporn; Chingsungnoen, Artit; Siri, Sineenat

    2015-03-01

    Suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering should provide a microenvironment for cell dwelling and directing cell behavior that resemble the native environment. Three-dimensional geometry of electrospun scaffolds well supports cell deposition, but they often lack biomacromolecules to induce cell responses. In this work, the repetitive collagen and fibronectin motif (rCF) peptide containing multiple repeats of Gly-Leu-Lys-Gly-Glu-Asn-Arg-Gly-Asp sequence derived from the cell adhesion motifs of collagen and fibronectin was produced as the alternative agent to induce cell-scaffold interaction. The DNA fragment encoding rCF peptide was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction using overlap primers without a DNA template, cloned into a protein expression vector, and expressed as a His-tag fusion peptide in Escherichia coli. The purified rCF peptide possessed cell adhesion activity about 1.5-fold of the commercial RGD peptide. The rCF peptide was grafted onto the electrospun PCL scaffold via RF plasma of Ar/O2 discharge and acrylic acid treatment. The immobilized rCF peptide significantly increased surface hydrophilicity and enhanced cell proliferation of the electrospun PCL scaffold. These findings suggest the potential application of rCF peptide for improving the biomimetic functions of polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  1. Tuning the autophagy-inducing activity of lanthanide-based nanocrystals through specific surface-coating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Yang, Tianlong; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yun; Man, Na; Zhang, Li; Jin, Nan; Dou, Qingqing; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhengquan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2012-09-01

    The induction of autophagy on exposure of cells to a variety of nanoparticles represents both a safety concern and an application niche for engineered nanomaterials. Here, we show that a short synthetic peptide, RE-1, identified by means of phage display, binds to lanthanide (LN) oxide and upconversion nanocrystals (UCN), forms a stable coating layer on the nanoparticles’ surface, and effectively abrogates their autophagy-inducing activity. Furthermore, RE-1 peptide variants exhibit a differentially reduced binding capability, and correspondingly, a varied ability to reduce the autophagic response. We also show that the addition of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif to RE-1 enhances autophagy for LN UCN through the interaction with integrins. RE-1 and its variants provide a versatile tool for tuning material-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy, and may prove useful for the various diagnostic and therapeutic applications of LN-based nanomaterials and nanodevices.

  2. Oostatic peptides containing D-amino acids: synthesis, oostatic activity, degradation, accumulation in ovaries and NMR study.

    PubMed

    Hlaváček, Jan; Tykva, Richard; Holík, Josef; Bennettová, Blanka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Vlasáková, Věra; Cerný, Bohuslav; Slaninová, Jiřina

    2012-05-01

    Analogs of the H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH pentapeptide with D-amino acid residues either in differing or in all of the positions of the sequences were prepared and their oostatic potency was compared with that of the parent pentapeptide. The D-amino acid residue containing analogs exhibited an equal or even higher oostatic effect in the flesh fly Neobellieria bullata than the parent peptide. Contrary to the rapid incorporation of radioactivity from the labeled H-Tyr-Asp-[3H]Pro-Ala-Pro-OH pentapeptide into the ovaries of N. bullata in vitro, the radioactivity incorporation from the labeled pentapeptides with either D-aspartic acid or D-alanine was significantly delayed. As compared to the parent pentapeptide, also the degradation of both the D-amino acid-containing analogs mentioned above proceeded at a significantly lower rate. The decreased intake of radioactivity, the lower degradation and finally also the high oostatic effect may be ascribed to the decreased enzymatic degradation of the peptide bonds neighboring the D-amino acid residues in the corresponding peptides. The introduction of the non-coded D: -amino acids thus enhances the oostatic effect in N. bullata owing to the prolonged half-life of the corresponding pentapeptides, which can thus affect more ovarian cells.

  3. Exogenous loading of a tapasin-dependent peptide onto HLA-B*44:02 can be restored by acid treatment or fixation of target cells

    PubMed Central

    Stroobant, Vincent; Demotte, Nathalie; Luiten, Rosalie M.; Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Cresswell, Peter; Bonehill, Aude; Michaux, Alexandre; Ma, Wenbin; Mulder, Arend; Van den Eynde, Benoît J.; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Vigneron, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Anti-tumor CTLs recognize peptides derived from cellular proteins and presented on MHC class I. One category of peptides recognized by these CTLs is derived from proteins encoded by “cancer-germline” genes, which are specifically expressed in tumors, and therefore represent optimal targets for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we identify an antigenic peptide, which is derived from the MAGE-A1-encoded protein (160-169) and presented to CTLs by HLA-B*44:02. Although this peptide is encoded by MAGE-A1, processed endogenously and presented by tumor cells, the corresponding synthetic peptide is hardly able to sensitize target cells to CTL recognition when pulsed exogenously. Endogenous processing and presentation of this peptide is strictly dependent on the presence of tapasin, which is believed to help peptide loading by stabilizing a peptide-receptive form of HLA-B*44:02. Exogenous loading of the peptide can be dramatically improved by paraformaldehyde fixation of surface molecules or by peptide loading at acidic pH. Either strategy allows efficient exogenous loading of the peptide, presumably by generating or stabilizing a peptide-receptive, empty conformation of the HLA. Altogether, our results indicate a potential drawback of short peptide-based vaccination strategies and offer possible solutions regarding the use of problematic epitopes such as the one described here. PMID:22678898

  4. Single-molecule spectroscopy of amino acids and peptides by recognition tunnelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanan; Ashcroft, Brian; Zhang, Peiming; Liu, Hao; Sen, Suman; Song, Weisi; Im, Jongone; Gyarfas, Brett; Manna, Saikat; Biswas, Sovan; Borges, Chad; Lindsay, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The human proteome has millions of protein variants due to alternative RNA splicing and post-translational modifications, and variants that are related to diseases are frequently present in minute concentrations. For DNA and RNA, low concentrations can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction, but there is no such reaction for proteins. Therefore, the development of single-molecule protein sequencing is a critical step in the search for protein biomarkers. Here, we show that single amino acids can be identified by trapping the molecules between two electrodes that are coated with a layer of recognition molecules, then measuring the electron tunnelling current across the junction. A given molecule can bind in more than one way in the junction, and we therefore use a machine-learning algorithm to distinguish between the sets of electronic `fingerprints' associated with each binding motif. With this recognition tunnelling technique, we are able to identify D and L enantiomers, a methylated amino acid, isobaric isomers and short peptides. The results suggest that direct electronic sequencing of single proteins could be possible by sequentially measuring the products of processive exopeptidase digestion, or by using a molecular motor to pull proteins through a tunnel junction integrated with a nanopore.

  5. Label-free potentiometry for detecting DNA hybridization using peptide nucleic acid and DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-02-07

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry.

  6. Information transfer from DNA to peptide nucleic acids by template-directed syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. G.; Christensen, L.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are analogs of nucleic acids in which the ribose-phosphate backbone is replaced by a backbone held together by amide bonds. PNAs are interesting as models of alternative genetic systems because they form potentially informational base paired helical structures. Oligocytidylates have been shown to act as templates for formation of longer oligomers of G from PNA G2 dimers. In this paper we show that information can be transferred from DNA to PNA. DNA C4T2C4 is an efficient template for synthesis of PNA G4A2G4 using G2 and A2 units as substrates. The corresponding synthesis of PNA G4C2G4 on DNA C4G2C4 is less efficient. Incorporation of PNA T2 into PNA products on DNA C4A2C4 is the least efficient of the three reactions. These results, obtained using PNA dimers as substrates, parallel those obtained using monomeric activated nucleotides.

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    PubMed Central

    Yotapan, Nattawut; Charoenpakdee, Chayan; Wathanathavorn, Pawinee; Ditmangklo, Boonsong

    2014-01-01

    Summary DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes. PMID:25246975

  8. Disrupting protein expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids reduces infection by obligate intracellular Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Rebecca S; McClure, Jennifer C; Kaur, Simran J; Sears, Khandra T; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria's ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria.

  9. Continuous β-turn fold of an alternating alanyl/homoalanyl peptide nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A; Zhang, Jinhua; Diederichsen, Ulf; Sheldrick, George M

    2012-08-01

    The crystal structure of the PNA (peptide nucleic acid) oligomer H-Lys-HalG-AlaG-HalC-AlaG-HalC-AlaC-Lys-NH(2) (PNA1, amino acids with D-configuration are underlined, Ala = alanyl, Hal = homoalanyl) has been determined by ab initio direct methods and refined against 1.0 Å data. The asymmetric unit consists of a tetrameric cage with almost ideal Watson-Crick C-G base pairing of all the guanine and cytosine side-chain substituents. Each PNA strand has a 90° β-turn every second residue, stabilized by three hydrogen bonds between the backbone amides. The first, second, fifth and sixth bases stack on one side of the monomer and pair with the corresponding complementary bases of a second monomer to form a dimer. The two remaining bases on each side of the resulting dimer form Watson-Crick pairs with the complementary bases of a second dimer, leading to a unique cage structure. The extra methylene groups in the homoalanyl residues enable stacking of the bases with an optimal distance between base-planes but also with an appreciable lateral displacement (slide).

  10. Tuning One-Dimensional Nanostructures of Bola-Like Peptide Amphiphiles by Varying the Hydrophilic Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yurong; Deng, Li; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong; Pambou, Elias; Lu, Zhiming; Li, Zongyi; Wang, Jiqian; King, Stephen; Rogers, Sarah; Xu, Hai; Lu, Jian R

    2016-08-01

    By combining experimental measurements and computer simulations, we here show that for the bola-like peptide amphiphiles XI4 X, where X=K, R, and H, the hydrophilic amino acid substitutions have little effect on the β-sheet hydrogen-bonding between peptide backbones. Whereas all of the peptides self-assemble into one dimensional (1D) nanostructures with completely different morphologies, that is, nanotubes and helical nanoribbons for KI4 K, flat and multilayered nanoribbons for HI4 H, and twisted and bilayered nanoribbons for RI4 R. These different 1D morphologies can be explained by the distinct stacking degrees and modes of the three peptide β-sheets along the x-direction (width) and the z-direction (height), which microscopically originate from the hydrogen-bonding ability of the sheets to solvent molecules and the pairing of hydrophilic amino acid side chains between β-sheet monolayers through stacking interactions and hydrogen bonding. These different 1D nanostructures have distinct surface chemistry and functions, with great potential in various applications exploiting the respective properties of these hydrophilic amino acids. PMID:27362441

  11. Unraveling the Mechanisms of Peptide-Mediated Delivery of Nucleic Acids Using Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Margus, Helerin; Juks, Carmen; Pooga, Margus

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are efficient non-viral delivery vectors for bioactive cargos, both in vitro and in vivo. Cargo molecules can be attached to CPPs either via covalent conjugation or by complex formation using co-incubation, which is typically used for charged molecules such as nucleic acids. The latter technique is efficiently used in case of CADY, MPG, Pep peptides, NickFects and PepFects that condense oligonucleotides (ONs) into nanoparticles, which efficiently enter cells and induce biological effects. Despite being highly promising candidates for developing new-generation medicines, CPPs' internalization mechanisms and intracellular trafficking are still far from being well-understood, and obtained data are often controversial. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an informative and valuable tool for examining the mechanisms of CPP-ON nanoparticles. TEM enables to visualize nanoparticles or single molecules labeled with Nanogold™ tag, and follow their association with cells and intracellular localization. In this chapter, we present methods for preparation of CPP-ON nanoparticles for TEM analysis and for examination of their interactions with the plasma membrane, and subsequent cellular uptake either by direct translocation or endocytosis. In case of endocytosis, ONs have to be released from endosomes and reach their target site in nucleus or cytoplasm to reveal their activity. TEM enables to estimate when the endosomal escape begins, from which type of endosomal vesicles it occurs, whether the vesicles are broken, or nanocomplexes translocate across the membrane into cytosol. Since single ONs could be followed, the time-frame that is necessary for the splice-switching nucleotides to translocate into cell nucleus can be analyzed by TEM.

  12. Biosynthesis of a D-amino acid in peptide linkage by an enzyme from frog skin secretions

    PubMed Central

    Jilek, Alexander; Mollay, Christa; Tippelt, Christa; Grassi, Jacques; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Müllegger, Johannes; Sander, Veronika; Fehrer, Christine; Barra, Donatella; Kreil, Günther

    2005-01-01

    d-amino acids are present in some peptides from amphibian skin. These residues are derived from the corresponding l-amino acids present in the respective precursors. From skin secretions of Bombinae, we have isolated an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of an l-Ile in position 2 of a model peptide to d-allo-Ile. In the course of this reaction, which proceeds without the addition of a cofactor, radioactivity from tritiated water is incorporated into the second position of the product. The amino acid sequence of this isomerase could be deduced from cloned cDNA and genomic DNA. After expression of this cDNA in oocytes of Xenopus laevis, isomerase activity could be detected. Polypeptides related to the frog skin enzyme are present in several vertebrate species, including humans. PMID:15758070

  13. Peptide-decorated chitosan derivatives enhance fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Hirt-Burri, N; Jeannerat, A; Applegate, L A; Ostafe, V; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-05-20

    RGD peptide sequences are known to regulate cellular activities by interacting with α5β1, αvβ5 and αvβ3 integrin, which contributes to the wound healing process. In this study, RGDC peptide was immobilized onto chitosan derivative 1,6-diaminohexane-O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (DAH-CMTMC) to display RGDC-promoting adhesion for enhanced wound healing. The efficiency of N-methylation, O-carboxymethylation and spacer grafting was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by (1)H NMR and FTIR, yielding 0.38 degree of substitution for N-methylation and >0.85 for O-carboxymethylation. The glass transition temperatures for chitosan derivatives were also studied. Peptide immobilization was achieved through sulfhydryl groups using sulfosuccinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)amino-benzoate (sulfo-SIAB method). RGDC immobilized peptide onto DAH-CMTMC was found to be about 15.3 μg/mg of chitosan derivative by amino acid analysis (AAA). The significant increase of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) viability in vitro over 7 days suggests that RGDC-functionalized chitosan may lead to enhanced wound healing (viability >140%). Moreover, bio-adhesion and proliferation assays confirmed that coatings of RGDC-functionalized chitosan derivatives exhibit in vitro wound healing properties by enhancing fibroblast proliferation and adhesion. These results showed that RGDC peptide-functionalized chitosan provides an optimal environment for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. PMID:26917381

  14. Peptide-decorated chitosan derivatives enhance fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Hirt-Burri, N; Jeannerat, A; Applegate, L A; Ostafe, V; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-05-20

    RGD peptide sequences are known to regulate cellular activities by interacting with α5β1, αvβ5 and αvβ3 integrin, which contributes to the wound healing process. In this study, RGDC peptide was immobilized onto chitosan derivative 1,6-diaminohexane-O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (DAH-CMTMC) to display RGDC-promoting adhesion for enhanced wound healing. The efficiency of N-methylation, O-carboxymethylation and spacer grafting was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by (1)H NMR and FTIR, yielding 0.38 degree of substitution for N-methylation and >0.85 for O-carboxymethylation. The glass transition temperatures for chitosan derivatives were also studied. Peptide immobilization was achieved through sulfhydryl groups using sulfosuccinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)amino-benzoate (sulfo-SIAB method). RGDC immobilized peptide onto DAH-CMTMC was found to be about 15.3 μg/mg of chitosan derivative by amino acid analysis (AAA). The significant increase of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) viability in vitro over 7 days suggests that RGDC-functionalized chitosan may lead to enhanced wound healing (viability >140%). Moreover, bio-adhesion and proliferation assays confirmed that coatings of RGDC-functionalized chitosan derivatives exhibit in vitro wound healing properties by enhancing fibroblast proliferation and adhesion. These results showed that RGDC peptide-functionalized chitosan provides an optimal environment for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation.

  15. The NMR solution structure of recombinant RGD-hirudin

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xia; Mo, Wei; Liu, Xingang; Zhu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomin; Song, Houyan . E-mail: hysong@shmu.edu.cn; Dai, Linsen . E-mail: lsdai@fudan.edu.cn

    2007-08-17

    The solution structure of a new recombinant RGD-hirudin, which has the activities of anti-thrombin and anti-platelet aggregation, was determined by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared with the conformations of recombinant wild-type hirudin and hirudin (variant 2, Lys47) of the hirudin thrombin complex. On the basis of total 1284 distance and dihedral angle constraints derived from a series of NMR spectra, 20 conformers were computed with ARIA/CNS programs. The structure of residues 3-30 and 37-48 form a molecular core with two antiparallel {beta}-sheets as the other two hirudins. However, significant differences were found in the surface electrostatic charge distributions among the three hirudins, especially in the RGD segment of recombinant RGD-hirudin. This difference may be greatly beneficial to its additional function of anti-platelet aggregation. The difference in extended C-terminal makes its both ionic and hydrophobic interactions with the fibrinogen recognition exosite of thrombin more effective.

  16. d-Amino Acids Modulate the Cellular Response of Enzymatic-Instructed Supramolecular Nanofibers of Small Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peptides made of d-amino acids, as the enantiomer of corresponding l-peptides, are able to resist proteolysis. It is, however, unclear or much less explored whether or how d-amino acids affect the cellular response of supramolecular nanofibers formed by enzyme-triggered self-assembly of d-peptides. In this work, we choose a cell compatible molecule, Nap-l-Phe-l-Phe-l-pTyr (LLL-1P), and systematically replace the l-amino acids in this tripeptidic precursor or its hydrogelator by the corresponding d-amino acid(s). The replacement of even one d-amino acid in this tripeptidic precursor increases its proteolytic resistance. The results of static light scattering and TEM images show the formation of nanostructures upon the addition of alkaline phosphatase, even at concentrations below the minimum gelation concentration (mgc). All these isomers are able to form ordered nanostructures and exhibit different morphologies. According to the cell viability assay on these stereochemical isomers, cells exhibit drastically different responses to the enantiomeric precursors, but almost same responses to the enantiomeric hydrogelators. Furthermore, the different cellular responses of LLL-1P and DDD-1P largely originate from the ecto-phosphatases catalyzed self-assembly of DDD-1 on the surface of cells. Therefore, this report not only illustrates a new way for tailoring the properties of supramolecular assemblies, but also provides new insights to answering the fundamental question of how mammalian cells respond to enzymatic formation of nanoscale supramolecular assemblies (e.g., nanofibers) of d-peptides. PMID:25230147

  17. Effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on peptide functionalized nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Barati, Danial; Walters, Joshua D; Shariati, Seyed Ramin Pajoum; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2015-05-12

    Carboxylate-rich organic acids play an important role in controlling the growth of apatite crystals and the extent of mineralization in the natural bone. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate (CaP) nucleation on nanofiber microsheets functionalized with a glutamic acid peptide and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on the CaP-nucleated microsheets. High molecular weight poly(dl-lactide) (DL-PLA) was mixed with low molecular weight L-PLA conjugated with Glu-Glu-Gly-Gly-Cys peptide, and the mixture was electrospun to generate aligned nanofiber microsheets. The nanofiber microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid (mSBF) supplemented with different organic acids for nucleation and growth of CaP crystals on the nanofibers. Organic acids included citric acid (CA), hydroxycitric acid (HCA), tartaric acid (TART), malic acid (MA), ascorbic acid (AsA), and salicylic acid (SalA). HCA microsheets had the highest CaP content at 240 ± 10% followed by TART and CA with 225 ± 8% and 225 ± 10%, respectively. The Ca/P ratio and percent crystallinity of the nucleated CaP in TART microsheets was closest to that of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The extent of CaP nucleation and growth on the nanofiber microsheets depended on the acidic strength and number of hydrogen-bonding hydroxyl groups of the organic acids. Compressive modulus and degradation of the CaP nucleated microsheets were related to percent crystallinity and CaP content. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on the microsheets and cultured in osteogenic medium increased only for those microsheets nucleated with CaP by incubation in CA or AsA-supplemented mSBF. Further, only CA microsheets stimulated bone nodule formation by the seeded hMSCs. PMID:25879768

  18. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.

  19. Nanoparticle Formation from Hybrid, Multiblock Copolymers of Poly(Acrylic Acid) and VPGVG Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Grieshaber, Sarah E.; Paik, Bradford A.; Bai, Shi; Kiick, Kristi L.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    Elastin-mimetic hybrid copolymers with an alternating molecular architecture were synthesized via the step growth polymerization of azide-functionalized, telechelic poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA) and an alkyne-terminated, valine and glycine-rich peptide with a sequence of (VPGVG)2 (VG2). The resultant hybrid copolymer, [PtBA-VG2]n, contains up to six constituent building blocks and has a polydispersity index (PDI) of ~1.9. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) treatment of [PtBA-VG2]n gave rise to an alternating copolymer of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and VG2 ([PAA-VG2]n). The modular design permits facile adjustment of the copolymer composition by varying the molecular weight of PAA (22 and 63 repeat units). Characterization by dynamic light scattering indicated that the multiblock copolymers formed discrete nanoparticles at room temperature in aqueous solution at pH 3.8, with an average diameter of 250-270 nm and a particle size distribution of 0.34 for multiblock copolymers containing PAA22 and 0.17 for those containing PAA63. Upon increasing the pH to 7.4, both types of particles were able to swell without being disintegrated, reaching an average diameter of 285-300 nm for [PAA22-VG2]n and 330-350 nm for [PAA63-VG2]n, respectively. The nanoparticles were not dissociated upon the addition of urea, further confirming their unusual stability. The nanoparticles were capable of sequestering a hydrophobic fluorescent dye (pyrene), and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) was determined to be 1.09 × 10-2 or 1.05 × 10-2 mg/mL for [PAA22-VG2]n and [PAA63-VG2]n, respectively. We suggest that the multiblock copolymers form through collective H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions between the PAA and VG2 peptide units, and that the unusual stability of the multiblock nanoparticles is conferred by the multiblock architecture. These hybrid multiblock copolymers are potentially useful as pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles, with the possibility of drug loading through

  20. Detection of antimicrobial (poly)peptides with acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Porter, Edith; Valore, Erika V; Anouseyan, Rabin; Salzman, Nita H

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial (poly)peptides (AMPs) are ancient key effector molecules of innate host defense and have been identified in mammals, insects, plants, and even fungi (Nakatsuji and Gallo, J Invest Dermatol, 132: 887-895, 2012). They exhibit a cationic net charge at physiological pH and are rich in hydrophobic amino acids (Dufourc et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 13: 620-631, 2012). Their mode of action has been best investigated in bacteria. When assuming secondary structure the cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are sequestered creating a bipartitioned molecule in which the cationic amino acids mediate initial electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged bacterial surface and the hydrophobic amino acids mediate embedding into the bacterial membranes followed by a multitude of effects interfering with bacterial viability (Nicolas, FEBS J, 276: 6483-6496, 2009; Padovan et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 11: 210-219, 2010). However, immunomodulatory, antitumor, and other effects have been added to the ever increasing list of AMP functions (Pushpanathan et al., Int J Pept, 2013: 675391, 2013). Several classes of AMPs have been distinguished based on structure, namely anti-parallel beta-sheet, alpha-helical, circular, as well as disulfide bridge connectivity (Bond and Khalid, Protein Pept Lett, 17: 1313-1327, 2010). Many of the AMPs undergo posttranslational modification including further proteolysis. Biochemical analysis at the protein level is of great interest for a wide range of scientists and important when studying host-pathogen interaction, for example Salmonella invasion of the small intestine. Acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) followed by Western immunoblotting is an important tool for the identification and quantification of cationic AMPs. The protocol for these procedures outlined here describes, in detail, the necessary steps; including pouring the AU-gels, preparing the test samples, performing the electrophoretic separation and

  1. Targeting the S1 and S3 subsite of trypsin with unnatural cationic amino acids generates antimicrobial peptides with potential for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Karstad, Rasmus; Isaksen, Geir; Wynendaele, Evelien; Guttormsen, Yngve; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Brandsdal, Bjørn-Olav; Svendsen, John Sigurd; Svenson, Johan

    2012-07-26

    This study investigates how the S1 and S3 site of trypsin can be challenged with cationic amino acid analogues to yield active antimicrobial peptides with stability toward tryptic degradation. It is shown that unnatural analogues can be incorporated to generate stable peptides with maintained bioactivity to allow for a potential oral uptake. Selected peptides were studied using isothermal calorimetry and computational methods. Both stable and unstable peptides were found to bind stoichiometrically to trypsin with dissociation constants ranging 2-60 μM, suggesting several different binding modes. The stability of selected peptides was analyzed in whole organ extracts and the incorporation of homoarginine and 2-amino-(3-guanidino)propanoic acid resulted in a 14- and 50-fold increase in duodenal stability. In addition, a 40- and 70-fold increase in stomach stability is also reported. Overall, these results illustrate how the incorporation of cationic side chains can be employed to generate bioactive peptides with significant systemic stability.

  2. Identification in pituitary tissue of a peptide alpha-amidation activity that acts on glycine-extended peptides and requires molecular oxygen, copper, and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Eipper, B A; Mains, R E; Glembotski, C C

    1983-08-01

    An enzymatic activity capable of producing an alpha-amidated peptide product from its glycine-extended precursor has been identified in secretory granules of rat anterior, intermediate, and neural pituitary and bovine intermediate pituitary. High levels of endogenous inhibitors of this alpha-amidation activity have also been found in tissue homogenates. The alpha-amidation activity is totally inhibited by addition of divalent metal ion chelators such as diethyldithiocarbamate, o-phenanthroline, and EDTA; alpha-amidation activity is restored to above control levels upon addition of copper. The alpha-amidation reaction requires the presence of molecular oxygen. Of the various cofactors tested, ascorbic acid was the most potent stimulator of alpha-amidation. The alpha-amidation activity has a neutral pH optimum and is primarily soluble following several cycles of freezing and thawing. Kinetic studies with the bovine intermediate pituitary granule-associated activity demonstrated a linear Lineweaver-Burk plot when D-Tyr-Val-Gly was the varied substrate; the apparent Km and Vmax varied with the concentration of ascorbic acid. The substrate specificity of the alpha-amidation activity appears to be quite broad; the conversion of D-Tyr-Val-Gly into D-Tyr-Val-NH2 is inhibited by the addition of a variety of glycine-extended peptides.

  3. Highly sensitive detection of influenza virus by boron-doped diamond electrode terminated with sialic acid-mimic peptide.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Ujie, Michiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-08-01

    The progression of influenza varies according to age and the presence of an underlying disease; appropriate treatment is therefore required to prevent severe disease. Anti-influenza therapy, such as with neuraminidase inhibitors, is effective, but diagnosis at an early phase of infection before viral propagation is critical. Here, we show that several dozen plaque-forming units (pfu) of influenza virus (IFV) can be detected using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode terminated with a sialic acid-mimic peptide. The peptide was used instead of the sialyloligosaccharide receptor, which is the common receptor of influenza A and B viruses required during the early phase of infection, to capture IFV particles. The peptide, which was previously identified by phage-display technology, was immobilized by click chemistry on the BDD electrode, which has excellent electrochemical characteristics such as low background current and weak adsorption of biomolecules. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that H1N1 and H3N2 IFVs were detectable in the range of 20-500 pfu by using the peptide-terminated BDD electrode. Our results demonstrate that the BDD device integrated with the receptor-mimic peptide has high sensitivity for detection of a low number of virus particles in the early phase of infection. PMID:27457924

  4. Computationally designed β-turn foldamers of γ-peptides based on 2-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Kee; Byun, Byung Jin

    2012-12-01

    The γ-peptide β-turn structures have been designed computationally by the combination of chirospecific γ(2),(3)-residues of 2-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (γAmc(6)) with a cyclohexyl constraint on the C(α) -C(β) bond using density functional methods in water. The chirospecific γAmc(6) dipeptide with the (2S,3S)-(2R,3R) configurations forms a stable turn structure in water, resembling a type II' turn of α-peptides, which can be used as a β-turn motif in β-hairpins of Ala-based α-peptides. The γAmc(6) dipeptide with homochiral (2S,3S)-(2S,3S) configurations but different cyclohexyl puckerings shows the capability to be incorporated into one of two β-turn motifs of gramicidin S. The overall structure of this gramicidin S analogue is quite similar to the native gramicidin S with the same patterns and geometries of hydrogen bonds. Our calculated results and the recently observed results may imply the wider applicability of chirospecific γ-peptides with a cyclohexyl constraint on the backbone to form various peptide foldamers.

  5. An equation to estimate the difference between theoretically predicted and SDS PAGE-displayed molecular weights for an acidic peptide.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yihong; Zhu, Qinfang; Huang, Delai; Zhao, Shuyi; Jan Lo, Li; Peng, Jinrong

    2015-01-01

    The molecular weight (MW) of a protein can be predicted based on its amino acids (AA) composition. However, in many cases a non-chemically modified protein shows an SDS PAGE-displayed MW larger than its predicted size. Some reports linked this fact to high content of acidic AA in the protein. However, the exact relationship between the acidic AA composition and the SDS PAGE-displayed MW is not established. Zebrafish nucleolar protein Def is composed of 753 AA and shows an SDS PAGE-displayed MW approximately 13 kDa larger than its predicted MW. The first 188 AA in Def is defined by a glutamate-rich region containing ~35.6% of acidic AA. In this report, we analyzed the relationship between the SDS PAGE-displayed MW of thirteen peptides derived from Def and the AA composition in each peptide. We found that the difference between the predicted and SDS PAGE-displayed MW showed a linear correlation with the percentage of acidic AA that fits the equation y = 276.5x - 31.33 (x represents the percentage of acidic AA, 11.4% ≤ x ≤ 51.1%; y represents the average ΔMW per AA). We demonstrated that this equation could be applied to predict the SDS PAGE-displayed MW for thirteen different natural acidic proteins. PMID:26311515

  6. Bone regeneration potential of stem cells derived from periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate scaffold.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Akiyama, Kentaro; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Shi, Songtao

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for bone regeneration in comparison to current treatment modalities. However, delivering MSCs to the defect site while maintaining a high MSC survival rate is still a critical challenge in MSC-mediated bone regeneration. Here, we tested the bone regeneration capacity of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) encapsulated in a novel RGD- (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide) coupled alginate microencapsulation system in vitro and in vivo. Five-millimeter-diameter critical-size calvarial defects were created in immunocompromised mice and PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate microspheres were transplanted into the defect sites. New bone formation was assessed using microcomputed tomography and histological analyses 8 weeks after transplantation. Results confirmed that our microencapsulation system significantly enhanced MSC viability and osteogenic differentiation in vitro compared with non-RGD-containing alginate hydrogel microspheres with larger diameters. Results confirmed that PDLSCs were able to repair the calvarial defects by promoting the formation of mineralized tissue, while GMSCs showed significantly lower osteogenic differentiation capability. Further, results revealed that RGD-coupled alginate scaffold facilitated the differentiation of oral MSCs toward an osteoblast lineage in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by expression of osteogenic markers Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results for the first time demonstrated that MSCs derived from orofacial tissue encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate scaffold show promise for craniofacial bone regeneration. This treatment modality has many potential dental and orthopedic applications. PMID:24070211

  7. Bone Regeneration Potential of Stem Cells Derived from Periodontal Ligament or Gingival Tissue Sources Encapsulated in RGD-Modified Alginate Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Akiyama, Kentaro; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H.; Shi, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for bone regeneration in comparison to current treatment modalities. However, delivering MSCs to the defect site while maintaining a high MSC survival rate is still a critical challenge in MSC-mediated bone regeneration. Here, we tested the bone regeneration capacity of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) encapsulated in a novel RGD- (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide) coupled alginate microencapsulation system in vitro and in vivo. Five-millimeter-diameter critical-size calvarial defects were created in immunocompromised mice and PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate microspheres were transplanted into the defect sites. New bone formation was assessed using microcomputed tomography and histological analyses 8 weeks after transplantation. Results confirmed that our microencapsulation system significantly enhanced MSC viability and osteogenic differentiation in vitro compared with non-RGD-containing alginate hydrogel microspheres with larger diameters. Results confirmed that PDLSCs were able to repair the calvarial defects by promoting the formation of mineralized tissue, while GMSCs showed significantly lower osteogenic differentiation capability. Further, results revealed that RGD-coupled alginate scaffold facilitated the differentiation of oral MSCs toward an osteoblast lineage in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by expression of osteogenic markers Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results for the first time demonstrated that MSCs derived from orofacial tissue encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate scaffold show promise for craniofacial bone regeneration. This treatment modality has many potential dental and orthopedic applications. PMID:24070211

  8. A role for phosphorylation in the regulation of the barley scutellar peptide transporter HvPTR1 by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Ashley, Merewyn K; West, Christopher E; Sunderland, Paul A; Bray, Clifford M

    2005-06-01

    Protein reserves in the cereal endosperm are sequentially degraded to small peptides and amino acids during germination and these are translocated across the scutellum to support growth of the embryo. Peptide transport in the germinating barley grain is mediated by specific carriers localized to the plasma membrane of the scutellar epithelium. In isolated barley embryos peptide transport is rapidly inhibited by amino acid concentrations comparable with those found in the post-germination barley grain. However, this inhibition of HvPTR1 activity is not effected at either the transcriptional or translational level. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid repressed transport of Ala-[14C]Phe, but not [14C]Ala, into the barley scutellar epithelium. In vivo [32P]orthophosphate labelling studies of barley scutellar tissue in combination with immunoprecipitation studies using antiserum raised to HvPTR1 showed that HvPTR1 (66 kDa) is phosphorylated in the presence of amino acids. Immunopurified HvPTR1 was further demonstrated to be phosphorylated on serine residues. Digestion with the N-glycosidase enzyme PNGase F results in a shift in the molecular mass of the protein by 10 kDa, indicating that HvPTR1 is an N-linked glycoprotein. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence that HvPTR1 peptide transport activity in the germinating barley grain is regulated at the post-translational level by phosphorylation in response to rising levels of amino acids emanating from the endosperm as a result of storage protein breakdown and mobilization. This is potentially an important element in balancing the flux of organic nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm to embryo during germination and seedling establishment.

  9. Synthesis of linear and cyclic peptide-PEG-lipids for stabilization and targeting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Kai K; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Steffes, Victoria M; Wonder, Emily A; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-03-15

    Because nucleic acids (NAs) have immense potential value as therapeutics, the development of safe and effective synthetic NA vectors continues to attract much attention. In vivo applications of NA vectors require stabilized, nanometer-scale particles, but the commonly used approaches of steric stabilization with a polymer coat (e.g., PEGylation; PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)) interfere with attachment to cells, uptake, and endosomal escape. Conjugation of peptides to PEG-lipids can improve cell attachment and uptake for cationic liposome-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. We present several synthetic approaches to peptide-PEG-lipids and discuss their merits and drawbacks. A lipid-PEG-amine building block served as the common key intermediate in all synthetic routes. Assembling the entire peptide-PEG-lipid by manual solid phase peptide synthesis (employing a lipid-PEG-carboxylic acid) allowed gram-scale synthesis but is mostly applicable to linear peptides connected via their N-terminus. Conjugation via thiol-maleimide or strain-promoted (copper-free) azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry is highly amenable to on-demand preparation of peptide-PEG-lipids, and the appropriate PEG-lipid precursors are available in a single chemical step from the lipid-PEG-amine building block. Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is especially suitable for disulfide-bridged peptides such as iRGD (cyclic CRGDKGPDC). Added at 10 mol% of a cationic/neutral lipid mixture, the peptide-PEG-lipids stabilize the size of CL-DNA complexes. They also affect cell attachment and uptake of nanoparticles in a peptide-dependent manner, thereby providing a platform for preparing stabilized, affinity-targeted CL-DNA nanoparticles. PMID:26874401

  10. Serology in the Digital Age: Using Long Synthetic Peptides Created from Nucleic Acid Sequences as Antigens in Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Rönnberg, Bengt; Cistjakovs, Maksims; Lundkvist, Åke; Pipkorn, Rudiger; Blomberg, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antibodies to microbes, or to autoantigens, are important markers of disease. Antibody detection (serology) can reveal both past and recent infections. There is a great need for development of rational ways of detecting and quantifying antibodies, both for humans and animals. Traditionally, serology using synthetic antigens covers linear epitopes using up to 30 amino acid peptides. Methods: We here report that peptides of 100 amino acids or longer (“megapeptides”), designed and synthesized for optimal serological performance, can successfully be used as detection antigens in a suspension multiplex immunoassay (SMIA). Megapeptides can quickly be created just from pathogen sequences. A combination of rational sequencing and bioinformatic routines for definition of diagnostically-relevant antigens can, thus, rapidly yield efficient serological diagnostic tools for an emerging infectious pathogen. Results: We designed megapeptides using bioinformatics and viral genome sequences. These long peptides were tested as antigens for the presence of antibodies in human serum to the filo-, herpes-, and polyoma virus families in a multiplex microarray system. All of these virus families contain recently discovered or emerging infectious viruses. Conclusion: Long synthetic peptides can be useful as serological diagnostic antigens, serving as biomarkers, in suspension microarrays. PMID:27600087

  11. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate the interaction of the Alzheimer's aβ(25-35) peptide with lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Di Marino, Sara; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2013-11-19

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are increasingly proposed as dietary supplements able to reduce the risk of development or progression of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, the molecular mechanism through which these lipids act has not been yet univocally identified. In this work, we investigate whether omega-3 fatty acids could interfere with the fate of the Alzheimer-related amyloid peptide by tuning the microstructural and dynamical properties of the neuronal membrane. To this aim, the influence of the omega-3 lipid, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [22:6(cis)PC] on the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers, and on their interaction with the amyloid peptide fragment Aβ(25-35) has been investigated by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), using spin-labeled phospholipids. The results show that the peptide selectively interacts with bilayers enriched in cholesterol (Chol) and sphingomyelin (SM). [22:6(cis)PC] enhances the Aβ(25-35)/membrane interaction, favoring a deeper internalization of the peptide among the lipid acyl chains and, consequently, hindering its pathogenic self-aggregation. PMID:24144219

  13. Maleimide–thiol coupling of a bioactive peptide to an elastin-like protein polymer

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Swathi; Krishnamurthy, Venkata R.; Caves, Jeffrey M.; Haller, Carolyn A.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant elastin-like protein (ELP) polymers display several favorable characteristics for tissue repair and replacement as well as drug delivery applications. However, these materials are derived from peptide sequences that do not lend themselves to cell adhesion, migration, or proliferation. This report describes the chemoselective ligation of peptide linkers bearing the bioactive RGD sequence to the surface of ELP hydrogels. Initially, cystamine is conjugated to ELP, followed by the temperature-driven formation of elastomeric ELP hydrogels. Cystamine reduction produces reactive thiols that are coupled to the RGD peptide linker via a terminal maleimide group. Investigations into the behavior of endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells on the RGD-modified ELP hydrogel surface reveal significantly enhanced attachment, spreading, migration and proliferation. Attached endothelial cells display a quiescent phenotype. PMID:22061108

  14. Analysis of peptide-protein binding using amino acid descriptors: prediction and experimental verification for human histocompatibility complex HLA-A0201.

    PubMed

    Guan, Pingping; Doytchinova, Irini A; Walshe, Valerie A; Borrow, Persephone; Flower, Darren R

    2005-11-17

    Amino acid descriptors are often used in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of proteins and peptides. In the present study, descriptors were used to characterize peptides binding to the human MHC allele HLA-A0201. Two sets of amino acid descriptors were chosen: 93 descriptors taken from the amino acid descriptor database AAindex and the z descriptors defined by Wold and Sandberg. Variable selection techniques (SIMCA, genetic algorithm, and GOLPE) were applied to remove redundant descriptors. Our results indicate that QSAR models generated using five z descriptors had the highest predictivity and explained variance (q2 between 0.6 and 0.7 and r2 between 0.6 and 0.9). Further to the QSAR analysis, 15 peptides were synthesized and tested using a T2 stabilization assay. All peptides bound to HLA-A0201 well, and four peptides were identified as high-affinity binders. PMID:16279801

  15. Intracellular delivery of peptide nucleic acid and organic molecules using zeolite-L nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Alessandro; Lülf, Henning; Septiadi, Dedy; Manicardi, Alex; Corradini, Roberto; De Cola, Luisa

    2014-11-01

    The design and synthesis of smart nanomaterials can provide interesting potential applications for biomedical purposes from bioimaging to drug delivery. Manufacturing multifunctional systems in a way to carry bioactive molecules, like peptide nucleic acids able to recognize specific targets in living cells, represents an achievement towards the development of highly selective tools for both diagnosis and therapeutics. This work describes a very first example of the use of zeolite nanocrystals as multifunctional nanocarriers to deliver simultaneously PNA and organic molecules into living cells. Zeolite-L nanocrystals are functionalized by covalently attaching the PNA probes onto the surface, while the channel system is filled with fluorescent guest molecules. The cellular uptake of the PNA/Zeolite-L hybrid material is then significantly increased by coating the whole system with a thin layer of biodegradable poly-L-lysine. The delivery of DAPI as a model drug molecule, inserted into the zeolite pores, is also demonstrated to occur in the cells, proving the multifunctional ability of the system. Using this zeolite nanosystem carrying PNA probes designed to target specific RNA sequences of interest in living cells could open new possibilities for theranostic and gene therapy applications. PMID:24789252

  16. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) patterning by an automated microarray synthesis system through photolithography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Qi; Yang, Fei-Peng; Wang, Hong-Yin; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Zheng-Chun

    2013-03-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) microarray assembled with hundreds of unique PNA oligomers has been regarded as a new and mighty competitor of DNA chip in gene analyzing. However, PNA microarray is still a luxury art due to the difficult and laborious chemical synthesis. Herein, we have developed a fully-automated synthesizer for PNA microarray through photolithography. A preactivation mixer was designed and integrated into the synthesizer in order to get rid of the annoying manual process and increase the coupling efficiency of PNA monomers. The PNA patterning model was carried out to check the performance of the automated synthesizer, revealing that an exposure time of 3 min was sufficient for the complete removal of o-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC) groups from the synthetic sites with the help of photosensitizer isopropylthioxanthone and the stepwise yield was measured to be about 98.0%, which is comparable with that from conventional fluorenyl-methyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) chemistry. Those results have definitely demonstrated the possibility and capability of this fully-automated synthesizer to fabricate high-quality PNA microarrays.

  17. Sequence dependent N-terminal rearrangement and degradation of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, M.; Christensen, L.; Schmidt, J.; Haaima, G.; Orgel, L.; Nielsen, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of the PNA (peptide nucleic acid) thymine monomer inverted question markN-[2-(thymin-1-ylacetyl)]-N-(2-aminoaminoethyl)glycine inverted question mark and those of various PNA oligomers (5-8-mers) have been measured at room temperature (20 degrees C) as a function of pH. The thymine monomer undergoes N-acyl transfer rearrangement with a half-life of 34 days at pH 11 as analyzed by 1H NMR; and two reactions, the N-acyl transfer and a sequential degradation, are found by HPLC analysis to occur at measurable rates for the oligomers at pH 9 or above. Dependent on the amino-terminal sequence, half-lives of 350 h to 163 days were found at pH 9. At pH 12 the half-lives ranged from 1.5 h to 21 days. The results are discussed in terms of PNA as a gene therapeutic drug as well as a possible prebiotic genetic material.

  18. Application of Peptide Nucleic Acid-based Assays Toward Detection of Somatic Mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Hong, Christopher S; Yang, Chunzhang; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2016-04-26

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic oligonucleotides with many applications. Compared with DNA, PNAs bind their complementary DNA strand with higher specificity and strength, an attribute that can make it an effective polymerase chain reaction clamp. A growing body of work has demonstrated the utility of PNAs in detecting low levels of mutant DNA, particularly in the detection of circulating mutated tumor cells in the peripheral blood. The PNA-based assay has greater sensitivity than direct sequencing and is significantly more affordable and rapid than next-generation deep sequencing. We have previously demonstrated that PNAs can successfully detect somatic mosaicism in patients with suspected disease phenotypes. In this report, we detail our methodology behind PNA design and application. We describe our protocol for optimizing the PNA for sequencing use and for determining the sensitivity of the PNA-based assay. Lastly, we discuss the potential applications of our assay for future laboratory and clinical purposes and highlight the role of PNAs in the detection of somatic mosaicism.

  19. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  20. A Sensitive Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe Assay for Detection of BRAF V600 Mutations in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Long; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Hsieh, Jia-Juan; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chiou, Chiuan-Chian

    Mutated v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) is an important biomarker for the prediction of therapeutic efficacy of several anticancer drugs. The detection of BRAF mutation faces two challenges: Firstly, there are multiple types of mutations, and secondly, tumor samples usually contain various amounts of wild-type, normal tissues. Here, we describe a newly established method for sensitive detection of multiple types of BRAF V600 mutations in excess wild-type background. The method introduced a fluorophore-tagged peptide nucleic acid (PNA) to serve as both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamp and sensor probe, which inhibited the amplification of wild-type templates during PCR and revealed multiple types of mutant signals during melting analysis. We demonstrated the design and optimization process of the method, and applied it in the detection of BRAF mutations in 49 melanoma samples. This PNA probe assay method detected three types of mutations in 17 samples, and was much more sensitive than conventional PCR plus Sanger sequencing. PMID:27566656

  1. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels via peptide nucleic acid (PNA)/DNA complexation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Te-Wei; Feng, Jiayue; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2015-12-28

    This work presents a new concept in hybrid hydrogel design. Synthetic water-soluble N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) polymers grafted with multiple peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are crosslinked upon addition of the linker DNA. The self-assembly is mediated by the PNA-DNA complexation, which results in the formation of hydrophilic polymer networks. We show that the hydrogels can be produced through two different types of complexations. Type I hydrogel is formed via the PNA/DNA double-helix hybridization. Type II hydrogel utilizes a unique "P-form" oligonucleotide triple-helix that comprises two PNA sequences and one DNA. Microrheology studies confirm the respective gelation processes and disclose a higher critical gelation concentration for the type I gel when compared to the type II design. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the interconnected microporous structure of both types of hydrogels. Type I double-helix hydrogel exhibits larger pore sizes than type II triple-helix gel. The latter apparently contains denser structure and displays greater elasticity as well. The designed hybrid hydrogels have potential as novel biomaterials for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  2. Intracellular delivery of peptide nucleic acid and organic molecules using zeolite-L nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Alessandro; Lülf, Henning; Septiadi, Dedy; Manicardi, Alex; Corradini, Roberto; De Cola, Luisa

    2014-11-01

    The design and synthesis of smart nanomaterials can provide interesting potential applications for biomedical purposes from bioimaging to drug delivery. Manufacturing multifunctional systems in a way to carry bioactive molecules, like peptide nucleic acids able to recognize specific targets in living cells, represents an achievement towards the development of highly selective tools for both diagnosis and therapeutics. This work describes a very first example of the use of zeolite nanocrystals as multifunctional nanocarriers to deliver simultaneously PNA and organic molecules into living cells. Zeolite-L nanocrystals are functionalized by covalently attaching the PNA probes onto the surface, while the channel system is filled with fluorescent guest molecules. The cellular uptake of the PNA/Zeolite-L hybrid material is then significantly increased by coating the whole system with a thin layer of biodegradable poly-L-lysine. The delivery of DAPI as a model drug molecule, inserted into the zeolite pores, is also demonstrated to occur in the cells, proving the multifunctional ability of the system. Using this zeolite nanosystem carrying PNA probes designed to target specific RNA sequences of interest in living cells could open new possibilities for theranostic and gene therapy applications.

  3. Cell Penetrating Peptide Conjugated Chitosan for Enhanced Delivery of Nucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Layek, Buddhadev; Lipp, Lindsey; Singh, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is an emerging therapeutic strategy for the cure or treatment of a spectrum of genetic disorders. Nevertheless, advances in gene therapy are immensely reliant upon design of an efficient gene carrier that can deliver genetic cargoes into the desired cell populations. Among various nonviral gene delivery systems, chitosan-based carriers have gained increasing attention because of their high cationic charge density, excellent biocompatibility, nearly nonexistent cytotoxicity, negligible immune response, and ideal ability to undergo chemical conjugation. However, a major shortcoming of chitosan-based carriers is their poor cellular uptake, leading to inadequate transfection efficiency. The intrinsic feature of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) for transporting diverse cargoes into multiple cell and tissue types in a safe manner suggests that they can be conjugated to chitosan for improving its transfection efficiency. In this review, we briefly discuss CPPs and their classification, and also the major mechanisms contributing to the cellular uptake of CPPs and cargo conjugates. We also discuss immense improvements for the delivery of nucleic acids using CPP-conjugated chitosan-based carriers with special emphasis on plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA. PMID:26690119

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery.

  5. Fluorescence imaging of siRNA delivery by peptide nucleic acid-based probe.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaya; Sato, Yusuke; Iwai, Kenta; Kuge, Shusuke; Teramae, Norio; Nishizawa, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    We report on the use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based fluorescent probe for the analysis of siRNA delivery to living cells. The probe, Py-AA-TO, possesses thiazole orange (TO) and pyrene moieties in the C- and N-termini of PNA, and can function as a light-up probe capable of selective binding to 3'-overhanging nucleotides of target siRNAs. The affinity-labeling of the siRNAs with Py-AA-TO facilitates fluorescence imaging of cellular uptake of polymer-based carriers encapsulating the siRNAs (polyplexes) through endocytosis and subsequent sequestration into lysosome. In addition, flow cytometric measurements reveal that the monitoring of Py-AA-TO fluorescence inside the cells is successfully applicable to the analysis of the polyplex disassembly. These promising functions of Py-AA-TO are presented and discussed as a basis for the design of molecular probes for fluorescent imaging and quantitative analysis of the siRNA delivery process. PMID:25864675

  6. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by a new multiplex peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization method.

    PubMed

    Machado, António; Castro, Joana; Cereija, Tatiana; Almeida, Carina; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most common vaginal infections. However, its diagnosis by classical methods reveals low specificity. Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy diagnosis of 150 vaginal samples with research gold standard methods and our Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. Also, we described the first PNA-FISH methodology for BV diagnosis, which provides results in approximately 3 h. The results showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 64.3 to 95.0%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI [92.6-99.4%]), demonstrating the higher specificity of the PNA-FISH method and showing false positive results in BV diagnosis commonly obtained by the classical methods. This methodology combines the specificity of PNA probes for Lactobacillus species and G. vaginalis visualization and the calculation of the microscopic field by Nugent score, allowing a trustful evaluation of the bacteria present in vaginal microflora and avoiding the occurrence of misleading diagnostics. Therefore, the PNA-FISH methodology represents a valuable alternative for BV diagnosis. PMID:25737820

  7. Cell Penetrating Peptide Conjugated Chitosan for Enhanced Delivery of Nucleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Layek, Buddhadev; Lipp, Lindsey; Singh, Jagdish

    2015-12-04

    Gene therapy is an emerging therapeutic strategy for the cure or treatment of a spectrum of genetic disorders. Nevertheless, advances in gene therapy are immensely reliant upon design of an efficient gene carrier that can deliver genetic cargoes into the desired cell populations. Among various nonviral gene delivery systems, chitosan-based carriers have gained increasing attention because of their high cationic charge density, excellent biocompatibility, nearly nonexistent cytotoxicity, negligible immune response, and ideal ability to undergo chemical conjugation. However, a major shortcoming of chitosan-based carriers is their poor cellular uptake, leading to inadequate transfection efficiency. The intrinsic feature of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) for transporting diverse cargoes into multiple cell and tissue types in a safe manner suggests that they can be conjugated to chitosan for improving its transfection efficiency. In this review, we briefly discuss CPPs and their classification, and also the major mechanisms contributing to the cellular uptake of CPPs and cargo conjugates. We also discuss immense improvements for the delivery of nucleic acids using CPP-conjugated chitosan-based carriers with special emphasis on plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA.

  8. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by a new multiplex peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization method

    PubMed Central

    Machado, António; Castro, Joana; Cereija, Tatiana; Almeida, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most common vaginal infections. However, its diagnosis by classical methods reveals low specificity. Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy diagnosis of 150 vaginal samples with research gold standard methods and our Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. Also, we described the first PNA-FISH methodology for BV diagnosis, which provides results in approximately 3 h. The results showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 64.3 to 95.0%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI [92.6–99.4%]), demonstrating the higher specificity of the PNA-FISH method and showing false positive results in BV diagnosis commonly obtained by the classical methods. This methodology combines the specificity of PNA probes for Lactobacillus species and G. vaginalis visualization and the calculation of the microscopic field by Nugent score, allowing a trustful evaluation of the bacteria present in vaginal microflora and avoiding the occurrence of misleading diagnostics. Therefore, the PNA-FISH methodology represents a valuable alternative for BV diagnosis. PMID:25737820

  9. Isodesmic reaction for accurate theoretical pKa calculations of amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Sastre, S; Casasnovas, R; Muñoz, F; Frau, J

    2016-04-28

    Theoretical and quantitative prediction of pKa values at low computational cost is a current challenge in computational chemistry. We report that the isodesmic reaction scheme provides semi-quantitative predictions (i.e. mean absolute errors of 0.5-1.0 pKa unit) for the pKa1 (α-carboxyl), pKa2 (α-amino) and pKa3 (sidechain groups) of a broad set of amino acids and peptides. This method fills the gaps of thermodynamic cycles for the computational pKa calculation of molecules that are unstable in the gas phase or undergo proton transfer reactions or large conformational changes from solution to the gas phase. We also report the key criteria to choose a reference species to make accurate predictions. This method is computationally inexpensive and makes use of standard density functional theory (DFT) and continuum solvent models. It is also conceptually simple and easy to use for researchers not specialized in theoretical chemistry methods. PMID:27052591

  10. End invasion of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) with mixed-base composition into linear DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Smolina, Irina V; Demidov, Vadim V; Soldatenkov, Viatcheslav A; Chasovskikh, Sergey G; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D

    2005-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA mimic with valuable properties and a rapidly growing scope of applications. With the exception of recently introduced pseudocomplementary PNAs, binding of common PNA oligomers to target sites located inside linear double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs) is essentially restricted to homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence motifs, which significantly hampers some of the PNA applications. Here, we suggest an approach to bypass this limitation of common PNAs. We demonstrate that PNA with mixed composition of ordinary nucleobases is capable of sequence-specific targeting of complementary dsDNA sites if they are located at the very termini of DNA duplex. We then show that such targeting makes it possible to perform capturing of designated dsDNA fragments via the DNA-bound biotinylated PNA as well as to signal the presence of a specific dsDNA sequence, in the case a PNA beacon is employed. We also examine the PNA-DNA conjugate and prove that it can initiate the primer-extension reaction starting from the duplex DNA termini when a DNA polymerase with the strand-displacement ability is used. We thus conclude that recognition of duplex DNA by mixed-base PNAs via the end invasion has a promising potential for site-specific and sequence-unrestricted DNA manipulation and detection.

  11. Quantitative rRNA-targeted solution-based hybridization assay using peptide nucleic acid molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-12-01

    The potential of a solution-based hybridization assay using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) molecular beacon (MB) probes to quantify 16S rRNA of specific populations in RNA extracts of environmental samples was evaluated by designing PNA MB probes for the genera Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma. In a kinetic study with 16S rRNA from pure cultures, the hybridization of PNA MB to target 16S rRNA exhibited a higher final hybridization signal and a lower apparent rate constant than the hybridizations to nontarget 16S rRNAs. A concentration of 10 mM NaCl in the hybridization buffer was found to be optimal for maximizing the difference between final hybridization signals from target and nontarget 16S rRNAs. Hybridization temperatures and formamide concentrations in hybridization buffers were optimized to minimize signals from hybridizations of PNA MB to nontarget 16S rRNAs. The detection limit of the PNA MB hybridization assay was determined to be 1.6 nM of 16S rRNA. To establish proof for the application of PNA MB hybridization assays in complex systems, target 16S rRNA from Dechlorosoma suillum was spiked at different levels to RNA isolated from an environmental (bioreactor) sample, and the PNA MB assay enabled effective quantification of the D. suillum RNA in this complex mixture. For another environmental sample, the quantitative results from the PNA MB hybridization assay were compared with those from clone libraries.

  12. New formulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide using liposomes in hyaluronic acid gel for uveitis.

    PubMed

    Lajavardi, Laure; Camelo, Serge; Agnely, Florence; Luo, Wei; Goldenberg, Brigitte; Naud, Marie-Christine; Behar-Cohen, Francine; de Kozak, Yvonne; Bochot, Amélie

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the benefits of a novel formulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) based on the incorporation of VIP-loaded rhodamine-conjugated liposomes (VIP-Rh-Lip) within hyaluronic acid (HA) gel (Gel-VIP-Rh-Lip) for the treatment of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in comparison with VIP-Rh-Lip alone. In vitro release study and rheological analysis showed that interactions between HA chains and liposomes resulted in increased viscosity and reinforced elasticity of the gel. In vivo a single intravitreal injection of Gel-VIP-Rh-Lip was performed in rats 7 days prior to uveitis induction by subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide injection. The maximal ocular inflammation occurs within 16-24 h in controls (VIP-Rh-Lip, unloaded-Rh-Lip). Whereas intraocular injection of VIP-Rh-Lip had no effect on EIU severity compared with controls, Gel-VIP-Rh-Lip reduced significantly the clinical score and number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the eye. The fate of liposomes, VIP and HA in the eyes, regional and inguinal lymph nodes and spleen was analyzed by immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy. Retention of liposomes by HA gel was observed in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation severity seemed to impact on system stability resulting in the delayed release of VIP. Thus, HA gel containing VIP-Rh-Lip is an efficient strategy to obtain a sustained delivery of VIP in ocular and lymph node tissues.

  13. Application of Peptide Nucleic Acid-based Assays Toward Detection of Somatic Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Christopher S; Yang, Chunzhang; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic oligonucleotides with many applications. Compared with DNA, PNAs bind their complementary DNA strand with higher specificity and strength, an attribute that can make it an effective polymerase chain reaction clamp. A growing body of work has demonstrated the utility of PNAs in detecting low levels of mutant DNA, particularly in the detection of circulating mutated tumor cells in the peripheral blood. The PNA-based assay has greater sensitivity than direct sequencing and is significantly more affordable and rapid than next-generation deep sequencing. We have previously demonstrated that PNAs can successfully detect somatic mosaicism in patients with suspected disease phenotypes. In this report, we detail our methodology behind PNA design and application. We describe our protocol for optimizing the PNA for sequencing use and for determining the sensitivity of the PNA-based assay. Lastly, we discuss the potential applications of our assay for future laboratory and clinical purposes and highlight the role of PNAs in the detection of somatic mosaicism. PMID:27115839

  14. Peptide nucleic acid probe detection of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes associated with drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bockstahler, L E; Li, Z; Nguyen, N Y; Van Houten, K A; Brennan, M J; Langone, J J; Morris, S L

    2002-03-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious public health problem. Many of the specific gene mutations that cause drug resistance in M. tuberculosis are point mutations. We are developing a PCR-peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based ELISA as a diagnostic method to recognize point mutations in genes associated with isoniazid and rifampin resistance in M. tuberculosis. Specific point mutation-containing sequences and wild-type sequences of cloned mycobacterial genes were PCR-amplified, denatured, and hybridized with PNA probes bound to microplate wells. Using 15-base PNA probes, we established the hybridization temperatures (50 degrees C-55 degrees C) and other experimental conditions suitable for detecting clinically relevant point mutations in the katG and rpoB genes. Hybridization of PCR-amplified sequences that contained these point mutations with complementary mutation-specific PNAs resulted in significant increases in ELISA response compared with hybridization using wild-type-specific PNAs. Conversely, PCR-amplified wild-type sequences hybridized much more efficiently with wild-type PNAs than with the mutation-specific PNAs. Using the M. tuberculosis cloned genes and PCR-PNA-ELISA format developed here, M. tuberculosis sequences containing point mutations associated with drug resistance can be identified in less than 24 h. PMID:11926172

  15. Boswellic acids target the human immune system-modulating antimicrobial peptide LL-37.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Arne; Tausch, Lars; Pillong, Max; Jauch, Johann; Karas, Michael; Schneider, Gisbert; Werz, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is the sole member of the human cathelicidin family with immune system-modulating properties and roles in autoimmune disease development. Small molecules able to interact with LL-37 and to modulate its functions have not been described yet. Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpene acids that are bioactive principles of frankincense extracts used as anti-inflammatory remedies. Although various anti-inflammatory modes of action have been proposed for BAs, the pharmacological profile of these compounds is still incompletely understood. Here, we describe the identification of human LL-37 as functional target of BAs. In unbiased target fishing experiments using immobilized BAs as bait and human neutrophils as target source, LL-37 was identified as binding partner assisted by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Thermal stability experiments using circular dichroism spectroscopy confirm direct interaction between BAs and LL-37. Of interest, this binding of BAs resulted in an inhibition of the functionality of LL-37. Thus, the LPS-neutralizing properties of isolated LL-37 were inhibited by 3-O-acetyl-β-BA (Aβ-BA) and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-BA (AKβ-BA) in a cell-free limulus amoebocyte lysate assay with EC50=0.2 and 0.8 μM, respectively. Also, LL-37 activity was inhibited by these BAs in LL-37-enriched supernatants of stimulated neutrophils or human plasma derived from stimulated human whole blood. Together, we reveal BAs as inhibitors of LL-37, which might be a relevant mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of BAs and suggests BAs as suitable chemical tools or potential agents for intervention with LL-37 and related disorders. PMID:26361729

  16. Strand displacement and duplex invasion into double-stranded DNA by pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Bohländer, Peggy R; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-09-21

    The so-called acpcPNA system bears a peptide backbone consisting of 4'-substituted proline units with (2'R,4'R) configuration in an alternating combination with (2S)-amino-cyclopentane-(1S)-carboxylic acids. acpcPNA forms exceptionally stable hybrids with complementary DNA. We demonstrate herein (i) strand displacements by single-stranded DNA from acpcPNA-DNA hybrids, and by acpcPNA strands from DNA duplexes, and (ii) strand invasions by acpcPNA into double-stranded DNA. These processes were studied in vitro using synthetic oligonucleotides and by means of our concept of wavelength-shifting fluorescent nucleic acid probes, including fluorescence lifetime measurements that allow quantifying energy transfer efficiencies. The strand displacements of preannealed 14mer acpcPNA-7mer DNA hybrids consecutively by 10mer and 14mer DNA strands occur with rather slow kinetics but yield high fluorescence color ratios (blue : yellow or blue : red), fluorescence intensity enhancements, and energy transfer efficiencies. Furthermore, 14mer acpcPNA strands are able to invade into 30mer double-stranded DNA, remarkably with quantitative efficiency in all studied cases. These processes can also be quantified by means of fluorescence. This remarkable behavior corroborates the extraordinary versatile properties of acpcPNA. In contrast to conventional PNA systems which require 3 or more equivalents PNA, only 1.5 equivalents acpcPNA are sufficient to get efficient double duplex invasion. Invasions also take place even in the presence of 250 mM NaCl which represents an ionic strength nearly twice as high as the physiological ion concentration. These remarkable results corroborate the extraordinary properties of acpcPNA, and thus acpcPNA represents an eligible tool for biological analytics and antigene applications.

  17. A comparison of the effects of amide and acid groups at the C-terminus on the collision-induced dissociation of deprotonated peptides.

    PubMed

    Bokatzian-Johnson, Samantha S; Stover, Michele L; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2012-09-01

    The dissociative behavior of peptide amides and free acids was explored using low-energy collision-induced dissociation and high level computational theory. Both positive and negative ion modes were utilized, but the most profound differences were observed for the deprotonated species. Deprotonated peptide amides produce a characteristic c(m-2)(-) product ion (where m is the number of residues in the peptide) that is either absent or in low abundance in the analogous peptide acid spectrum. Peptide acids show an enhanced formation of c(m-3)(-); however, this is not generally as pronounced as c(m-2)(-) production from amides. The most notable occurrence of an amide-specific product ion is for laminin amide (YIGSR-NH(2)) and this case was investigated using several modified peptides. Mechanisms involving 6- and 9-membered ring formation were proposed, and their energetic properties were investigated using G3(MP2) molecular orbital theory calculations. For example, with C-terminal deprotonation of pentaglycine amide, formation of c(m-2)(-) and a 6-membered ring diketopiperazine neutral requires >31.6 kcal/mol, which is 26.1 kcal/mol less than the analogous process involving the peptide acid. The end group specific fragmentation of peptide amides in the negative ion mode may be useful for identifying such groups in proteomic applications.

  18. Synthesis of a chiral amino acid with bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane moiety and its incorporation into linear and cyclic antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Pritz, Stephan; Pätzel, Michael; Szeimies, Günter; Dathe, Margitta; Bienert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    The synthesis of the lipophilic chiral amino acid 1 bearing the bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane moiety is described. Linear and cyclic hexapeptides of the type Arg-Arg-Xaa-Yaa-Arg-Phe containing 1 instead of one or two tryptophan residues are prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis and the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of the peptides obtained are discussed.

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Amide and Acid Groups at the C-Terminus on the Collision-Induced Dissociation of Deprotonated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokatzian-Johnson, Samantha S.; Stover, Michele L.; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2012-09-01

    The dissociative behavior of peptide amides and free acids was explored using low-energy collision-induced dissociation and high level computational theory. Both positive and negative ion modes were utilized, but the most profound differences were observed for the deprotonated species. Deprotonated peptide amides produce a characteristic cm-2 - product ion (where m is the number of residues in the peptide) that is either absent or in low abundance in the analogous peptide acid spectrum. Peptide acids show an enhanced formation of cm-3 -; however, this is not generally as pronounced as cm-2 - production from amides. The most notable occurrence of an amide-specific product ion is for laminin amide (YIGSR-NH2) and this case was investigated using several modified peptides. Mechanisms involving 6- and 9-membered ring formation were proposed, and their energetic properties were investigated using G3(MP2) molecular orbital theory calculations. For example, with C-terminal deprotonation of pentaglycine amide, formation of cm-2 - and a 6-membered ring diketopiperazine neutral requires >31.6 kcal/mol, which is 26.1 kcal/mol less than the analogous process involving the peptide acid. The end group specific fragmentation of peptide amides in the negative ion mode may be useful for identifying such groups in proteomic applications.

  20. Folic Acid Inhibits Amyloid β-Peptide Production through Modulating DNA Methyltransferase Activity in N2a-APP Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Jiang, Mingyue; Zhao, Shijing; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xumei; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2015-10-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease resulting in progressive dementia, and is a principal cause of dementia among older adults. Folate acts through one-carbon metabolism to support the methylation of multiple substrates. We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and may alter amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production in AD. Mouse Neuro-2a cells expressing human APP695 were incubated with folic acid (2.8-40 μmol/L), and with or without zebularine (the DNMT inhibitor). DNMT activity, cell viability, Aβ and DNMTs expression were then examined. The results showed that folic acid stimulated DNMT gene and protein expression, and DNMT activity. Furthermore, folic acid decreased Aβ protein production, whereas inhibition of DNMT activity by zebularine increased Aβ production. The results indicate that folic acid induces methylation potential-dependent DNMT enzymes, thereby attenuating Aβ production.

  1. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W. M.

    1981-12-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized.

  2. Utilizing cell-matrix interactions to modulate gene transfer to stem cells inside hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gojgini, Shiva; Tokatlian, Talar; Segura, Tatiana

    2011-10-01

    The effective delivery of DNA locally would increase the applicability of gene therapy in tissue regeneration, where diseased tissue is to be repaired in situ. One promising approach is to use hydrogel scaffolds to encapsulate and deliver plasmid DNA in the form of nanoparticles to the diseased tissue, so that cells infiltrating the scaffold are transfected to induce regeneration. This study focuses on the design of a DNA nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel scaffold. In particular, this study focuses on understanding how cell-matrix interactions affect gene transfer to adult stem cells cultured inside matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel scaffolds. HA was cross-linked to form a hydrogel material using a MMP degradable peptide and Michael addition chemistry. Gene transfer inside these hydrogel materials was assessed as a function of polyplex nitrogen to phosphate ratio (N/P = 5 to 12), matrix stiffness (100-1700 Pa), RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) concentration (10-400 μM), and RGD presentation (0.2-4.7 RGDs per HA molecule). All variables were found to affect gene transfer to mouse mensenchymal stem cells culture inside the DNA loaded hydrogels. As expected, higher N/P ratios lead to higher gene transfer efficiency but also higher toxicity; softer hydrogels resulted in higher transgene expression than stiffer hydrogels, and an intermediate RGD concentration and RGD clustering resulted in higher transgene expression. We believe that the knowledge gained through this in vitro model can be utilized to design better scaffold-mediated gene delivery for local gene therapy.

  3. Tri-peptide reference structures for the calculation of relative solvent accessible surface area in protein amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Topham, Christopher M; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-02-01

    Relative amino acid residue solvent accessibility values allow the quantitative comparison of atomic solvent-accessible surface areas in different residue types and physical environments in proteins and in protein structural alignments. Geometry-optimised tri-peptide structures in extended solvent-exposed reference conformations have been obtained for 43 amino acid residue types at a high level of quantum chemical theory. Significant increases in side-chain solvent accessibility, offset by reductions in main-chain atom solvent exposure, were observed for standard residue types in partially geometry-optimised structures when compared to non-minimised models built from identical sets of proper dihedral angles abstracted from the literature. Optimisation of proper dihedral angles led most notably to marked increases of up to 54% in proline main-chain atom solvent accessibility compared to literature values. Similar effects were observed for fully-optimised tri-peptides in implicit solvent. The relief of internal strain energy was associated with systematic variation in N, C(α) and C(β) atom solvent accessibility across all standard residue types. The results underline the importance of optimisation of 'hard' degrees of freedom (bond lengths and valence bond angles) and improper dihedral angle values from force field or other context-independent reference values, and impact on the use of standardised fixed internal co-ordinate geometry in sampling approaches to the determination of absolute values of protein amino acid residue solvent accessibility. Quantum chemical methods provide a useful and accurate alternative to molecular mechanics methods to perform energy minimisation of peptides containing non-standard (chemically modified) amino acid residues frequently present in experimental protein structure data sets, for which force field parameters may not be available. Reference tri-peptide atomic co-ordinate sets including hydrogen atoms are made freely available

  4. Measurement and modeling of acid dissociation constants of tri-peptides containing Glu, Gly, and His using potentiometry and generalized multiplicative analysis of variance.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Rima Raffoul; Sutton, Gordon J; Hibbert, D Brynn; Ebrahimi, Diako

    2013-02-28

    We report pK(a) values with measurement uncertainties for all labile protons of the 27 tri-peptides prepared from the amino acids glutamic acid (E), glycine (G) and histidine (H). Each tri-peptide (GGG, GGE, GGH, …, HHH) was subjected to alkali titration and pK(a) values were calculated from triplicate potentiometric titrations data using HyperQuad 2008 software. A generalized multiplicative analysis of variance (GEMANOVA) of pK(a) values for the most acidic proton gave the optimum model having two terms, an interaction between the end amino acids plus an isolated main effect of the central amino acid.

  5. Measurement and modeling of acid dissociation constants of tri-peptides containing Glu, Gly, and His using potentiometry and generalized multiplicative analysis of variance.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Rima Raffoul; Sutton, Gordon J; Hibbert, D Brynn; Ebrahimi, Diako

    2013-02-28

    We report pK(a) values with measurement uncertainties for all labile protons of the 27 tri-peptides prepared from the amino acids glutamic acid (E), glycine (G) and histidine (H). Each tri-peptide (GGG, GGE, GGH, …, HHH) was subjected to alkali titration and pK(a) values were calculated from triplicate potentiometric titrations data using HyperQuad 2008 software. A generalized multiplicative analysis of variance (GEMANOVA) of pK(a) values for the most acidic proton gave the optimum model having two terms, an interaction between the end amino acids plus an isolated main effect of the central amino acid. PMID:23247603

  6. Enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations of the di-amino acid peptide L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid in the zwitterionic state.

    PubMed

    Kausar, Nighat; Dines, Trevor J; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Alexander, Bruce D

    2009-08-14

    Solid state IR and Raman as well as aqueous solution state Raman spectra are reported for the linear di-amino acid peptide L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid (L-Asp-L-Glu); the solution state Raman spectrum has also been obtained for the N,O-deuterated derivative. SCF-DFT calculations at the B3-LYP/cc-pVDZ level established that the structure and vibrational spectra of L-Asp-L-Glu can be interpreted using a model of the peptide with ten hydrogen-bonded water molecules, in conjunction with the conductor-like polarizable continuum solvation method. The DFT calculations resulted in the computation of a stable zwitterionic structure, which displays trans-amide conformation. The vibrational spectra were computed at the optimised molecular geometry, enabling normal coordinate analysis, which yielded satisfactory agreement with the experimental IR and Raman data. Computed potential energy distributions of the normal modes provided detailed vibrational assignments.

  8. Synthetic amphibian peptides and short amino-acids derivatives against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of Providencia stuartii clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Kamysz, Wojciech; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growing number of multidrug resistant strains limits the use of many of the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, bacterial biofilm, due to its complex structure, constitutes an effective barrier to conventional antibiotics. The in vitro activities of naturally occurring peptide (Citropin 1.1), chemically engineered analogue (Pexiganan), newly-designed, short amino-acid derivatives (Pal-KK-NH2, Pal-KKK-NH2, Pal-RRR-NH2) and six clinically used antimicrobial agents (Gatifloxacin, Ampicilin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime and Cefalexin) were investigated against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of multidrug-resistant Providencia stuartii strains, isolated from urological catheters. The MICs, MBCs values were determined by broth microdilution technique. Inhibition of biofilm formation by antimicrobial agents as well as biofilm susceptibility assay were tested using a surrogate model based on the Crystal Violet method. The antimicrobial activity of amino-acids derivatives and synthetic peptides was compared to that of clinically used antibiotics. For planktonic cells, MICs of peptides and antibiotics ranged between 1 and 256 μg/ml and 256 and ≥ 2048 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs values of Pexiganan, Citropin 1.1 and amino-acids derivatives were between 16 and 256 μg/ml, 64 and 256 μg/ml and 16 and 512 μg/ml, respectively. For clinically used antibiotics the MBCs values were above 2048 μg/ml. All of the tested peptides and amino-acids derivatives, showed inhibitory activity against P. stuartii biofilm formation, in relation to their concentrations. Pexiganan and Citropin 1.1 in concentration range 32 and 256 μg/ml caused both strong and complete suppression of biofilm formation. None of the antibiotics caused complete inhibition of biofilm formation process. The biofilm susceptibility assay verified the extremely poor antibiofilm activity of conventional antibiotics compared to synthetic peptides. The

  9. Synthetic amphibian peptides and short amino-acids derivatives against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of Providencia stuartii clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Kamysz, Wojciech; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growing number of multidrug resistant strains limits the use of many of the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, bacterial biofilm, due to its complex structure, constitutes an effective barrier to conventional antibiotics. The in vitro activities of naturally occurring peptide (Citropin 1.1), chemically engineered analogue (Pexiganan), newly-designed, short amino-acid derivatives (Pal-KK-NH2, Pal-KKK-NH2, Pal-RRR-NH2) and six clinically used antimicrobial agents (Gatifloxacin, Ampicilin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime and Cefalexin) were investigated against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of multidrug-resistant Providencia stuartii strains, isolated from urological catheters. The MICs, MBCs values were determined by broth microdilution technique. Inhibition of biofilm formation by antimicrobial agents as well as biofilm susceptibility assay were tested using a surrogate model based on the Crystal Violet method. The antimicrobial activity of amino-acids derivatives and synthetic peptides was compared to that of clinically used antibiotics. For planktonic cells, MICs of peptides and antibiotics ranged between 1 and 256 μg/ml and 256 and ≥ 2048 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs values of Pexiganan, Citropin 1.1 and amino-acids derivatives were between 16 and 256 μg/ml, 64 and 256 μg/ml and 16 and 512 μg/ml, respectively. For clinically used antibiotics the MBCs values were above 2048 μg/ml. All of the tested peptides and amino-acids derivatives, showed inhibitory activity against P. stuartii biofilm formation, in relation to their concentrations. Pexiganan and Citropin 1.1 in concentration range 32 and 256 μg/ml caused both strong and complete suppression of biofilm formation. None of the antibiotics caused complete inhibition of biofilm formation process. The biofilm susceptibility assay verified the extremely poor antibiofilm activity of conventional antibiotics compared to synthetic peptides. The

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus trans-activator of transcription peptide detection via ribonucleic acid aptamer on aminated diamond biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim Ruslinda, A.; Wang, Xianfen; Ishii, Yoko; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Tanabe, Kyosuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    The potential of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as both informational and ligand binding molecule have opened a scenario in the development of biosensors. An aminated diamond-based RNA aptasensor is presented for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription (Tat) peptide protein detection that not only gives a labeled or label-free detection method but also provides a reusable platform for a simple, sensitive, and selective detection of proteins. The immobilized procedure was based on the binding interaction between positively charged amine terminated diamond and the RNA aptamer probe molecules with the negatively charged surface carboxylic compound linker molecule such as terephthalic acid.

  11. Preparation of a Thermosensitive Gel Composed of a mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD Nanodrug Delivery System for Pancreatic Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Ying; Han, Bao-Shan; Duan, You-Rong

    2015-09-23

    It is hypothesized that a gel (NP-Gel) composed of thermosensitive gel (Gel) and nanoparticles (NP) can prolong drug release time and overcome the drug resistance of pancreatic tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(l-lysine)-cyclic peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic-glutamic-valine acid) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD) NP and NP-Gel were designed, optimized, and characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, high efficiency liquid chromatography, and rheological analyses. Aspc-1/PTX cell was used in a cell uptake test. A 3D cell model was used to mimic PTX elimination in tissue. The in vivo sustained release and antitumor effects were studied in Aspc-1/PTX-loaded nude mice with xerographic and in situ tumors. The NP were 133.7 ± 28.3 nm with 85.03% entrapped efficiency, 1.612% loaded ratio, and suitable rheological properties. PTX was released as NP from NP-Gel, greatly prolonging the release and elimination times to afford long-term effects. NP-Gel enhanced the uptake of PTX by Aspc-1/PTX cells more than using NP or the Gel alone. Gel and NP-Gel remained solid in the tumor and stayed over 50 days versus the several days of NP in solution. NP-Gel exhibited a much higher inhibition rate in vivo than in solution, NP, or the Gel alone. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of NP-Gel might arise from synergic effects from NP and the Gel. NP primarily reversed drug resistance, while the Gel prolonged release time considerably in situ. This preparation proved effective with a very small PTX dose (250 μg/kg) and exhibited few toxic effects in normal tissue.

  12. Preparation of a Thermosensitive Gel Composed of a mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD Nanodrug Delivery System for Pancreatic Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Ying; Han, Bao-Shan; Duan, You-Rong

    2015-09-23

    It is hypothesized that a gel (NP-Gel) composed of thermosensitive gel (Gel) and nanoparticles (NP) can prolong drug release time and overcome the drug resistance of pancreatic tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(l-lysine)-cyclic peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic-glutamic-valine acid) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD) NP and NP-Gel were designed, optimized, and characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, high efficiency liquid chromatography, and rheological analyses. Aspc-1/PTX cell was used in a cell uptake test. A 3D cell model was used to mimic PTX elimination in tissue. The in vivo sustained release and antitumor effects were studied in Aspc-1/PTX-loaded nude mice with xerographic and in situ tumors. The NP were 133.7 ± 28.3 nm with 85.03% entrapped efficiency, 1.612% loaded ratio, and suitable rheological properties. PTX was released as NP from NP-Gel, greatly prolonging the release and elimination times to afford long-term effects. NP-Gel enhanced the uptake of PTX by Aspc-1/PTX cells more than using NP or the Gel alone. Gel and NP-Gel remained solid in the tumor and stayed over 50 days versus the several days of NP in solution. NP-Gel exhibited a much higher inhibition rate in vivo than in solution, NP, or the Gel alone. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of NP-Gel might arise from synergic effects from NP and the Gel. NP primarily reversed drug resistance, while the Gel prolonged release time considerably in situ. This preparation proved effective with a very small PTX dose (250 μg/kg) and exhibited few toxic effects in normal tissue. PMID:26366977

  13. Evolutionary importance of the intramolecular pathways of hydrolysis of phosphate ester mixed anhydrides with amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-11

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  14. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  15. Proline-glutamic acid-proline-lysine peptide set as a specific antigen for the serological diagnosis of strangles.

    PubMed

    Hobo, S; Niwa, H; Anzai, T

    2006-11-01

    The reactivity of synthesised peptide sets for the M-like proteins SeM and SzPSe with sera from horses infected with Streptococcus equi or Streptococcus zooepidemicus, or control horses, was investigated by an ELISA. Seventeen horses were infected experimentally with S equi or S zooepidemicus, convalescent sera were obtained from 25 horses and control sera were obtained from 1945 horses. The serum antibody responses of individual horses to the peptide sets were highly variable. Some of the peptide sets for SeM reacted strongly with the sera from the horses infected experimentally with S equi, but also reacted with sera from some of the horses infected experimentally with S zooepidemicus. However, the proline-glutamic acid-proline-lysine (PEPK) repeats peptide set, synthesised from the PEPK repeats areas of SzPSe, reacted most strongly with the sera from the horses infected experimentally with S equi and the horses convalescing from strangles, and reacted only minimally with the sera from the horses infected experimentally with S zooepidemicus and the control horses.

  16. Targeting acidity in diseased tissues: mechanism and applications of the membrane-inserting peptide, pHLIP

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, John; Engelman, Donald M.; Barrera, Francisco N.

    2014-01-01

    pHLIPs are a family of soluble ~36 amino acid peptides, which bind to membrane surfaces. If the environment is acidic, a pHLIP folds and inserts across the membrane to form a stable transmembrane helix, thus preferentially locating itself in acidic tissues. Since tumors and other disease tissues are acidic, pHLIPs’ low-pH targeting behavior leads to applications as carriers for diagnostic and surgical imaging agents. The energy of membrane insertion can also be used to promote the insertion of modestly polar, normally cell-impermeable cargos across the cell membrane into the cytosol of targeted cells, leading to applications in tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules. We review the biochemical and biophysical basis of pHLIPs’ unique properties, diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and the principles upon which translational applications are being developed. PMID:25444855

  17. Ribosome-mediated incorporation of a non-standard amino acid into a peptide through expansion of the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Bain, J D; Switzer, C; Chamberlin, A R; Benner, S A

    1992-04-01

    One serious limitation facing protein engineers is the availability of only 20 'proteinogenic' amino acids encoded by natural messenger RNA. The lack of structural diversity among these amino acids restricts the mechanistic and structural issues that can be addressed by site-directed mutagenesis. Here we describe a new technology for incorporating non-standard amino acids into polypeptides by ribosome-based translation. In this technology, the genetic code is expanded through the creation of a 65th codon-anticodon pair from unnatural nucleoside bases having non-standard hydrogen-bonding patterns. This new codon-anticodon pair efficiently supports translation in vitro to yield peptides containing a non-standard amino acid. The versatility of the ribosome as a synthetic tool offers new possibilities for protein engineering, and compares favourably with another recently described approach in which the genetic code is simply rearranged to recruit stop codons to play a coding role. PMID:1560827

  18. Immobilization-free electrochemical DNA detection with anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Kongpeth, Jutatip; Jampasa, Sakda; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Chailapakul, Orawon; Vilaivan, Tirayut

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical detection provides a simple, rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for DNA detection. In traditional electrochemical DNA biosensors, the probe is immobilized onto the electrode. Hybridization with the DNA target causes a change in electrochemical signal, either from the intrinsic signal of the probe/target or through a label or a redox indicator. The major drawback of this approach is the requirement for probe immobilization in a controlled fashion. In this research, we take the advantage of different electrostatic properties between PNA and DNA to develop an immobilization-free approach for highly sequence-specific electrochemical DNA sensing on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a square-wave voltammetric (SWV) technique. Anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (AQ-PNA) was employed as a probe together with an SPCE that was modified with a positively-charged polymer (poly quaternized-(dimethylamino-ethyl)methacrylate, PQDMAEMA). The electrostatic attraction between the negatively-charged PNA-DNA duplex and the positively-charged modified SPCE attributes to the higher signal of PNA-DNA duplex than that of the electrostatically neutral PNA probe, resulting in a signal change. The calibration curve of this proposed method exhibited a linear range between 0.35 and 50 nM of DNA target with a limit of detection of 0.13 nM (3SD(blank)/Slope). The sub-nanomolar detection limit together with a small sample volume required (20 μL) allowed detection of <10 fmol (<1 ng) of DNA. With the high specificity of the pyrrolidinyl PNA probe used, excellent discrimination between complementary and various single-mismatched DNA targets was obtained. An application of this new platform for a sensitive and specific detection of isothermally-amplified shrimp's white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA was successfully demonstrated. PMID:26695270

  19. Design and Evaluation of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Specific Identification of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans and various nontarget Candida spp. The performance of these PNA probes was compared quantitatively against that of DNA probes or DNA probe/helper combinations directed against the same target regions. Ratiometric analyses of FCM results indicated that both the hybridization quality and yield of the PNA probes were higher than those of the DNA probes. In FCM-based comparisons of the PNA probes, P-Ca726 was found to be highly specific, showing 2.5- to 5.5-fold-higher discriminatory power for C. albicans than P-CalB2208. The use of formamide further improved the performance of the new probe. Our results reinforce the significant practical and diagnostic advantages of PNA probes over their DNA counterparts for FISH and indicate that P-Ca726 may be used advantageously for the rapid and specific identification of C. albicans in clinical and related applications, especially when combined with FCM. PMID:25428160

  20. Immobilization-free electrochemical DNA detection with anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Kongpeth, Jutatip; Jampasa, Sakda; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Chailapakul, Orawon; Vilaivan, Tirayut

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical detection provides a simple, rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for DNA detection. In traditional electrochemical DNA biosensors, the probe is immobilized onto the electrode. Hybridization with the DNA target causes a change in electrochemical signal, either from the intrinsic signal of the probe/target or through a label or a redox indicator. The major drawback of this approach is the requirement for probe immobilization in a controlled fashion. In this research, we take the advantage of different electrostatic properties between PNA and DNA to develop an immobilization-free approach for highly sequence-specific electrochemical DNA sensing on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a square-wave voltammetric (SWV) technique. Anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (AQ-PNA) was employed as a probe together with an SPCE that was modified with a positively-charged polymer (poly quaternized-(dimethylamino-ethyl)methacrylate, PQDMAEMA). The electrostatic attraction between the negatively-charged PNA-DNA duplex and the positively-charged modified SPCE attributes to the higher signal of PNA-DNA duplex than that of the electrostatically neutral PNA probe, resulting in a signal change. The calibration curve of this proposed method exhibited a linear range between 0.35 and 50 nM of DNA target with a limit of detection of 0.13 nM (3SD(blank)/Slope). The sub-nanomolar detection limit together with a small sample volume required (20 μL) allowed detection of <10 fmol (<1 ng) of DNA. With the high specificity of the pyrrolidinyl PNA probe used, excellent discrimination between complementary and various single-mismatched DNA targets was obtained. An application of this new platform for a sensitive and specific detection of isothermally-amplified shrimp's white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA was successfully demonstrated.

  1. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) binding-mediated induction of human gamma-globin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Xu, X; Pace, B; Dean, D A; Glazer, P M; Chan, P; Goodman, S R; Shokolenko, I

    1999-07-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can bind to homopurine/homopyrimidine sequences of double-stranded DNA targets in a sequence-specific manner and form [PNA]2/DNA triplexes with single-stranded DNA D-loop structures at the PNA binding sites. These D-loop structures have been found to have a capacity to initiate transcription in vitro. If this strategy can be used to induce transcription of endogenous genes, it may provide a novel approach for gene therapy of many human diseases. Human [beta] globin disorders such as sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia are very common genetic diseases that are caused by mutations in the beta-globin gene. When gamma-globin genes are highly expressed in sickle cell patients, the presence of high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, alpha2gamma2) can compensate for the defective beta-globin gene product and such patients have much improved symptoms or are free of disease. However, the gamma-globin genes are developmentally regulated and normally expressed at very low levels (>1%) in adult blood cells. We have investigated the possibility of inducing gamma-globin gene expression with PNAs. Using PNAs designed to bind to the 5' flanking region of the gamma-globin gene, induction of expression of a reporter gene construct was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, PNA-mediated induction of endogenous gamma-globin gene expression was also demonstrated in K562 human erythroleukemia cells. This result suggests that induction of gamma-globin gene expression with PNAs might provide a new approach for the treatment of sickle cell disease. PNA-induced gene expression strategy also may have implications in gene therapy of other diseases such as genetic diseases, cancer and infectious diseases.

  2. Spectral and biological evaluation of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide derived from 1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, J J; Leung, Kai P; Chai, Hanbo; Hicks, Rickey P

    2015-03-15

    Ac-GF(A6c)G(A6c)K(A6c)G(A6c)F(A6c)G(A6c)GK(A6c)KKKK-amide (A6c=1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that exhibits in vitro inhibitory activity against drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterococcus faecium at concentrations ranging from 10.9 to 43μM. Spectroscopic investigations were conducted to determine how this AMP interacts with simple membrane model systems in order to provide insight into possible mechanisms of action. CD and 2D-(1)H NMR experiments indicated this AMP on binding to SDS and DPC micelles adopts conformations with varying percentages of helical and random coil conformers. CD investigations in the presence of three phospholipid SUVs consisting of POPC, 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC revealed: (1) The interactions occurring with POPC SUVs have minimal effect on the conformational diversity of the AMP yielding conformations similar to those observed in buffer. (2) The interactions with 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC SUVs exhibited a greater influence on the percentage of different conformers contributing to the CD spectra. (3) The presence of a high of percentage of helical conformers was not observed in the presence of SUVs as was the case with micelles. This data indicates that the diversity of surface bound conformations adopted by this AMP are very different from the diversity of conformations adopted by this AMP on insertion into the lipid bilayer. CD spectra of this AMP in the presence of SUVs consisting of LPS isolated from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli exhibited characteristics associated with various helical conformations.

  3. Evidence for a near-resonant charge transfer mechanism for double-stranded peptide nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Ravindra; Davis, Kathryn L; Wierzbinski, Emil; Bezer, Silvia; Balaeff, Alexander; Keinan, Shahar; Paul, Amit; Kocsis, Laura; Beratan, David N; Achim, Catalina; Waldeck, David H

    2011-01-12

    We present evidence for a near-resonant mechanism of charge transfer in short peptide nucleic acid (PNA) duplexes obtained through electrochemical, STM break junction (STM-BJ), and computational studies. A seven base pair (7-bp) PNA duplex with the sequence (TA)(3)-(XY)-(TA)(3) was studied, in which XY is a complementary nucleobase pair. The experiments showed that the heterogeneous charge transfer rate constant (k(0)) and the single-molecule conductance (σ) correlate with the oxidation potential of the purine base in the XY base pair. The electrochemical measurements showed that the enhancement of k(0) is independent, within experimental error, of which of the two PNA strands contains the purine base of the XY base pair. 7-bp PNA duplexes with one or two GC base pairs had similar measured k(0) and conductance values. While a simple superexchange model, previously used to rationalize charge transfer in single stranded PNA (Paul et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 6498-6507), describes some of the experimental observations, the model does not explain the absence of an enhancement in the experimental k(0) and σ upon increasing the G content in the duplexes from one to two. Moreover, the superexchange model is not consistent with other studies (Paul et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 14140), that showed a hopping charge transport mechanism is likely important for PNA duplexes longer than seven base pairs. A quantitative computational analysis shows that a near-resonant charge transfer regime, wherein a mix of superexchange and hopping mechanisms are expected to coexist, can rationalize all of the experimental results. PMID:21141966

  4. Proline Editing: A General and Practical Approach to the Synthesis of Functionally and Structurally Diverse Peptides. Analysis of Steric versus Stereoelectronic Effects of 4-Substituted Prolines on Conformation within Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Anil K.; Naduthambi, Devan; Thomas, Krista M.; Zondlo, Neal J.

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized proline residues have diverse applications. Herein we describe a practical approach, proline editing, for the synthesis of peptides with stereospecifically modified proline residues. Peptides are synthesized by standard solid-phase-peptide-synthesis to incorporate Fmoc-Hydroxyproline (4R-Hyp). In an automated manner, the Hyp hydroxyl is protected and the remainder of the peptide synthesized. After peptide synthesis, the Hyp protecting group is orthogonally removed and Hyp selectively modified to generate substituted proline amino acids, with the peptide main chain functioning to “protect” the proline amino and carboxyl groups. In a model tetrapeptide (Ac-TYPN-NH2), 4R-Hyp was stereospecifically converted to 122 different 4-substituted prolyl amino acids, with 4R or 4S stereochemistry, via Mitsunobu, oxidation, reduction, acylation, and substitution reactions. 4-Substituted prolines synthesized via proline editing include incorporated structured amino acid mimetics (Cys, Asp/Glu, Phe, Lys, Arg, pSer/pThr), recognition motifs (biotin, RGD), electron-withdrawing groups to induce stereoelectronic effects (fluoro, nitrobenzoate), handles for heteronuclear NMR (19F:fluoro; pentafluorophenyl or perfluoro-tert-butyl ether; 4,4-difluoro; 77SePh) and other spectroscopies (fluorescence, IR: cyanophenyl ether), leaving groups (sulfonate, halide, NHS, bromoacetate), and other reactive handles (amine, thiol, thioester, ketone, hydroxylamine, maleimide, acrylate, azide, alkene, alkyne, aryl halide, tetrazine, 1,2-aminothiol). Proline editing provides access to these proline derivatives with no solution phase synthesis. All peptides were analyzed by NMR to identify stereoelectronic and steric effects on conformation. Proline derivatives were synthesized to permit bioorthogonal conjugation reactions, including azide-alkyne, tetrazinetrans-cyclooctene, oxime, reductive amination, native chemical ligation, Suzuki, Sonogashira, cross-metathesis, and Diels

  5. Targeting In-Stent-Stenosis with RGD- and CXCL1-Coated Mini-Stents in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weinandy, Stefan; Schreiber, Fabian; Megens, Remco T. A.; Theelen, Wendy; Smeets, Ralf; Jockenhövel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris; Weber, Christian; Zernecke, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions that critically narrow the artery can necessitate an angioplasty and stent implantation. Long-term therapeutic effects, however, are limited by excessive arterial remodeling. We here employed a miniaturized nitinol-stent coated with star-shaped polyethylenglycole (star-PEG), and evaluated its bio-functionalization with RGD and CXCL1 for improving in-stent stenosis after implantation into carotid arteries of mice. Nitinol foils or stents (bare metal) were coated with star-PEG, and bio-functionalized with RGD, or RGD/CXCL1. Cell adhesion to star-PEG-coated nitinol foils was unaltered or reduced, whereas bio-functionalization with RGD but foremost RGD/CXCL1 increased adhesion of early angiogenic outgrowth cells (EOCs) and endothelial cells but not smooth muscle cells when compared with bare metal foils. Stimulation of cells with RGD/CXCL1 furthermore increased the proliferation of EOCs. In vivo, bio-functionalization with RGD/CXCL1 significantly reduced neointima formation and thrombus formation, and increased re-endothelialization in apoE-/- carotid arteries compared with bare-metal nitinol stents, star-PEG-coated stents, and stents bio-functionalized with RGD only. Bio-functionalization of star-PEG-coated nitinol-stents with RGD/CXCL1 reduced in-stent neointima formation. By supporting the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells, RGD/CXCL1 coating of stents may help to accelerate endothelial repair after stent implantation, and thus may harbor the potential to limit the complication of in-stent restenosis in clinical approaches. PMID:27192172

  6. Targeting In-Stent-Stenosis with RGD- and CXCL1-Coated Mini-Stents in Mice.

    PubMed

    Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Liehn, Elisa A; Weinandy, Stefan; Schreiber, Fabian; Megens, Remco T A; Theelen, Wendy; Smeets, Ralf; Jockenhövel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris; Weber, Christian; Zernecke, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions that critically narrow the artery can necessitate an angioplasty and stent implantation. Long-term therapeutic effects, however, are limited by excessive arterial remodeling. We here employed a miniaturized nitinol-stent coated with star-shaped polyethylenglycole (star-PEG), and evaluated its bio-functionalization with RGD and CXCL1 for improving in-stent stenosis after implantation into carotid arteries of mice. Nitinol foils or stents (bare metal) were coated with star-PEG, and bio-functionalized with RGD, or RGD/CXCL1. Cell adhesion to star-PEG-coated nitinol foils was unaltered or reduced, whereas bio-functionalization with RGD but foremost RGD/CXCL1 increased adhesion of early angiogenic outgrowth cells (EOCs) and endothelial cells but not smooth muscle cells when compared with bare metal foils. Stimulation of cells with RGD/CXCL1 furthermore increased the proliferation of EOCs. In vivo, bio-functionalization with RGD/CXCL1 significantly reduced neointima formation and thrombus formation, and increased re-endothelialization in apoE-/- carotid arteries compared with bare-metal nitinol stents, star-PEG-coated stents, and stents bio-functionalized with RGD only. Bio-functionalization of star-PEG-coated nitinol-stents with RGD/CXCL1 reduced in-stent neointima formation. By supporting the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells, RGD/CXCL1 coating of stents may help to accelerate endothelial repair after stent implantation, and thus may harbor the potential to limit the complication of in-stent restenosis in clinical approaches.

  7. Permeation of membranes by the neutral form of amino acids and peptides: relevance to the origin of peptide translocation