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Sample records for acid sa jasmonic

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  2. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  3. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  4. Jasmonic acid signaling modulates ozone-induced hypersensitive cell death.

    PubMed

    Rao, M V; Lee, H; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O(3)) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O(3)-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O(3)-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O(3)-induced H(2)O(2) content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O(3)-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O(3) exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O(3) of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O(3)-induced HR-like cell death.

  5. Quantification of jasmonic and salicylic acids in rice seedling leaves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Han, Oksoo; Tamogami, Shigeru; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are critical signaling components involved in various aspects of plant growth, development, and defense. Their constitutive levels vary from plant to plant and also from tissue to tissue within the same plant. Moreover, their quantitative levels change when plant is exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. To better understand the JA- and SA-mediated signaling and metabolic pathways, it is important to precisely quantify their levels in plants/tissues/organs. However, their extraction and quantification are not trivial and still technically challenging. An effort has been made in various laboratories to develop a simple and standard procedure that can be utilized for quantification of JA and SA. Here, we present the experimental procedure and our decade of experience on extracting and quantifying them in an absolute manner in leaves of rice seedlings. We must mention that this method has been applied to both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants for absolute quantification of JA and SA. As collaboration is the key towards rapid progress in science and technology, we are always open to sharing our experience in this field with any active research group with an aim to improve the procedure further and eventually to connect the importance of their (JA and SA) quantitative levels with networks of signaling and metabolic pathways in plants.

  6. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on sucrose yield and storage properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to investigate the effects of an e...

  7. Low oleic acid-derived repression of jasmonic acid-inducible defense responses requires the WRKY50 and WRKY51 proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Signaling induced upon a reduction in oleic acid (18:1) levels simultaneously up-regulates salicylic acid (SA)-mediated responses and inhibits jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance to biotrophs but increased susceptibility to necrotrophs. SA and the signaling compon...

  8. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  9. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  10. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  11. Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Ramel, Fanny; Ksas, Brigitte; Havaux, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Under stress conditions that bring about excessive absorption of light energy in the chloroplasts, the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2) can be strongly enhanced, triggering programmed cell death. However, the 1O2 signaling pathway can also lead to acclimation to photooxidative stress, when 1O2 is produced in relatively low amounts. This acclimatory response is associated with a strong downregulation of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway and the maintenance of low jasmonate levels, even under high light stress conditions that normally induce jasmonate synthesis. These findings suggest a central role for this phytohormone in the orientation of the 1O2 signaling pathway toward cell death or acclimation. This conclusion is confirmed here in an Arabidopsis double mutant obtained by crossing the 1O2-overproducing mutant ch1 and the jasmonate-deficient mutant dde2. This double mutant was found to be constitutively resistant to 1O2 stress and to display a strongly stimulated growth rate compared with the single ch1 mutant. However, the involvement of other phytohormones, such as ethylene, cannot be excluded. PMID:24103864

  12. Lipoxygenase in Caragana jubata responds to low temperature, abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kaur, Jagdeep; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyses oxygenation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids into oxylipins, and is a critical enzyme of the jasmonate signaling pathway. LOX has been shown to be associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in diverse plant species, though limited data is available with respect to low temperature and the associated cues. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a full-length cDNA (CjLOX) encoding lipoxygenase was cloned from apical buds of Caragana jubata, a temperate plant species that grows under extreme cold. The cDNA obtained was 2952bp long consisting of an open reading frame of 2610bp encoding 869 amino acids protein. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other plants demonstrated putative LH2/ PLAT domain, lipoxygenase iron binding catalytic domain and lipoxygenase_2 signature sequences. CjLOX exhibited up- and down-regulation of gene expression pattern in response to low temperature (LT), abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA). Among all the treatments, a strong up-regulation was observed in response to MJ. Data suggests an important role of jasmonate signaling pathway in response to LT in C. jubata.

  13. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.

  14. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  15. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  16. Nematocidal effects of natural phytoregulators jasmonic acid and methyl-jasmonate against Pratylenchus zeae and Helicotylenchus spp.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amanda Salomão; Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Hernandes, Camila; Lourenço, Mirian Vergínia; França, Suzelei de Castro; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nematocidal effects of natural phytoregulators jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl-jasmonate (MJ) against plant parasitic nematodes Pratylenchus zeae (Graham) (Pratylenchidae) and Helicotylenchus spp. (Hoplolaimidae). Both JA and MJ promoted elevated percentages of mortality in P. zeae and Helicotylenchus spp. after 12 and 24 h of nematodes exposition at different concentrations of jasmonates. Considering the potential use of jasmonates as biofertiliser added now for their nematocidal effects, our results are of relevance in terms of biotechnological application.

  17. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  18. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  19. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Tierney, M L; Mullet, J E

    1992-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant lipid derivatives that resemble mammalian eicosanoids in structure and biosynthesis. These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative determination of JA/MeJA in planta by a procedure based on the use of [13C,2H3]MeJA as an internal standard. Wounded soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. cv. Williams) stems rapidly accumulated MeJA and JA. Addition of MeJA to soybean suspension cultures also increased mRNA levels for three wound-responsive genes (chalcone synthase, vegetative storage protein, and proline-rich cell wall protein) suggesting a role for MeJA/JA in the mediation of several changes in gene expression associated with the plants' response to wounding.

  20. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Karen J.; Wiegers, Gerrie L.; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C.; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA–SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. PMID:27107291

  1. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Felipe; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; Meldau, Dorothea; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ischebeck, Till; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4) and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite. PMID:27907207

  2. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  3. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar resistant maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses against insect herbivores frequently depend on the biosynthesis and action of jasmonic acid (JA) and its conjugates. To better understand JA signaling pathways in maize (Zea mays L.), we have examined two maize genotypes, Mp708 and Tx601. Mp708 is resistant to feeding by le...

  4. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Hicks, Derrick; Souza, Amancio de; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-03-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context.

  5. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-02-23

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis.

  6. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  7. Tomato susceptibility to root-knot nematodes requires an intact jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Kishor K; Xie, Qi-Guang; Mantelin, Sophie; Bishnoi, Usha; Girke, Thomas; Navarre, Duroy A; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2008-09-01

    Responses of resistant (Mi-1/Mi-1) and susceptible (mi-1/ mi-1) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.) infection were monitored using cDNA microarrays, and the roles of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense signaling were evaluated in these interactions. Array analysis was used to compare transcript profiles in incompatible and compatible interactions of tomato roots 24 h after RKN infestation. The jai1 and def1 tomato mutant, altered in JA signaling, and tomato transgenic line NahG, altered in SA signaling, in the presence or absence of the RKN resistance gene Mi-1, were evaluated. The array analysis identified 1,497 and 750 genes differentially regulated in the incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively. Of the differentially regulated genes, 37% were specific to the incompatible interactions. NahG affected neither Mi-1 resistance nor basal defenses to RKNs. However, jai1 reduced tomato susceptibility to RKNs while not affecting Mi-1 resistance. In contrast, the def1 mutant did not affect RKN susceptibility. These results indicate that JA-dependent signaling does not play a role in Mi-1-mediated defense; however, an intact JA signaling pathway is required for tomato susceptibility to RKNs. In addition, low levels of SA might be sufficient for basal and Mi-1 resistance to RKNs.

  8. Jasmonic acid involves in grape fruit ripening and resistant against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Pervaiz, Tariq; Zhao, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Jinggui; Qian, Jianpu

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that is regulated by a signal network. Whereas the regulatory mechanism of abscisic acid has been studied extensively in non-climacteric fruit, little is know about other signaling pathways involved in this process. In this study, we performed that plant hormone jasmonic acid plays an important role in grape fruit coloring and softening by increasing the transcription levels of several ripening-related genes, such as the color-related genes PAL1, DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT; softening-related genes PG, PL, PE, Cell, EG1, and XTH1; and aroma-related genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. Lastly, the fruit anthocyanin, phenol, aroma, and cell wall materials were changed. Jasmonic acid positively regulated its biosynthesis pathway genes LOS, AOS, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) and signal pathway genes COI1 and JMT. RNA interference of grape jasmonic acid pathway gene VvAOS in strawberry fruit appeared fruit un-coloring phenotypes; exogenous jasmonic acid rescued this phenotypes. On the contrary, overexpression of grape jasmonic acid receptor VvCOI1 in the strawberry fruit accelerated the fruit-ripening process and induced some plant defense-related gene expression level. Furthermore, jasmonic acid treatment or strong jasmonic acid signal pathway in strawberry fruit make the fruit resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

  9. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    PubMed

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD.

  10. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems.

  11. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    PubMed

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  12. Simultaneous induction of jasmonic acid and disease-responsive genes signifies tolerance of American elm to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherif , S. M.; Shukla, M. R.; Murch, S. J.; Bernier, L.; Saxena, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by three fungal species in the genus Ophiostoma, is the most devastating disease of both native European and North American elm trees. Although many tolerant cultivars have been identified and released, the tolerance mechanisms are not well understood and true resistance has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the expression of disease-responsive genes in reactions leading to tolerance or susceptibility is significantly differentiated within the first 144 hours post-inoculation (hpi). Analysis of the levels of endogenous plant defense molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tolerant and susceptible American elm saplings suggested SA and methyl-jasmonate as potential defense response elicitors, which was further confirmed by field observations. However, the tolerant phenotype can be best characterized by a concurrent induction of JA and disease-responsive genes at 96 hpi. Molecular investigations indicated that the expression of fungal genes (i.e. cerato ulmin) was also modulated by endogenous SA and JA and this response was unique among aggressive and non-aggressive fungal strains. The present study not only provides better understanding of tolerance mechanisms to DED, but also represents a first, verified template for examining simultaneous transcriptomic changes during American elm-fungus interactions. PMID:26902398

  13. Jasmonates during senescence

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Martin A; Hussels, Wiebke

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and derivatives are oxylipin signaling compounds derived from linolenic acid. Jasmonates accumulate during natural and dark-induced senescence but the increase in these compounds is not essential for the initiation or progression of these senescence processes. Here we report that during natural and dark-induced senescence the increase in jasmonate levels does not trigger jasmonate signaling. Furthermore we provide evidence that jasmonate production might result from membrane turnover during dark-induced senescence. PMID:21057217

  14. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  15. Assessing the Role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR Transcriptional Repressors in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes.

    PubMed

    Caarls, Lotte; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Hickman, Richard; Jansen, Wouter; Verk, Marcel C Van; Proietti, Silvia; Lorenzo, Oscar; Solano, Roberto; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2016-11-10

    Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) cross-communicate in the plant immune signaling network to finely regulate induced defenses. In Arabidopsis, SA antagonizes many JA-responsive genes, partly by targeting the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-type transcriptional activator ORA59. Members of the ERF transcription factor family typically bind to GCC-box motifs in the promoters of JA- and ethylene-responsive genes, thereby positively or negatively regulating their expression. The GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Here, we investigated whether SA-induced ERF-type transcriptional repressors, which may compete with JA-induced ERF-type activators for binding at the GCC-box, play a role in SA/JA antagonism. We selected ERFs that are transcriptionally induced by SA and/or possess an EAR transcriptional repressor motif. Several of the 16 ERFs tested suppressed JA-dependent gene expression, as revealed by enhanced JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 expression levels in the corresponding erf mutants, while others were involved in activation of these genes. However, SA could antagonize JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 in all erf mutants, suggesting that the tested ERF transcriptional repressors are not required for SA/JA cross-talk. Moreover, a mutant in the co-repressor TOPLESS, that showed reduction in repression of JA signaling, still displayed SA-mediated antagonism of PDF1.2 and VSP2. Collectively, these results suggest that SA-regulated ERF transcriptional repressors are not essential for antagonism of JA-responsive gene expression by SA. We further show that de novo SA-induced protein synthesis is required for suppression of JA-induced PDF1.2, pointing to SA-stimulated production of an as yet unknown protein that suppresses JA-induced transcription.

  16. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

    PubMed

    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production.

  17. Induced production of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate by jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in sprouts and leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

    2013-07-18

    Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  18. ORA59 and EIN3 interaction couples jasmonate-ethylene synergistic action to antagonistic salicylic acid regulation of PDF expression.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Jishan; Wang, Changquan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-02-07

    Hormonal crosstalk is central for tailoring plant responses to the nature of challenges encountered. The role of antagonism between the two major defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and modulation of this interplay by ethylene (ET) in favor of JA signaling pathway in plant stress responses is well recognized, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show the opposing function of two transcription factors, ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1), in SA-mediated suppression and JA-mediated activation of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This functional duality is mediated via their effect on protein, not transcript levels of the PDF1.2 transcriptional activator octadecanoid-responsive arabidopsis59 (ORA59). Specifically, JA induces ORA59 protein levels independently of EIN3/EIL1, whereas SA reduces the protein levels dependently of EIN3/EIL1. Co-infiltration assays revealed nuclear co-localization of ORA59 and EIN3, and split-luciferase together with yeast-two-hybrid assays established their physical interaction. The functional ramification of the physical interaction is EIN3-dependent degradation of ORA59 by the 26S proteasome. These findings allude to SA-responsive reduction of ORA59 levels mediated by EIN3 binding to and targeting of ORA59 for degradation, thus nominating ORA59 pool as a coordination node for the antagonistic function of ET/JA and SA.

  19. Enhanced glucosinolates in root exudates of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa mediated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-02-23

    Elicitation studies with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) inducing a targeted rhizosecretion of high levels of anticarcinogenic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa plants were conducted. Elicitor applications not only led to an accumulation of individual indole glucosinolates and the aromatic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in the turnip organs but also in turnip root exudates. This indicates an extended systemic response, which comprises the phyllosphere with all aboveground plant organs and the rhizosphere including the belowground root system and also root exudates. Both elicitor applications induced a doubling in 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in root exudates, whereas application of MJ enhanced rhizosecreted indole glucosinolates up to 4-fold. In addition, the time course study revealed that maximal elicitation was observed on the 10th day of SA and MJ treatment. This study may provide an essential contribution using these glucosinolates as bioactive additives in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  20. Systemic jasmonic acid modulation in mycorrhizal tomato plants and its role in induced resistance against Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Nair, A; Kolet, S P; Thulasiram, H V; Bhargava, S

    2015-05-01

    Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata.

  1. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. PMID:26829979

  2. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll.

  3. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) gene expression after postharvest jasmonic acid treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to wate...

  4. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  5. [The participation of salicylic and jasmonic acids in genetic and induced resistance of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919)].

    PubMed

    Zinov'eva, S V; Vasiukova, N I; Udalova, Zh V; Gerasimova, N G

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic (SA) and jasmonic (JA) acids are the best known mediators of signal systems in plants. In this investigation the participation and character of interactions between SA- and JA-signals under the induced and genetic resistance of plants to nematodes was investigated on the model system tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. This study demonstrates that application of JA and SA to tomato foliage induces systemic effects that suppress root-knot nematode infestation, inhibition of nematode reproduction, and also increased activity of LOX and PAL, the enzymes of biosynthesis of JA and SA. JA treatment did not inhibit Mz-mediated resistance, which suggests a lack of signaling conflicts between these two forms of defense.

  6. Physcomitrella patens activates reinforcement of the cell wall, programmed cell death and accumulation of evolutionary conserved defence signals, such as salicylic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but not jasmonic acid, upon Botrytis cinerea infection.

    PubMed

    Ponce De León, Inés; Schmelz, Eric A; Gaggero, Carina; Castro, Alexandra; Álvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is an evolutionarily basal model system suitable for the analysis of plant defence responses activated after pathogen assault. Upon infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, several defence mechanisms are induced in P. patens, including the fortification of the plant cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and the induced expression of related genes. Botrytis cinerea infection also activates the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and cell death with hallmarks of programmed cell death in moss tissues. Salicylic acid (SA) levels also increase after fungal infection, and treatment with SA enhances transcript accumulation of the defence gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in P. patens colonies. The expression levels of the genes involved in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) synthesis, including lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), increase in P. patens gametophytes after pathogen assault, together with a rise in free linolenic acid and OPDA concentrations. However, jasmonic acid (JA) could not be detected in healthy or infected tissues of this plant. Our results suggest that, although conserved defence signals, such as SA and OPDA, are synthesized and are probably involved in the defence response of P. patens against B. cinerea infection, JA production appears to be missing. Interestingly, P. patens responds to OPDA and methyl jasmonate by reducing moss colony growth and rhizoid length, suggesting that jasmonate perception is present in mosses. Thus, P. patens can provide clues with regard to the evolution of different defence pathways in plants, including signalling and perception of OPDA and jasmonates in nonflowering and flowering plants.

  7. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae.

  8. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways. PMID:28222174

  9. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  10. Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2003-07-01

    Jasmonic acid altered the accumulation of major anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cell culture. Peonidin 3-glucoside content at day three was increased from 0.3 to 1.7 mg g(-1) dry cell wt while other major anthocyanins were increased by smaller increments. By day 14, the content of methylated and acylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside) was 6.3 mg g(-1) DCW, in response to treatment with jasmonic acid, and comprising approximately 45% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the untreated control culture contained 1.2 mg g(-1) DCW which made up approximately 32% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. Light further enhanced anthocyanin accumulation induced by jasmonic acid elicitation. The content of peonidin 3-glucoside at day 3 was 6.6 mg g(-1) DCW, 22-fold higher than control cultures while the content in response to light irradiation alone was 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW. When a highly pigmented cell line was elicited with jasmonic acid total anthocyanins increased from 9.2 to 20.7 mg g(-1) DCW, but there was no change in the anthocyanin composition.

  11. A Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Protein NaJAZd Regulates Floral Jasmonic Acid Levels and Counteracts Flower Abscission in Nicotiana attenuata Plants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is an important regulator of plant growth, development and defense. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins are key regulators in jasmonate signaling ubiquitously present in flowering plants but their functional annotation remains largely incomplete. Recently, we identified 12 putative JAZ proteins in native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, and initiated systematic functional characterization of these proteins by reverse genetic approaches. In this report, Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaJAZd (irJAZd) by RNA interference were used to characterize NaJAZd function. Although NaJAZd transcripts were strongly and transiently up-regulated in the rosette leaves by simulated herbivory treatment, we did not observe strong defense-related phenotypes, such as altered herbivore performance or the constitutive accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in irJAZd plants compared to wild type plants, both in the glasshouse and the native habitat of Nicotiana attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Interestingly, irJAZd plants produced fewer seed capsules than did wild type plants as a result of increased flower abscission in later stages of flower development. The early- and mid-developmental stages of irJAZd flowers had reduced levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, while fully open flowers had normal levels, but these were impaired in NaMYB305 transcript accumulations. Previously, NaMYB305-silenced plants were shown to have strong flower abscission phenotypes and contained lower NECTARIN 1 transcript levels, phenotypes which are copied in irJAZd plants. We propose that the NaJAZd protein is required to counteract flower abscission, possibly by regulating jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine levels and/or expression of NaMYB305 gene in Nicotiana attenuata flowers. This novel insight into the function of JAZ proteins in flower and seed development highlights the diversity of functions played by jasmonates

  12. The epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis induces jasmonic acid- and salicylic acid/nonexpressor of PR1-independent local and systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Buxdorf, Kobi; Rahat, Ido; Gafni, Aviva; Levy, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma spp. are yeast-like fungi, classified in the Ustilaginales, which are mostly epiphytic or saprophytic and are not pathogenic to plants. Several Pseudozyma species have been reported to exhibit biological activity against powdery mildews. However, previous studies have reported that Pseudozyma aphidis, which can colonize plant surfaces, is not associated with the collapse of powdery mildew colonies. In this report, we describe a novel P. aphidis strain and study its interactions with its plant host and the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. This isolate was found to secrete extracellular metabolites that inhibit various fungal pathogens in vitro and significantly reduce B. cinerea infection in vivo. Moreover, P. aphidis sensitized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants' defense machinery via local and systemic induction of pathogenesis-related1 (PR1) and plant defensin1.2 (PDF1.2) expression. P. aphidis also reduced B. cinerea infection, locally and systemically, in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Thus, in addition to direct inhibition, P. aphidis may inhibit B. cinerea infection via induced resistance in a manner independent of SA, JA, and Nonexpressor of PR1 (NPR1). P. aphidis primed the plant defense machinery and induced stronger activation of PDF1.2 after B. cinerea infection. Finally, P. aphidis fully or partially reconstituted PR1 and PDF1.2 expression in npr1-1 mutant and in plants with the SA hydroxylase NahG transgene, but not in a jasmonate resistant1-1 mutant, after B. cinerea infection, suggesting that P. aphidis can bypass the SA/NPR1, but not JA, pathway to activate PR genes. Thus, either partial gene activation is sufficient to induce resistance, or the resistance is not directed solely through PR1 and PDF1.2 but probably through other pathogen-resistance genes or pathways as well.

  13. Defense signaling among interconnected ramets of a rhizomatous clonal plant, induced by jasmonic-acid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Song; Lei, Ning-Fei; Liu, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Resource sharing between ramets of clonal plants is a well-known phenomenon that allows stoloniferous and rhizomatous species to internally transport water, mineral nutrients and carbohydrates from sites of high supply to sites of high demand. Moreover, vascular ramet connections are likely to provide an excellent means to share substances other than resources, such as defense signals. In a greenhouse experiment, the rhizomatous sedge Carex alrofusca, consisting of integrated ramets of different ages, was used to study the transmission of defense signals through belowground rhizome connections in response to local spray with jasmonic-acid. A feeding preference test with the caterpillar Gynaephora rnenyuanensis was employed to assess benefits of rhizome connections on defense signaling. Young ramets were more responsive to jasmonic-acid treatment than middle-aged or old ramets. Condensed tannin content in the foliage of young ramets showed a significant increase and soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen content showed marginally significant decreases in the 1 mM jasmonic-acid treatment but not in control and/or 0.0001 mM jasmonic-acid treatments. The caterpillar G. rnenyuanensis preferentially grazed young ramets. After a localized spray of 1 mM jasmonic-acid, the leaf area of young ramets consumed by herbivores was greatly reduced. We propose that defense signals may be transmitted through physical connections (stolon or rhizome) among interconnected ramets of clonal plants. Induced resistance to herbivory may selectively enhance the protection of more vulnerable and valuable plant tissues and confer a significant benefit to clonal plants by a modular risk-spreading strategy, equalizing ontogenetic differences of unevenly-aged ramets in chemical defense compounds and nutritional properties of tissue.

  14. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  15. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianbin; Li, Suhua; Gu, Min; Yao, Ruifeng; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules.

  16. Ammonium secretion during Colletotrichum coccodes infection modulates salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways of ripe and unripe tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2012-01-01

    The postharvest pathogens Colletotrichum coccodes remains quiescent after infection of unripe fruit. However, during fruit ripening, the pathogen assumes a necrotrophic life style, rapidly colonizing the tissue. C. coccodes secretes ammonium during germination and colonization of host tissue that induces host programmed cell death. We further examined the role of ammonia in the infection process by analyzing transcriptome expression from infected and ammonia-treated fruit tissue compared with healthy tissue. The analysis revealed 82 and 237 common upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of select transcripts in normal and transgenic NADPH oxidase antisense plants revealed that their expression was NADPH oxidase dependent. Common-upregulated genes showed overrepresentation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent genes as well as genes related to biotic stress. The downregulated genes showed overrepresentation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent genes. Indeed, direct application of SA to the fruit enhanced C. coccodes necrotrophic colonization, whereas the application of JA delayed colonization. Importantly, green fruit and red fruit displayed similar gene expression patterns although only red fruit is susceptible to colonization. Thus, it is likely that the resistance of green fruit to C. coccodes colonization is due to additional factors.

  17. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Yao, Jianzhuang; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Li, Guanglin; Guan, Ju; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

  18. Lasiojasmonates A-C, three jasmonic acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia sp., a grapevine pathogen.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Basso, Sara; Deidda, Antonio; Serra, Salvatorica; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a strain (BL 101) of a species of Lasiodiplodia, not yet formally described, which was isolated from declining grapevine plants showing wedge-shaped cankers, was investigated for its ability to produce in vitro bioactive secondary metabolites. From culture filtrates of this strain three jasmonic acid esters, named lasiojasmonates A-C and 16-O-acetylbotryosphaerilactones A and C were isolated together with (1R,2R)-jasmonic acid, its methyl ester, botryosphaerilactone A, (3S,4R,5R)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone and (3R,4S)-botryodiplodin. The structures of lasiojasmonates A-C were established by spectroscopic methods as (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone, (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*,10'R*,12'R*,13'R*,14'S*) and (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*,10'S*,12'R*,13'R*,14'S*)-4-(4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyltetrahydro-furan-2-yloxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanones jasmonates (1, 4 and 5). The structures of 16-O-acetylbotryosphaerilactones A and C were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of the corresponding acetyl derivatives obtained by acetylation of botryosphaerilactone A. The metabolites isolated, except 4 and 5, were tested at 1mg/mL on leaves of grapevine cv. Cannonau and cork oak using the leaf puncture assay. They were also tested on detached grapevine leaves at 0.5mg/mL and tomato cuttings at 0.1mg/mL. In all phytotoxic assays only jasmonic acid was found to be active. All metabolites were inactive in the zootoxic assay at 50 μg/mL.

  19. Oxylipin Signaling: A Distinct Role for the Jasmonic Acid Precursor cis-(+)-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (cis-OPDA)

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Anuja; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA. PMID:22645585

  20. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun C.; Choi, Hye K.; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 μM and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR) gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved SA and JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen. PMID:26500665

  1. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun C; Choi, Hye K; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 μM and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR) gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved SA and JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  2. Effects of jasmonic acid signalling on the wheat microbiome differ between body sites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Schenk, Peer M.; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling helps plants to defend themselves against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects and has been shown to influence the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we determined whether JA signalling influences the diversity and functioning of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) microbiome and whether these effects are specific to particular parts of the plant. Activation of the JA pathway was achieved via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and was confirmed by significant increases in the abundance of 10 JA-signalling-related gene transcripts. Phylogenetic marker gene sequencing revealed that JA signalling reduced the diversity and changed the composition of root endophytic but not shoot endophytic or rhizosphere bacterial communities. The total enzymatic activity and substrate utilisation profiles of rhizosphere bacterial communities were not affected by JA signalling. Our findings indicate that the effects of JA signalling on the wheat microbiome are specific to individual plant compartments. PMID:28134326

  3. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea.

  4. The anti-ageing potential of a new jasmonic acid derivative (LR2412): in vitro evaluation using reconstructed epidermis Episkin™.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Jean F; Olive, Christian; Rieux, Elodie; Fagot, Dominique; Simonetti, Lucie; Galey, Jean B; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Bernard, Bruno A; Pereira, Rui

    2012-05-01

    Jasmonic acid is involved in plant wound repair and tissue regeneration, but no study has been reported in human skin. The effect of a jasmonic acid derivative, tetra-hydro-jasmonic acid (LR2412, 1 and 10 μm) was investigated on an in vitro reconstructed skin model, Episkin™. Using real time RTQPCR studies, results showed an increase in hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and hyaluronase synthase 3 (HAS3) expression. Furthermore, an increase in hyaluronic acid (HA) deposits in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis was observed. The percentage of positive Ki67 keratinocytes in the basal layer as well as the epidermis thickness were seen to increase. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that the synthesis of late differentiation proteins filaggrin and transglutaminase 1 was not modified. The human epidermis is known to thin with age while HA content has been reported to decrease. These results illustrate the potential of LR2412 in counteracting signs of skin ageing.

  5. Promoter analyses and transcriptional profiling of eggplant polyphenol oxidase 1 gene (SmePPO1) reveal differential response to exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Santoshkumar M; Chandrashekar, Arun; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional regulation of multigenic eggplant (Solanum melongena) polyphenol oxidase genes (SmePPO) is orchestrated by their corresponding promoters which mediate developmentally regulated expression in response to myriad biotic and abiotic factors. However, information on structural features of SmePPO promoters and modulation of their expression by plant defense signals are lacking. In the present study, SmePPOPROMOTERs were cloned by genome walking, and their transcription start sites (TSS) were determined by RLM-RACE. Extensive sequence analyses revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements involved in light-regulated transcription, biosynthetic pathways (phenylpropanoid/flavonoid), hormone signaling (abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylate), elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses), sugar metabolism and plant defense signaling (W-BOX/WRKY) that are common to SmePPOPROMOTER1 and 2. The TSS for SmePPO genes are located 9-15bp upstream of ATG with variable lengths of 5' untranslated regions. Transcriptional profiling of SmePPOs in eggplant seedlings has indicated differential response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In planta, while MeJA elicited expression of all the six SmePPOs, SA was only able to induce the expression of SmePPO4-6. Interestingly, in dual treatment, SA considerably repressed the MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOs. Functional dissection of SmePPOPROMOTER1 by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves has shown that MeJA enhances the SmePPOPROMOTER1-β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in vivo, while SA does not. Histochemical and quantitative GUS assays have also indicated the negative effect of SA on MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1. By combining in silico analyses, transcriptional profiling and expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1-GUS fusions, the role of SA on the modulation

  6. Methyl jasmonate stimulates biosynthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol in seedlings of common buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Sawicki, Tomasz; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Mitrus, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate has a strong effect on secondary metabolizm in plants, by stimulating the biosynthesis a number of phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important source of biologically active compounds. This research focuses on the detection and quantification of 2-phenylethylamine and its possible metabolites in the cotyledons, hypocotyl and roots of common buckwheat seedlings treated with methyl jasmonate. In cotyledons of buckwheat sprouts, only traces of 2-phenylethylamine were found, while in the hypocotyl and roots its concentration was about 150 and 1000-times higher, respectively. Treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in a 4-fold increase of the 2-phenylethylamine level in the cotyledons of 7-day buckwheat seedlings, and an 11-fold and 5-fold increase in hypocotyl and roots, respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment led also to about 4-fold increase of phenylacetic acid content in all examined seedling organs, but did not affect the 2-phenylethanol level in cotyledons, and slightly enhanced in hypocotyl and roots. It has been suggested that 2-phenylethylamine is a substrate for the biosynthesis of phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol, as well as cinnamoyl 2-phenethylamide. In organs of buckwheat seedling treated with methyl jasmonate, higher amounts of aromatic amino acid transaminase mRNA were found. The enzyme can be involved in the synthesis of phenylpyruvic acid, but the presence of this compound could not be confirmed in any of the examined organs of common buckwheat seedling.

  7. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  8. Stimulation of jasmonic acid production in Zea mays L. infected by the maize rough dwarf virus-Río Cuarto. Reversion of symptoms by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, A; Bonamico, B; Alemano, S; Miersch, O; Abdala, G

    2002-12-01

    In the present paper we study the possible biological relevance of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in a plant-microbial system maize-virus. The virus disease "Mal de Río Cuarto" is caused by the maize rough dwarf virus-Río Cuarto. The characteristic symptoms are the appearance of galls or "enations" in leaves, shortening of the stem internodes, poor radical system and general stunting. Changes in JA and protein pattern in maize control and infected plants of a virus-tolerant cultivar were investigated. Healthy and infected-leaf discs were collected for JA measurement at different post-infection times (20, 40, 60 and 68 days). JA was also measured in roots on day 60 after infection. For SDS-PAGE protein analysis, leaf discs were also harvested on day 60 after infection. Infected leaves showed higher levels of JA than healthy leaves, and the rise in endogenous JA coincided with the enation formation. The soluble protein amount did not show differences between infected and healthy leaves; moreover, no difference in the expression of soluble protein was revealed by SDS-PAGE. Our results show that the octadecanoid pathway was stimulated in leaves and roots of the tolerant maize cultivar when infected by this virus. This finding, together with fewer plants with the disease symptoms, suggest that higher foliar and roots JA content may be related to disease tolerance. SA exogenous treatment caused the reversion of the dwarfism symptom.

  9. Salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways are necessary for defence against Dickeya solani as revealed by a novel method for Blackleg disease screening of in vitro grown potato.

    PubMed

    Burra, D D; Mühlenbock, P; Andreasson, E

    2015-09-01

    Potato is major crop ensuring food security in Europe, and blackleg disease is increasingly causing losses in yield and during storage. Recently, one blackleg pathogen, Dickeya solani has been shown to be spreading in Northern Europe that causes aggressive disease development. Currently, identification of tolerant commercial potato varieties has been unsuccessful; this is confounded by the complicated etiology of the disease and a strong environmental influence on disease development. There is currently a lack of efficient testing systems. Here, we describe a system for quantification of blackleg symptoms on shoots of sterile in vitro potato plants, which saves time and space compared to greenhouse and existing field assays. We found no evidence for differences in infection between the described in vitro-based screening method and existing greenhouse assays. This system facilitates efficient screening of blackleg disease response of potato plants independent of other microorganisms and variable environmental conditions. We therefore used the in vitro screening method to increase understanding of plant mechanisms involved in blackleg disease development by analysing disease response of hormone- related (salicylic and jasmonic acid) transgenic potato plants. We show that both jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid pathways regulate tolerance to blackleg disease in potato, a result unlike previous findings in Arabidopsis defence response to necrotrophic bacteria. We confirm this by showing induction of a SA marker, pathogenesis-related protein 1 (StPR1), and a JA marker, lipoxygenase (StLOX), in Dickeya solani infected in vitro potato plants. We also observed that tubers of transgenic potato plants were more susceptible to soft rot compared to wild type, suggesting a role for SA and JA pathways in general tolerance to Dickeya.

  10. Jasmonic acid enhances plant cyanogenesis and resistance to herbivory in lima bean.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Stefanie; Trisel, Julie A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a natural plant hormone ubiquitously distributed in plants and centrally involved in the induction of direct and indirect plant defenses. Defenses up-regulated by this hormone include trichomes--a direct, mechanical defense--and alkaloids--a direct chemical defense--as well as two indirect chemical defenses: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). Plant cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from preformed cyanogenic precursors in fruits, leaves, and seeds of many plants--is recognized as a direct, constitutive plant defensive trait, and is among the most widely distributed of all direct chemical plant defenses. The cyanogenic system in plants is composed of three parameters: The cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic precursors), β-glucosidase activity, and cyanogenic capacity (HCNc; release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide). Here, we demonstrated that experimental application of aqueous solutions of JA ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 mmol L(-1), as well as insect herbivory significantly enhanced HCNc via the induction of β-glucosidase activity in wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). In choice feeding trials with JA induced and damaged leaves, adult Mexican bean beetles--natural herbivores of lima bean--rejected leaves with enhanced β-glucosidase activity and HCNc. Our findings suggest that jasmonic acid plays a critical role in regulating activity of β-glucosidases, which determines the rate of cyanogenesis, and thus mediates direct plant defense against herbivores.

  11. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

  12. [Analysis of the molecular motif for inducing response to jasmonic acid and ethylene in Pib promoter via rice transformation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yang, Shi-Hu; Jin, Yu-Kuan; Wan, Jian-Min; Zhao, Bao-Quan

    2010-01-01

    The expression of Pib gene in rice was induced by hormone, such as jasmonic acid and ethylene. In order to determine the necessary regions of sequence or motifs for response to jasmonic acid and ethylene in Pib promoter, the full length promoter of Pib (-3,572 approximately 2 bp) and three different 5' deletion fragments of Pib promoter (-2,692 approximately 2 bp, -1,335 approximately 2 bp, -761 approximately 2 bp) were synthesized by PCR and then were substituted for 35S upstream gus in a binary plasmid to construct re-combined plasmids of Pib promoter-gus fusions. Transgenic rice plants of the four recombined plasmids were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Quality and quantum analysis of gus activities in transgenic plants at both protein and mRNA levels were conducted. The promotion activity of the full length promoter of Pib (-3,572 approximately 2 bp, pNAR901) was the highest in the four recombinants and the gus activities in its transgenic plant organs were enhanced obviously at 6 h after treatment with jasmonic acid or ethylene. The promotion activity of the deleted Pib promoters was significantly decreased and the response to jasmonic acid or ethylene treatment was not present when the -3,572 approximately -2,692 bp sequence was knocked out from the Pib promoter. Although the disparity in the lengths of the deleted Pib promoter of pNAR902 (-2,692 approximately 2 bp), pNAR903 (-1,335 approximately 2 bp), and pNAR904 (-761 approximately 2 bp) was more than 2 or 3 times, the response to jasmonic acid or ethylene treatment was not different among their transgenic plants. All these results indicated that the common deleted sequences (-3,572 approximately -2,692 bp) in the three deleted Pib promoter constructs were the essential region to the response to jasmonic acid and ethylene treatment. The result of pib promoter sequence searching indicated that there was only one GCCGCC motif at -2,722 bp of this common deleted segment in the Pib promoter

  13. Effects of Jasmonic Acid on Embryo-Specific Processes in Brassica and Linum Oilseeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Wilen, Ronald W.; van Rooijen, Gijs J. H.; Pearce, David W.; Pharis, Richard P.; Holbrook, Larry A.; Moloney, Maurice M.

    1991-01-01

    A number of effects on embryogenesis of the putative phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), and its methyl ester (MeJA), were investigated in two oilseed plants, repeseed (Brassica napus) and flax (Linum usitatissimum). Results from treatments with JA and MeJA were compared with those of a known effector of several aspects of embryogenesis, abscisic acid (ABA). Jasmonic acid was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a naturally occurring substance in both plant species during embryo development. Both JA and MeJA can prevent precocious germination of B. napus microspore embryos and of cultured zygotic embryos of both species at an exogenous concentration of >1 micromolar. This dose-response was comparable with results obtained with ABA. Inhibitory effects were also observed on seed germination with all three growth regulators in rapeseed and flax. A number of molecular aspects of embryogenesis were also investigated. Expression of the B. napus storage protein genes (napin and cruciferin) was induced in both microspore embryos and zygotic embryos by the addition of 10 micromolar JA. The level of napin and cruciferin mRNA detected was similar to that observed when 10 micromolar ABA was applied to these embryos. For MeJA only slight increases in napin or cruciferin mRNA were observed at concentrations of 30 micromolar. Several oilbody-associated proteins were found to accumulate when the embryos were incubated with either JA or ABA in both species. The MeJA had little effect on oilbody protein synthesis. The implications of JA acting as a natural regulator of gene expression in zygotic embryogenesis are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667997

  14. New Clothes for the Jasmonic Acid Receptor COI1: Delayed Abscission, Meristem Arrest and Apical Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonyup; Dotson, Bradley; Rey, Camila; Lindsey, Joshua; Bleecker, Anthony B.; Binder, Brad M.; Patterson, Sara E.

    2013-01-01

    In a screen for delayed floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis, we have identified a novel mutant of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), the F-box protein that has been shown to be the jasmonic acid (JA) co-receptor. While JA has been shown to have an important role in senescence, root development, pollen dehiscence and defense responses, there has been little focus on its critical role in floral organ abscission. Abscission, or the detachment of organs from the main body of a plant, is an essential process during plant development and a unique type of cell separation regulated by endogenous and exogenous signals. Previous studies have indicated that auxin and ethylene are major plant hormones regulating abscission; and here we show that regulation of floral organ abscission is also controlled by jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our characterization of coi1-1 and a novel allele (coi1-37) has also revealed an essential role in apical dominance and floral meristem arrest. In this study we provide genetic evidence indicating that delayed abscission 4 (dab4-1) is allelic to coi1-1 and that meristem arrest and apical dominance appear to be evolutionarily divergent functions for COI1 that are governed in an ecotype-dependent manner. Further characterizations of ethylene and JA responses of dab4-1/coi1-37 also provide new information suggesting separate pathways for ethylene and JA that control both floral organ abscission and hypocotyl growth in young seedlings. Our study opens the door revealing new roles for JA and its interaction with other hormones during plant development. PMID:23573263

  15. A chloroplast lipoxygenase is required for wound-induced jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bell, E; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-09-12

    Plant lipoxygenases are thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of lipid-derived signaling molecules. The potential involvement of a specific Arabidopsis thaliana lipoxygenase isozyme, LOX2, in the biosynthesis of the plant growth regulators jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid was investigated. Our characterization of LOX2 indicates that the protein is targeted to chloroplasts. The physiological role of this chloroplast lipoxygenase was analyzed in transgenic plants where cosuppression reduced LOX2 accumulation. The reduction in LOX2 levels caused no obvious changes in plant growth or in the accumulation of abscisic acid. However, the wound-induced accumulation of JA observed in control plants was absent in leaves of transgenic plants that lacked LOX2. Thus, LOX2 is required for the wound-induced synthesis of the plant growth regulator JA in leaves. We also examined the expression of a wound- and JA-inducible Arabidopsis gene, vsp, in transgenic and control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants lacking LOX2 accumulated less vsp mRNA than did control leaves in response to wounding. This result suggests that wound-induced JA (or some other LOX2-requiring component of the wound response pathway) is involved in the wound-induced regulation of this gene.

  16. Sink limitation induces the expression of multiple soybean vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs while the endogenous jasmonic acid level remains low.

    PubMed

    Bunker, T W; Koetje, D S; Stephenson, L C; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Grimes, H D

    1995-08-01

    The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed. RNase protection assays indicated that a novel vegetative lipoxygenase gene, vlxC, and three other vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs accumulated in mature leaves in response to a variety of sink limitations. These data suggest that several members of the lipoxygenase multigene family are involved in assimilate partitioning. The possible involvement of jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule regulating assimilate partitioning into the vegetative storage proteins and lipoxygenases was directly assessed by determining the endogenous level of jasmonic acid in leaves from plants with their pods removed. There was no rise in the level of endogenous jasmonic acid coincident with the strong increase in both vlxC and vegetative storage protein VspB transcripts in response to sink limitation. Thus, expression of the vegetative lipoxygenases and vegetative storage proteins is not regulated by jasmonic acid in sink-limited leaves.

  17. Inhibitory effect of jasmonic acid and ethylene on epicotyl growth and bud induction in the maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Soland. in ait.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maria Teresa; Pedranzani, Hilda; García-Molinero, Patricia; Pando, Valentin; Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario

    2009-12-01

    Two independent parameters, epicotyl height (cm) and number of induced buds were studied on Pinus pinaster explants to analyse the effects of three phytohormones (6-benzylaminopurine, jasmonic acid, ethylene) which were combined or not in 11 different treatments. Epicotyle length diminished significantly in relation to the control medium (medium without exogen phytohormones) in presence of jasmonic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine or Ethephon (which is converted to ethylene in plants) in any of treatments. Concentrations of 100 microM of jasmonic acid and Ethephon had a greater inhibitory effect than the treatments with 10 microM. In addition to that, jasmonic acid was a stronger inhibitor than Ethephon in any of the tried combinations. There were no significant differences between the control treatment and the treatments with only 10 microM of jasmonic acid or Ethephon. However, 10 microM 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud formation. The different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine with jasmonic acid and Ethephon showed that concentrations of 10 to 100 microM did not affect the number of induced buds. Jasmonic acid had an inhibitory effect which Ethephon only showed when combined with 100 microM of jasmonic acid and 10 microM of 6-benzylaminopurine. Three response groups were defined by cluster analysis: group 1 produced the greatest mean number of buds (4 to 5) and a mean epicotyl growth of 1 to 1.5 cm; group 2 produced 2 to 4 buds and a mean growth of 0.5 to 1.2 cm; group 3 produced only one bud and a mean epicotyl length of 1.2 to 2 cm.

  18. Chemical and biological characterization of cinnamic acid derivatives from cell cultures of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) induced by stress and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Astrid; Tokalov, Sergey V; Gutzeit, Herwig O; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2004-05-19

    Cell cultures of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) were analyzed for the metabolite profile under normal growth conditions and under stress as well as after jasmonic acid treatment. The main compound synthesized was rosmarinic acid, which was also secreted into the culture medium. Different solvent extraction methods at different pH values altered the profile slightly. Anoxic stress induced the synthesis of a cinnamic acid derivative, which was identified as caffeic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid was also induced after treatment of the cell cultures with jasmonic acid. Although the antioxidative activity of both compounds, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, was confirmed in an assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), it was demonstrated that both substances have a low cytotoxic potential in vitro using acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells. The potential of the system for finding new bioactive compounds is discussed.

  19. Salicylic acid (SA) bioaccessibility from SA-based poly(anhydride-ester).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael A; Yan, Yim-Fan; Ben-Elazar, Karen; Lan, Yaqi; Faig, Jonathan; Smith, Kervin; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-09-08

    The bioaccessibility of salicylic acid (SA) can be effectively modified by incorporating the pharmacological compound directly into polymers such as poly(anhydride-esters). After simulated digestion conditions, the bioaccessibility of SA was observed to be statistically different (p < 0.0001) in each sample: 55.5 ± 2.0% for free SA, 31.2 ± 2.4% the SA-diglycolic acid polymer precursor (SADG), and 21.2 ± 3.1% for SADG-P (polymer). The release rates followed a zero-order release rate that was dependent on several factors, including (1) solubilization rate, (2) macroscopic erosion of the powdered polymer, (3) hydrolytic cleavage of the anhydride bonds, and (4) subsequent hydrolysis of the polymer precursor (SADG) to SA and diglycolic acid.

  20. Metabolomics Analysis and Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze Treated with Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Romij; Xu, Hui; Park, Woo Tae; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL. PMID:23724034

  1. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) gene expression due to postharvest jasmonic acid treatment - Data.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucilene Silva; Fugate, Karen Klotz; Ferrareze, Jocleita Perruzo; Bolton, Melvin D; Deckard, Edward L; Finger, Fernando L

    2017-04-01

    Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to water-treated controls, unigene annotations against nonredundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) protein databases, and unigene annotations with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Putative defense unigenes are compiled and annotated against the sugarbeet genome. Differential gene expression data were generated by RNA sequencing. Interpretation of the data is available in the research article, "Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots" (K.K. Fugate, L.S. Oliveira, J.P. Ferrareze, M.D. Bolton, E.L. Deckard, F.L. Finger, 2017) [1]. Public dissemination of this dataset will allow further analyses of the data.

  2. Priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemi-biotroph Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Król, P; Igielski, R; Pollmann, S; Kępczyńska, E

    2015-05-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was tested by seed treatment for its ability to protect tomato seedlings against fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Isolated from Solanum lycopersicon L. seeds, cv. Beta fungus was identified as F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Race 3 fungus by using phytopathological and molecular methods. MeJA applied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM reduced spore germination and mycelial growth in vitro. Soaking of tomato seeds in MeJA solution at 0.1 mM for 1 h significantly enhanced the resistance level against the tested fungus in tomato seedlings 4 weeks after inoculation. The extracts from leaves of 15-day-old seedlings obtained from previously MeJA soaked seeds had the ability to inhibit in vitro spore germination of tested fungus. In these seedlings a significant increase in the levels phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid (SA), kaempferol and quercetin was observed. Up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL5) and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) genes and down-regulation of the isochorysmate synthase (ICS) gene in response to exogenous MeJA application indicate that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), not the isochorismate (IC) pathway, is the primary route for SA production in tomato. Moreover, the increased accumulation of the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol appears closely related to the increase of PAL5, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like (FLS) genes. Elevated levels of salicylic acid in seedlings raised from MeJA-soaked seeds were simultaneously accompanied by a decrease of jasmonic acid, the precursor of MeJA, and an increase of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), the precursor of jasmonic acid. The present results indicate that the priming of tomato seeds with 0.1mM MeJA before sowing enables the seedlings grown from these seeds to reduce the attack of the soil-borne fungal pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

  3. Rhizobacteria-induced priming in Arabidopsis is dependent on ethylene, jasmonic acid, and NPR1.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Suh, Seok-Cheol

    2007-07-01

    A nonpathogenic rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida LSW17S, elicited systemic protection against Fusarium wilt and pith necrosis caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and P. corrugata in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). LSW17S also confers disease resistance against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) on Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. To investigate mechanisms underlying disease protection, expression patterns of defense-related genes PR1, PR2, PR5, and PDF1.2 and cellular defense responses such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition were investigated. LSW17S treatment exhibited the typical phenomena of priming. Strong and faster transcription of defense-related genes was induced and hydrogen peroxide or callose were accumulated in Arabidopsis treated with LSW17S and infected with DC3000. In contrast, individual actions of LSW17S and DC3000 did not elicit rapid molecular and cellular defense responses. Priming by LSW17S was translocated systemically and retained for more than 10 days. Treatment with LSW17S reduced pathogen proliferation in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0 expressing bacterial NahG; however, npr1, etr1, and jar1 mutations impaired inhibition of pathogen growth. Cellular and molecular priming responses support these results. In sum, LSW17S primes Arabidopsis for NPR1-, ethylene-, and jasmonic acid-dependent disease resistance, and efficient molecular and cellular defense responses.

  4. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  5. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Van Dam, Nicole M; Van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves of JA-treated plants compared to control plants. We show that this is due to processes in the plant after JA treatment rather than an effect of JA itself. The oviposition preference for control plants is adaptive, as development time from larval hatch until pupation of P. rapae caterpillars was longer on JA-treated plants. Total glucosinolate content in leaf surface extracts was similar for control and treated plants; however, two of the five glucosinolates were present in lower amounts in leaf surface extracts of JA-treated plants. When the butterflies were offered a choice between the purified glucosinolate fraction isolated from leaf surface extracts of JA-treated plants and that from control plants, they did not discriminate. Changes in leaf surface glucosinolate profile, therefore, do not seem to explain the change in oviposition preference of the butterflies after JA treatment, suggesting that as yet unknown infochemicals are involved.

  6. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 − were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  7. The Pokeweed Leaf mRNA Transcriptome and Its Regulation by Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Neller, Kira C M; Klenov, Alexander; Hudak, Katalin A

    2016-01-01

    The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, is recognized for synthesizing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) that inhibits the replication of several plant and animal viruses. The plant is also a heavy metal accumulator with applications in soil remediation. However, little is known about pokeweed stress responses, as large-scale sequencing projects have not been performed for this species. Here, we sequenced the mRNA transcriptome of pokeweed in the presence and absence of jasmonic acid (JA), a hormone mediating plant defense. Trinity-based de novo assembly of mRNA from leaf tissue and BLASTx homology searches against public sequence databases resulted in the annotation of 59 096 transcripts. Differential expression analysis identified JA-responsive genes that may be involved in defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. We confirmed the existence of several PAP isoforms and cloned a potentially novel isoform of PAP. Expression analysis indicated that PAP isoforms are differentially responsive to JA, perhaps indicating specialized roles within the plant. Finally, we identified 52 305 natural antisense transcript pairs, four of which comprised PAP isoforms, suggesting a novel form of RIP gene regulation. This transcriptome-wide study of a Phytolaccaceae family member provides a source of new genes that may be involved in stress tolerance in this plant. The sequences generated in our study have been deposited in the SRA database under project # SRP069141.

  8. The Pokeweed Leaf mRNA Transcriptome and Its Regulation by Jasmonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Neller, Kira C. M.; Klenov, Alexander; Hudak, Katalin A.

    2016-01-01

    The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, is recognized for synthesizing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) that inhibits the replication of several plant and animal viruses. The plant is also a heavy metal accumulator with applications in soil remediation. However, little is known about pokeweed stress responses, as large-scale sequencing projects have not been performed for this species. Here, we sequenced the mRNA transcriptome of pokeweed in the presence and absence of jasmonic acid (JA), a hormone mediating plant defense. Trinity-based de novo assembly of mRNA from leaf tissue and BLASTx homology searches against public sequence databases resulted in the annotation of 59 096 transcripts. Differential expression analysis identified JA-responsive genes that may be involved in defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. We confirmed the existence of several PAP isoforms and cloned a potentially novel isoform of PAP. Expression analysis indicated that PAP isoforms are differentially responsive to JA, perhaps indicating specialized roles within the plant. Finally, we identified 52 305 natural antisense transcript pairs, four of which comprised PAP isoforms, suggesting a novel form of RIP gene regulation. This transcriptome-wide study of a Phytolaccaceae family member provides a source of new genes that may be involved in stress tolerance in this plant. The sequences generated in our study have been deposited in the SRA database under project # SRP069141. PMID:27014307

  9. Responses of herbivore and predatory mites to tomato plants exposed to jasmonic acid seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Limpalaër, Marlène; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A

    2013-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling can influence plant defense and the production of plant volatiles that mediate interactions with insects. Here, we tested whether a JA seed treatment could alter direct and indirect defenses. First, oviposition levels of herbivorous mites, Tetranychus urticae, on JA seed-treated and control tomato plants were compared. They were not significantly different on tomato cv. 'Moneymaker', however, there was a significant reduction in oviposition on treated plants in additional experiments with cv. 'Carousel'. Second, responses of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were assessed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Volatiles from JA seed-treated tomato cv. 'Moneymaker' plants were significantly more attractive than volatiles from control plants. Volatiles collected from plants were analysed by GC/MS, and samples from JA seed-treated plants contained more methyl salicylate and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT) than samples from control plants. Our results indicate that JA seed treatment can make tomato plants more attractive to predatory mites, but that direct effects on herbivorous mites are variable and cultivar dependent.

  10. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 (-) were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis.

  11. Regulation of basal and oxidative stress-triggered jasmonic acid-related gene expression by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Glutathione is a determinant of cellular redox state with roles in defence and detoxification. Emerging concepts suggest that this compound also has functions in cellular signalling. Here, we report evidence that glutathione plays potentially important roles in setting signalling strength through the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Firstly, we show that basal expression of JA-related genes is correlated with leaf glutathione content when the latter is manipulated either genetically or pharmacologically. Secondly, analyses of an oxidative stress signalling mutant, cat2, reveal that up-regulation of the JA pathway triggered by intracellular oxidation requires accompanying glutathione accumulation. Genetically blocking this accumulation in a cat2 cad2 line largely annuls H2 O2 -induced expression of JA-linked genes, and this effect can be rescued by exogenously supplying glutathione. While most attention on glutathione functions in biotic stress responses has been focused on the thiol-regulated protein NPR1, a comparison of JA-linked gene expression in cat2 cad2 and cat2 npr1 double mutants provides evidence that glutathione acts through other components to regulate the response of this pathway to oxidative stress. Our study provides new information implicating glutathione as a factor determining basal JA gene expression and suggests novel glutathione-dependent control points that regulate JA signalling in response to intracellular oxidation.

  12. Thiol-based Redox Proteins in Brassica napus Guard Cell Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Ning; Song, Wen-yuan; Harmon, Alice C.; Assmann, Sarah M.; Chen, Sixue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Reversibly oxidized cysteine sulfhydryl groups serve as redox sensors or targets of redox sensing that are important in different physiological processes. Little is known, however, about redox sensitive proteins in guard cells and how they function in stomatal signaling. In this study, Brassica napus guard cell proteins altered by redox in response to abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were identified by complementary proteomics approaches, saturation differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT). In total, 65 and 118 potential redox responsive proteins were identified in ABA and MeJA treated guard cells, respectively. All the proteins contain at least one cysteine, and over half of them are predicted to form intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Most of the proteins fall into the functional groups of energy, stress and defense, and metabolism. Based on the peptide sequences identified by mass spectrometry, 30 proteins were common to ABA and MeJA treated samples. A total of 44 cysteines was mapped in all the identified proteins, and their levels of redox sensitivity were quantified. Two of the proteins, a SNRK2 kinase and an isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were confirmed to be redox regulated and involved in stomatal movement. This study creates an inventory of potential redox switches, and highlights a protein redox regulatory mechanism in guard cell ABA and MeJA signal transduction. PMID:24580573

  13. Induction of annexin by heavy metals and jasmonic acid in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Yang, Xiong-Bang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, En-Ze; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2013-06-01

    Plant annexins are Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins forming an evolutionary conserved multi-gene family. They are implicated in the regulation of plant growth, development, and stress responses. With the availability of the maize genome sequence information, we identified 12 members of the maize annexin genes. Analysis of protein sequence and gene structure of maize annexins led to their classification into five different orthologous groups. Expression analysis by RT-PCR revealed that these genes are responsive to heavy metals (Ni, Zn, and Cd). The maize annexin genes were also found to be regulated by Ustilago maydis and jasmonic acid. Additionally, the promoter of the maize annexin gene was analyzed for the presence of different stress-responsive cis-elements, such as ABRE, W-box, GCC-box, and G-box. RT-PCR and microarray data show that all 12 maize annexin genes present differential, organ-specific expression patterns in the maize developmental steps. These results indicate that maize annexin genes may play important roles in the adaptation of plants to various environmental stresses.

  14. Red/Far Red Light Controls Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization via Jasmonic Acid and Strigolactone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Shigeyama, Tamaki; Terasawa, Yohei; Anai, Toyoaki; Sakai, Tatsuya; Inada, Sayaka; Arima, Susumu; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Akashi, Ryo; Nakayama, Hideyuki; Ueno, Daisuke; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Establishment of a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia not only requires sufficient photosynthate, but also the sensing of the ratio of red to far red (R/FR) light. Here, we show that R/FR light sensing also positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of a legume and a non-legume through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone (SL) signaling. The level of AM colonization in high R/FR light-grown tomato and Lotus japonicus significantly increased compared with that determined for low R/FR light-grown plants. Transcripts for JA-related genes were also elevated under high R/FR conditions. The root exudates derived from high R/FR light-grown plants contained more (+)-5-deoxystrigol, an AM-fungal hyphal branching inducer, than those from low R/FR light-grown plants. In summary, high R/FR light changes not only the levels of JA and SL synthesis, but also the composition of plant root exudates released into the rhizosphere, in this way augmenting the AM symbiosis.

  15. Acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase influences fertility by regulating lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biogenesis in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wenfeng; Shen, Ying; Hao, Juan; Wu, Jianyong; Ke, Liping; Wu, Caiyun; Huang, Kai; Luo, Binglun; Xu, Mingfeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xueping; Sun, Jie; Xing, Chaozhu; Sun, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important economic crop and there is obvious heterosis in cotton, fertility has played an important role in this heterosis. However, the genes that exhibit critical roles in anther development and fertility are not well understood. Here, we report an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase (EC2.3; GhACNAT) that plays a key role in anther development and fertility. Suppression of GhACNAT by virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic cotton (G. hirsutum L. cv. C312) resulted in indehiscent anthers that were full of pollen, diminished filaments and stamens, and plant sterility. We found GhACNAT was involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The genes differentially expressed in GhACNAT-silenced plants and C312 were mainly involved in catalytic activity and transcription regulator activity in lipid metabolism. In GhACNAT-silenced plants, the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biosynthesis were significantly changed, the amount of JA in leaves and reproductive organs was significantly decreased compared with the amounts in C312. Treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate rescued anther dehiscence and pollen release in GhACNAT-silenced plants and caused self-fertility. The GhACNAT gene may play an important role in controlling cotton fertility by regulating the pathways of lipid synthesis and JA biogenesis. PMID:26134787

  16. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  17. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils.

  18. Leucine aminopeptidase regulates defense and wound signaling in tomato downstream of jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Jonathan H; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Aromdee, Dale N; Pautot, Véronique; Holzer, Frances M; Walling, Linda L

    2009-04-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase A (LapA) is a late wound-response gene of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). To elucidate the role of LapA, transgenic plants that overexpressed or abolished LapA gene expression were used. The early wound-response gene RNA levels were similar in wild-type and Lap-silenced (LapA-SI), -antisense (LapA-AS), and -overexpressing (LapA-OX) plants. By contrast, late wound-response gene RNA levels and protection against Manduca sexta damage were influenced by LapA RNA and protein levels. While LapA-OX plants had elevated levels of LapA RNAs and protein, ectopic expression of LapA was not sufficient to induce Pin (Ser proteinase inhibitor) or PPO (polyphenol oxidase) transcripts in nonwounded leaves. M. sexta larvae damaged less foliage and displayed delays in growth and development when feeding on LapA-OX plants. By contrast, LapA-SI and LapA-AS lines had lower levels of Pin and PPO RNAs than wild-type controls. Furthermore, larvae consumed more foliage and attained larger masses when feeding on LapA-SI plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) did not complement the wound-signaling phenotype of LapA-SI plants. Based on root elongation in the presence of JA, JA perception appeared to be intact in LapA-SI lines. Collectively, these data suggested that LAP-A has a role in modulating essential defenses against herbivores by promoting late wound responses and acting downstream of JA biosynthesis and perception.

  19. Polymorphism in jasmonate signaling partially accounts for the variety of volatiles produced by Nicotiana attenuata plants in a native population.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Meredith C; Heinzel, Nicolas; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Svatos, Ales; Baldwin, Ian T

    2009-01-01

    Herbivore- and jasmonate-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which mediate indirect defense, must provide reliable information for predators that frequently learn to associate their release with feeding herbivores. Yet little is known about variation of these cues within populations of native plants, on a scale encountered by predators. We examined variation in herbivore-elicited VOC emissions and patterns of herbivore-induced jasmonate signaling from accessions of Nicotiana attenuata co-occurring in a native population. VOC emissions elicited by herbivore oral secretions (OS) and by methyl jasmonate (MJ) were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high-resolution two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS) and micro-hydrolysis and micro-hydrogenation reactions. Accessions varied in emissions of abundant (trans-alpha-bergamotene, alpha-duprezianene, trans-beta-ocimene, and cis-3-hexenol) and total detectable VOCs, as well as the accumulation of jasmonates, the jasmonate antagonist salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate signaling-related transcripts after OS elicitation. Yet MJ treatment exacerbated differences in VOC emission, suggesting that much variation in VOC emission is caused by processes downstream of jasmonate signaling. Co-occurring N. attenuata plants emit different VOCs following simulated herbivore elicitation as a result in part of differences in jasmonate production and responsiveness, which could reduce the effectiveness of induced indirect defense.

  20. The Tryptophan Conjugates of Jasmonic and Indole-3-Acetic Acids Are Endogenous Auxin Inhibitors1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Staswick, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Most conjugates of plant hormones are inactive, and some function to reduce the active hormone pool. This study characterized the activity of the tryptophan (Trp) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Trp) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Unexpectedly, JA-Trp caused agravitropic root growth in seedlings, unlike JA or nine other JA-amino acid conjugates. The response was dose dependent from 1 to100 μm, was independent of the COI1 jasmonate signaling locus, and unlike the jasmonate signal JA-isoleucine, JA-Trp minimally inhibited root growth. The Trp conjugate with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-Trp) produced a similar response, while Trp alone and conjugates with benzoic and cinnamic acids did not. JA-Trp and IAA-Trp at 25 μm nearly eliminated seedling root inhibition caused by 2 μm IAA. The TIR1 auxin receptor is required for activity because roots of tir1-1 grew only approximately 60% of wild-type length on IAA plus JA-Trp, even though tir1-1 is auxin resistant. However, neither JA-Trp nor IAA-Trp interfered with IAA-dependent interaction between TIR1 and Aux/IAA7 in cell-free assays. Trp conjugates inhibited IAA-stimulated lateral root production and DR5-β-glucuronidase gene expression. JA-deficient mutants were hypersensitive to IAA and a Trp-overaccumulating mutant was less sensitive, suggesting endogenous conjugates affect auxin sensitivity. Conjugates were present at 5.8 pmol g−1 fresh weight or less in roots, seedlings, leaves, and flowers, and the values increased approximately 10-fold in roots incubated in 25 μm Trp and IAA or JA at 2 μm. These results show that JA-Trp and IAA-Trp constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism to regulate auxin action. PMID:19458116

  1. RNA-seq based transcriptomic analysis uncovers α-linolenic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways respond to cold acclimation in Camellia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyuan; Lei, Sheng; Du, Kebing; Li, Lizhi; Pang, Xufeng; Wang, Zhanchang; Wei, Ming; Fu, Shao; Hu, Limin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Camellia is a well-known ornamental flower native to Southeast of Asia, including regions such as Japan, Korea and South China. However, most species in the genus Camellia are cold sensitive. To elucidate the cold stress responses in camellia plants, we carried out deep transcriptome sequencing of ‘Jiangxue’, a cold-tolerant cultivar of Camellia japonica, and approximately 1,006 million clean reads were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. The assembly of the clean reads produced 367,620 transcripts, including 207,592 unigenes. Overall, 28,038 differentially expressed genes were identified during cold acclimation. Detailed elucidation of responses of transcription factors, protein kinases and plant hormone signalling-related genes described the interplay of signal that allowed the plant to fine-tune cold stress responses. On the basis of global gene regulation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis- and jasmonic acid biosynthesis-related genes, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways were deduced to be involved in the low temperature responses in C. japonica. These results were supported by the determination of the fatty acid composition and jasmonic acid content. Our results provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses to cold acclimation in camellia plants. PMID:27819341

  2. Jasmonates during senescence: signals or products of metabolism?

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Martin A; Hussels, Wiebke; Berger, Susanne

    2010-11-01

    Jasmonic acid and derivatives are oxylipin signaling compounds derived from linolenic acid. Jasmonates accumulate during natural and dark-induced senescence but the increase in these compounds is not essential for the initiation or progression of these senescence processes. Here we report that during natural and dark-induced senescence the increase in jasmonate levels does not trigger jasmonate signaling. Furthermore we provide evidence that jasmonate production might result from membrane turnover during dark-induced senescence.

  3. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes.

  4. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Tila R.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation. PMID:25318119

  5. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal.

  6. Root jasmonic acid synthesis and perception regulate folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increase Nicotiana attenuata resistance.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    While jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the role of root JA in the defense of above-ground parts remains unstudied. To restrict JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wildtype Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling and evaluated ecologically relevant traits in the glasshouse and in nature. Root JA synthesis and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, systemic root JA regulated local leaf JA and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, which were associated with differences in nicotine transport from roots to leaves via the transpiration stream. Root JA signaling also regulated the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; together these account for differences in resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata's native habitat, silencing root JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. We conclude that attack from above-ground herbivores recruits root JA signaling to launch the full complement of plant defense responses.

  7. Jasmonic acid influences mycorrhizal colonization in tomato plants by modifying the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate partitioning.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Sartorius, Miriam; Martínez de la Vega, Octavio; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2008-06-01

    The role of jasmonic acid (JA) on mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus fasciculatum in tomato plants was examined using mutant plants overexpressing prosystemin (PS) or affected in the synthesis of JA (suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses 2, spr2). The degree of mycorrhizal colonization was determined by measuring frequency (F%) and intensity (M%) of colonization and arbuscule abundance (A%). Gene expression and biochemical analyses were also performed in roots to detect changes in carbon (C) partitioning. Colonization was similar in mycorrhizal PS and wild-type roots, except for a higher A% in the former. Conversely, colonization was severely reduced in roots of spr2 mutants. No association was found between levels of expression of genes coding for systemic wound responsive proteins (or SWRPs) and other defense-related proteins in roots and mycorrhization levels in these plants. On the other hand, the degree of mycorrhizal colonization correlated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in sucrose hydrolysis and transport, cell wall invertase activity and mycorrhizal-specific fatty acid content in roots. The results obtained suggest that one of the mechanisms by which JA might operate to modulate the mycorrhization process could be through its influence on the regulation of C partitioning in the plant. The significant colonization increase observed in mycorrhizal spr2 plants supplied with exogenous methyl jasmonate supports its role as a positive regulator of the symbiosis.

  8. Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-05-09

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a naturally occurring growth regulator found in higher plants. Several physiological roles have been described for this compound (or a related compound, methyl jasmonate) during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To accurately determine JA levels in plant tissue, we have synthesized JA containing 13C for use as an internal standard with an isotopic composition of [225]:[224] 0.98:0.02 compared with [225]:[224] 0.15:0.85 for natural material. GC analysis (flame ionization detection and MS) indicate that the internal standard is composed of 92% 2-(+/-)-[13C]JA and 8% 2-(+/-)-7-iso-[13C]JA. In soybean plants, JA levels were highest in young leaves, flowers, and fruit (highest in the pericarp). In soybean seeds and seedlings, JA levels were highest in the youngest organs including the hypocotyl hook, plumule, and 12-h axis. In soybean leaves that had been dehydrated to cause a 15% decrease in fresh weight, JA levels increased approximately 5-fold within 2 h and declined to approximately control levels by 4 h. In contrast, a lag time of 1-2 h occurred before abscisic acid accumulation reached a maximum. These results will be discussed in the context of multiple pathways for JA biosynthesis and the role of JA in plant development and responses to environmental signals.

  9. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis. PMID:28374843

  10. Ecological trade-offs between jasmonic acid-dependent direct and indirect plant defences in tritrophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhao, Jiuhai; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng; Kang, Le

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on plants genetically modified in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling support the hypothesis that the jasmonate family of oxylipins plays an important role in mediating direct and indirect plant defences. However, the interaction of two modes of defence in tritrophic systems is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the preference and performance of a herbivorous leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) and its parasitic wasp (Opius dissitus) on three tomato genotypes: a wild-type (WT) plant, a JA biosynthesis (spr2) mutant, and a JA-overexpression 35S::prosys plant. Their proteinase inhibitor production and volatile emission were used as direct and indirect defence factors to evaluate the responses of leafminers and parasitoids. Here, we show that although spr2 mutant plants are compromised in direct defence against the larval leafminers and in attracting parasitoids, they are less attractive to adult flies compared with WT plants. Moreover, in comparison to other genotypes, the 35S::prosys plant displays greater direct and constitutive indirect defences, but reduced success of parasitism by parasitoids. Taken together, these results suggest that there are distinguished ecological trade-offs between JA-dependent direct and indirect defences in genetically modified plants whose fitness should be assessed in tritrophic systems and under natural conditions. PMID:21039561

  11. Ecological trade-offs between jasmonic acid-dependent direct and indirect plant defences in tritrophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhao, Jiuhai; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng; Kang, Le

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on plants genetically modified in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling support the hypothesis that the jasmonate family of oxylipins plays an important role in mediating direct and indirect plant defences. However, the interaction of two modes of defence in tritrophic systems is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the preference and performance of a herbivorous leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) and its parasitic wasp (Opius dissitus) on three tomato genotypes: a wild-type (WT) plant, a JA biosynthesis (spr2) mutant, and a JA-overexpression 35S::prosys plant. Their proteinase inhibitor production and volatile emission were used as direct and indirect defence factors to evaluate the responses of leafminers and parasitoids. Here, we show that although spr2 mutant plants are compromised in direct defence against the larval leafminers and in attracting parasitoids, they are less attractive to adult flies compared with WT plants. Moreover, in comparison to other genotypes, the 35S::prosys plant displays greater direct and constitutive indirect defences, but reduced success of parasitism by parasitoids. Taken together, these results suggest that there are distinguished ecological trade-offs between JA-dependent direct and indirect defences in genetically modified plants whose fitness should be assessed in tritrophic systems and under natural conditions.

  12. Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid Are Involved in the Phytoalexin Responses of Rice to Fusarium fujikuroi, a High Gibberellin Producer Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Spadaro, Davide; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-09-23

    Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the main seedborne pathogen on rice. To understand the basis of rice resistance, a quantitative method to simultaneously detect phytohormones and phytoalexins was developed by using HPLC-MS/MS. With this method dynamic profiles and possible interactions of defense-related phytohormones and phytoalexins were investigated on two rice cultivars, inoculated or not with F. fujikuroi. In the resistant cultivar Selenio, the presence of pathogen induced high production of phytoalexins, mainly sakuranetin, and symptoms of bakanae were not observed. On the contrary, in the susceptible genotype Dorella, the pathogen induced the production of gibberellin and abscisic acid and inhibited jasmonic acid production, phytoalexins were very low, and bakanae symptoms were observed. The results suggested that a wide range of secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense against pathogens and phytoalexin synthesis could be an important factor for rice resistance against bakanae disease.

  13. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

  14. Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) induces native defense responses in plants and increases the resistance of postharvest sugarbeet roots to three common storage-rot causing organisms. To gain insight into the defense responses induced by JA in harvested sugarbeet roots, RNA was isolated from roots treated with wat...

  15. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

  16. Cell line selection combined with jasmonic acid elicitation enhance camptothecin production in cell suspension cultures of Ophiorrhiza mungos L.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, S; Satheeshkumar, K

    2017-01-01

    Ophiorrhiza mungos is a herbaceous medicinal plant which contains a quinoline alkaloid, camptothecin (CPT), an anticancer compound. A high-yielding cell line, O. mungos cell line-3 (OMC3) was selected from cell suspension cultures of O. mungos using cell aggregate cloning method and established cell suspension culture. OMC3 cell suspension produced significantly high biomass (9.25 ± 1.3 g/flask fresh weight (FW)) and CPT yield (0.095 ± 0.002 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) compared with the original cell suspension. Inoculum size of OMC3 cell suspension culture was optimised as 14 g L(-1). Media optimisation has shown that 5 % (w/v) sucrose and an increased ammonium/nitrate concentration of 40/20 mM favoured CPT production, whereas 3 % (w/v) sucrose, an ammonium/nitrate concentration of 20/40 mM and 1.25 mM of phosphate favoured biomass accumulation. Jasmonic acid, chitin and salicylic acid was used to elicit CPT production in the original cell suspension culture and achieved significantly high CPT production with jasmonic acid (JA) elicitation. Further, OMC3 cell suspension culture was elicited with JA (50 μM) and obtained 1.12 ± 0.08 mg g(-1) DW CPT and 9.52 ± 1.4 g/flask FW (190.4 g L(-1) FW). The combination of cell line selection and elicitation has produced 18.66-fold increases in CPT production together with significantly high biomass yield. The study is helpful in the scale-up studies of O. mungos cell suspension culture in suitable bioreactor systems for the production of CPT.

  17. Metabolic Fate of Jasmonates in Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Świątek, Agnieszka; Dongen, Walter Van; Esmans, Eddy L.; Onckelen, Harry Van

    2004-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate play an essential role in plant defense responses and pollen development. Their levels are temporarily and spatially controlled in plant tissue. However, whereas jasmonate biosynthesis is well studied, metabolic pathways downstream of jasmonic acid are less understood. We studied the uptake and metabolism of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension culture. We found that upon uptake, jasmonic acid was metabolized to its Glc and gentiobiose esters, and hydroxylation at C-11 or C-12 occurred. Free hydroxylated jasmonates were the preferential fraction of the culture medium. Upon hydrolysis of methyl jasmonate to jasmonic acid, a similar set of conversions occurs. In contrast to jasmonic acid, none of its derivatives interfere with the G2/M transition in synchronized tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. PMID:15133155

  18. The phytoplasmal virulence factor TENGU causes plant sterility by downregulating of the jasmonic acid and auxin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Nami; Himeno, Misako; Hoshi, Ayaka; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Kamiya, Yuji; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-01-01

    Despite plants infected by pathogens are often unable to produce offspring, it remains unclear how sterility is induced in host plants. In this study, we demonstrate that TENGU, a phytoplasmal virulence peptide known as a dwarfism inducer, acts as an inducer of sterility. Transgenic expression of TENGU induced both male and female sterility in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers similar to those observed in double knockout mutants of auxin response factor 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, which are known to regulate floral development in a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent manner. Transcripts of ARF6 and ARF8 were significantly decreased in both tengu-transgenic and phytoplasma-infected plants. Furthermore, JA and auxin levels were actually decreased in tengu-transgenic buds, suggesting that TENGU reduces the endogenous levels of phytohormones by repressing ARF6 and ARF8, resulting in impaired flower maturation. TENGU is the first virulence factor with the effects on plant reproduction by perturbation of phytohormone signaling. PMID:25492247

  19. A mathematical model of the interaction of abscisic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate on stomatal closure in plants

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Bryan Sapon

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal closure is affected by various stimuli such as light, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity and phytohormones. Our research focuses on phytohormones, specifically: abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) that are responsible for the regulation of several plant processes, especially in guard cell signalling. While several studies show that these three phytohormones cause stomatal closure in plants, only two studies are notable for establishing a mathematical model of guard cell signalling involving phytohormones. Those two studies employed Boolean modelling and mechanistic ordinary differential equations modelling. In this study, we propose a new mathematical model of guard cell transduction network for stomatal closure using continuous logical modelling framework. Results showed how the different components of the network function. Furthermore, the model verified the role of antioxidants in the closure mechanism, and the diminished closure level of stomata with combined ABA-ET stimulus. The analysis was extended to ABA-ET-MeJA crosstalk. PMID:28182683

  20. In situ fluorescence labelling of jasmonic acid binding sites in plant tissues with cadmium-free quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiumei; Yu, Ying; Cao, Yujuan; Lin, Bixia; Wei, Jingjing

    2015-02-01

    The fluorescence labelling of plant hormone binding sites is an important analytical technique in research on the molecular mechanisms of plant hormone activities. The authors synthesised a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugated ZnS:Mn quantum dot (QD) probe, with a cubic structure and average hydrodynamic sizes of about 17.0 nm. The maximum fluorescence emission of the probe was recorded at about 585 nm. The probe was used for fluorescence labelling of JA binding sites in mung bean seedling tissues. Analysis revealed that the probe exhibited high selectivity to JA binding sites and good performance in eliminating interference from background fluorescence in plant tissues. In addition, the probe did not exhibit any apparent biotoxicity, and is much more suitable than probes constructed from CdTe QDs for the analysis of biological samples.

  1. Jasmonic acid is a downstream component in the modulation of somatic embryogenesis by Arabidopsis Class 2 phytoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Mohamed M.; Wally, Owen S. D.; Elhiti, Mohamed; El-Shanshory, Adel; Reddy, Dhadi S.; Hill, Robert D.; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the beneficial effect of suppression of the Arabidopsis phytoglobin 2 gene, PGB2, on somatic embryogenesis occurs through the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) within the embryogenic cells originating from the cultured explant. NO activates the expression of Allene oxide synthase (AOS) and Lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2), genes encoding two key enzymes of the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway, elevating JA content within the embryogenic tissue. The number of embryos in the single aos1-1 mutant and pgb2-aos1-1 double mutant declined, and was not rescued by increasing levels of NO stimulating embryogenesis in wild-type tissue. NO also influenced JA responses by up-regulating PLANT DEFENSIN 1 (PDF1) and JASMONATE-ZIM-PROTEIN (JAZ1), as well as down-regulating MYC2. The NO and JA modulation of MYC2 and JAZ1 controlled embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of JAZ1 or suppression of MYC2 promoted the formation of somatic embryos, while repression of JAZ1 and up-regulation of MYC2 reduced the embryogenic performance. Sustained expression of JAZ1 induced the transcription of several indole acetic acid (IAA) biosynthetic genes, resulting in higher IAA levels in the embryogenic cells. Collectively these data fit a model integrating JA in the PGB2 regulation of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Suppression of PGB2 increases JA through NO. Elevated levels of JA repress MYC2 and induce JAZ1, favoring the accumulation of IAA in the explants and the subsequent production of somatic embryos. PMID:26962208

  2. Serotonin modulates Arabidopsis root growth via changes in reactive oxygen species and jasmonic acid-ethylene signaling.

    PubMed

    Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Bucio, José

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a bioactive indoleamine with neurotransmitter function in vertebrates, which represents an emerging signaling molecule in plants, playing key roles in the development and defense. In this study, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and jasmonic acid (JA)-ethylene (Et) signaling in root developmental alterations induced by serotonin was investigated. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant defective at the RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) locus was resistant to paraquat-induced ROS accumulation in primary roots and showed decreased inhibition or root growth in response to serotonin. A suite of JA- and Et-related mutants including coronatine insensitive1, jasmonic acid resistant1 (jar1), etr1, ein2 and ein3 showed tolerance to serotonin in the inhibition of primary root growth and ROS redistribution within the root tip when compared with wild-type (WT) seedlings. Competence assays between serotonin and AgNO3 , a well-known blocker of Et action, showed that primary root growth in medium supplemented with serotonin was normalized by AgNO3 , whereas roots of eto3, an Et overproducer mutant, were oversensitive to serotonin. Comparison of ROS levels in WT, etr1, jar1 and rcd1 primary root tips using the ROS-specific probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and confocal imaging showed that serotonin inhibition of primary root growth likely occurs independently of its conversion into melatonin. Our results provide compelling evidence that serotonin affects ROS distribution in roots, involving RCD1 and components of the JA-Et signaling pathways.

  3. BIOSYNTHESIS AND ACTION OF JASMONATES IN PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1997-06-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives can modulate aspects of fruit ripening, production of viable pollen, root growth, tendril coiling, and plant resistance to insects and pathogens. Jasmonate activates genes involved in pathogen and insect resistance, and genes encoding vegetative storage proteins, but represses genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis. Jasmonic acid is derived from linolenic acid, and most of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway have been extensively characterized. Modulation of lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase gene expression in transgenic plants raises new questions about the compartmentation of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by cell wall elicitors, the peptide systemin, and other compounds will be related to the function of jasmonates in plants. Jasmonate modulates gene expression at the level of translation, RNA processing, and transcription. Promoter elements that mediate responses to jasmonate have been isolated. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of how jasmonate biosynthesis is regulated and relates this information to knowledge of jasmonate modulated gene expression.

  4. Jasmonic Acid and Its Precursor 12-Oxophytodienoic Acid Control Different Aspects of Constitutive and Induced Herbivore Defenses in Tomato1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marko; Wright, Louwrance P.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina; Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine (Ile) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. To assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile -dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and was much delayed compared with development on the jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of the ubiquitin ligase CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for defense, whereas the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. PMID:25073705

  5. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. PMID:27811076

  6. Development of an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid in rose leaves.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Renato; Daeseleire, Els; Van Pamel, Els; Scariot, Valentina; Leus, Leen

    2014-07-09

    This paper describes a method to detect and quantitate the endogenous plant hormones (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid by means of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in hybrid rose leaf matrices. Deuterium-labeled [(2)H6] (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, [(2)H6] (±)-jasmonic acid, and [(2)H4]-salicylic acid were used as internal standards. Rose samples (10 mg) were extracted with methanol/water/acetic acid (10:89:1) and subsequently purified on an Oasis MCX 1 cm(3) Vac SPE cartridge. Performance characteristics were validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery, repeatability, and within-laboratory reproducibility were acceptable for all phytohormones tested at three different concentrations. The decision limit and detection capability for (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were 0.0075 and 0.015 μg/g, 0.00015 and 0.00030 μg/g, and 0.0089 and 0.018 μg/g, respectively. Matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) appeared to be high for all substances considered, implying the need for quantitation based on matrix-matched calibration curves.

  7. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  8. Jasmonic acid-dependent and -independent signaling pathways control wound-induced gene activation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Titarenko, E; Rojo, E; León, J; Sánchez-Serrano, J J

    1997-01-01

    Plant response to mechanical injury includes gene activation both at the wound site and systemically in nondamaged tissues. The model developed for the wound-induced activation of the proteinase inhibitor II (Pin2) gene in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) establishes the involvement of the plant hormones abscisic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) as key components of the wound signal transduction pathway. To assess in Arabidopsis thaliana the role of these plant hormones in regulating wound-induced gene expression, we isolated wound- and JA-inducible genes by the differential mRNA display technique. Their patterns of expression upon mechanical wounding and hormonal treatments revealed differences in the spatial distribution of the transcripts and in the responsiveness of the analyzed genes to abscisic acid and JA. A correlation can be established between sensitivity to JA and the accumulation of the transcripts in systemic tissues upon wounding. A comparative study of the wound response in wild-type and JA-insensitive coi1 mutant plants indicated that in A. thaliana wound signals are transmitted via at least two different pathways. One of them does not involve JA as a mediator and is preferentially responsible for gene activation in the vicinity of the wound site, whereas the other requires JA perception and activates gene expression throughout the aerial part of the plant. PMID:9342878

  9. Low Red/Far-Red Ratios Reduce Arabidopsis Resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Jasmonate Responses via a COI1-JAZ10-Dependent, Salicylic Acid-Independent Mechanism1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cerrudo, Ignacio; Keller, Mercedes M.; Cargnel, Miriam D.; Demkura, Patricia V.; de Wit, Mieke; Patitucci, Micaela S.; Pierik, Ronald; Pieterse, Corné M.J.; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2012-01-01

    Light is an important modulator of plant immune responses. Here, we show that inactivation of the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) by a low red/far-red ratio (R:FR), which is a signal of competition in plant canopies, down-regulates the expression of defense markers induced by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, including the genes that encode the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) and the plant defensin PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This effect of low R:FR correlated with a reduced sensitivity to jasmonate (JA), thus resembling the antagonistic effects of salicylic acid (SA) on JA responses. Low R:FR failed to depress PDF1.2 mRNA levels in a transgenic line in which PDF1.2 transcription was up-regulated by constitutive expression of ERF1 in a coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) mutant background (35S::ERF1/coi1). These results suggest that the low R:FR effect, in contrast to the SA effect, requires a functional SCFCOI1-JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) JA receptor module. Furthermore, the effect of low R:FR depressing the JA response was conserved in mutants impaired in SA signaling (sid2-1 and npr1-1). Plant exposure to low R:FR ratios and the phyB mutation markedly increased plant susceptibility to B. cinerea; the effect of low R:FR was (1) independent of the activation of the shade-avoidance syndrome, (2) conserved in the sid2-1 and npr1-1 mutants, and (3) absent in two RNA interference lines disrupted for the expression of the JAZ10 gene. Collectively, our results suggest that low R:FR ratios depress Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) immune responses against necrotrophic microorganisms via a SA-independent mechanism that requires the JAZ10 transcriptional repressor and that this effect may increase plant susceptibility to fungal infection in dense canopies. PMID:22371506

  10. Enhanced daidzin production from jasmonic and acetyl salicylic acid elicited hairy root cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Mohd; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Giri, Charu Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Daidzin (7-O-glucoside of daidzein) has several pharmacological benefits in herbal remedy, as antioxidant and shown antidipsotropic activity. Hairy root culture of Psoralea corylifolia L. was developed for biomass and enhanced daidzin production using signalling compounds such as jasmonic acid (JA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Best response of 2.8-fold daidzin (5.09% DW) with 1 μM JA treatment after second week and 7.3-fold (3.43% DW) with 10 μM JA elicitation after 10th week was obtained from hairy roots compared to untreated control. ASA at 10 μM promoted 1.7-fold increase in daidzin (1.49% DW) content after seventh week compared to control (0.83% DW). Addition of 25 μM ASA resulted in 1.44% DW daidzin (1.5-fold increase) with 0.91% DW in control after fifth week and 1.44% DW daidzin (2.3-fold increase) after eighth week when compared to untreated control (0.62% DW). Reduced biomass with increased daidzin content was facilitated by elicited hairy root cultures.

  11. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Ma, Yanqi

    2017-01-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27932419

  12. Kinetics of Salicylate-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonate Signaling Reveal a Role for Redox Modulation1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Koornneef, Annemart; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Ritsema, Tita; Verhage, Adriaan; Den Otter, Floor C.; Van Loon, L.C.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at different concentrations and time intervals revealed that PDF1.2 transcription is readily suppressed when the SA response was activated at or after the onset of the JA response, and that this SA-JA antagonism is long lasting. However, when SA was applied more than 30 h prior to the onset of the JA response, the suppressive effect of SA was completely absent. The window of opportunity of SA to suppress MeJA-induced PDF1.2 transcription coincided with a transient increase in glutathione levels. The glutathione biosynthesis inhibitor l-buthionine-sulfoximine strongly reduced PDF1.2 suppression by SA, suggesting that SA-mediated redox modulation plays an important role in the SA-mediated attenuation of the JA signaling pathway. PMID:18539774

  13. Phloem sugar flux and jasmonic acid-responsive cell wall invertase control extrafloral nectar secretion in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Millán-Cañongo, Cynthia; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) that attracts predators. The efficiency of the resulting anti-herbivore defense depends on the quantity and spatial distribution of EFN. Thus, according to the optimal defense hypothesis (ODH), plants should secrete EFN on the most valuable organs and when herbivore pressure is high. Ricinus communis plants secreted most EFN on the youngest (i.e., most valuable) leaves and after the simulation of herbivory via the application of jasmonic acid (JA). Here, we investigated the physiological mechanisms that might produce these seemingly adaptive spatiotemporal patterns. Cell wall invertase (CWIN; EC 3.2.1.26) was most active in the hours before peak EFN secretion, its decrease preceded the decrease in EFN secretion, and CWIN activity was inducible by JA. Thus, CWIN appears to be a central player in EFN secretion: its activation by JA is likely to cause the induction of EFN secretion after herbivory. Shading individual leaves decreased EFN secretion locally on these leaves with no effect on CWIN activity in the nectaries, which is likely to be because it decreased the content of sucrose, the substrate of CWIN, in the phloem. Our results demonstrate how the interplay of two physiological processes can cause ecologically relevant spatiotemporal patterns in a plant defense trait.

  14. Plants Know Where It Hurts: Root and Shoot Jasmonic Acid Induction Elicit Differential Responses in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Tytgat, Tom O.G.; Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; Jansen, Jeroen J.; Raaijmakers, Ciska E.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; McIntyre, Lauren M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Biere, Arjen; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged. PMID:23776489

  15. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-13

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na(+) were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato.

  16. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na+ were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato. PMID:28084460

  17. Meristem maintenance, auxin, jasmonic and abscisic acid pathways as a mechanism for phenotypic plasticity in Antirrhinum majus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Julia; Alcantud-Rodriguez, Raquel; Toksöz, Tugba; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow under climatic changing conditions that cause modifications in vegetative and reproductive development. The degree of changes in organ development i.e. its phenotypic plasticity seems to be determined by the organ identity and the type of environmental cue. We used intraspecific competition and found that Antirrhinum majus behaves as a decoupled species for lateral organ size and number. Crowding causes decreases in leaf size and increased leaf number whereas floral size is robust and floral number is reduced. Genes involved in shoot apical meristem maintenance like ROA and HIRZ, cell cycle (CYCD3a; CYCD3b, HISTONE H4) or organ polarity (GRAM) were not significantly downregulated under crowding conditions. A transcriptomic analysis of inflorescence meristems showed Gene Ontology enriched pathways upregulated including Jasmonic and Abscisic acid synthesis and or signalling. Genes involved in auxin synthesis such as AmTAR2 and signalling AmANT were not affected by crowding. In contrast, AmJAZ1, AmMYB21, AmOPCL1 and AmABA2 were significantly upregulated. Our work provides a mechanistic working hypothesis where a robust SAM and stable auxin signalling enables a homogeneous floral size while changes in JA and ABA signalling maybe responsible for the decreased leaf size and floral number.

  18. Combined toxicity of cadmium and copper in Avicennia marina seedlings and the regulation of exogenous jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongzheng; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Jun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2015-03-01

    Seedlings of Avicennia marina were exposed to single and combined metal treatments of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a factorial design, and the combined toxicity of Cu and Cd was tested. The effects of the exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on chlorophyll concentration, lipid peroxidation, Cd and Cu uptake, antioxidative capacity, endogenous JA concentration, and type-2 metallothionein gene (AmMT2) expression in seedlings of A. marina exposed to combined metal treatments were also investigated. A binary mixture of low-dose Cd (9 µmolL(-1)) and high-dose Cu (900 µmolL(-1)) showed toxicity to the seedlings, indicated by the significant augmentation in leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduction in leaf chlorophylls. The toxicity of the combined metals was significantly alleviated by the addition of exogenous JA at 1 µmolL(-1), and the chlorophyll and MDA contents were found to be restored to levels comparable to those of the control. Compare to treatment with Cd and Cu only, 1 and 10 µmolL(-1) JA significantly enhanced the ascorbate peroxidase activity, and 10 µmolL(-1) JA significantly decreased the uptake of Cd in A. marina leaves. The relative expression of leaf AmMT2 gene was also significantly enhanced by 1 and 10 µmolL(-1) JA, which helped reduce Cd toxicity in A. marina seedlings.

  19. The Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Gene AOP2 Mediates Feed-back Regulation of Jasmonic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Burow, Meike; Atwell, Susanna; Francisco, Marta; Kerwin, Rachel E; Halkier, Barbara A; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Survival in changing and challenging environments requires an organism to efficiently obtain and use its resources. Due to their sessile nature, it is particularly critical for plants to dynamically optimize their metabolism. In plant primary metabolism, metabolic fine-tuning involves feed-back mechanisms whereby the output of a pathway controls its input to generate a precise and robust response to environmental changes. By contrast, few studies have addressed the potential for feed-back regulation of secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis, accumulation of the defense compounds glucosinolates has previously been linked to genetic variation in the glucosinolate biosynthetic gene AOP2. AOP2 expression can increase the transcript levels of two known regulators (MYB28 and MYB29) of the pathway, suggesting that AOP2 plays a role in positive feed-back regulation controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis. We generated mutants affecting AOP2, MYB28/29, or both. Transcriptome analysis of these mutants identified a so far unrecognized link between AOP2 and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling independent of MYB28 and MYB29. Thus, AOP2 is part of a regulatory feed-back loop linking glucosinolate biosynthesis and JA signaling and thereby allows the glucosinolate pathway to influence JA sensitivity. The discovery of this regulatory feed-back loop provides insight into how plants optimize the use of resources for defensive metabolites.

  20. Meristem maintenance, auxin, jasmonic and abscisic acid pathways as a mechanism for phenotypic plasticity in Antirrhinum majus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Julia; Alcantud-Rodriguez, Raquel; Toksöz, Tugba; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow under climatic changing conditions that cause modifications in vegetative and reproductive development. The degree of changes in organ development i.e. its phenotypic plasticity seems to be determined by the organ identity and the type of environmental cue. We used intraspecific competition and found that Antirrhinum majus behaves as a decoupled species for lateral organ size and number. Crowding causes decreases in leaf size and increased leaf number whereas floral size is robust and floral number is reduced. Genes involved in shoot apical meristem maintenance like ROA and HIRZ, cell cycle (CYCD3a; CYCD3b, HISTONE H4) or organ polarity (GRAM) were not significantly downregulated under crowding conditions. A transcriptomic analysis of inflorescence meristems showed Gene Ontology enriched pathways upregulated including Jasmonic and Abscisic acid synthesis and or signalling. Genes involved in auxin synthesis such as AmTAR2 and signalling AmANT were not affected by crowding. In contrast, AmJAZ1, AmMYB21, AmOPCL1 and AmABA2 were significantly upregulated. Our work provides a mechanistic working hypothesis where a robust SAM and stable auxin signalling enables a homogeneous floral size while changes in JA and ABA signalling maybe responsible for the decreased leaf size and floral number. PMID:26804132

  1. Jasmonic acid affects plant morphology and calcium-dependent protein kinase expression and activity in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Rita M; Raíces, Marcela; MacIntosh, Gustavo C; Maldonado, Sara; Téllez-Iñón, María T

    2002-07-01

    The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on plant growth and on calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity and expression was studied in non-photoperiodic potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta, grown in vitro. Stem cuttings were grown for 45 days (long treatment, LT) in MS medium with increasing concentrations of JA. For short treatments (ST) adult plants grown in MS were transferred for 1, 4 and 20 h to JA containing media. During the LT, low concentrations of JA promoted cell expansion and shoot elongation while higher concentrations caused growth inhibition. Under these conditions, treated plants showed root shortening and tuber formation was not induced. Morphological and histochemical studies using light microscopy and TEM analysis of leaves from treated plants revealed that JA also affected subcellular organelles of mesophyll cells. Peroxisomes increased in size and number, and an autophagic process was triggered in response to high concentrations of the hormone. CDPK activity, determined in crude extracts of treated plants (LT), was inhibited (up to 80%). Plant growth and CDPK inhibition were reverted upon transfer of the plants to hormone-free medium. Soluble CDPK activity decreased in response to JA short treatment. Concomitantly, a decline in the steady state levels of StCDPK2 mRNA, a potato CDPK isoform that is expressed in leaves, was observed. These data suggest that the phytohormone down-regulated the expression and activity of the kinase.

  2. Onset of herbivore-induced resistance in systemic tissue primed for jasmonate-dependent defenses is activated by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Vos, Irene A; Verhage, Adriaan; Schuurink, Robert C; Watt, Lewis G; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the MYC2 transcription factor on the one hand and the AP2/ERF transcription factors ORA59 and ERF1 on the other hand regulate distinct branches of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in an antagonistic fashion, co-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, respectively. Feeding by larvae of the specialist herbivorous insect Pieris rapae (small cabbage white butterfly) results in activation of the MYC-branch and concomitant suppression of the ERF-branch in insect-damaged leaves. Here we investigated differential JA signaling activation in undamaged systemic leaves of P. rapae-infested plants. We found that the MYC2 transcription factor gene was induced both in the local insect-damaged leaves and the systemic undamaged leaves of P. rapae-infested Arabidopsis plants. However, in contrast to the insect-damaged leaves, the undamaged tissue did not show activation of the MYC-branch marker gene VSP1. Comparison of the hormone signal signature revealed that the levels of JA and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine raised to similar extents in locally damaged and systemically undamaged leaves, but the production of ABA and the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid was enhanced only in the local herbivore-damaged leaves, and not in the distal undamaged leaves. Challenge of undamaged leaves of pre-infested plants with either P. rapae larvae or exogenously applied ABA led to potentiated expression levels of MYC2 and VSP1, with the latter reaching extremely high expression levels. Moreover, P. rapae-induced resistance, as measured by reduction of caterpillar growth on pre-infested plants, was blocked in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba2-1, that was also impaired in P. rapae-induced expression of VSP1. Together, these results suggest that ABA is a crucial regulator of herbivore-induced resistance by activating primed JA-regulated defense responses upon secondary herbivore attack in Arabidopsis.

  3. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown)

    PubMed Central

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona JM; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to “light on.” The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The “dark” IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  4. The Roles of Alpha-Momorcharin and Jasmonic Acid in Modulating the Response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Meng, Yao; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia-cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA) and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) and (α-MMC+ibuprofen)-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway.

  5. The Roles of Alpha-Momorcharin and Jasmonic Acid in Modulating the Response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Meng, Yao; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia–cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA) and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) and (α-MMC+ibuprofen)-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway. PMID:27881976

  6. Analysis of plant-bacteria interactions in their native habitat: bacterial communities associated with wild tobacco are independent of endogenous jasmonic acid levels and developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Groten, Karin; Meldau, Dorothea G; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) mediates defense responses against herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens but does it influence the recruitment of bacterial communities in the field? We conducted field and laboratory experiments with transformed Nicotiana attenuata plants deficient in jasmonate biosynthesis (irAOC) and empty vector controls (EV) to answer this question. Using both culture-dependent and independent techniques, we characterized root and leaf-associated bacterial communities over five developmental stages, from rosette through flowering of plants grown in their natural habitat. Based on the pyrosequencing results, alpha and beta diversity did not differ among EV and irAOC plants or over ontogeny, but some genera were more abundant in one of the genotypes. Furthermore, bacterial communities were significantly different among leaves and roots. Taxa isolated only from one or both plant genotypes and hence classified as 'specialists' and 'generalists' were used in laboratory tests to further evaluate the patterns observed from the field. The putative specialist taxa did not preferentially colonize the jasmonate-deficient genotype, or alter the plant's elicited phytohormone signaling. We conclude that in N. attenuata, JA signaling does not have a major effect on structuring the bacterial communities and infer that colonization of plant tissues is mainly shaped by the local soil community in which the plant grows.

  7. Pithy protection: Nicotiana attenuata's jasmonic acid-mediated defenses are required to resist stem-boring weevil larvae.

    PubMed

    Diezel, Celia; Kessler, Danny; Baldwin, Ian T

    2011-04-01

    Folivory is the best studied plant-herbivore interaction, but it is unclear whether the signaling and resistance traits important for the defense of leaves are also important for other plant parts. Larvae of the tobacco stem weevil, Trichobaris mucorea, burrow into stems of Nicotiana attenuata and feed on the pith. Transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in signaling and foliar defense traits were evaluated in a 2-year field study for resistance against attack by naturally occurring T. mucorea larva. Plants silenced in early jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis (antisense [as]-lipoxygenase3 [lox3]; inverted repeat [ir]-allene oxide cyclase), JA perception (as-coronatine insensitive1), proteinase inhibitors (ir-pi), and nicotine (ir-putrescine methyl-transferase) direct defenses and lignin (ir-cad) biosynthesis were infested more frequently than wild-type plants. Plants unable to emit C(6) aldehydes (as-hpl) had lower infestation rates, while plants silenced in late steps in JA biosynthesis (ir-acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, ir-opr) and silenced in diterpene glycoside production (ir-geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase) did not differ from wild type. Pith choice assays revealed that ir-putrescine methyl-transferase, ir-coronatine insensitive1, and ir-lox3 pith, which all had diminished nicotine levels, were preferred by larvae compared to wild-type pith. The lack of preference for ir-lox2 and ir-cad piths, suggest that oviposition attraction and vascular defense, rather than pith palatability accounts for the higher attack rates observed for these plants. We conclude that traits that influence a plant's apparency, stem hardness, and pith direct defenses all contribute to resistance against this herbivore whose attack can be devastating to N. attenuata's fitness.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of Zea mays roots reveals roles for jasmonic acid and terpenoids in resistance against Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Allardyce, Jane Alisa; Rookes, James Edward; Hussain, Hashmath Inayath; Cahill, David Miles

    2013-06-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi is a soil-borne plant pathogen that has caused widespread damage to vulnerable native ecosystems and agriculture systems across the world and shows no sign of abating. Management of the pathogen in the natural environment is difficult and the options are limited. In order to discover more about how resistant plants are able to defend themselves against this generalist pathogen, a microarray study of plant gene expression following root inoculation with P. cinnamomi was undertaken. Zea mays was used as a resistant model plant, and microarray analysis was conducted using the Affymetrix GeneChip Maize Genome Array on root samples collected at 6- and 24-h post-inoculation. Over 300 genes were differentially expressed in inoculated roots compared with controls across the two time points. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and REVIGO visualisation of the up-regulated genes, many were implicated in plant defence responses to biotic stress. Genes that were up-regulated included those involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis and jasmonic acid/ethylene biosynthesis and other defence-related genes including those encoding glutathione S-transferases and serine-protease inhibitors. Of particular interest was the identification of the two most highly up-regulated genes, terpene synthase11 (Tps11) and kaurene synthase2 (An2), which are both involved in production of terpenoid phytoalexins. This is the first study that has investigated gene expression at a global level in roots in response to P. cinnamomi in a model plant species and provides valuable insights into the mechanisms involved in defence.

  9. Profiling and Quantifying Differential Gene Transcription Provide Insights into Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum in Response to Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Mu, Da-Shuai; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Han, Qin; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a mushroom with traditional medicinal properties that has been widely used in China and other countries in Eastern Asia. Ganoderic acids (GA) produced by G. lucidum exhibit important pharmacological activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a potent inducer of GA biosynthesis and the expression of genes involved in the GA biosynthesis pathway in G. lucidum. To further explore the mechanism of GA biosynthesis, cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed in response to MeJA. Using 64 primer combinations, over 3910 transcriptionally derived fragments (TDFs) were obtained. Reliable sequence data were obtained for 390 of 458 selected TDFs. Ninety of these TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the GenBank database, and 12 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways by searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. Twenty-five TDFs were selected for qRT-PCR analysis to confirm the expression patterns observed with cDNA-AFLP. The qRT-PCR results were consistent with the altered patterns of gene expression revealed by the cDNA-AFLP technique. Additionally, the transcript levels of 10 genes were measured at the mycelium, primordia, and fruiting body developmental stages of G. lucidum. The greatest expression levels were reached during primordia for all of the genes except cytochrome b2 reached its highest expression level in the mycelium stage. This study not only identifies new candidate genes involved in the regulation of GA biosynthesis but also provides further insight into MeJA-induced gene expression and secondary metabolic response in G. lucidum. PMID:23762280

  10. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  11. SGT1 regulates wounding- and herbivory-induced jasmonic acid accumulation and Nicotiana attenuata's resistance to the specialist lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2011-03-01

    • SGT1 (suppressor of G-two allele of SKP1) is a conserved protein in all eukaryotes and is crucial for resisting pathogens in humans and plants. We studied whether SGT1 is involved in the induced defense response of a native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) to its natural herbivore, Manduca sexta. • We diminished NaSGT1 transcription in N. attenuata using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and analysed the induced defense responses after wounding and M. sexta elicitation. • Silencing NaSGT1 highly attenuates wounding- and herbivory-induced amounts of jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-isoleucine but elevates the concentration of salicylic acid. Chemical profiling reveals that NaSGT1-silenced plants are also compromised in their ability to accumulate JA precursors produced in chloroplasts. We show that the reduced JA accumulation in NaSGT1-silenced plants is independent of the elevated salicylic acid levels. NaSGT1-silenced plants have decreased contents of defensive metabolites and have compromised resistance to M. sexta larvae. Transcript analyses after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment revealed that NaSGT1 is important for the normal regulation of MeJA-induced transcriptional responses. • This work demonstrates the importance of SGT1 in the regulatory network that deploys defense responses against herbivores, and highlights the significance of SGT1 in plants' responses to JA.

  12. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PMID:27242811

  13. The maize death acids, 10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid and derivatives, demonstrate specificity in jasmonate-related signaling and defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cellular damage promotes the interaction of lipoxygenases (LOX) with free fatty acids to yield 9- and 13-hydroperoxides which are further metabolized into diverse oxylipins. The enzymatic action of 13-LOX on linolenic acid enables production of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and its downst...

  14. Normal phase LC coupled with direct analysis in real time MS for the chiral analysis of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cuilan; Zhou, Zhigui; Yang, Youyou; Han, Yehua; Bai, Yu; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Huwei

    2012-11-01

    Normal phase chiral LC (NPLC) has been proved to be powerful and efficient for chiral separation. However, the combination of NPLC with ESI or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS is restricted by the poor ionization efficiency and thermal fragmentations of analytes to some extent. Direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS) is an ambient ionization technique that shows high ionization efficiency of the analytes in the normal phase mobile phase. In this work, we coupled chiral NPLC to DART-MS for the chiral qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and jasmonic acid enantiomers. Satisfactory results for the enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol operating in the positive mode were obtained in terms of linearity (2.5-250 μg/mL, R(2) , 0.999-1.000) and repeatability (25 μg/mL, RSDs, 4.7-5.6%). Moreover, chiral NPLC-DART-MS resulted in the simultaneous chiral separation and detection of jasmonic acid enantiomers, which are very difficult to be analyzed by NPLC-ESI-MS and NPLC-APCI-MS. Compared with the coupled techniques of NPLC-ESI-MS and NPLC-APCI-MS, NPLC-DART-MS showed advantages in increasing the ionization efficiency and reducing the in-source thermal fragmentation of analytes.

  15. The platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene derived from Trichoderma harzianum induces maize resistance to Curvularia lunata through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuanjin; Fan, Lili; Gao, Jinxin; Wang, Meng; Wu, Qiong; Tang, Jun; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum was upregulated by the interaction of T. harzianum with maize roots or the foliar pathogen Curvularia lunata. PAF-AH was associated with chitinase and cellulase expressions, but especially with chitinase, because its activity in the KO40 transformant (PAF-AH disruption transformant) was lower, compared with the wild-type strain T28. The result demonstrated that the colonization of maize roots by T. harzianum induced systemic protection of leaves inoculated with C. lunata. Such protection was associated with the expression of inducible jasmonic acid pathway-related genes. Moreover, the data from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed that the concentration of jasmonic acid in maize leaves was associated with the expression level of defense-related genes, suggesting that PAF-AH induced resistance to the foliar pathogen. Our findings showed that PAF-AH had an important function in inducing systemic resistance to maize leaf spot pathogen.

  16. Identification of Jasmonic Acid and Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine, and Characterization of AOS, AOC, OPR and JAR1 in the Model Lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Pratiwi, Putri; Tanaka, Genta; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Koichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2017-03-13

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in a variety of physiological responses in seed plants. However, the detection and role of JA in lycophytes, a group of seedless vascular plants, have remained elusive until recently. This study provides the first evidence of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the model lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Mechanical wounding stimulated the accumulation of OPDA, JA and JA-Ile. These data were corroborated by the detection of enzymatically active allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) and JA-Ile synthase (JAR1) in S. moellendorffii. SmAOS2 is involved in the first committed step of JA biosynthesis. SmAOC1 is a crucial enzyme for generating the basic structure of jasmonates and is actively involved in the formation of OPDA. SmOPR5, a functionally active OPR3-like enzyme, is also vital for the reduction of (+)-cis-OPDA, the only isomer of the JA precursor. The conjugation of JA to Ile by SmJAR1 demonstrates that S. moellendorffii produces JA-Ile. Thus, the four active enzymes have characteristics similar to those in seed plants. Wounding and JA treatment induced the expression of SmAOC1 and SmOPR5. Furthermore, JA inhibited the growth of shoots in S. moellendorffii, which suggests that JA functions as a signaling molecule in S. moellendorffii. This study proposes that JA evolved as a plant hormone for stress adaptation, beginning with the emergence of vascular plants.

  17. The role of glucosinolates and the jasmonic acid pathway in resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against molluskan herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Bodenhausen, Natacha; Schramm, Katharina; Paetz, Christian; Vassão, Daniel Giddings; Reichelt, Michael; von Knorre, Dietrich; Bergelson, Joy; Erb, Matthias; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Although slugs and snails play important roles in terrestrial ecosystems and cause considerable damage on a variety of crop plants, knowledge about the mechanisms of plant immunity to mollusks is limited. We found slugs to be natural herbivores of Arabidopsis thaliana and therefore investigated possible resistance mechanisms of this species against several molluskan herbivores. Treating wounded leaves with the mucus residue (“slime trail”) of the Spanish slug Arion lusitanicus increased wound-induced jasmonate levels, suggesting the presence of defense elicitors in the mucus. Plants deficient in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling suffered more damage by molluskan herbivores in the laboratory and in the field, demonstrating that JA-mediated defenses protect A. thaliana against slugs and snails. Furthermore, experiments using A. thaliana mutants with altered levels of specific glucosinolate classes revealed the importance of aliphatic glucosinolates in defending leaves and reproductive structures against mollusks. The presence in mollusk feces of known and novel metabolites arising from glutathione conjugation with glucosinolate hydrolysis products suggests that molluskan herbivores actively detoxify glucosinolates. Higher levels of aliphatic glucosinolates were found in plants during the night compared to the day, which correlated well with the nocturnal activity rhythms of slugs and snails. Our data highlight the function of well-known anti-herbivore defense pathways in resistance against slugs and snails and suggest an important role for the diurnal regulation of defense metabolites against nocturnal molluskan herbivores. PMID:24313595

  18. The role of glucosinolates and the jasmonic acid pathway in resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against molluscan herbivores.

    PubMed

    Falk, Kimberly L; Kästner, Julia; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Schramm, Katharina; Paetz, Christian; Vassão, Daniel G; Reichelt, Michael; von Knorre, Dietrich; Bergelson, Joy; Erb, Matthias; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Although slugs and snails play important roles in terrestrial ecosystems and cause considerable damage on a variety of crop plants, knowledge about the mechanisms of plant immunity to molluscs is limited. We found slugs to be natural herbivores of Arabidopsis thaliana and therefore investigated possible resistance mechanisms of this species against several molluscan herbivores. Treating wounded leaves with the mucus residue ('slime trail') of the Spanish slug Arion lusitanicus increased wound-induced jasmonate levels, suggesting the presence of defence elicitors in the mucus. Plants deficient in jasmonate biosynthesis and signalling suffered more damage by molluscan herbivores in the laboratory and in the field, demonstrating that JA-mediated defences protect A. thaliana against slugs and snails. Furthermore, experiments using A. thaliana mutants with altered levels of specific glucosinolate classes revealed the importance of aliphatic glucosinolates in defending leaves and reproductive structures against molluscs. The presence in mollusc faeces of known and novel metabolites arising from glutathione conjugation with glucosinolate hydrolysis products suggests that molluscan herbivores actively detoxify glucosinolates. Higher levels of aliphatic glucosinolates were found in plants during the night compared to the day, which correlated well with the nocturnal activity rhythms of slugs and snails. Our data highlight the function of well-known antiherbivore defence pathways in resistance against slugs and snails and suggest an important role for the diurnal regulation of defence metabolites against nocturnal molluscan herbivores.

  19. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding.

  20. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils.

  1. Jasmonates: An Update on Biosynthesis, Signal Transduction and Action in Plant Stress Response, Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Wasternack, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived compounds with signal functions in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. Jasmonic acid and its various metabolites are members of the oxylipin family. Many of them alter gene expression positively or negatively in a regulatory network with synergistic and antagonistic effects in relation to other plant hormones such as salicylate, auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid. Scope This review summarizes biosynthesis and signal transduction of jasmonates with emphasis on new findings in relation to enzymes, their crystal structure, new compounds detected in the oxylipin and jasmonate families, and newly found functions. Conclusions Crystal structure of enzymes in jasmonate biosynthesis, increasing number of jasmonate metabolites and newly identified components of the jasmonate signal-transduction pathway, including specifically acting transcription factors, have led to new insights into jasmonate action, but its receptor(s) is/are still missing, in contrast to all other plant hormones. PMID:17513307

  2. Hormone crosstalk in plant disease and defense: more than just jasmonate-salicylate antagonism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Grant, Murray; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, most studies on the role of hormones in plant-pathogen interactions focused on salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). It is now clear that pathogen-induced modulation of signaling via other hormones contributes to virulence. A picture is emerging of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance, with outcomes dependent on pathogen lifestyles and the genetic constitution of the host. Recent progress has revealed intriguing similarities between hormone signaling mechanisms, with gene induction responses often achieved by derepression. Here, we report on recent advances, updating current knowledge on classical defense hormones SA, JA, and ET, and the roles of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (CKs), and brassinosteroids in molding plant-pathogen interactions. We highlight an emerging theme that positive and negative regulators of these disparate hormone signaling pathways are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense.

  3. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway.

  4. Effects of the new ethacrynic acid derivative SA9000 on intraocular pressure in cats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Masaki; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Kirihara, Tomoko; Konomi, Kouji; Epstein, David Lee; Hara, Hideaki

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological characteristics of the new ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivative SA9000, we examined its ocular hypotensive effects in cats and cynomolgus monkeys, its corneal toxicity in rabbits, and its binding affinities for forty-three receptors, ion channels, and second messenger systems. A 20 microl injection into the anterior chamber of eye (intracameral injection) of 0.1 mM SA9000 significantly reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) 3.8 mmHg in cats. A 10 microl intracameral injection of 1 mM SA9000 significantly reduced IOP 7 mmHg in living monkeys without evidence of in vivo (or in vitro) toxicity. The ocular hypotensive effect of SA9000 in monkeys was greater than that of ECA. The morphology of corneal endothelial and epithelial cells in rabbit eyes after intracameral injection of SA9000 was observed using electron microphotography. SA9000 at 2 mM did not induce any abnormalities, indicating that it has no corneal toxicity at a concentration higher than the minimum needed for an ocular hypotensive effect (1 mM). SA9000 at 0.01 mM showed negligible binding affinity for, or inhibition of, forty-three different receptors, ion channel proteins, and second messenger systems. These findings indicate that SA9000 has the potential to be both effective and safe as an ocular hypotensive drug, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  5. Methyl jasmonate induces lauric acid omega-hydroxylase activity and accumulation of CYP94A1 transcripts but does not affect epoxide hydrolase activities in vicia sativa seedlings

    PubMed

    Pinot; Benveniste; Sala n JP; Durst

    1998-12-01

    Treatment of etiolated Vicia sativa seedlings by the plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MetJA) led to an increase of cytochrome P450 content. Seedlings that were treated for 48 h in a 1 mM solution of MetJA stimulated omega-hydroxylation of 12:0 (lauric acid) 14-fold compared with the control (153 versus 11 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively). Induction was dose dependent. The increase of activity (2.7-fold) was already detectable after 3 h of treatment. Activity increased as a function of time and reached a steady level after 24 h. Northern-blot analysis revealed that the transcripts coding for CYP94A1, a fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, had already accumulated after 1 h of exposure to MetJA and was maximal between 3 and 6 h. Under the same conditions, a study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxystearic acid showed that both microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase activities were not affected by MetJA treatment.

  6. Expression profiles of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling during growth and development of carrot.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanglong; Huang, Wei; Li, Mengyao; Xu, Zhisheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Aisheng

    2016-09-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are recognized as essential regulators in response to environmental stimuli and plant development. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the course of plant growth. However, JA accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth remain unclear. Here, methyl JA (MeJA) levels and expression profiles of JA-related genes were analyzed in carrot roots and leaves at five developmental stages. MeJA levels in the roots and leaves were the highest at the first stage and decreased as carrot growth proceeded. Transcript levels of several JA-related genes (Dc13-LOX1, Dc13-LOX2, DcAOS, DcAOC, DcOPR2, DcOPR3, DcOPCL1, DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcJAZ1, DcJAZ2, DcMYC2, DcCHIB/PR3, DcLEC, and DcVSP2) were not well correlated with MeJA accumulation during carrot root and leaf development. In addition, some JA-related genes (DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcMYC2, and DcVSP2) showed differential expression between roots and leaves. These results suggest that JAs may regulate carrot plant growth in stage-dependent and organ-specific manners. Our work provides novel insights into JA accumulation and its potential roles during carrot growth and development.

  7. The Ubiquitin System and Jasmonate Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nagels Durand, Astrid; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin (Ub) system is involved in most, if not all, biological processes in eukaryotes. The major specificity determinants of this system are the E3 ligases, which bind and ubiquitinate specific sets of proteins and are thereby responsible for target recruitment to the proteasome or other cellular processing machineries. The Ub system contributes to the regulation of the production, perception and signal transduction of plant hormones. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives, known as jasmonates (JAs), act as signaling compounds regulating plant development and plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stress conditions. We provide here an overview of the current understanding of the Ub system involved in JA signaling. PMID:27135226

  8. Oligogalacturonide-mediated induction of a gene involved in jasmonic acid synthesis in response to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed

    Norman, C; Vidal, S; Palva, E T

    1999-07-01

    Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana genes responsive to plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora led to the isolation of a cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the gene for allene oxide synthase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonates. Expression of the corresponding gene was induced by the extracellular enzymes from this pathogen as well as by treatment with methyl jasmonate and short oligogalacturonides (OGAs). This suggests that OGAs are involved in the induction of the jasmonate pathway during plant defense response to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora attack.

  9. RepA Protein Encoded by Oat dwarf virus Elicits a Temperature-Sensitive Hypersensitive Response-Type Cell Death That Involves Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajuan; Hou, Huwei; Shen, Qingtang; Cai, Xinzhong; Sunter, Garry; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a component of disease resistance that is often induced by pathogen infection, but essentially no information is available for members of the destructive mastreviruses. We have investigated an HR-type response elicited in Nicotiana species by Oat dwarf virus (ODV) and have found that expression of the ODV RepA protein but not other ODV-encoded proteins elicits the HR-type cell death associated with a burst of H2O2. Deletion mutagenesis indicates that the first nine amino acids (aa) at the N terminus of RepA and the two regions located between aa residues 173 and 195 and between aa residues 241 and 260 near the C terminus are essential for HR-type cell-death elicitation. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that the RepA protein is localized in the nuclei of plant cells and might contain bipartite nuclear localization signals. The HR-like lesions mediated by RepA were inhibited by temperatures above 30°C and involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in HR was identified by gain- and loss-of-function experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an elicitor of HR-type cell death from mastreviruses.

  10. Intronic T-DNA Insertion Renders Arabidopsis opr3 a Conditional Jasmonic Acid-Producing Mutant1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chehab, E. Wassim; Kim, Se; Savchenko, Tatyana; Kliebenstein, Daniel; Dehesh, Katayoon; Braam, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derived metabolites (JAs) orchestrate plant defense against insects and fungi. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a JA precursor, has also been implicated in plant defense. We sought to define JAs and OPDA functions through comparative defense susceptibility characteristics of three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes: aos, lacking JAs and OPDA; opda reductase3 (opr3), deficient in JA production but can accumulate OPDA; and transgenics that overexpress OPR3. opr3, like aos, is susceptible to cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni) but, relative to aos, opr3 has enhanced resistance to a necrotrophic fungus. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that opr3 produces OPDA but no detectable JAs following wounding and looper infestation; unexpectedly, substantial levels of JAs accumulate in opr3 upon fungal infection. Full-length OPR3 transcripts accumulate in fungal-infected opr3, potentially through splicing of the T-DNA containing intron. Fungal resistance correlates with levels of JAs not OPDA; therefore, opr3 resistance to some pests is likely due to JA accumulation, and signaling activities ascribed to OPDA should be reassessed because opr3 can produce JAs. Together these data (1) reinforce the primary role JAs play in plant defense against insects and necrotrophic fungi, (2) argue for a reassessment of signaling activities ascribed to OPDA, and (3) provide evidence that mutants with intron insertions can retain gene function. PMID:21487047

  11. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 Reveals the Versatile Functions of Jasmonic Acid in Maize Development and Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R.J. Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  12. The Apoplastic Copper AMINE OXIDASE1 Mediates Jasmonic Acid-Induced Protoxylem Differentiation in Arabidopsis Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Ghuge, Sandip A.; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A.; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines are involved in key developmental processes and stress responses. Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine (Put), producing an aldehyde, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) amine oxidase gene At4g14940 (AtAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed at the early stages of vascular tissue differentiation in roots. Here, its role in root development and xylem differentiation was explored by pharmacological and forward/reverse genetic approaches. Analysis of the AtAO1 expression pattern in roots by a promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase fusion revealed strong gene expression in the protoxylem at the transition, elongation, and maturation zones. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced AtAO1 gene expression in vascular tissues, especially at the transition and elongation zones. Early protoxylem differentiation was observed upon MeJA treatment along with Put level decrease and H2O2 accumulation in wild-type roots, whereas Atao1 loss-of-function mutants were unresponsive to the hormone. The H2O2 scavenger N,N1-dimethylthiourea reversed the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in wild-type seedlings. Likewise, Put, which had no effect on Atao1 mutants, induced early protoxylem differentiation in the wild type, this event being counteracted by N,N1-dimethylthiourea treatment. Consistently, AtAO1-overexpressing plants showed lower Put levels and early protoxylem differentiation concurrent with H2O2 accumulation in the root zone where the first protoxylem cells with fully developed secondary wall thickenings are found. These results show that the H2O2 produced via AtAO1-driven Put oxidation plays a role in MeJA signaling leading to early protoxylem differentiation in root. PMID:25883242

  13. Endogenous abscisic acid is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production but not in cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxiu; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic alkalization in guard cells using an ABA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, aba2-2, and an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridon (FLU). The aba2-2 mutation impaired MeJA-induced ROS and NO production. FLU inhibited MeJA-induced ROS production in wild-type guard cells. Pretreatment with 0.1 μM ABA, which does not induce stomatal closure in the wild type, complemented the insensitivity to MeJA of the aba2-2 mutant. However, MeJA induced cytosolic alkalization in both wild-type and aba2-2 guard cells. These results suggest that endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced ROS and NO production but not in MeJA-induced cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

  14. Exogenous polyamines elicit herbivore-induced volatiles in lima bean leaves: involvement of calcium, H2O2 and Jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Rika; Bertea, Cinzia M; Foti, Maria; Narayana, Ravishankar; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Muroi, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichiro; Nishioka, Takaaki; Maffei, Massimo E; Takabayashi, Junji

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the role of polyamines (PAs) in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves on the production of herbivorous mite (Tetranychus urticae)-induced plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. To do this, we focused on the effects of the exogenous PAs [cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine (Spm)] on the production of volatiles, H(2)O(2) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the levels of defensive genes, cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested PAs, Spm was the most active in inducing the production of volatile terpenoids known to be induced by T. urticae. An increase in JA levels was also found after Spm treatment, indicating that Spm induces the biosynthesis of JA, which has been shown elsewhere to regulate the production of some volatile terpenoids. Further, treatment with JA and Spm together resulted in greater volatile emission than that with JA alone. In a Y-tube olfactometer, leaves treated with Spm + JA attracted more predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) than those treated with JA alone. After treatment with Spm + JA, no effects were found on the enzyme activity of polyamine oxidase and copper amine oxidase. However, induction of calcium influx and ROS production, and increased enzyme activities and gene expression for NADPH oxidase complex, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were found after treatment with Spm + JA. These results indicate that Spm plays an important role in the production of T. urticae-induced lima bean leaf volatiles.

  15. Development of an efficient high-performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of jasmonic acid in leaf tissue of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Kilam, Divya; Saifi, M; Agnihotri, A; Abdin, M Z

    2017-02-13

    Determination of endogenous levels of jasmonic acid (JA) is essential, as it plays a pivotal role in the physiological processes during a plant's life cycle. A high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the detection and quantification of JA in leaf extracts of medicinal plant, Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. The separation was achieved using the solvents ethyl acetate-benzene (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phase, followed by scanning and quantification at 295 nm. Densitometric analysis of leaf extract resulted in compact spots for JA at Rf = 0.45 ± 0.02. The linear regression analysis showed good relationship with r value. The recovery rate of JA indicated good reproducibility and repeatability of the assay. The statistical analysis proved the reproducibility of the method; therefore, it can be employed for routine quantification of JA in different tissue samples of S. rebaudiana and may also be extrapolated to other biological samples.

  16. Jasmonic acid treatment to part of the root system is consistent with simulated leaf herbivory, diverting recently assimilated carbon towards untreated roots within an hour.

    PubMed

    Henkes, Gunnar Jakob; Thorpe, Michael R; Minchin, Peter E H; Schurr, Ulrich; Röse, Ursula S R

    2008-09-01

    It is known that shoot application of jasmonic acid (JA) leads to an increased carbon export from leaves to stem and roots, and that root treatment with JA inhibits root growth. Using the radioisotope (11)C, we measured JA effects on carbon partitioning in sterile, split-root, barley plants. JA applied to one root half reduced carbon partitioning to the JA-treated tissue within minutes, whereas the untreated side showed a corresponding--but slower--increase. This response was not observed when instead of applying JA, the sink strength of one root half was reduced by cooling it: there was no enhanced partitioning to the untreated roots. The slower response in the JA-untreated roots, and the difference between the effect of JA and temperature, suggest that root JA treatment caused transduction of a signal from the treated roots to the shoot, leading to an increase in carbon allocation from the leaves to the untreated root tissue, as was indeed observed 10 min after the shoot application of JA. This supports the hypothesis that the response of some plant species to both leaf and root herbivores may be the diversion of resources to safer locations.

  17. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found.

  18. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  19. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  20. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants.

  1. Allantoin, a stress-related purine metabolite, can activate jasmonate signaling in a MYC2-regulated and abscisic acid-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Konishi, Tomokazu; Egusa, Mayumi; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Hirayama, Takashi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of purine catabolism that often accumulates in stressed plants. Recently, we used Arabidopsis knockout mutants (aln) of ALLANTOINASE to show that this purine metabolite activates abscisic acid (ABA) production, thereby stimulating stress-related gene expression and enhancing seedling tolerance to abiotic stress. A detailed re-examination of the microarray data of an aln mutant (aln-1) confirmed the increased expression of ABA-related genes and also revealed altered expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, probably under the control of MYC2, a master switch in the JA signaling pathway. Consistent with the transcriptome profiles, the aln-1 mutant displayed increased JA levels and enhanced responses to mechanical wounding and exogenous JA. Moreover, aln mutants demonstrated modestly increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum, probably reflecting the antagonistic action of MYC2 on the defense against these bacterial phytopathogens. Exogenously administered allantoin elicited the expression of JA-responsive genes, including MYC2, in wild-type plants, supporting the idea that allantoin might be responsible for the observed JA-related phenotypes of aln mutants. However, mutants deficient in bioactive JA (jar1-1), insensitive to JA (myc2-3), or deficient in ABA (aba2-1 and bglu18) suppressed the effect of exogenous allantoin. The suppression was further confirmed in aln-1 jar1-1 and aln-1 bglu18 double mutants. These results indicate that allantoin can activate the MYC2-regulated JA signaling pathway through ABA production. Overall, this study suggests a possible connection of purine catabolism with stress hormone homeostasis and signaling, and highlights the potential importance of allantoin in these interactions. PMID:26931169

  2. Effects of the new ethacrynic acid oxime derivative SA12590 on intraocular pressure in cats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Atsushi; Kirihara, Tomoko; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Tajima, Hisashi; Matsugi, Takeshi; Epstein, David Lee

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological characteristics of SA12590, a new oxime-derivative of the ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivative SA9000, we examined both its ocular hypotensive effects (in ocular normotensive cats and cynomolgus monkeys) and its potential corneal toxicity (in rats). A 50 microl topical administration of 3% SA12590 significantly reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) (by 3.5 mmHg) in anesthetized cats (p<0.05). Twenty-four hours after 3 drops (5-min intervals) of 20 microl 3% SA12590, IOP was reduced by 8 mmHg (p<0.05, n=4) in conscious monkeys without evidence of corneal toxicity. Three days' daily single 20 microl dosing with 3% SA12590 reduced IOP by 4 mmHg (p<0.01, n=3) at 72 h after the first administration in conscious monkeys. The toxicity of topically administered 20 microl 3% SA9000 or SA12590 (3 drops with 5-min intervals) on rat corneal epithelium was assessed using a photo-slit lamp. In this study, 3% SA12590, unlike 3% SA9000, exhibited no corneal toxicity. In a glutathione assay for sulfhydryl (SH) reactivity, SA12590, unlike SA9000, displayed no in vitro SH reactivity. Thus, oxime-modification may both improve efficacy towards IOP upon topical administration and improve the safety profile, probably by enhancing corneal penetration and minimizing SH reactivity-related toxicity. These findings indicate that SA12590 has potential as a new ocular hypotensive drug.

  3. Jasmonate is essential for insect defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    McConn, M; Creelman, R A; Bell, E; Mullet, J E; Browse, J

    1997-05-13

    The signaling pathways that allow plants to mount defenses against chewing insects are known to be complex. To investigate the role of jasmonate in wound signaling in Arabidopsis and to test whether parallel or redundant pathways exist for insect defense, we have studied a mutant (fad3-2 fad7-2 fad8) that is deficient in the jasmonate precursor linolenic acid. Mutant plants contained negligible levels of jasmonate and showed extremely high mortality ( approximately 80%) from attack by larvae of a common saprophagous fungal gnat, Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae), even though neighboring wild-type plants were largely unaffected. Application of exogenous methyl jasmonate substantially protected the mutant plants and reduced mortality to approximately 12%. These experiments precisely define the role of jasmonate as being essential for the induction of biologically effective defense in this plant-insect interaction. The transcripts of three wound-responsive genes were shown not to be induced by wounding of mutant plants but the same transcripts could be induced by application of methyl jasmonate. By contrast, measurements of transcript levels for a gene encoding glutathione S-transferase demonstrated that wound induction of this gene is independent of jasmonate synthesis. These results indicate that the mutant will be a good genetic model for testing the practical effectiveness of candidate defense genes.

  4. Phenotyping jasmonate regulation of senescence.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Martin A; Berger, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Osmotic stress induces several senescence-like processes in leaves, such as specific changes in gene expression and yellowing. These processes are dependent on the accumulation of jasmonates and on intact jasmonate signaling. This chapter describes the treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with sorbitol as an osmotic stress agent and the determination of the elicited phenotypes encompassing chlorophyll loss, degradation of plastidial membrane lipids, and induction of genes regulated by senescence and jasmonate.

  5. Pithy Protection: Nicotiana attenuata’s Jasmonic Acid-Mediated Defenses Are Required to Resist Stem-Boring Weevil Larvae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Diezel, Celia; Kessler, Danny; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    Folivory is the best studied plant-herbivore interaction, but it is unclear whether the signaling and resistance traits important for the defense of leaves are also important for other plant parts. Larvae of the tobacco stem weevil, Trichobaris mucorea, burrow into stems of Nicotiana attenuata and feed on the pith. Transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in signaling and foliar defense traits were evaluated in a 2-year field study for resistance against attack by naturally occurring T. mucorea larva. Plants silenced in early jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis (antisense [as]-lipoxygenase3 [lox3]; inverted repeat [ir]-allene oxide cyclase), JA perception (as-coronatine insensitive1), proteinase inhibitors (ir-pi), and nicotine (ir-putrescine methyl-transferase) direct defenses and lignin (ir-cad) biosynthesis were infested more frequently than wild-type plants. Plants unable to emit C6 aldehydes (as-hpl) had lower infestation rates, while plants silenced in late steps in JA biosynthesis (ir-acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, ir-opr) and silenced in diterpene glycoside production (ir-geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase) did not differ from wild type. Pith choice assays revealed that ir-putrescine methyl-transferase, ir-coronatine insensitive1, and ir-lox3 pith, which all had diminished nicotine levels, were preferred by larvae compared to wild-type pith. The lack of preference for ir-lox2 and ir-cad piths, suggest that oviposition attraction and vascular defense, rather than pith palatability accounts for the higher attack rates observed for these plants. We conclude that traits that influence a plant’s apparency, stem hardness, and pith direct defenses all contribute to resistance against this herbivore whose attack can be devastating to N. attenuata’s fitness. PMID:21300916

  6. Nicotiana attenuata SIPK, WIPK, NPR1, and Fatty Acid-Amino Acid Conjugates Participate in the Induction of Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis by Affecting Early Enzymatic Steps in the Pathway1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kallenbach, Mario; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldwin, Ian Thomas; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Wounding and herbivore attack elicit the rapid (within minutes) accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) that results from the activation of previously synthesized biosynthetic enzymes. Recently, several regulatory factors that affect JA production have been identified; however, how these regulators affect JA biosynthesis remains at present unknown. Here we demonstrate that Nicotiana attenuata salicylate-induced protein kinase (SIPK), wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), nonexpressor of PR-1 (NPR1), and the insect elicitor N-linolenoyl-glucose (18:3-Glu) participate in mechanisms affecting early enzymatic steps of the JA biosynthesis pathway. Plants silenced in the expression of SIPK and NPR1 were affected in the initial accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-linolenic acid (13-OOH-18:3) after wounding and 18:3-Glu elicitation by mechanisms independent of changes in 13-lipoxygenase activity. Moreover, 18:3-Glu elicited an enhanced and rapid accumulation of 13-OOH-18:3 that depended partially on SIPK and NPR1 but was independent of increased 13-lipoxygenase activity. Together, the results suggested that substrate supply for JA production was altered by 18:3-Glu elicitation and SIPK- and NPR1-mediated mechanisms. Consistent with a regulation at the level of substrate supply, we demonstrated by virus-induced gene silencing that a wound-repressed plastidial glycerolipase (NaGLA1) plays an essential role in the induction of de novo JA biosynthesis. In contrast to SIPK and NPR1, mechanisms mediated by WIPK did not affect the production of 13-OOH-18:3 but were critical to control the conversion of this precursor into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. These differences could be partially accounted for by reduced allene oxide synthase activity in WIPK-silenced plants. PMID:19897603

  7. Expression of tomato salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related genes in Mi-1-mediated and SA-induced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Sergio; Fanelli, Elena; Leonetti, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The expression pattern of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5, considered as markers for salicylic acid (SA)-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was examined in the roots and shoots of tomato plants pre-treated with SA and subsequently infected with root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne incognita). PR-1 was up-regulated in both roots and shoots of SA-treated plants, whereas the expression of PR-5 was enhanced only in roots. The over-expression of PR-1 in the whole plant occurred as soon as 1 day after SA treatment. Up-regulation of the PR-1 gene was considered to be the main marker of SAR elicitation. One day after treatment, plants were inoculated with active juveniles (J2s) of M. incognita. The number of J2s that entered the roots and started to develop was significantly lower in SA-treated than in untreated plants at 5 and 15 days after inoculation. The expression pattern of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5 was also examined in the roots and shoots of susceptible and Mi-1-carrying resistant tomato plants infected by RKNs. Nematode infection produced a down-regulation of PR genes in both roots and shoots of SA-treated and untreated plants, and in roots of Mi-carrying resistant plants. Moreover, in resistant infected plants, PR gene expression, in particular PR-1 gene expression, was highly induced in shoots. Thus, nematode infection was demonstrated to elicit SAR in shoots of resistant plants. The data presented in this study show that the repression of host defence SA signalling is associated with the successful development of RKNs, and that SA exogenously added as a soil drench is able to trigger a SAR-like response to RKNs in tomato.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and methyl jasmonate avoid the inhibition of root hydraulic conductivity caused by drought.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Ángel María; García-Mina, José María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    Hormonal regulation and symbiotic relationships provide benefits for plants to overcome stress conditions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application on root hydraulic conductivity (L) of Phaseolus vulgaris plants which established arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis under two water regimes (well-watered and drought conditions). The variation in endogenous contents of several hormones (MeJA, JA, abscisic acid (ABA), indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA)) and the changes in aquaporin gene expression, protein abundance and phosphorylation state were analyzed. AM symbiosis decreased L under well-watered conditions, which was partially reverted by the MeJA treatment, apparently by a drop in root IAA contents. Also, AM symbiosis and MeJA prevented inhibition of L under drought conditions, most probably by a reduction in root SA contents. Additionally, the gene expression of two fungal aquaporins was upregulated under drought conditions, independently of the MeJA treatment. Plant aquaporin gene expression could not explain the behaviour of L. Conversely, evidence was found for the control of L by phosphorylation of aquaporins. Hence, MeJA addition modified the response of L to both AM symbiosis and drought, presumably by regulating the root contents of IAA and SA and the phosphorylation state of aquaporins.

  9. Crosstalk among Jasmonate, Salicylate and Ethylene Signaling Pathways in Plant Disease and Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, You-Xin; Ahammed, Golam J; Wu, Caijun; Fan, Shu-ying; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone crosstalk is crucial for plant defenses against pathogens and insects in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) play key roles. These low molecular mass signals critically trigger and modulate plant resistance against biotrophic as well as necrotrophic pathogens through a complex signaling network that even involves participation of other hormones. Crosstalk among SA, JA and ET is mediated by different molecular players, considered as integral part of these crosscommunicating signal transduction pathways. Recent progress has revealed that the positive versus negative interactions among those pathways ultimately enable a plant to fine-tune its defense against specific aggressors. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved strategies to manipulate the signaling network to their favour in order to intensify virulence on host plant. Here we review recent advances and current knowledge on the role of classical primary defense hormones SA, JA and ET as well as their synergistic and antagonistic interaction in plant disease and immune responses. Crosstalk with other hormones such as abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroids, cytokinins and melatonin is also discussed mainly in plant disease resistance. In addition to our keen focus on hormonal crosstalk, this review also highlights potential implication of positive and negative regulatory interactions for developing an efficient disease management strategy through manipulation of hormone signaling in plant.

  10. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  11. Modulatory role of jasmonic acid on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants and stress markers of Glycine max L. under nickel stress.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Sharma, Poonam; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Kaur, Harpreet; Mushtaq, Ruquia

    2015-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a very young candidate of plant growth regulators which is being explored for various antistress properties. Present study deals with the hypothesis that JA can modulate antioxidant mechanism of higher plants with tight regulation of biomembrane peroxidation, making plants tolerant to toxic Ni(2+). 2 mM NiCl2 as a source of Ni(2+) appeared as sub lethal dose for the growth of 15 days old Glycine max seedlings. Exogenous application of 1 μM and 1 nM JA prior to NiCl2 exposure, made seedlings of Glycine max more tolerant to Ni(2+)stress as compared to control untreated seedlings. Regulatory inhibition of MDA and H2O2 production by JA with or without Ni(2+) treatment made plants more resistant to Ni(2+) stress which may be associated with ameliorative activity of antioxidant enzymes system composed of SOD, POD, CAT and APOX. Ascorbate, a secondary metabolite synthesized from D-glucose act as an antioxidant in plant cells. Many fold enhancements in AsA content of Ni(2+) treated seedlings supplemented with different concentrations of JA was observed. Significant improvement in AsA levels by JA with or without Ni(2+) stress may involve two aspects, either denovo synthesis level regulation of AsA or recycling of AsA from an oxidized form. Improvement in total protein content showed the uplift modulation of transcriptional machinery by JA which was also maintained under Ni(2+) stress. Photosynthetic pigments as total chl, chl a and b showed inhibition in presence of Ni(2+) stress which was not found much effective under JA supplementation as compared to control. Present findings revealed that although JA was not helpful for protection of photosynthetic pigments but it modulates the other machinery of plants significantly including various antioxidants positively, while tightly inhibiting stress related processes responsible for lipid peroxidation to make plants tolerant to Ni(2+) stress.

  12. Induction of salicylic acid (SA) on transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes and astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Miao, Xuexia; Wang, Yitao; Yang, Liming; Lv, Hongxin; Chen, Lingling; Ye, Naihao

    2012-09-10

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis can produce large amounts of pink carotenoid astaxanthin which is a high value ketocarotenoid. In our study, transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis in response to SA were measured using qRT-PCR. Results indicated that both 25 and 50 mg/L salicylic acid (SA) could increase astaxanthin productivity and enhance transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis. But these genes exhibited different expression profiles. Moreover, SA25 (25 mg/L SA) induction had a greater effect on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, psy, pds, crtR-B and lyc (more than 6-fold up-regulation) than on ipi-2, bkt and crtO, but SA50 (50 mg/L SA) treatment had a greater impact on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, pds, crtR-B and lyc than on psy, bkt and crtO. Furthermore, astaxanthin biosynthesis under SA was up-regulated mainly by ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, crtR-B, bkt and crtO at transcriptional level, lyc at post-transcriptional level and pds at both levels. Summarily, these results suggest that SA constitute molecular signals in the network of astaxanthin biosynthesis. Induction of astaxanthin accumulation by SA without any other stimuli presents an attractive application potential in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis.

  13. Functional Analysis of Jasmonates in Rice through Mutant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Dhakarey, Rohit; Kodackattumannil Peethambaran, Preshobha; Riemann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid, one of the major plant hormones, is, unlike other hormones, a lipid-derived compound that is synthesized from the fatty acid linolenic acid. It has been studied intensively in many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, in which most of the enzymes participating in its biosynthesis were characterized. In the past 15 years, mutants and transgenic plants affected in the jasmonate pathway became available in rice and facilitate studies on the functions of this hormone in an important crop. Those functions are partially conserved compared to other plant species, and include roles in fertility, response to mechanical wounding and defense against herbivores. However, new and surprising functions have also been uncovered by mutant approaches, such as a close link between light perception and the jasmonate pathway. This was not only useful to show a phenomenon that is unique to rice but also helped to establish this role in plant species where such links are less obvious. This review aims to provide an overview of currently available rice mutants and transgenic plants in the jasmonate pathway and highlights some selected roles of jasmonate in this species, such as photomorphogenesis, and abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27135235

  14. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  15. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  16. Expression of a Flax Allene Oxide Synthase cDNA Leads to Increased Endogenous Jasmonic Acid (JA) Levels in Transgenic Potato Plants but Not to a Corresponding Activation of JA-Responding Genes.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, K.; Atzorn, R.; Brash, A.; Kuhn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Pena-Cortes, H.

    1995-01-01

    Both jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are thought to be significant components of the signaling pathway regulating the expression of plant defense genes in response to various stresses. JA and MeJA are plant lipid derivatives synthesized from [alpha]-linolenic acid by a lipoxygenase-mediated oxygenation leading to 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which is subsequently transformed by the action of allene oxide synthase (AOS) and additional modification steps. AOS converts lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxide to allene epoxide, which is the precursor for JA formation. Overexpression of flax AOS cDNA under the regulation of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic potato plants led to an increase in the endogenous level of JA. Transgenic plants had six- to 12-fold higher levels of JA than the nontransformed plants. Increased levels of JA have been observed when potato and tomato plants are mechanically wounded. Under these conditions, the proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) genes are expressed in the leaves. Despite the fact that the transgenic plants had levels of JA similar to those found in nontransgenic wounded plants, pin2 genes were not constitutively expressed in the leaves of these plants. Transgenic plants with increased levels of JA did not show changes in water state or in the expression of water stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, the transgenic plants overexpressing the flax AOS gene, and containing elevated levels of JA, responded to wounding or water stress by a further increase in JA and by activating the expression of either wound- or water stress-inducible genes. Protein gel blot analysis demonstrated that the flax-derived AOS protein accumulated in the chloroplasts of the transgenic plants. PMID:12242357

  17. Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany

    PubMed Central

    Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. Scope The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. Conclusions The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed. PMID:23558912

  18. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment. Several defense-related genes (48) were identified, participating in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway. Additionally, we mapped 72 unigenes to the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Four cytochrome P450s (CYP450) were likely to catalyze hydroxylation at C-16 (c15743_g1, c39772_g1, c55422_g1) and C-30 (c52011_g1) of the triterpene backbone. UDP-xylose synthases (c52571_g3) was selected as the candidate, which was likely to involve in ginsenoside Rb3 biosynthesis. PMID:27876840

  19. Critical Role of COI1-Dependent Jasmonate Pathway in AAL toxin induced PCD in Tomato Revealed by Comparative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Koh, Jin; Liu, Lihong; Shao, Zhiyong; Liu, Haoran; Hu, Songshen; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P.; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata f.sp. Lycopersici (AAL) toxin induces programmed cell death (PCD) in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Jasmonate (JA) promotes AAL toxin induced PCD in a COI1 (coronatine insensitive 1, JA receptor)-dependent manner by enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this process, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis using tomato jasmonic acid insensitive1 ( jai1), the receptor mutant of JA, and its wild type (WT) after AAL toxin treatment with or without JA treatment. A total of 10367 proteins were identified in tomato leaves using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative proteomics approach. 2670 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed in response to AAL toxin and JA. Comparison between AAL toxin treated jai1 and its WT revealed the COI1-dependent JA pathway regulated proteins, including pathways related to redox response, ceramide synthesis, JA, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Autophagy, PCD and DNA damage related proteins were also identified. Our data suggest that COI1-dependent JA pathway enhances AAL toxin induced PCD through regulating the redox status of the leaves, other phytohormone pathways and/or important PCD components. PMID:27324416

  20. Jasmonates induce nonapoptotic death in high-resistance mutant p53-expressing B-lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fingrut, Orit; Reischer, Dorit; Rotem, Ronit; Goldin, Natalia; Altboum, Irit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Flescher, Eliezer

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene, occur in more than half of human cancers. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that jasmonates (novel anticancer agents) can induce death in mutated p53-expressing cells. Two clones of B-lymphoma cells were studied, one expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and the other expressing mutated p53. Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate (0.25–3 mM) were each equally cytotoxic to both clones, whereas mutant p53-expressing cells were resistant to treatment with the radiomimetic agent neocarzinostatin and the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin. Neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced an elevation in the p53 levels in wt p53-expressing cells, whereas methyl jasmonate did not. Methyl jasmonate induced mostly apoptotic death in the wt p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in mutant p53-expressing cells. In contrast, neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced death only in wt p53-expressing cells, in an apoptotic mode. Methyl jasmonate induced a rapid depletion of ATP in both clones. In both clones, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) did not increase ATP depletion induced by methyl jasmonate, whereas inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose did. High glucose levels protected both clones from methyl jasmonate-induced ATP depletion (and reduced methyl jasmonate-induced cytotoxicity), whereas high levels of pyruvate did not. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate induces ATP depletion mostly by compromising oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In conclusion, jasmonates can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing a nonapoptotic cell death. PMID:16170329

  1. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis is not associated with a direct effect on expression of known defense-related genes but stimulates the expression of the jasmonate-inducible gene Atvsp upon challenge.

    PubMed

    van Wees, S C; Luijendijk, M; Smoorenburg, I; van Loon, L C; Pieterse, C M

    1999-11-01

    Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria from the genus Pseudomonas are capable of eliciting broad-spectrum induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In Arabidopsis, the ISR pathway functions independently of salicylic acid (SA) but requires responsiveness to jasmonate and ethylene. Here, we demonstrate that known defense-related genes, i.e. the SA-responsive genes PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5, the ethylene-inducible gene Hel, the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive genes ChiB and Pdf1.2, and the jasmonate-inducible genes Atvsp, Lox1, Lox2, Pall, and Pin2, are neither induced locally in the roots nor systemically in the leaves upon induction of ISR by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r. In contrast, plants infected with the virulent leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) or expressing SAR induced by preinfecting lower leaves with the avirulent pathogen Pst(avrRpt2) exhibit elevated expression levels of most of the defense-related genes studied. Upon challenge inoculation with Pst, PR gene transcripts accumulated to a higher level in SAR-expressing plants than in control-treated and ISR-expressing plants, indicating that SAR involves potentiation of SA-responsive PR gene expression. In contrast, pathogen challenge of ISR-expressing plants led to an enhanced level of Atvsp transcript accumulation. The otherjasmonate-responsive defense-related genes studied were not potentiated during ISR, indicating that ISR is associated with the potentiation of specific jasmonate-responsive genes.

  2. Jasmonates: Multifunctional Roles in Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rasool, Saiema; Gul, Alvina; Sheikh, Subzar A.; Akram, Nudrat A.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Kazi, A. M.; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) [Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonates (MeJAs)] are known to take part in various physiological processes. Exogenous application of JAs so far tested on different plants under abiotic stresses particularly salinity, drought, and temperature (low/high) conditions have proved effective in improving plant stress tolerance. However, its extent of effectiveness entirely depends on the type of plant species tested or its concentration. The effects of introgression or silencing of different JA- and Me-JA-related genes have been summarized in this review, which have shown a substantial role in improving crop yield and quality in different plants under stress or non-stress conditions. Regulation of JAs synthesis is impaired in stressed as well as unstressed plant cells/tissues, which is believed to be associated with a variety of metabolic events including signal transduction. Although, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of JA signaling and biosynthesis pathways, nitric oxide, ROS, calcium, ABA, ethylene, and salicylic acid are also important mediators of plant growth and development during JA signal transduction and synthesis. The exploration of other signaling molecules can be beneficial to examine the details of underlying molecular mechanisms of JA signal transduction. Much work is to be done in near future to find the proper answers of the questions like action of JA related metabolites, and identification of universal JA receptors etc. Complete signaling pathways involving MAPKs, CDPK, TGA, SIPK, WIPK, and WRKY transcription factors are yet to be investigated to understand the complete mechanism of action of JAs. PMID:27379115

  3. Jasmonate signaling in plant development and defense response to multiple (a)biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Santino, Angelo; Taurino, Marco; De Domenico, Stefania; Bonsegna, Stefania; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Pastor, Victoria; Flors, Victor

    2013-07-01

    Plants frequently live in environments characterized by the presence of simultaneous and different stresses. The intricate and finely tuned molecular mechanisms activated by plants in response to abiotic and biotic environmental factors are not well understood, and less is known about the integrative signals and convergence points activated by plants in response to multiple (a)biotic stresses. Phytohormones play a key role in plant development and response to (a)biotic stresses. Among these, one of the most important signaling molecules is an oxylipin, the plant hormone jasmonic acid. Oxylipins are derived from oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Jasmonic acid and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate have been considered for a long time to be the bioactive forms due to their physiological effects and abundance in the plant. However, more recent studies showed unambiguously that they are only precursors of the active forms represented by some amino acid conjugates. Upon developmental or environmental stimuli, jasmonates are synthesized and accumulate transiently. Upon perception, jasmonate signal transduction process is finely tuned by a complex mechanism comprising specific repressor proteins which in turn control a number of transcription factors regulating the expression of jasmonate responsive genes. We discuss the latest discoveries about the role of jasmonates in plants resistance mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the deep interplay of different phytohormones in stresses signaling will be also discussed.

  4. The Outcomes of Concentration-Specific Interactions between Salicylate and Jasmonate Signaling Include Synergy, Antagonism, and Oxidative Stress Leading to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A.J.; Kenton, Paul; Atzorn, Rainer; Miersch, Otto; Wasternack, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been proposed to antagonize jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling. We report, however, that in salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, where SA levels were reduced, JA levels were not elevated during a hypersensitive response elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola. The effects of cotreatment with various concentrations of SA and JA were assessed in tobacco and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These suggested that there was a transient synergistic enhancement in the expression of genes associated with either JA (PDF1.2 [defensin] and Thi1.2 [thionin]) or SA (PR1 [PR1a-β-glucuronidase in tobacco]) signaling when both signals were applied at low (typically 10–100 μm) concentrations. Antagonism was observed at more prolonged treatment times or at higher concentrations. Similar results were also observed when adding the JA precursor, α-linolenic acid with SA. Synergic effects on gene expression and plant stress were NPR1- and COI1-dependent, SA- and JA-signaling components, respectively. Electrolyte leakage and Evans blue staining indicated that application of higher concentrations of SA + JA induced plant stress or death and elicited the generation of apoplastic reactive oxygen species. This was indicated by enhancement of hydrogen peroxide-responsive AoPR10-β-glucuronidase expression, suppression of plant stress/death using catalase, and direct hydrogen peroxide measurements. Our data suggests that the outcomes of JA-SA interactions could be tailored to pathogen/pest attack by the relative concentration of each hormone. PMID:16377744

  5. Jasmonates are essential factors inducing gummosis in tulips: mode of action of jasmonates focusing on sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the mechanism of jasmonates to induce gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) shoots, especially on the focus of sugar metabolism. Gummosis in the first internode of tulip plants was induced by the application of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 1% w/w in lanolin) and jasmonic acid (JA, 1% w/w in lanolin) 5 days after application and strongly stimulated by the simultaneous application of ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, 1% w/w in lanolin), although ethephon alone had little effect. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production of the first internodes of tulips, ethylene production increasing up to more than 5 times at day 1 and day 3 after the application. On the other hand, application of ethephon did not increase endogenous levels of jasmonates in tulip stems. Analysis of composition of tulip gums revealed that they were consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylan with an average molecular weight of ca. 700 kDa. JA-Me strongly decreased the total amount of soluble sugars in tulip stems even in 1 day after application, being ca. 50% of initial values 5 days after application, but ethephon did not. However, both JA-Me and ethephon had almost no effect on the neutral sugar compositions of soluble sugars mainly consisting of glucose, mannose and xylose in ratio of 20:2:1 and traces of arabinose. Both JA-Me and ethephon applied exogenously stimulated senescence of tulip shoots shown by the loss of chlorophyll. These results strongly suggest that the essential factor of gummosis in tulips is jasmonates affecting the sugar metabolism in tulip shoots. The mode of action of jasmonates to induce gummosis of tulip shoots is discussed in relation to ethylene production, sugar metabolism and senescence.

  6. Overexpression of salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase reduces salicylic acid-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeon Jong; Kim, Myeong Ae; Kim, Eun Hye; Song, Jong Tae; Jung, Choonkyun; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Kim, Jeong-Han; Seo, Hak Soo; Song, Sang Ik; Kim, Ju-Kon; Lee, Jong Seob; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

    2007-05-01

    We cloned a salicylic acid/benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene, OsBSMT1, from Oryza sativa. A recombinant OsBSMT1 protein obtained by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli exhibited carboxyl methyltransferase activity in reactions with salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and de-S-methyl benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (dSM-BTH), producing methyl salicylate (MeSA), methyl benzoate (MeBA), and methyl dSM-BTH (MeBTH), respectively. Compared to wild-type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsBSMT1 accumulated considerably higher levels of MeSA and MeBA, some of which were vaporized into the environment. Upon infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae or the fungal pathogen Golovinomyces orontii, transgenic plants failed to accumulate SA and its glucoside (SAG), becoming more susceptible to disease than wild-type plants. OsBSMT1-overexpressing Arabidopsis showed little induction of PR-1 when treated with SA or G. orontii. Notably, incubation with the transgenic plant was sufficient to trigger PR-1 induction in neighboring wild-type plants. Together, our results indicate that in the absence of SA, MeSA alone cannot induce a defense response, yet it serves as an airborne signal for plant-to-plant communication. We also found that jasmonic acid (JA) induced AtBSMT1, which may contribute to an antagonistic effect on SA signaling pathways by depleting the SA pool in plants.

  7. Jasmonate signaling is activated in the very early stages of iron deficiency responses in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-07-01

    Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs.

  8. Reciprocal crosstalk between jasmonate and salicylate defence-signalling pathways modulates plant volatile emission and herbivore host-selection behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianing; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Gols, Rieta; Menzel, Tila R.; Li, Na; Kang, Le; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathways, which mediate induced plant defence responses, can express negative crosstalk. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of this crosstalk on host-plant selection behaviour of herbivores. We report on temporal and dosage effects of such crosstalk on host preference and oviposition-site selection behaviour of the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae towards Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants, including underlying mechanisms. Behavioural observations reveal a dynamic temporal response of mites to single or combined applications of JA and SA to the plant, including attraction and repellence, and an antagonistic interaction between SA- and JA-mediated plant responses. Dose-response experiments show that concentrations of 0.001mM and higher of one phytohormone can neutralize the repellent effect of a 1mM application of the other phytohormone on herbivore behaviour. Moreover, antagonism between the two signal-transduction pathways affects phytohormone-induced volatile emission. Our multidisciplinary study reveals the dynamic plant phenotype that is modulated by subtle changes in relative phytohormonal titres and consequences for the dynamic host-plant selection by an herbivore. The longer-term effects on plant–herbivore interactions deserve further investigation. PMID:24759882

  9. A mitogen-activated protein kinase NtMPK4 activated by SIPKK is required for jasmonic acid signaling and involved in ozone tolerance via stomatal movement in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Kenji; Ogawa, Daisuke; Katou, Shinpei; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Saji, Hikaru; Soyano, Takashi; Sasabe, Michiko; Machida, Yasunori; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Seo, Shigemi

    2005-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this study, we isolated a new MAPK, NtMPK4, which is a tobacco homolog of Arabidopsis MPK4 (AtMPK4). NtMPK4 was activated by wounding along with two other wound-responsive tobacco MAPKs, WIPK and SIPK. We found that NtMPK4 was activated by salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKK), which has been isolated as an SIPK-interacting MAPK kinase. In NtMPK4 activity-suppressed tobacco, wound-induced expression of jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes was inhibited. NtMPK4-silenced plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ozone. Inversely, transgenic tobacco plants, in which SIPKK or the constitutively active type SIPKK(EE) was overexpressed, exhibited greater responsiveness to wounding with enhanced resistance to ozone. We further found that NtMPK4 was expressed preferentially in epidermis, and the enhanced sensitivity to ozone in NtMPK4-silenced plants was caused by an abnormal regulation of stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that NtMPK4 is involved in JA signaling and in stomatal movement.

  10. Jasmonates: Emerging Players in Controlling Temperature Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manvi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    The sedentary life of plants has forced them to live in an environment that is characterized by the presence of numerous challenges in terms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Phytohormones play essential roles in mediating plant physiology and alleviating various environmental perturbations. Jasmonates are a group of oxylipin compounds occurring ubiquitously in the plant kingdom that play pivotal roles in response to developmental and environmental cues. Jasmonates (JAs) have been shown to participate in unison with key factors of other signal transduction pathway, including those involved in response to abiotic stress. Recent findings have furnished large body of information suggesting the role of jasmonates in cold and heat stress. JAs have been shown to regulate C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway during cold stress. The interaction between the integrants of JA signaling and components of CBF pathway demonstrates a complex relationship between the two. JAs have also been shown to counteract chilling stress by inducing ROS avoidance enzymes. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest the positive regulation of thermotolerance by JA. The present review provides insights into biosynthesis, signal transduction pathway of jasmonic acid and their role in response to temperature stress.

  11. Jasmonates: Emerging Players in Controlling Temperature Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manvi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2016-01-01

    The sedentary life of plants has forced them to live in an environment that is characterized by the presence of numerous challenges in terms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Phytohormones play essential roles in mediating plant physiology and alleviating various environmental perturbations. Jasmonates are a group of oxylipin compounds occurring ubiquitously in the plant kingdom that play pivotal roles in response to developmental and environmental cues. Jasmonates (JAs) have been shown to participate in unison with key factors of other signal transduction pathway, including those involved in response to abiotic stress. Recent findings have furnished large body of information suggesting the role of jasmonates in cold and heat stress. JAs have been shown to regulate C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway during cold stress. The interaction between the integrants of JA signaling and components of CBF pathway demonstrates a complex relationship between the two. JAs have also been shown to counteract chilling stress by inducing ROS avoidance enzymes. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest the positive regulation of thermotolerance by JA. The present review provides insights into biosynthesis, signal transduction pathway of jasmonic acid and their role in response to temperature stress. PMID:26779205

  12. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  13. Continuous exposure to the deterrents cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate does not alter the behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Barbara; Spangl, Bernhard; Koschier, Elisabeth Helene

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a generalist, cell sap-feeding insect species with piercing-sucking mouthparts, after continuous exposure to two deterrent secondary plant compounds are investigated. We compared in choice assays on bean leaf discs, the settling, feeding, and oviposition preferences of F. occidentalis females that had no experience with the two fatty acid derivatives methyl jasmonate and cis-jasmone before testing (naïve thrips) vs. females that had been exposed to the deterrent compounds before testing (experienced thrips). The thrips were exposed to the deterrents at low or high concentrations for varied time periods and subsequently tested on bean leaf discs treated with the respective deterrent at either a low or a high concentration. Frankliniella occidentalis females avoided settling on the deterrent-treated bean leaf discs for an observation period of 6 h, independent of their previous experience. Our results demonstrate that feeding and oviposition deterrence of the jasmonates to the thrips were not altered by continuous exposure of the thrips to the jasmonates. Habituation was not induced, neither by exposure to the low concentration of the deterrents nor by exposure to the high concentration. These results indicate that the risk of habituation to two volatile deterrent compounds after repeated exposure is not evident in F. occidentalis. This makes the two compounds potential candidates to be integrated in pest management strategies. PMID:26726263

  14. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P. fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent.

  15. Interference with jasmonic acid-regulated gene expression is a general property of viral suppressors of RNA silencing but only partly explains virus-induced changes in plant–aphid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Jack H.; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Murphy, Alex M.; Tungadi, Trisna; Bates, Anne; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) inhibits host responses to jasmonic acid (JA), a chemical signal regulating resistance to insects. Previous experiments with a CMV subgroup IA strain and its 2b gene deletion mutant suggested that VSRs might neutralize aphid (Myzus persicae) resistance by inhibiting JA-regulated gene expression. To further investigate this, we examined JA-regulated gene expression and aphid performance in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Potato virus X, Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus and a subgroup II CMV strain, as well as in transgenic plants expressing corresponding VSRs (p25, HC-Pro, 126 kDa and 2b). All the viruses or their VSRs inhibited JA-induced gene expression. However, this did not always correlate with enhanced aphid performance. Thus, VSRs are not the sole viral determinants of virus-induced changes in host–aphid interactions and interference with JA-regulated gene expression cannot completely explain enhanced aphid performance on virus-infected plants. PMID:24362960

  16. Global expression pattern comparison between low phosphorus insensitive 4 and WT Arabidopsis reveals an important role of reactive oxygen species and jasmonic acid in the root tip response to phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Chacón-López, Alejandra; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Plants are exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses. A common environmental stress that plants have to face both in natural and agricultural ecosystems that impacts both its growth and development is low phosphate (Pi) availability. There has been an important progress in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which plants cope with Pi deficiency. However, the mechanisms that mediate alterations in the architecture of the Arabidopsis root system responses to Pi starvation are still largely unknown. One of the most conspicuous developmental effects of low Pi on the Arabidopsis root system is the inhibition of primary root growth that is accompanied by loss of root meristematic activity. To identify signalling pathways potentially involved in the Arabidpsis root meristem response to Pi-deprivation, here we report the global gene expression analysis of the root tip of wild type and low phosphorus insensitive4 (lpi4) mutant grown under Pi limiting conditions. Differential gene expression analysis and physiological experiments show that changes in the redox status, probably mediated by jasmonic acid and ethylene, play an important role in the primary root meristem exhaustion process triggered by Pi-starvation.

  17. Phenotyping jasmonate regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Kellermeier, Fabian; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Root architecture is a complex and highly plastic feature of higher plants. Direct treatments with jasmonates and alterations in jasmonate signaling have been shown to elicit a range of root phenotypes. Here, we describe a fast, noninvasive, and semiautomatic method to monitor root architectural responses to environmental stimuli using plant tissue culture and the software tool EZ-RHIZO.

  18. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Water Stress in Strawberry.

    PubMed

    Wang

    1999-11-01

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on changes of oxygen-scavenging enzyme activities and membrane lipid composition was studied in strawberry leaves under water stress. Under water stress, MJ treatment reduced the increase of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; POD) activity, maintained higher catalase (EC 1.11.1.6; CAT) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) activities, and ascorbic acid content. In addition, MJ treatment reduced transpiration and membrane-lipid peroxidation as expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lessened the reduction of membrane lipids, glycolipids [monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG)], and phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI)]. In water-deficit conditions, MJ treatment also alleviated the decline in the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and the ratio of linolenic (18:3) to linoleic acid (18:2). These results indicate that MJ treatment appears to alter the metabolism of strawberry plants rendering the tissue better able to withstand water stress.

  19. Copper and herbivory lead to priming and synergism in phytohormones and plant volatiles in the absence of salicylate-jasmonate antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Rostás, Michael; Winter, Thorsten R.; Borkowski, Lena; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress factors can interfere with the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and thus disrupt chemical communication channels between plants and other organisms. We investigated whether copper (Cu) stress alone or in conjunction with insect damage modifies the kinetics of (1) VOCs, (2) the VOC-inducing phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and (3) its putative antagonist salicylic acid (SA). Hydroponically grown Zea mays exposed to 10 and 80 µM of Cu showed no increases in JA or VOC levels in the absence of herbivory. However when challenged by herbivores, Cu (80 µM) caused ROS generation in root tissues and primed for increased JA accumulation and VOC emission in leaves. SA synthesis was equally primed but higher concentrations were also apparent before insects started feeding. In contrast, plants grown at 10 µM Cu did not differ from controls. These results show that abiotic and biotic stresses result in concentration-dependent, non-additive defense responses. Further support is given to the notion that JA-SA antagonism is absent in Z. mays. PMID:23518582

  20. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunit16 positively regulates salicylate-mediated systemic acquired resistance and jasmonate/ethylene-induced defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chenggang; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Mou, Zhonglin

    2012-10-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long-lasting plant immunity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Biological induction of SAR requires the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA) and involves profound transcriptional changes that are largely controlled by the transcription coactivator nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1 (NPR1). However, it is unclear how SAR signals are transduced from the NPR1 signaling node to the general transcription machinery. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana Mediator subunit16 (MED16) is an essential positive regulator of SAR. Mutations in MED16 reduced NPR1 protein levels and completely compromised biological induction of SAR. These mutations also significantly suppressed SA-induced defense responses, altered the transcriptional changes induced by the avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000/avrRpt2, and rendered plants susceptible to both Pst DC3000/avrRpt2 and Pst DC3000. In addition, mutations in MED16 blocked the induction of several jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-responsive genes and compromised resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. The Mediator complex acts as a bridge between specific transcriptional activators and the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery; therefore, our data suggest that MED16 may be a signaling component in the gap between the NPR1 signaling node and the general transcription machinery and may relay signals from both the SA and the JA/ET pathways.

  1. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA.

  2. [Jasmonate biosynthesis--the latest discoveries].

    PubMed

    Wilmowicz, Emilia; Frankowski, Kamil; Sidłowska, Magdalena; Kućko, Agata; Kesy, Jacek; Gasiorowski, Adam; Glazińska, Paulina; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Jasmonates are plant hormones involved in many growth and development processes. They also participate in plant defense responses. Current progress in the study on biosynthesis and signaling of jasmonates has contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms regulating concentration of these hormones in the cell. Sustaining a proper level of jasmonates allow the plant to respond appropriately to changing conditions. It is possible due to the large number of enzymes and genes involved in biosynthesis of these hormones as well as multilevel control of their expression.

  3. Surfactant-modified fatty acid composition of Citrobacter sp. SA01 and its effect on phenanthrene transmembrane transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-07-01

    The effects of the surfactants, Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on a membrane's fatty acid composition and the transmembrane transport of phenanthrene were investigated. The results indicated that both surfactants could modify the composition of fatty acids of Citrobacter sp. Strain SA01 cells, 50 mg L(-1) of both surfactants changed the composition of the fatty acids the most, increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The comparison of fatty acid profiles with diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy, a probe for plasma membrane fluidity, suggested that an increased amount of unsaturated fatty acids corresponded to greater membrane fluidity. In addition, increased unsaturated fatty acids promoted phenanthrene to partition from the extracellular matrix to cell debris, which increased reverse partitioning from the cell debris to the cytochylema. The results of this study were expected in that the addition of a surfactant is a simple and effective method for accelerating the rate-limiting step of transmembrane transport of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in bioremediation.

  4. Wound and insect-induced jasmonate accumulation in carnivorous Drosera capensis: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Mithöfer, A; Reichelt, M; Nakamura, Y

    2014-09-01

    Carnivorous sundew plants catch and digest insect prey for their own nutrition. The sundew species Drosera capensis shows a pronounced leaf bending reaction upon prey capture in order to form an 'outer stomach'. This formation is triggered by jasmonates, phytohormones typically involved in defence reactions against herbivory and wounding. Whether jasmonates still have this function in D. capensis in addition to mediating the leaf bending reaction was investigated here. Wounded, insect prey-fed and insect-derived oral secretion-treated leaves of D. capensis were analysed for jasmonates (jasmonic acid, JA; jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate, JA-Ile) using LC-MS/MS. Prey-induced jasmonate accumulation in D. capensis leaves was persistent, and showed high levels of JA and JA-Ile (575 and 55.7 pmol · g · FW(-1) , respectively), whereas wounding induced a transient increase of JA (maximum 500 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and only low (3.1 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation of JA-Ile. Herbivory, mimicked with a combined treatment of wounding plus oral secretion (W+OS) obtained from Spodoptera littoralis larvae induced both JA (4000 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and JA-Ile (25 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation, with kinetics similar to prey treatment. Only prey and W+OS, but not wounding alone or OS, induced leaf bending. The results indicate that both mechanical and chemical stimuli trigger JA and JA-Ile synthesis. Differences in kinetics and induced jasmonate levels suggest different sensing and signalling events upon injury and insect-dependent challenge. Thus, in Drosera, jasmonates are still part of the response to wounding. Jasmonates are also employed in insect-induced reactions, including responses to herbivory and carnivory.

  5. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling. PMID:24898702

  6. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. PMID:26672068

  7. Abundance of cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is regulated by different stimuli from prey through jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Libiaková, Michaela; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs) result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl) and P(K) stimulation) on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl) stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) but jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed.

  8. Abundance of Cysteine Endopeptidase Dionain in Digestive Fluid of Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) Is Regulated by Different Stimuli from Prey through Jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    Libiaková, Michaela; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs) result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl) and P(K) stimulation) on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl) stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) but jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed. PMID:25153528

  9. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses.

  10. Synthesis and Functions of Jasmonates in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Eli J.; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated. In this work, the synthesis and function of JA in maize is presented from the perspective of oxylipin biology. The maize genes responsible for catalyzing the reactions in the JA biosynthesis are clarified and described. Recent studies into the function of JA in maize defense against insect herbivory, pathogens and its role in growth and development are highlighted. Additionally, a list of JA-responsive genes is presented for use as biological markers for improving future investigations into JA signaling in maize. PMID:27916835

  11. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  12. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  13. Differential impact of lipoxygenase 2 and jasmonates on natural and stress-induced senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Martin A; Stingl, Nadja E; Lautenschlaeger, Jens K; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Berger, Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Jasmonic acid and related oxylipins are controversially discussed to be involved in regulating the initiation and progression of leaf senescence. To this end, we analyzed profiles of free and esterified oxylipins during natural senescence and upon induction of senescence-like phenotypes by dark treatment and flotation on sorbitol in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Jasmonic acid and free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid increased during all three processes, with the strongest increase of jasmonic acid after dark treatment. Arabidopside content only increased considerably in response to sorbitol treatment. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and digalactosyldiacylglycerols decreased during these treatments and aging. Lipoxygenase 2-RNA interference (RNAi) plants were generated, which constitutively produce jasmonic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid but do not exhibit accumulation during natural senescence or upon stress treatment. Chlorophyll loss during aging and upon dark incubation was not altered, suggesting that these oxylipins are not involved in these processes. In contrast, lipoxygenase 2-RNAi lines and the allene oxid synthase-deficient mutant dde2 were less sensitive to sorbitol than the wild type, indicating that oxylipins contribute to the response to sorbitol stress.

  14. Jasmonates trigger prey-induced formation of 'outer stomach' in carnivorous sundew plants.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoko; Reichelt, Michael; Mayer, Veronika E; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-05-22

    It has been widely accepted that the growth-related phytohormone auxin is the endogenous signal that initiates bending movements of plant organs. In 1875, Charles Darwin described how the bending movement of leaves in carnivorous sundew species formed an 'outer stomach' that allowed the plants to enclose and digest captured insect prey. About 100 years later, auxin was suggested to be the factor responsible for this movement. We report that prey capture induces both leaf bending and the accumulation of defence-related jasmonate phytohormones. In Drosera capensis fed with fruitflies, within 3 h after prey capture and simultaneous with leaf movement, we detected an increase in jasmonic acid and its isoleucine conjugate. This accumulation was spatially restricted to the bending segment of the leaves. The application of jasmonates alone was sufficient to trigger leaf bending. Only living fruitflies or the body fluids of crushed fruitflies induced leaf curvature; neither dead flies nor mechanical treatment had any effect. Our findings strongly suggest that the formation of the 'outer stomach' in Drosera is a chemonastic movement that is triggered by accumulation of endogenous jasmonates. These results suggest that in carnivorous sundew plants the jasmonate cascade might have been adapted to facilitate carnivory rather than to defend against herbivores.

  15. Jasmonates trigger prey-induced formation of ‘outer stomach’ in carnivorous sundew plants

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoko; Reichelt, Michael; Mayer, Veronika E.; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the growth-related phytohormone auxin is the endogenous signal that initiates bending movements of plant organs. In 1875, Charles Darwin described how the bending movement of leaves in carnivorous sundew species formed an ‘outer stomach’ that allowed the plants to enclose and digest captured insect prey. About 100 years later, auxin was suggested to be the factor responsible for this movement. We report that prey capture induces both leaf bending and the accumulation of defence-related jasmonate phytohormones. In Drosera capensis fed with fruitflies, within 3 h after prey capture and simultaneous with leaf movement, we detected an increase in jasmonic acid and its isoleucine conjugate. This accumulation was spatially restricted to the bending segment of the leaves. The application of jasmonates alone was sufficient to trigger leaf bending. Only living fruitflies or the body fluids of crushed fruitflies induced leaf curvature; neither dead flies nor mechanical treatment had any effect. Our findings strongly suggest that the formation of the ‘outer stomach’ in Drosera is a chemonastic movement that is triggered by accumulation of endogenous jasmonates. These results suggest that in carnivorous sundew plants the jasmonate cascade might have been adapted to facilitate carnivory rather than to defend against herbivores. PMID:23516244

  16. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  17. Effect of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate pre-treatment on the volatile profile in tomato fruit subjected to chilling temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato fruits exposed to chilling temperatures suffer aroma loss prior to visual chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were reported to alleviate the development of visual CI, however, it is unknown if the treatments alleviate internal CI in t...

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r-induced systemic resistance in rice against Magnaporthe oryzae is based on pseudobactin-mediated priming for a salicylic acid-repressible multifaceted defense response.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Bakker, Peter A H M; Höfte, Monica

    2008-12-01

    Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can reduce disease in foliar tissues through the induction of a defense state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Compared with the large body of information on ISR in dicotyledonous plants, little is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in cereal crops. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r to trigger ISR in rice (Oryza sativa) against the leaf blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Using salicylic acid (SA)-nonaccumulating NahG rice, an ethylene-insensitive OsEIN2 antisense line, and the jasmonate-deficient mutant hebiba, we show that this WCS374r-induced resistance is regulated by an SA-independent but jasmonic acid/ethylene-modulated signal transduction pathway. Bacterial mutant analysis uncovered a pseudobactin-type siderophore as the crucial determinant responsible for ISR elicitation. Root application of WCS374r-derived pseudobactin (Psb374) primed naive leaves for accelerated expression of a pronounced multifaceted defense response, consisting of rapid recruitment of phenolic compounds at sites of pathogen entry, concerted expression of a diverse set of structural defenses, and a timely hyperinduction of hydrogen peroxide formation putatively driving cell wall fortification. Exogenous SA application alleviated this Psb374-modulated defense priming, while Psb374 pretreatment antagonized infection-induced transcription of SA-responsive PR genes, suggesting that the Psb374- and SA-modulated signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. Interestingly, in sharp contrast to WCS374r-mediated ISR, chemical induction of blast resistance by the SA analog benzothiadiazole was independent of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling and involved the potentiation of SA-responsive gene expression. Together, these results offer novel insights into the signaling circuitry governing induced resistance against M. oryzae and suggest that rice is endowed with multiple

  19. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus AR156 induces systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana by simultaneously activating salicylate- and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dong-Dong; Liu, Hong-Xia; Jiang, Chun-Hao; Wang, Yun-Peng; Wang, Qing-Ya; Jin, Hai-Ling; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens including Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This study analyzed AR156-induced systemic resistance (ISR) to DC3000 in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0 plants. Compared with mock-treated plants, AR156-treated ones showed an increase in biomass and reductions in disease severity and pathogen density in the leaves. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, PR5, and PDF1.2 were concurrently expressed in the leaves of AR156-treated plants, suggesting simultaneous activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and the jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent signaling pathways by AR156. The above gene expression was faster and stronger in plants treated with AR156 and inoculated with DC3000 than that in plants only inoculated with DC3000. Moreover, the cellular defense responses hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition were induced upon challenge inoculation in the leaves of Col-0 plants primed by AR156. Also, pretreatment with AR156 led to a higher level of induced protection against DC3000 in Col-0 than that in the transgenic NahG, the mutant jar1 or etr1, but the protection was absent in the mutant npr1. Therefore, AR156 triggers ISR in Arabidopsis by simultaneously activating the SA- and JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner that leads to an additive effect on the level of induced protection.

  20. Methyl jasmonate induction of tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots is mediated by JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN repressor proteins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Shengxiong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-02-15

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important plant hormone involved in regulation of many aspects of plant growth and development including secondary metabolism and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are key components in JA signal processes. In this study, two new JAZ genes named SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 were cloned from S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots and characterized. Expression profiles under methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment revealed that SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 were both MJ-responsive. Subcellular localization assay showed that SmJAZ3 was located in nucleus while SmJAZ9 was preferentially in nucleus. Expression of SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots differently affected the production of tanshinone. Over-expression of SmJAZ3 or SmJAZ9 in hairy roots produced lower level of tanshinone compared with the control, tanshinone production was as low as 0.077 mg/g DW in line SmJAZ3-3 and 0.266 mg/g DW in line SmJAZ9-22. Whereas, down-regulation of SmJAZs enhanced tanshione production, the content of tanshinone increased to 2.48 fold in anti-SmJAZ3-3 line, and 1.35-fold in anti-SmJAZ9-23 line. Our work indicated that SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 are involved in regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis and act as repressive transcriptional regulators in the JA signaling pathway, which paves the way to further dissect molecular mechanism in details in the future.

  1. Methyl jasmonate induction of tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots is mediated by JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN repressor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Shengxiong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important plant hormone involved in regulation of many aspects of plant growth and development including secondary metabolism and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are key components in JA signal processes. In this study, two new JAZ genes named SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 were cloned from S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots and characterized. Expression profiles under methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment revealed that SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 were both MJ-responsive. Subcellular localization assay showed that SmJAZ3 was located in nucleus while SmJAZ9 was preferentially in nucleus. Expression of SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots differently affected the production of tanshinone. Over-expression of SmJAZ3 or SmJAZ9 in hairy roots produced lower level of tanshinone compared with the control, tanshinone production was as low as 0.077 mg/g DW in line SmJAZ3-3 and 0.266 mg/g DW in line SmJAZ9-22. Whereas, down-regulation of SmJAZs enhanced tanshione production, the content of tanshinone increased to 2.48 fold in anti-SmJAZ3-3 line, and 1.35-fold in anti-SmJAZ9-23 line. Our work indicated that SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 are involved in regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis and act as repressive transcriptional regulators in the JA signaling pathway, which paves the way to further dissect molecular mechanism in details in the future. PMID:26875847

  2. The PP2C-type phosphatase AP2C1, which negatively regulates MPK4 and MPK6, modulates innate immunity, jasmonic acid, and ethylene levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Alois; Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Scheikl, Elisabeth; Teige, Markus; Doczi, Robert; Hirt, Heribert; Schwanninger, Manfred; Kant, Merijn; Schuurink, Robert; Mauch, Felix; Buchala, Antony; Cardinale, Francesca; Meskiene, Irute

    2007-07-01

    Wound signaling pathways in plants are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and stress hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transmission of wound signals by MAPKs has been the subject of detailed investigations; however, the involvement of specific phosphatases in wound signaling is not known. Here, we show that AP2C1, an Arabidopsis Ser/Thr phosphatase of type 2C, is a novel stress signal regulator that inactivates the stress-responsive MAPKs MPK4 and MPK6. Mutant ap2c1 plants produce significantly higher amounts of jasmonate upon wounding and are more resistant to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). Plants with increased AP2C1 levels display lower wound activation of MAPKs, reduced ethylene production, and compromised innate immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results demonstrate a key role for the AP2C1 phosphatase in regulating stress hormone levels, defense responses, and MAPK activities in Arabidopsis and provide evidence that the activity of AP2C1 might control the plant's response to B. cinerea.

  3. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect–plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents. PMID:25349401

  4. The Arabidopsis thaliana lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is required for full resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and affects jasmonate signalling.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudine; Gouget, Anne; Bouchez, Olivier; Souriac, Camille; Haget, Nathalie; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Govers, Francine; Roby, Dominique; Canut, Hervé

    2016-07-11

    On microbial attack, plants can detect invaders and activate plant innate immunity. For the detection of pathogen molecules or cell wall damage, plants employ receptors that trigger the activation of defence responses. Cell surface proteins that belong to large families of lectin receptor kinases are candidates to function as immune receptors. Here, the function of LecRK-I.9 (At5g60300), a legume-type lectin receptor kinase involved in cell wall-plasma membrane contacts and in extracellular ATP (eATP) perception, was studied through biochemical, gene expression and reverse genetics approaches. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LecRK-I.9 expression is rapidly, highly and locally induced on inoculation with avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Two allelic lecrk-I.9 knock-out mutants showed decreased resistance to Pst. Conversely, over-expression of LecRK-I.9 led to increased resistance to Pst. The analysis of defence gene expression suggests an alteration of both the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways. In particular, LecRK-I.9 expression during plant-pathogen interaction was dependent on COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1) and JAR1 (JASMONATE RESISTANT 1) components, and JA-responsive transcription factors (TFs) showed altered levels of expression in plants over-expressing LecRK-I.9. A similar misregulation of these TFs was obtained by JA treatment. This study identified LecRK-I.9 as necessary for full resistance to Pst and demonstrated its involvement in the control of defence against pathogens through a regulation of JA signalling components. The role of LecRK-I.9 is discussed with regard to the potential molecular mechanisms linking JA signalling to cell wall damage and/or eATP perception.

  5. Antagonism between salicylic and abscisic acid reflects early host-pathogen conflict and moulds plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Bennett, Mark H; Truman, William H; Grant, Murray R

    2009-08-01

    The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Recently it has been demonstrated that abscisic acid signalling pathways are utilized by the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae to promote pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the dynamics, inter-relationship and impact of three key acidic phytohormones, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, and the bacterial virulence factor, coronatine, during progression of P. syringae infection of Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that levels of SA and ABA, but not JA, appear to play important early roles in determining the outcome of the infection process. SA is required in order to mount a full innate immune responses, while bacterial effectors act rapidly to activate ABA biosynthesis. ABA suppresses inducible innate immune responses by down-regulating SA biosynthesis and SA-mediated defences. Mutant analyses indicated that endogenous ABA levels represent an important reservoir that is necessary for effector suppression of plant-inducible innate defence responses and SA synthesis prior to subsequent pathogen-induced increases in ABA. Enhanced susceptibility due to loss of SA-mediated basal resistance is epistatically dominant over acquired resistance due to ABA deficiency, although ABA also contributes to symptom development. We conclude that pathogen-modulated ABA signalling rapidly antagonizes SA-mediated defences. We predict that hormonal perturbations, either induced or as a result of environmental stress, have a marked impact on pathological outcomes, and we provide a mechanistic basis for understanding priming events in plant defence.

  6. Inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current (if) of rabbit SA node myocytes by niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Accili, E A; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-03-01

    The effects of the amphiphilic substance niflumic acid (NFA) were examined in myocytes isolated from the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. NFA (50 and 500 microM), for 30-60 s, produced a reversible negative chronotropic effect by reducing the rate of diastolic depolarization, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (if). NFA (from 0.05 to 500 microM) inhibited if by modifying the current kinetics, without alteration of the conductance. This was shown by evidence indicating that: (1) NFA inhibited if during hyperpolarizing pulses to the mid-point of if activation but not at fully activating voltages; (2) the slope and reversal potential of the fully activated current/voltage (I/V) relation were not altered by NFA, indicating no change in slope conductance or ion selectivity; and (3) hyperpolarizing ramp protocols confirmed the lack of action of 50 microM NFA on the fully activated current and a shift of approximately -8 mV. Although similar to inhibition by acetylcholine (ACh), inhibition by NFA was only partly additive with the action of ACh and was not altered by atropine or pertussis toxin, both of which eliminated the action of ACh. The effect of NFA was present after stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and after inhibition of phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In cell-attached patch measurements, NFA applied externally did not affect if measured in the patch. Finally, application of NFA to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches did not alter the current in the absence or presence of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). These results suggest an external, membrane-delimited action of NFA on if.

  7. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress.

  8. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  9. Verticillium dahliae’s Isochorismatase Hydrolase Is a Virulence Factor That Contributes to Interference With Potato’s Salicylate and Jasmonate Defense Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohan; Soliman, Atta; Islam, Md. R.; Adam, Lorne R.; Daayf, Fouad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to dissect the function of the Isochorismatase Hydrolase (ICSH1) gene in Verticillium dahliae’s pathogenesis on potato. VdICSH1 was up-regulated in V. dahliae after induction with extracts from potato tissues. Its expression increased more in response to root extracts than to leaf and stem extracts. However, such expression in response to root extracts was not significantly different in the highly and weakly aggressive isolates tested. During infection of detached potato leaves, VdICSH1 expression increased significantly in the highly aggressive isolate compared to the weakly aggressive one. We generated icsh1 mutants from a highly aggressive isolate of V. dahliae and compared their pathogenicity with that of the original wild type strain. The analysis showed that this gene is required for full virulence of V. dahliae on potatoes. When we previously found differential accumulation of ICSH1 protein in favor of the highly aggressive isolate, as opposed to the weakly aggressive one, we had hypothesized that ICSH would interfere with the host’s defense SA-based signaling. Here, we measured the accumulation of both salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in potato plants inoculated with an icsh1 mutant in comparison with the wild type strain. The higher accumulation of bound SA in the leaves in response to the icsh1 mutant compared to the wild type confirms the hypothesis that ICSH1 interferes with SA. However, the different trends in SA and JA accumulation in potato in the roots and in the stems at the early infection stages compared to the leaves at later stages indicate that they are both associated to potato defenses against V. dahliae. The expression of members of the isochorismatase family in the icsh1 mutants compensate that of ICSH1 transcripts, but this compensation disappears in presence of the potato leaf extracts. This study indicates ICSH1’s involvement in V. dahliae’s pathogenicity and provides more insight into its alteration

  10. Differential Impact of Lipoxygenase 2 and Jasmonates on Natural and Stress-Induced Senescence in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Martin A.; Stingl, Nadja E.; Lautenschlaeger, Jens K.; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J.; Berger, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and related oxylipins are controversially discussed to be involved in regulating the initiation and progression of leaf senescence. To this end, we analyzed profiles of free and esterified oxylipins during natural senescence and upon induction of senescence-like phenotypes by dark treatment and flotation on sorbitol in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Jasmonic acid and free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid increased during all three processes, with the strongest increase of jasmonic acid after dark treatment. Arabidopside content only increased considerably in response to sorbitol treatment. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and digalactosyldiacylglycerols decreased during these treatments and aging. Lipoxygenase 2-RNA interference (RNAi) plants were generated, which constitutively produce jasmonic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid but do not exhibit accumulation during natural senescence or upon stress treatment. Chlorophyll loss during aging and upon dark incubation was not altered, suggesting that these oxylipins are not involved in these processes. In contrast, lipoxygenase 2-RNAi lines and the allene oxid synthase-deficient mutant dde2 were less sensitive to sorbitol than the wild type, indicating that oxylipins contribute to the response to sorbitol stress. PMID:20190093

  11. How Microbes Twist Jasmonate Signaling around Their Little Fingers

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Chini, Andrea; Solano, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Plant immunity relies on a complex network of hormone signaling pathways in which jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role. Successful microbial pathogens or symbionts have developed strategies to manipulate plant hormone signaling pathways to cause hormonal imbalances for their own benefit. These strategies include the production of plant hormones, phytohormone mimics, or effector proteins that target host components to disrupt hormonal signaling pathways and enhance virulence. Here, we describe the molecular details of the most recent and best-characterized examples of specific JA hormonal manipulation by microbes, which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant’s hormone signaling network to suppress host immunity. PMID:27135229

  12. Exploring Jasmonates in the Hormonal Network of Drought and Salinity Responses

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Michael; Dhakarey, Rohit; Hazman, Mohamed; Miro, Berta; Kohli, Ajay; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Present and future food security is a critical issue compounded by the consequences of climate change on agriculture. Stress perception and signal transduction in plants causes changes in gene or protein expression which lead to metabolic and physiological responses. Phytohormones play a central role in the integration of different upstream signals into different adaptive outputs such as changes in the activity of ion-channels, protein modifications, protein degradation, and gene expression. Phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, and recently also phytohormone crosstalk have been investigated intensively, but the function of jasmonates under abiotic stress is still only partially understood. Although most aspects of jasmonate biosynthesis, crosstalk and signal transduction appear to be similar for biotic and abiotic stress, novel aspects have emerged that seem to be unique for the abiotic stress response. Here, we review the knowledge on the role of jasmonates under drought and salinity. The crosstalk of jasmonate biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways with those of abscisic acid (ABA) is particularly taken into account due to the well-established, central role of ABA under abiotic stress. Likewise, the accumulating evidence of crosstalk of jasmonate signaling with other phytohormones is considered as important element of an integrated phytohormonal response. Finally, protein post-translational modification, which can also occur without de novo transcription, is treated with respect to its implications for phytohormone biosynthesis, signaling and crosstalk. To breed climate-resilient crop varieties, integrated understanding of the molecular processes is required to modulate and tailor particular nodes of the network to positively affect stress tolerance. PMID:26648959

  13. Scorpion peptide LqhIT2 activates phenylpropanoid pathways via jasmonate to increase rice resistance to rice leafrollers.

    PubMed

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Li, Dong; Qiu, Ping; Luo, Jie; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2015-01-01

    LqhIT2 is an insect-specific toxin peptide identified in Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus that can be toxic to lepidoptera pests. However, whether LqhIT2 induces insect resistance in rice, and how the LqhIT2 influences the biochemical metabolism of rice plants remains unknown. Here, purified LqhIT2-GST fusion protein had toxicity to rice leafrollers. Meanwhile, in vitro and field trials showed that LqhIT2 transgenic rice plants were less damaged by rice leafrollers compared to the wild type plants. Introducing LqhIT2 primed the elevated expression of lipoxygenase, a key component of the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, together with enhanced linolenic acid, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid, and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, a key gene of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was up-regulated. Correspondingly, the contents of downstream products of the phenylpropanoid pathway such as flavonoids and lignins, were also increased in LqhIT2 transgenic plants. These changes were paralleled by decreased starch, glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate accumulation, the key metabolites of glycolysis pathway that supplies the raw material and intermediate carbon products for phenylpropanoids biosyntheses. These findings suggest that, in addition to its own toxicity against pests, LqhIT2 activate the phenylpropanoid pathway via jasmonate-mediated priming, which subsequently increases flavonoid and lignin content and improves insect resistance in rice.

  14. Necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Taha Abd El; Oirdi, Mohamed El; Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. The activation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathway. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. NPR1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of SA signaling. NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors, ultimately leading to the activation of SA-dependent responses. SA has been shown to promote disease development caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea through NPR1, by suppressing the expression of two JA-dependent defense genes, proteinase inhibitors I and II. We show here that the transcription factor TGA1.a contributes to disease development caused by B. cinerea in tomato by suppressing the expression of proteinase inhibitors I and II. Finally, we present evidence that the SA-signaling pathway contributes to disease development caused by another necrotrophic pathogen, Alternaria solani, in tomato. Disease development promoted by SA through NPR1 requires the TGA1.a transcription factor. These data highlight how necrotrophs manipulate the SAsignaling pathway to promote their disease in tomato.

  15. Effect of methyl jasmonate on sugarbeet yield and storage properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl jasmonate is an endogenous plant hormone that induces plant defense mechanisms against environmental stresses and pathogens. Applied exogenously, methyl jasmonate has been shown to provide protection against a wide array of pathogens and environmental stresses in a variety of crop plants and ...

  16. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  17. Silicon-mediated resistance of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew involves mechanisms other than the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence pathway.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Labbé, Caroline; Menzies, James G; Bélanger, Richard R

    2015-08-01

    On absorption by plants, silicon (Si) offers protection against many fungal pathogens, including powdery mildews. The mechanisms by which Si exerts its prophylactic role remain enigmatic, although a prevailing hypothesis suggests that Si positively influences priming. Attempts to decipher Si properties have been limited to plants able to absorb Si, which excludes the model plant Arabidopsis because it lacks Si influx transporters. In this work, we were able to engineer Arabidopsis plants with an Si transporter from wheat (TaLsi1) and to exploit mutants (pad4 and sid2) deficient in salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence responses to study their phenotypic response and changes in defence expression against Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) following Si treatment. Our results showed that TaLsi1 plants contained significantly more Si and were significantly more resistant to Gc infection than control plants when treated with Si, the first such demonstration in a plant transformed with a heterologous Si transporter. The resistant plants accumulated higher levels of SA and expressed higher levels of transcripts encoding defence genes, thus suggesting a role for Si in the process. However, TaLsi1 pad4 and TaLsi1 sid2 plants were also more resistant to Gc than were pad4 and sid2 plants following Si treatment. Analysis of the resistant phenotypes revealed a significantly reduced production of SA and expression of defence genes comparable with susceptible controls. These results indicate that Si contributes to Arabidopsis defence priming following pathogen infection, but highlight that Si will confer protection even when priming is altered. We conclude that Si-mediated protection involves mechanisms other than SA-dependent defence responses.

  18. Loss of Plastoglobule Kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 Causes Conditional Degreening, Modified Prenyl-Lipids, and Recruitment of the Jasmonic Acid Pathway[W

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Peter K.; Poliakov, Anton; Giacomelli, Lisa; Friso, Giulia; Appel, Mason; McQuinn, Ryan P.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rowland, Elden; Ponnala, Lalit; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the double mutant (k1 k3) displayed rapid chlorosis upon high light stress. Also, k1 k3 showed a slower, but irreversible, senescence-like phenotype during moderate light stress that was phenocopied by drought and nitrogen limitation, but not cold stress. This senescence-like phenotype involved degradation of the photosystem II core and upregulation of chlorophyll degradation. The senescence-like phenotype was independent of the EXECUTER pathway that mediates genetically controlled cell death from the chloroplast and correlated with increased levels of the singlet oxygen–derived carotenoid β-cyclocitral, a retrograde plastid signal. Total PG volume increased during light stress in wild type and k1 k3 plants, but with different size distributions. Isolated PGs from k1 k3 showed a modified prenyl-lipid composition, suggesting reduced activity of PG-localized tocopherol cyclase (VTE1), and was consistent with loss of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4. Plastid jasmonate biosynthesis enzymes were recruited to the k1 k3 PGs but not wild-type PGs, while pheophytinase, which is involved in chlorophyll degradation, was induced in k1 k3 and not wild-type plants and was localized to PGs. Thus, the ABC1K1/3 complex contributes to PG function in prenyl-lipid metabolism, stress response, and thylakoid remodeling. PMID:23673981

  19. Jasmonate signalling: a copycat of auxin signalling?

    PubMed

    Pérez, A Cuéllar; Goossens, A

    2013-12-01

    Plant hormones regulate almost all aspects of plant growth and development. The past decade has provided breakthrough discoveries in phytohormone sensing and signal transduction, and highlighted the striking mechanistic similarities between the auxin and jasmonate (JA) signalling pathways. Perception of auxin and JA involves the formation of co-receptor complexes in which hormone-specific E3-ubiquitin ligases of the SKP1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) type interact with specific repressor proteins. Across the plant kingdom, the Aux/IAA and the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins correspond to the auxin- and JA-specific repressors, respectively. In the absence of the hormones, these repressors form a complex with transcription factors (TFs) specific for both pathways. They also recruit several proteins, among which the general co-repressor TOPLESS, and thereby prevent the TFs from activating gene expression. The hormone-mediated interaction between the SCF and the repressors targets the latter for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation, which, in turn, releases the TFs to allow modulating hormone-dependent gene expression. In this review, we describe the similarities and differences in the auxin and JA signalling cascades with respect to the protein families and the protein domains involved in the formation of the pathway-specific complexes.

  20. Dynamics of Jasmonate Metabolism upon Flowering and across Leaf Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Laurence; Heitz, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays important roles in adaptation of plants to environmental cues and in specific steps of their development, particularly in reproduction. Recent advances in metabolic studies have highlighted intricate mechanisms that govern enzymatic conversions within the jasmonate family. Here we analyzed jasmonate profile changes upon Arabidopsis thaliana flower development and investigated the contribution of catabolic pathways that were known to turnover the active hormonal compound jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) upon leaf stress. We report a rapid decline of JA-Ile upon flower opening, concomitant with the massive accumulation of its most oxidized catabolite, 12COOH-JA-Ile. Detailed genetic analysis identified CYP94C1 as the major player in this process. CYP94C1 is one out of three characterized cytochrome P450 enzymes that define an oxidative JA-Ile turnover pathway, besides a second, hydrolytic pathway represented by the amido-hydrolases IAR3 and ILL6. Expression studies combined with reporter gene analysis revealed the dominant expression of CYP94C1 in mature anthers, consistent with the established role of JA signaling in male fertility. Significant CYP94B1 expression was also evidenced in stamen filaments, but surprisingly, CYP94B1 deficiency was not associated with significant changes in JA profiles. Finally, we compared global flower JA profiles with those previously reported in leaves reacting to mechanical wounding or submitted to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. These comparisons revealed distinct dynamics of JA accumulation and conversions in these three biological systems. Leaf injury boosts a strong and transient JA and JA-Ile accumulation that evolves rapidly into a profile dominated by ω-oxidized and/or Ile-conjugated derivatives. In contrast, B. cinerea-infected leaves contain mostly unconjugated jasmonates, about half of this content being ω-oxidized. Finally, developing flowers present an

  1. Hydrolysis of substance P in the presence of the osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2: release of free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Marini, Mario; Roda, L Giorgio; Tarantino, Umberto; Valenti, Angela

    2011-12-01

    The possible hydrolysis of substance P (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met) in presence of the osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2 was measured by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass detection. The results obtained indicate that a very rapid disappearance of the intact undecapeptide was associated to a slower appearance of seven of its eight component amino acids. These results can be interpreted as indicating that an extremely fast hydrolysis of substance P by endopeptidases, which released peptidic by-products, was followed by a noticeably slower secondary degradation which released free amino acids. In decreasing quantitative importance, these phenomena appear to originate by the hydrolysis of the Pro(4)-Gln(5) bond, followed by C-terminal sequential degradation of the Arg(1)-Pro(4) tetrapeptide; by the hydrolysis of or Phe(7)-Phe(8) bond (or, possibly, of Gln(6)-Phe(7)) leading to release of free Phe and Gln; by hydrolysis of the Gly(9)-Leu(10) bond with subsequent release of Met and Leu. Results obtained appear to be compatible with the expression by SaOS-2 cells of enzymes already known to catalyze substance P hydrolysis, together with an apparent low efficiency of aminopeptidases. Because of the activity of C-terminal fragments on NK1 receptors, the delay between primary hydrolysis of substance P and secondary hydrolysis of its peptidic fragments indicated by the data shown implies a possible persistence of substance P physiological effects even after degradation of the intact peptide.

  2. [Salt Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Defective Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupayev, Yu E; Shvidenko, A A; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant enzymes in four-week-old leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Columbia-0) and jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) mutant plants with defective jasmonate signaling were investigated under normal conditions and under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, 24 h). The wild-type plants responded to JA by an increase in the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase, while there was no change in the case of the mutant plants. In response to the salt stress of both the wild-type and mutant genotypes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were unchanged, decreased, and increased, respectively. The JA-treated wild type plants showed the highest activity of all three enzymes as compared with the mutant plants. Salinity caused a decrease in chlorophyll content in the wild-type and jin 1 plants. Preliminary JA treatment of the Col-0 plants resulted in a normal content of photosynthetic pigments after the salt stress, while the positive JA effect was insignificant in the jin 1 mutants. It was concluded that the MYC2/JIN 1 protein is involved in the JA signal transduction and plant adaptation to salt stress.

  3. The salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyeob; Hong, Jong-Chan; Jeon, Woong Bae; Chung, Young-Soo; Sung, Soonkee; Choi, Doil; Joung, Young Hee; Oh, Boung-Jun

    2009-10-01

    The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. Here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance (LAR) by salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (JA) does not. The SA-mediated LAR in the unripe fruit inhibited the fungal appressoria, resulting in protection against fungal infection. Microarray analysis revealed that 177 of 7,900 cDNA clones showed more than fourfold transcriptional accumulation in SA-treated unripe fruit. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that most of the SA-responsive genes (SRGs) were regulated by SA, but not by JA or ethylene-releasing ethephon. Furthermore, most of the SRGs were preferentially expressed in the ripe fruit. These results suggest that the SA-mediated transcriptional regulation of SRGs has a critical role in the resistance of ripe pepper fruit to fungal infection.

  4. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants.

  5. Induced jasmonate signaling leads to contrasting effects on root damage and herbivore performance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Riemann, Michael; Cosme, Marco; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Massana, Josep; Stout, Michael Joseph; Lou, Yonggen; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Induced defenses play a key role in plant resistance against leaf feeders. However, very little is known about the signals that are involved in defending plants against root feeders and how they are influenced by abiotic factors. We investigated these aspects for the interaction between rice (Oryza sativa) and two root-feeding insects: the generalist cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata) and the more specialized rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus). Rice plants responded to root attack by increasing the production of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid, whereas in contrast to in herbivore-attacked leaves, salicylic acid and ethylene levels remained unchanged. The JA response was decoupled from flooding and remained constant over different soil moisture levels. Exogenous application of methyl JA to the roots markedly decreased the performance of both root herbivores, whereas abscisic acid and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid did not have any effect. JA-deficient antisense 13-lipoxygenase (asLOX) and mutant allene oxide cyclase hebiba plants lost more root biomass under attack from both root herbivores. Surprisingly, herbivore weight gain was decreased markedly in asLOX but not hebiba mutant plants, despite the higher root biomass removal. This effect was correlated with a herbivore-induced reduction of sucrose pools in asLOX roots. Taken together, our experiments show that jasmonates are induced signals that protect rice roots from herbivores under varying abiotic conditions and that boosting jasmonate responses can strongly enhance rice resistance against root pests. Furthermore, we show that a rice 13-lipoxygenase regulates root primary metabolites and specifically improves root herbivore growth.

  6. Induced Jasmonate Signaling Leads to Contrasting Effects on Root Damage and Herbivore Performance1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Riemann, Michael; Cosme, Marco; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Massana, Josep; Stout, Michael Joseph; Lou, Yonggen; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Induced defenses play a key role in plant resistance against leaf feeders. However, very little is known about the signals that are involved in defending plants against root feeders and how they are influenced by abiotic factors. We investigated these aspects for the interaction between rice (Oryza sativa) and two root-feeding insects: the generalist cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata) and the more specialized rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus). Rice plants responded to root attack by increasing the production of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid, whereas in contrast to in herbivore-attacked leaves, salicylic acid and ethylene levels remained unchanged. The JA response was decoupled from flooding and remained constant over different soil moisture levels. Exogenous application of methyl JA to the roots markedly decreased the performance of both root herbivores, whereas abscisic acid and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid did not have any effect. JA-deficient antisense 13-lipoxygenase (asLOX) and mutant allene oxide cyclase hebiba plants lost more root biomass under attack from both root herbivores. Surprisingly, herbivore weight gain was decreased markedly in asLOX but not hebiba mutant plants, despite the higher root biomass removal. This effect was correlated with a herbivore-induced reduction of sucrose pools in asLOX roots. Taken together, our experiments show that jasmonates are induced signals that protect rice roots from herbivores under varying abiotic conditions and that boosting jasmonate responses can strongly enhance rice resistance against root pests. Furthermore, we show that a rice 13-lipoxygenase regulates root primary metabolites and specifically improves root herbivore growth. PMID:25627217

  7. Autophagy negatively regulates cell death by controlling NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling during senescence and the innate immune response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kohki; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Kusano, Miyako; Consonni, Chiara; Panstruga, Ralph; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Shirasu, Ken

    2009-09-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process for vacuolar degradation of cytoplasmic components. In higher plants, autophagy defects result in early senescence and excessive immunity-related programmed cell death (PCD) irrespective of nutrient conditions; however, the mechanisms by which cells die in the absence of autophagy have been unclear. Here, we demonstrate a conserved requirement for salicylic acid (SA) signaling for these phenomena in autophagy-defective mutants (atg mutants). The atg mutant phenotypes of accelerated PCD in senescence and immunity are SA signaling dependent but do not require intact jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling pathways. Application of an SA agonist induces the senescence/cell death phenotype in SA-deficient atg mutants but not in atg npr1 plants, suggesting that the cell death phenotypes in the atg mutants are dependent on the SA signal transducer NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1. We also show that autophagy is induced by the SA agonist. These findings imply that plant autophagy operates a novel negative feedback loop modulating SA signaling to negatively regulate senescence and immunity-related PCD.

  8. Salicylic acid is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but not for basal defense to this insect pest.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, C I; López-Climent, M F; Gómez-Cadenas, A; Kaloshian, I; Nombela, G

    2015-10-01

    Plant defense to pests or pathogens involves global changes in gene expression mediated by multiple signaling pathways. A role for the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to aphids was previously identified and its implication in the resistance to root-knot nematodes is controversial, but the importance of SA in basal and Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci had not been determined. SA levels were measured before and after B. tabaci infestation in susceptible and resistant Mi-1-containing tomatoes, and in plants with the NahG bacterial transgene. Tomato plants of the same genotypes were also screened with B. tabaci (MEAM1 and MED species, before known as B and Q biotypes, respectively). The SA content in all tomato genotypes transiently increased after infestation with B. tabaci albeit at variable levels. Whitefly fecundity or infestation rates on susceptible Moneymaker were not significantly affected by the expression of NahG gene, but the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci was lost in VFN NahG plants. Results indicated that whiteflies induce both SA and jasmonic acid accumulation in tomato. However, SA has no role in basal defense of tomato against B. tabaci. In contrast, SA is an important component of the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci in tomato.

  9. Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E

    2012-07-01

    Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides.

  10. Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Juan M; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Glas, Joris J; Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Villarroel, Carlos A; Schuurink, Robert C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Kant, Merijn R

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory by mounting a defense. Some plant-eating spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) have adapted to plant defenses to maintain a high reproductive performance. From natural populations we selected three spider mite strains from two species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, that can suppress plant defenses, using a fourth defense-inducing strain as a benchmark, to assess to which extent these strains suppress defenses differently. We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors. The nonsuppressor strain induced a mixture of jasmonate- (JA) and salicylate (SA)-dependent defenses. Induced defense genes separated into three groups: ‘early’ (expression peak at 1 d postinfestation (dpi)); ‘intermediate’ (4 dpi); and ‘late’, whose expression increased until the leaf died. The T. evansi strains suppressed genes from all three groups, but the T. urticae strain only suppressed the late ones. Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA–SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%. Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor. PMID:25297722

  11. Suppression of Fe deficiency gene expression by jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Felix; Müller, Sabine; Bauer, Petra

    2011-05-01

    Fe deficiency genes are regulated in response to external supply of Fe as well as internal plant signals. Internal plant signals include plant hormones and systemic signals which coordinate shoot physiological requirements for Fe with local availability of Fe in roots. Induction of IRT1 and FRO2 gene expression can be used to monitor the Fe deficiency status of plant roots. Here, we investigated the role of jasmonate in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses and in the split root system. We found that jasmonate suppressed expression levels of IRT1 and FRO2 but not their inducibility in response to Fe deficiency. Analysis of the jasmonate-resistant mutant jar1-1 and pharmacological application of the lipoxygenase inhibitor ibuprofene supported an inhibitory effect of this plant hormone. Inhibition of IRT1 and FRO2 gene expression by jasmonate did not require the functional regulator FIT. By performing split root analyses we found that systemic down-regulation of Fe deficiency responses by Fe sufficiency of the shoot was not compromised by ibuprofene and in the jasmonate-insensitive mutant coi1-1. Therefore, we conclude that jasmonate acts as an inhibitor in fine-tuning Fe deficiency responses but that it is not involved in the systemic down-regulation of Fe deficiency responses in the root.

  12. Genetic architecture of plastic methyl jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Figuth, Antje; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a single genotype to generate different phenotypes in disparate environments is termed phenotypic plasticity, which reflects the interaction of genotype and environment on developmental processes. However, there is controversy over the definition of plasticity genes. The gene regulation model states that plasticity loci influence trait changes between environments without altering the means within a given environment. Alternatively, the allelic sensitivity model argues that plasticity evolves due to selection of phenotypic values expressed within particular environments; hence plasticity must be controlled by loci expressed within these environments. To identify genetic loci controlling phenotypic plasticity and address this controversy, we analyzed the plasticity of glucosinolate accumulation under methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found genetic variation influencing multiple MeJa signal transduction pathways. Analysis of MeJa responses in the Landsberg erecta x Columbia recombinant inbred lines identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate plastic MeJa responses. All significant plasticity QTL also impacted the mean trait value in at least one of the two "control" or "MeJa" environments, supporting the allelic sensitivity model. Additionally, we present an analysis of MeJa and salicylic acid cross-talk in glucosinolate regulation and describe the implications for glucosinolate physiology and functional understanding of Arabidopsis MeJa signal transduction. PMID:12196411

  13. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis.

  14. Upregulation of jasmonate biosynthesis and jasmonate-responsive genes in rice leaves in response to a bacterial pathogen mimic.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Ashish; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Pandey, Alok; Palaparthi, Ramesh; Mithöfer, Axel; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2015-05-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice, secretes several cell wall degrading enzymes including cellulase (ClsA) and lipase/esterase (LipA). Prior treatment of rice leaves with purified cell wall degrading enzymes such as LipA can confer enhanced resistance against subsequent X. oryzae pv. oryzae infection. To understand LipA-induced rice defense responses, microarray analysis was performed 12 h after enzyme treatment of rice leaves. This reveals that 867 (720 upregulated and 147 downregulated) genes are differentially regulated (≥2-fold). A number of genes involved in defense, stress, signal transduction, and catabolic processes were upregulated while a number of genes involved in photosynthesis and anabolic processes were downregulated. The microarray data also suggested upregulation of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic and JA-responsive genes. Estimation of various phytohormones in LipA-treated rice leaves demonstrated a significant increase in the level of JA-Ile (a known active form of JA) while the levels of other phytohormones were not changed significantly with respect to buffer-treated control. This suggests a role for JA-Ile in cell wall damage induced innate immunity. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of ClsA- and LipA-induced rice genes has identified key rice functions that might be involved in elaboration of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)-induced innate immunity.

  15. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions.

  16. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID

  17. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T; Barrero, Jose M; Jacobsen, John V; Hocart, Charles H; Gubler, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 (o)C. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2.

  18. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T.; Barrero, Jose M.; Jacobsen, John V.; Hocart, Charles H.; Gubler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 oC. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  19. Methyl jasmonate binds to and detaches mitochondria-bound hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Goldin, N; Arzoine, L; Heyfets, A; Israelson, A; Zaslavsky, Z; Bravman, T; Bronner, V; Notcovich, A; Shoshan-Barmatz, V; Flescher, E

    2008-08-07

    Cellular bio-energetic metabolism and mitochondria are recognized as potential targets for anticancer agents, due to the numerous relevant peculiarities cancer cells exhibit. Jasmonates are anticancer agents that interact directly with mitochondria. The aim of this study was to identify mitochondrial molecular targets of jasmonates. We report that jasmonates bind to hexokinase and detach it from the mitochondria and its mitochondrial anchor-the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), as judged by hexokinase immunochemical and activity determinations, surface plasmon resonance analysis and planar lipid bilayer VDAC-activity analysis. Furthermore, the susceptibility of cancer cells and mitochondria to jasmonates is dependent on the expression of hexokinase, evaluated using hexokinase-overexpressing transfectants and its mitochondrial association. Many types of cancer cells exhibit overexpression of the key glycolytic enzyme, hexokinase, and its excessive binding to mitochondria. These characteristics are considered to play a pivotal role in cancer cell growth rate and survival. Thus, our findings provide an explanation for the selective effects of jasmonates on cancer cells. Most importantly, this is the first demonstration of a cytotoxic mechanism based on direct interaction between an anticancer agent and hexokinase. The proposed mechanism can serve to guide development of a new selective approach for cancer therapy.

  20. Genome-wide identification of jasmonate biosynthetic genes and their characterization of their expression profiles during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormones regulate many physiological processes including apple fruit ripening by integrating diverse developmental cues and environmental signals. In addition to the well-characterized role of ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives have also been suggested to play an important ro...

  1. DL-beta-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance of potato against Phytophthora infestans requires salicylic acid but not oxylipins.

    PubMed

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Rosahl, Sabine

    2010-05-01

    Inducing systemic resistance responses in crop plants is a promising alternative way of disease management. To understand the underlying signaling events leading to induced resistance, functional analyses of plants defective in defined signaling pathway steps are required. We used potato, one of the economically most-important crop plants worldwide, to examine systemic resistance against the devastating late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, induced by treatment with dl-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Transgenic plants impaired in either the 9-lipoxygenase pathway, which produces defense-related compounds, or the 13-lipoxygenase pathway, which generates jasmonic acid-derived signals, expressed wild-type levels of BABA-induced resistance. Plants incapable of accumulating salicylic acid (SA), on the other hand, failed to mount this type of induced resistance. Consistently, treatment of these plants with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid restored BABA-induced resistance. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of a functional SA pathway for systemic resistance in potato induced by BABA.

  2. Evidences for structural basis of altered ascorbate peroxidase activity in cadmium-stressed rice plants exposed to jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Indra; Shah, Kavita

    2014-04-01

    Binding interactions of cadmium (Cd) with rice ascorbate peroxidase (OsAPX) in presence or absence of jasmonate was examined in-silico. OsAPX is a 250 amino acid long protein with 90 % sequence similarity to soybean-APX. The 3D model of OsAPX obtained by homology modeling using soybean APX (PDBID:1OAF) as template was associated with -15975.85 kJ/mol energy, 100 % residues in favoured region, verify score of 0.85, ERRAT score 89.625 and a negative ProSA graph, suggesting OsAPX model to be of good quality, robust and reliable which was submitted with Protein Model Database with PMDBID: PM0078091. The rice ascorbate peroxidase ascorbate [OsAPX-Asc] complex had a substrate binding cavity involving residues at position (30)KSCAPL(35), (167)RCH(169) and (172)R wherein ascorbate accommodated via three H-bonds involving (30)Lys at the γ-edge of heme. (169)His served as a bridge between heme-porphyrin of OsAPX and ascorbate creating a charge relay system. Cd bound in [OsAPX-Asc-Cd] complex at (29)EKSCAPL(35), a site similar to ascorbate binding site. The binding of Cd caused breaking of (169)His bridge shifting the protein conformation. Cadmium exhibited four electrostatic interactions via (29)Glu of OsAPX backbone. Docking of [OsAPX-Asc] with jasmonic acid (JA) resulted in [OsAPX-Asc-JA] complex where 4-H-bonds held JA to OsAPX in a cavity at γ-edge on the distal side of heme. The binding of [OsAPX-Asc-JA] to Cd show the metal to bind at a position other than that involved in binding of OsAPX with Cd alone. Results indicate that Cd does not replace iron or ascorbate or JA but binds to OsAPX on the surface at a separate site electrostatically. In presence of JA the interactions involved in formation of [OsAPXAsc] are restored which is otherwise altered by the presence of Cd. The formation and reformation of H-bond take place between the [OsAPX-Asc] and Cd/JA. It is the interaction between heme and ascorbate which is modulated differently in presence of Cd/JA. In absence

  3. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Schikora, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA). SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant–microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant protection. PMID

  4. Haemoglobin modulates salicylate and jasmonate/ethylene-mediated resistance mechanisms against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in defence against hemibiotrophic pathogens mediated by salicylate (SA) and also necrotrophic pathogens influenced by jasmonate/ethylene (JA/Et). This study examined how NO-oxidizing haemoglobins (Hb) encoded by GLB1, GLB2, and GLB3 in Arabidopsis could influence both defence pathways. The impact of Hb on responses to the hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) AvrRpm1 and the necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea were investigated using glb1, glb2, and glb3 mutant lines and also CaMV 35S GLB1 and GLB2 overexpression lines. In glb1, but not glb2 and glb3, increased resistance was observed to both pathogens but was compromised in the 35S-GLB1. A quantum cascade laser-based sensor measured elevated NO production in glb1 infected with Pst AvrRpm1 and B. cinerea, which was reduced in 35S-GLB1 compared to Col-0. SA accumulation was increased in glb1 and reduced in 35S-GLB1 compared to controls following attack by Pst AvrRpm1. Similarly, JA and Et levels were increased in glb1 but decreased in 35S-GLB1 in response to attack by B. cinerea. Quantitative PCR assays indicated reduced GLB1 expression during challenge with either pathogen, thus this may elevate NO concentration and promote a wide-ranging defence against pathogens. PMID:22641422

  5. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  6. Methyl jasmonate inhibition of root growth and induction of a leaf protein are decreased in an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Staswick, P E; Su, W; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in different plant organs. Images PMID:11607311

  7. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  8. Ehancing disease resistance in peach fruit with methyl jasmonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on postharvest diseases caused by P. expansum, B. cinerea and R. stolonifer in peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch cv Dahebai) and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. Peaches were harvested at the firm-mature stage and treated with 1 or 500 µmol/L...

  9. 11C-imaging: methyl jasmonate moves in both phloem and xylem, promotes transport of jasmonate, and of photoassimilate even after proton transport is decoupled.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Michael R; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Herth, Matthias M; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2007-07-01

    The long-distance transport and actions of the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were investigated by using the short-lived positron-emitting isotope 11C to label both MeJA and photoassimilate, and compare their transport properties in the same tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). There was strong evidence that MeJA moves in both phloem and xylem pathways, because MeJA was exported from the labeled region of a mature leaf in the direction of phloem flow, but it also moved into other parts of the same leaf and other mature leaves against the direction of phloem flow. This suggests that MeJA enters the phloem and moves in sieve tube sap along with photoassimilate, but that vigorous exchange between phloem and xylem allows movement in xylem to regions which are sources of photoassimilate. This exchange may be enhanced by the volatility of MeJA, which moved readily between non-orthostichous vascular pathways, unlike reports for jasmonic acid (which is not volatile). The phloem loading of MeJA was found to be inhibited by parachloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) (a thiol reagent known to inhibit membrane transporters), and by protonophores carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) suggesting proton co-transport. MeJA was found to promote both its own transport and that of recent photoassimilate within 60 min. Furthermore, we found that MeJA can counter the inhibitory effect of the uncoupling agent, CCCP, on sugar transport, suggesting that MeJA affects the plasma membrane proton gradient. We also found that MeJA's action may extend to the sucrose transporter, since MeJA countered the inhibitory effects of the sulfhydryl reagent, PCMBS, on the transport of photoassimilate.

  10. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C.R.K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1–100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H2O2, HO· and O2·−) (P < 0.05) causing considerable oxidative stress in G. dura. This further led to lipid peroxidation and degradation of the pigments Chl a and phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress. PMID:26276825

  11. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-10-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1-100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H(2)O(2), HO· and O(2) (·-)) (P < 0.05) causing considerable oxidative stress in G. dura. This further led to lipid peroxidation and degradation of the pigments Chl a and phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress.

  12. A fungal endophyte helps plants to tolerate root herbivory through changes in gibberellin and jasmonate signaling.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Lu, Jing; Erb, Matthias; Stout, Michael Joseph; Franken, Philipp; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Plant-microbe mutualisms can improve plant defense, but the impact of root endophytes on below-ground herbivore interactions remains unknown. We investigated the effects of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) plants and its root herbivore rice water weevil (RWW; Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), and how plant jasmonic acid (JA) and GA regulate this tripartite interaction. Glasshouse experiments with wild-type rice and coi1-18 and Eui1-OX mutants combined with nutrient, jasmonate and gene expression analyses were used to test: whether RWW adult herbivory above ground influences subsequent damage caused by larval herbivory below ground; whether P. indica protects plants against RWW; and whether GA and JA signaling mediate these interactions. The endophyte induced plant tolerance to root herbivory. RWW adults and larvae acted synergistically via JA signaling to reduce root growth, while endophyte-elicited GA biosynthesis suppressed the herbivore-induced JA in roots and recovered plant growth. Our study shows for the first time the impact of a root endophyte on plant defense against below-ground herbivores, adds to growing evidence that induced tolerance may be an important root defense, and implicates GA as a signal component of inducible plant tolerance against biotic stress.

  13. Jasmonate signaling in the field, part I: elicited changes in jasmonate pools of transgenic Nicotiana attenuata populations.

    PubMed

    Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Stitz, Michael; Kallenbach, Mario; Baldwin, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata, a wild tobacco species native of the southwestern USA that grows in the immediate postfire environment, is one of the important host plants for herbivore populations recolonizing recently burned habitats in the Great Basin Desert. Based on more than 20 years of field research on this eco-genomics model system established in our group, we have developed a genetic and analytical toolbox that allows us to assess the importance of particular genes and metabolites for the survival of this plant in its native habitat. This toolbox has been extensively applied to study the activation of jasmonate signaling after the attack of different herbivore species. Here, we provide detailed guidelines for the analysis, under field conditions, of induced changes in jasmonate pools during insect herbivory. The procedures range from selection and field release of well-characterized transgenic lines for testing the physiological consequences of manipulating jasmonate biogenesis, metabolism, or perception to the metabolic elicitation of chewing herbivore attack and the quantification of the resulting changes in jasmonate fluxes.

  14. Transporter-Mediated Nuclear Entry of Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine Is Essential for Jasmonate Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingqing; Zheng, Jian; Li, Shuaizhang; Huang, Guanrong; Skilling, Stephen J; Wang, Lijian; Li, Ling; Li, Mengya; Yuan, Lixing; Liu, Pei

    2017-02-05

    To control gene expression by directly responding to hormone concentrations, both animal and plant cells have exploited comparable mechanisms to sense small-molecule hormones in nucleus. Whether nuclear entry of these hormones is actively transported or passively diffused, as conventionally postulated, through the nuclear pore complex, remains enigmatic. Here, we identified and characterized a jasmonate transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtJAT1/AtABCG16, which exhibits an unexpected dual localization at the nuclear envelope and plasma membrane. We show that AtJAT1/AtABCG16 controls the cytoplasmic and nuclear partition of jasmonate phytohormones by mediating both cellular efflux of jasmonic acid (JA) and nuclear influx of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), and is essential for maintaining a critical nuclear JA-Ile concentration to activate JA signaling. These results illustrate that transporter-mediated nuclear entry of small hormone molecules is a new mechanism to regulate nuclear hormone signaling. Our findings provide an avenue to develop pharmaceutical agents targeting the nuclear entry of small molecules.

  15. Fruits from ripening impaired, chlorophyll degraded and jasmonate insensitive tomato mutants have altered tocopherol content and composition.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Juliana; Asís, Ramón; Molineri, Virginia Noel; Sestari, Ivan; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Carrari, Fernando; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Rossi, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Since isoprenoids are precursors in chlorophyll, carotenoid and tocopherol pathways, the study of their metabolism is of fundamental importance in understanding the regulatory cross-talk that contributes to the nutritional quality of tomato fruits. By means of an integrated analysis of metabolite and gene expression profiles, isoprenoid metabolism was dissected in ripening-impaired (ripening inhibitor and non-ripening), senescence-related (lutescent1 and green flesh) and jasmonate insensitive (jasmonic acid insensitive 1-1) tomato mutants, all in the Micro-Tom genetic background. It was found that the more upstream the location of the mutated gene, the more extensive the effect on the transcriptional profiles of the isoprenoid-related genes. Although there was a distinct effect in the analyzed mutations on chlorophyll, carotenoid and tocopherol metabolism, a metabolic adjustment was apparent such the antioxidant capacity mostly remained constant. Transcriptional profiles from fruits of ripening and senescence-related tomato mutants suggested that maintenance of the de novo phytyl diphosphate synthesis might, in later ripening stages, compensate for the lack of chlorophyll-derived phytol used in tocopherol production. Interestingly, an impairment in jasmonate perception led to higher total tocopherol levels in ripe fruits, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant capacity, highlighting the contribution of tocopherols to this nutritionally important trait.

  16. Proline induces calcium-mediated oxidative burst and salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiugeng; Zhang, Yueqin; Wang, Cuiping; Lü, Weitao; Jin, Jing Bo; Hua, Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Although free proline accumulation is a well-documented phenomenon in many plants in response to a variety of environmental stresses, and is proposed to play protective roles, high intracellular proline content, by either exogenous application or endogenous over-production, in the absence of stresses, is found to be inhibitory to plant growth. We have shown here that exogenous application of proline significantly induced intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation in tobacco and calcium-dependent ROS production in Arabidopsis seedlings, which subsequently enhanced salicylic acid (SA) synthesis and PR genes expression. This suggested that proline can promote a reaction similar to hypersensitive response during pathogen infection. Other amino acids, such as glutamate, but not arginine and phenylalanine, were also found to be capable of inducing PR gene expression. In addition, proline at concentration as low as 0.5 mM could induce PR gene expression. However, proline could not induce the expression of PDF1.2 gene, the marker gene for jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Furthermore, proline-induced SA production is mediated by NDR1-dependent signaling pathway, but not that mediated by PAD4. Our data provide evidences that exogenous proline, and probably some other amino acids can specifically induce SA signaling and defense response.

  17. Pretreatment of Parsley Suspension Cultures with Salicylic Acid Enhances Spontaneous and Elicited Production of H2O2.

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, H.; Jeblick, W.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were used to study the regulation of extracellular H2O2. After resuspension, the washed cells regulated the H2O2 concentration spontaneously to a constant level that was greatly increased when the cultures were pretreated for 1 d with salicylic acid (SA). The H2O2 level was further increased on addition of a fungal elicitor preparation, macromolecular chitosan, the sterol-binding polyene macrolide amphotericin B, the G protein-activating peptide mastoparan, or La3+. In all cases, this induced H2O2 burst was also greatly enhanced in cell suspensions pretreated with SA. Both the spontaneous and the induced H2O2 production were decreased by the protein kinase inhibitor K-252a. It is suggested that production of extracellular H2O2 occurs by an endogenously controlled plasma membrane enzyme complex that requires continuous phosphorylation for function and whose activity is increased by pretreatment of the cells with SA. This system can also receive various external stimuli, including those resulting from binding of fungal elicitor. SA can induce acquired resistance against pathogens. The conditioning of the parsley suspension culture by SA represents, therefore, a model for the long-term regulation of apoplastic H2O2 concentration by this signal substance, as suggested previously for the wound hormone methyl jasmonate. PMID:12228535

  18. Geminiviruses Subvert Ubiquitination by Altering CSN-Mediated Derubylation of SCF E3 Ligase Complexes and Inhibit Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Rosas-Díaz, Tabata; Gusmaroli, Giuliana; Luna, Ana P.; Taconnat, Ludivine; Deng, Xing Wang; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses must create a suitable cell environment and elude defense mechanisms, which likely involves interactions with host proteins and subsequent interference with or usurpation of cellular machinery. Here, we describe a novel strategy used by plant DNA viruses (Geminiviruses) to redirect ubiquitination by interfering with the activity of the CSN (COP9 signalosome) complex. We show that geminiviral C2 protein interacts with CSN5, and its expression in transgenic plants compromises CSN activity on CUL1. Several responses regulated by the CUL1-based SCF ubiquitin E3 ligases (including responses to jasmonates, auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, and abscisic acid) are altered in these plants. Impairment of SCF function is confirmed by stabilization of yellow fluorescent protein–GAI, a substrate of the SCFSLY1. Transcriptomic analysis of these transgenic plants highlights the response to jasmonates as the main SCF-dependent process affected by C2. Exogenous jasmonate treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants disrupts geminivirus infection, suggesting that the suppression of the jasmonate response might be crucial for infection. Our findings suggest that C2 affects the activity of SCFs, most likely through interference with the CSN. As SCFs are key regulators of many cellular processes, the capability of viruses to selectively interfere with or hijack the activity of these complexes might define a novel and powerful strategy in viral infections. PMID:21441437

  19. Roles for blue light, jasmonate and nitric oxide in the regulation of dormancy and germination in wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, John V; Barrero, Jose M; Hughes, Trijntje; Julkowska, Magdalena; Taylor, Jennifer M; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in seed dormancy and transcriptional regulation of genes coding for ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for control of ABA content. However, little is known about signalling both before and after ABA regulation, in particular, how environmental signals are perceived and transduced. We are interested in these processes in cereal grains, particularly in relation to the development of strategies for controlling pre-harvest sprouting in barley and wheat. Our previous studies have indicated possible components of dormancy control and here we present evidence that blue light, nitric oxide (NO) and jasmonate are major controlling elements in wheat grain. Using microarray and pharmacological studies, we have found that blue light inhibits germination in dormant grain and that methyl jasmonate (MJ) and NO counteract this effect by reducing dormancy. We also present evidence that NO and jasmonate play roles in dormancy control in vivo. ABA was reduced by MJ and this was accompanied by reduced levels of expression of TaNCED1 and increased expression of TaABA8'OH-1 compared with dormant grain. Similar changes were caused by after-ripening. Analysis of global gene expression showed that although jasmonate and after-ripening caused important changes in gene expression, the changes were very different. While breaking dormancy, MJ had only a small number of target genes including gene(s) encoding beta-glucosidase. Our evidence indicates that NO and MJ act interdependently in controlling reduction of ABA and thus the demise of dormancy.

  20. Hormonal and hydroxycinnamic acids profiles in banana leaves in response to various periods of water stress.

    PubMed

    Mahouachi, Jalel; López-Climent, María F; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. "Grand Nain") subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  1. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    López-Climent, María F.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain”) subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress. PMID:24977208

  2. The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

  3. Rhamnolipids elicit defense responses and induce disease resistance against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens that require different signaling pathways in Arabidopsis and highlight a central role for salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2012-11-01

    Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens.

  4. A fluorescent hormone biosensor reveals the dynamics of jasmonate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Antoine; Champion, Antony; Legrand, Jonathan; Lavenus, Julien; Mast, David; Brunoud, Géraldine; Oh, Jaesung; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Pizot, Maxime; Farmer, Edward E; Turnbull, Colin; Vernoux, Teva; Bennett, Malcolm J; Laplaze, Laurent

    2015-01-16

    Activated forms of jasmonic acid (JA) are central signals coordinating plant responses to stresses, yet tools to analyse their spatial and temporal distribution are lacking. Here we describe a JA perception biosensor termed Jas9-VENUS that allows the quantification of dynamic changes in JA distribution in response to stress with high spatiotemporal sensitivity. We show that Jas9-VENUS abundance is dependent on bioactive JA isoforms, the COI1 co-receptor, a functional Jas motif and proteasome activity. We demonstrate the utility of Jas9-VENUS to analyse responses to JA in planta at a cellular scale, both quantitatively and dynamically. This included using Jas9-VENUS to determine the cotyledon-to-root JA signal velocities on wounding, revealing two distinct phases of JA activity in the root. Our results demonstrate the value of developing quantitative sensors such as Jas9-VENUS to provide high-resolution spatiotemporal data about hormone distribution in response to plant abiotic and biotic stresses.

  5. Jasmonate-dependent depletion of soluble sugars compromises plant resistance to Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Jasmonates regulate plant secondary metabolism and herbivore resistance. How they influence primary metabolites and how this may affect herbivore growth and performance are not well understood. We profiled sugars and starch of jasmonate biosynthesis-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants and manipulated leaf carbohydrates through genetic engineering and in vitro complementation to assess how jasmonate-dependent sugar accumulation affects the growth of Manduca sexta caterpillars. We found that jasmonates reduce the constitutive and herbivore-induced concentration of glucose and fructose in the leaves across different developmental stages. Diurnal, jasmonate-dependent inhibition of invertase activity was identified as a likely mechanism for this phenomenon. Contrary to our expectation, both in planta and in vitro approaches showed that the lower sugar concentrations led to increased M. sexta growth. As a consequence, jasmonate-dependent depletion of sugars rendered N. attenuata plants more susceptible to M. sexta attack. In conclusion, jasmonates are important regulators of leaf carbohydrate accumulation and this determines herbivore growth. Jasmonate-dependent resistance is reduced rather than enhanced through the suppression of glucose and fructose concentrations, which may contribute to the evolution of divergent resistance strategies of plants in nature.

  6. Jasmonate biosynthesis and the allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Irene; Hause, Bettina; Miersch, Otto; Kurz, Tobias; Maucher, Helmut; Weichert, Heiko; Ziegler, Jörg; Feussner, Ivo; Wasternack, Claus

    2003-04-01

    In biosynthesis of octadecanoids and jasmonate (JA), the naturally occurring enantiomer is established in a step catalysed by the gene cloned recently from tomato as a single-copy gene (Ziegler et al., 2000). Based on sequence homology, four full-length cDNAs were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia coding for proteins with AOC activity. The expression of AOC genes was transiently and differentially up-regulated upon wounding both locally and systemically and was induced by JA treatment. In contrast, AOC protein appeared at constitutively high basal levels and was slightly increased by the treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant occurrence of AOC protein as well as of the preceding enzymes in octadecanoid biosynthesis, lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), in fully developed tissues, but much less so in 7-day old leaf tissues. Metabolic profiling data of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products including JA and octadecanoids in wild-type leaves and the jasmonate-deficient mutant OPDA reductase 3 (opr3) revealed preferential activity of the AOS branch within the LOX pathway. 13-LOX products occurred predominantly as esterified derivatives, and all 13-hydroperoxy derivatives were below the detection limits. There was a constitutive high level of free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in untreated wild-type and opr3 leaves, but an undetectable-expression of AOC. Upon wounding opr3 leaves exhibited only low expression of AOC, wounded wild-type leaves, however, accumulated JA and AOC mRNA. These and further data suggest regulation of JA biosynthesis by OPDA compartmentalization and a positive feedback by JA during leaf development.

  7. Proteomic identification of MYC2-dependent jasmonate-regulated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MYC2, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing transcription factor, participates in the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway and is involved in the modulation of diverse JA functions. However, a comprehensive list of MYC2-dependent JA-responsive proteins has yet to be defined. Results In this paper, we report the comparative proteomics of wild-type (WT) plants and jin1-9, a MYC2 mutant plant, in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Proteins from mock/MeJA-treated jin1-9 and WT samples were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Twenty-seven JA-mediated proteins demonstrated differential expression modulated by MYC2. We observed that MYC2 negatively regulates the accumulation of JA-dependent indolic glucosinolate-related proteins and exhibits opposite effects on the biosynthetic enzymes involved aliphatic glucosinolate pathways. In addition, proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a majority of the MeJA-inducible proteins that are involved in multiple protective systems against oxidative stress were reduced in jin1-9/myc2 sample compared to the WT sample. These results support a positive role for MYC2 in regulating JA-mediated carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance. Conclusions We have identified MYC2-dependent jasmonate-regulated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana by performing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. The observed pattern of protein expression suggests that MYC2 has opposite effects on the biosynthetic enzymes of indolic and aliphatic glucosinolate pathways and positively regulates JA-mediated carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance-related proteins. Furthermore, it is very interesting to note that MYC2 plays opposite roles in the modulation of a subset of JA-regulated photosynthetic proteins during short-term and long-term JA signaling. This study will enhance our understanding of the function of MYC2 in JA signaling in

  8. New roles for cis-jasmone as an insect semiochemical and in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michael A.; Campbell, Colin A. M.; Chamberlain, Keith; Guerrieri, Emilio; Hick, Alastair J.; Martin, Janet L.; Matthes, Michaela; Napier, Johnathan A.; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A.; Poppy, Guy M.; Pow, Eleanor M.; Pye, Barry J.; Smart, Lesley E.; Wadhams, George H.; Wadhams, Lester J.; Woodcock, Christine M.

    2000-01-01

    cis-Jasmone, or (Z)-jasmone, is well known as a component of plant volatiles, and its release can be induced by damage, for example during insect herbivory. Using the olfactory system of the lettuce aphid to investigate volatiles from plants avoided by this insect, (Z)-jasmone was found to be electrophysiologically active and also to be repellent in laboratory choice tests. In field studies, repellency from traps was demonstrated for the damson-hop aphid, and with cereal aphids numbers were reduced in plots of winter wheat treated with (Z)-jasmone. In contrast, attractant activity was found in laboratory and wind tunnel tests for insects acting antagonistically to aphids, namely the seven-spot ladybird and an aphid parasitoid. When applied in the vapor phase to intact bean plants, (Z)-jasmone induced the production of volatile compounds, including the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, which affect plant defense, for example by stimulating the activity of parasitic insects. These plants were more attractive to the aphid parasitoid in the wind tunnel when tested 48 h after exposure to (Z)-jasmone had ceased. This possible signaling role of (Z)-jasmone is qualitatively different from that of the biosynthetically related methyl jasmonate and gives a long-lasting effect after removal of the stimulus. Differential display was used to compare mRNA populations in bean leaves exposed to the vapor of (Z)-jasmone and methyl jasmonate. One differentially displayed fragment was cloned and shown by Northern blotting to be up-regulated in leaf tissue by (Z)-jasmone. This sequence was identified by homology as being derived from a gene encoding an α-tubulin isoform. PMID:10900270

  9. The jasmonate receptor COI1 plays a role in jasmonate-induced lateral root formation and lateral root positioning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Raya-González, Javier; Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; López-Bucio, José

    2012-09-15

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a broad range of plant defense and developmental responses. COI1 has been recently found to act as JA receptor. In this report, we show that low micromolar concentrations of JA inhibited primary root (PR) growth and promoted lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis wild-type (WT) seedlings. It was observed that the coi1-1 mutant was less sensitive to JA on pericycle cell activation to induce lateral root primordia (LRP) formation and presented alterations in lateral root positioning and lateral root emergence on bends. To investigate JA-auxin interactions important for remodeling of root system (RS) architecture, we tested the expression of auxin-inducible markers DR5:uidA and BA3:uidA in WT and coi1-1 seedlings in response to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and JA and analyzed the RS architecture of a suite of auxin-related mutants under JA treatments. We found that JA did not affect DR5:uidA and BA3:uidA expression in WT and coi1-1 seedlings. Our data also showed that PR growth inhibition in response to JA was likely independent of auxin signaling and that the induction of LRP required ARF7, ARF19, SLR, TIR1, AFB2, AFB3 and AXR1 loci. We conclude that JA regulation of postembryonic root development involves both auxin-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  10. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate induced physio-hormonal changes in Pisum sativum under diverse temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-11-01

    Global climate change brings with it unwarranted shifts in both abiotic (heat stress, cold stress, wind, precipitation) and biotic (pathogens, pests) environmental factors, thus posing a threat to agricultural productivity across the world. In plants, lodging due to storms or herbivory causes wounding stress and consequently enhances endogenous jasmonates. In response, the plant growth is arrested as plant defense is prioritized. We pre-treated pea plants with elevated methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels i.e. 50 μM, 100 μM and 200 μM under controlled growth chamber conditions. The pre-treated plants were then kept at 40 °C (heat stress--HS), 4 °C (cold stress--CS) and 20 °C (optimum/control temperature--OT) for 72 h. The effect of such treatments on plant growth attributes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, cell death rate, and regulation of endogenous hormones were observed. Elevated MeJA application hindered plant growth attributes under HS, CS and OT conditions. Moreover, elevated MeJA levels lowered the rate of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, induced stomatal closure, caused higher cells mortality in leaves under HS, CS, and OT conditions. Endogenous ABA contents significantly declined in all MeJA treatments under HS and OT, but increased under CS conditions. Exogenous MeJA enhanced endogenous jasmonic acid contents of pea plants, but altered endogenous salicylic acid contents under varying temperatures. Current study shows that higher concentrations of exogenous MeJA strengthen plant defense mechanism by hindering plant growth under stress conditions.

  11. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  12. Chemical changes and overexpressed genes in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) upon methyl jasmonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Xi; Chen, Feng; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2007-02-07

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the production of bioactive chemicals and gene expression in sweet basil were investigated. The total amount of phenolic compounds significantly increased in sweet basil after 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Among the phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA) were identified, and their amounts increased by 55 and 300%, respectively. The total amount of terpenoids also significantly increased after the same treatment. Particularly, eugenol and linalool increased by 56 and 43%, respectively. To better understand the signaling effect of MeJA on sweet basil, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify the MeJA up-regulated genes. Among the 576 cDNA clones screened from the forward SSH cDNA library, 28 were found to be up-regulated by the MeJA treatment. Sequencing of these cDNA clones followed by BLAST searching revealed six unique transcripts displaying high similarities to the known enzymes and peptide, that is, lipoxygenase (LOX), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), acid phosphatase (APase), and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR), which play significant roles in the formation of secondary metabolites in sweet basil. Northern blot further confirmed the increased production at transcriptional level of LOX, C4H, PDH, PPO, PPR, and APase.

  13. Jasmonate in plant defence: sentinel or double agent?

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun; Xie, Daoxin

    2015-12-01

    Plants and their biotic enemies, such as microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects, are engaged in a desperate battle which would determine their survival-death fate. Plants have evolved efficient and sophisticated systems to defend against such attackers. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards a comprehensive understanding of inducible defence system mediated by jasmonate (JA), a vital plant hormone essential for plant defence responses and developmental processes. This review presents an overview of JA action in plant defences and discusses how microbial pathogens evade plant defence system through hijacking the JA pathway.

  14. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice.

  15. Stress Marker Signatures in Lesion Mimic Single and Double Mutants Identify a Crucial Leaf Age-Dependent Salicylic Acid Related Defense Signal.

    PubMed

    Kaurilind, Eve; Brosché, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures.

  16. Stress Marker Signatures in Lesion Mimic Single and Double Mutants Identify a Crucial Leaf Age-Dependent Salicylic Acid Related Defense Signal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures. PMID:28107453

  17. NINJA connects the co-repressor TOPLESS to jasmonate signalling.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Laurens; Barbero, Gemma Fernández; Geerinck, Jan; Tilleman, Sofie; Grunewald, Wim; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Chico, José Manuel; Bossche, Robin Vanden; Sewell, Jared; Gil, Eduardo; García-Casado, Gloria; Witters, Erwin; Inzé, Dirk; Long, Jeff A; De Jaeger, Geert; Solano, Roberto; Goossens, Alain

    2010-04-01

    Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is a plant hormone that regulates a broad array of plant defence and developmental processes. JA-Ile-responsive gene expression is regulated by the transcriptional activator MYC2 that interacts physically with the jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) repressor proteins. On perception of JA-Ile, JAZ proteins are degraded and JA-Ile-dependent gene expression is activated. The molecular mechanisms by which JAZ proteins repress gene expression remain unknown. Here we show that the Arabidopsis JAZ proteins recruit the Groucho/Tup1-type co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL) and TPL-related proteins (TPRs) through a previously uncharacterized adaptor protein, designated Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA). NINJA acts as a transcriptional repressor whose activity is mediated by a functional TPL-binding EAR repression motif. Accordingly, both NINJA and TPL proteins function as negative regulators of jasmonate responses. Our results point to TPL proteins as general co-repressors that affect multiple signalling pathways through the interaction with specific adaptor proteins. This new insight reveals how stress-related and growth-related signalling cascades use common molecular mechanisms to regulate gene expression in plants.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels.

    PubMed

    Pedranzani, H; Rodríguez-Rivera, M; Gutiérrez, M; Porcel, R; Hause, B; Ruiz-Lozano, J M

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates antioxidant responses and jasmonate regulation in Digitaria eriantha cv. Sudafricana plants inoculated (AM) and non-inoculated (non-AM) with Rhizophagus irregularis and subjected to drought, cold, or salinity. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes activities, and jasmonate levels were determined. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency decreased in AM and non-AM plants under all stress conditions. However, AM plants subjected to drought, salinity, or non-stress conditions showed significantly higher stomatal conductance values. AM plants subjected to drought or non-stress conditions increased their shoot/root biomass ratios, whereas salinity and cold caused a decrease in these ratios. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was high in non-AM plant roots under all treatments, increased significantly in non-AM plant shoots under cold stress and in AM plants under non-stress and drought conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the roots of all plants under drought conditions. In shoots, although lipid peroxidation decreased in AM plants under non-stress and cold conditions, it increased under drought and salinity. AM plants consistently showed high catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments. By contrast, the glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of AM roots was lower than that of non-AM plants and increased in shoots. The endogenous levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoc acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 12-OH-JA showed a significant increase in AM plants as compared to non-AM plants. 11-OH-JA content only increased in AM plants subjected to drought. Results show that D. eriantha is sensitive to drought, salinity, and cold stresses and that inoculation with AM fungi regulates its physiology and performance under such conditions, with antioxidants and jasmonates being involved

  19. Disruption of abscisic acid signaling constitutively activates Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; López, Gemma; Ramos, Brisa; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Riviere, Marie-Pierre; Llorente, Francisco; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Miedes, Eva; Estevez, José Manuel; Grant, Murray; Molina, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Plant resistance to necrotrophic fungi is regulated by a complex set of signaling pathways that includes those mediated by the hormones salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA). The role of ABA in plant resistance remains controversial, as positive and negative regulatory functions have been described depending on the plant-pathogen interaction analyzed. Here, we show that ABA signaling negatively regulates Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Arabidopsis plants impaired in ABA biosynthesis, such as the aba1-6 mutant, or in ABA signaling, like the quadruple pyr/pyl mutant (pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4), were more resistant to P. cucumerina than wild-type plants. In contrast, the hab1-1abi1-2abi2-2 mutant impaired in three phosphatases that negatively regulate ABA signaling displayed an enhanced susceptibility phenotype to this fungus. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of aba1-6 and wild-type plants revealed that the ABA pathway negatively regulates defense genes, many of which are controlled by the SA, JA, or ET pathway. In line with these data, we found that aba1-6 resistance to P. cucumerina was partially compromised when the SA, JA, or ET pathway was disrupted in this mutant. Additionally, in the aba1-6 plants, some genes encoding cell wall-related proteins were misregulated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and biochemical analyses of cell walls from aba1-6 and wild-type plants revealed significant differences in their Fourier transform infrared spectratypes and uronic acid and cellulose contents. All these data suggest that ABA signaling has a complex function in Arabidopsis basal resistance, negatively regulating SA/JA/ET-mediated resistance to necrotrophic fungi.

  20. Benefits of jasmonate-dependent defenses against vertebrate herbivores in nature

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Ricardo AR; McClure, Mark; Hervé, Maxime R; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous jasmonates are important regulators of plant defenses. If and how they enable plants to maintain their reproductive output when facing community-level herbivory under natural conditions, however, remains unknown. We demonstrate that jasmonate-deficient Nicotiana attenuata plants suffer more damage by arthropod and vertebrate herbivores than jasmonate-producing plants in nature. However, only damage by vertebrate herbivores translates into a significant reduction in flower production. Vertebrate stem peeling has the strongest negative impact on plant flower production. Stems are defended by jasmonate-dependent nicotine, and the native cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus nuttallii avoids jasmonate-producing N. attenuata shoots because of their high levels of nicotine. Thus, endogenous jasmonates enable plants to resist different types of herbivores in nature, and jasmonate-dependent defenses are important for plants to maintain their reproductive potential when facing vertebrate herbivory. Ecological and evolutionary models on plant defense signaling should aim at integrating arthropod and vertebrate herbivory at the community level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13720.001 PMID:27352734

  1. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuntong; Xu, Weirong; Duan, Dong; Wang, Yuejin; Nick, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. PMID:27702992

  2. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds.

  3. Methyl jasmonate induces traumatic resin ducts, terpenoid resin biosynthesis, and terpenoid accumulation in developing xylem of Norway spruce stems.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane; Tholl, Dorothea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens.

  4. Identification and characterization of genes involved in the jasmonate biosynthetic and signaling pathways in mulberry (Morus notabilis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xuwei; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

    2014-07-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important phytohormone regulating growth, development, and environmental response in plants, particularly defense response against herbivorous insects. Recently, completion of the draft genome of the mulberry (Morus notabilis) in conjunction with genome sequencing of silkworm (Bombyx mori) provides an opportunity to study this unique plant-herbivore interaction. Here, we identified genes involved in JA biosynthetic and signaling pathways in the genome of mulberry for the first time, with the majority of samples showing a tissue-biased expression pattern. The analysis of the representative genes 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPRs) and jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZs) was performed and the results indicated that the mulberry genome contains a relatively small number of JA biosynthetic and signaling pathway genes. A gene encoding an important repressor, MnNINJA, was identified as an alternative splicing variant lacking an ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. Having this fundamental information will facilitate future functional study of JA-related genes pertaining to mulberry-silkworm interactions.

  5. SalSA status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy; SalSA Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    I review the status of SalSA, a proposed antenna array in a large volume salt formation for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos. We report on measurements taken in 2007 of attenuation lengths in the 125-900 MHz frequency range at the Cote Blanche salt mine near New Iberia, Louisiana, which is the most precise in situ measurement of attenuation lengths in salt to date. We comment on the impact of these measurements on the feasibility of SalSA.

  6. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate* #

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  7. Monitoring of Crosstalk Between Jasmonate and Auxin in the Framework of Plant Stress Responses of Roots.

    PubMed

    Loba, Víctor Carrasco; Alonso, Marta-Marina Pérez; Pollmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few years, it became more and more evident that plant hormone action is to great parts determined through their sophisticated crosstalk, rather than by their isolated activities. Thus, the parallel analysis of interconnected phytohormones in only very small amounts of tissue developed to an important issue in the field of plant sciences. In the following, a highly sensitive and accurate method is described for the quantitative analysis of the plant hormones jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The described methodology is, however, not limited to the analysis of Arabidopsis samples but can also be applied to other plant species. The presented method is optimized for the working up of as little as 20-50 mg of plant tissue. Thus, it is well suited for the analysis of plant hormone contents in plant tissue of only little biomass, such as roots. The presented protocol facilitates the implementation of the method into other laboratories that have access to appropriate laboratory equipment and comparable state-of-the-art gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology.

  8. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  9. Loss of function of fatty acid desturase7 in tomato enhances basal aphid resistance in a salicylate-dependent manner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives mediate induced resistance against caterpillars and other herbivores that cause tissue disruption. Far less is known about the role of jasmonates in plant interactions with phloem-feeding insects such as aphids. This study compared responses in tomato (Solanu...

  10. An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of five phytohormones in medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis under abscisic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Song, Xiaona; Qiao, Jing; Zang, Yimei; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-07-01

    An efficient simplified method was developed to determine multiple classes of phytohormones simultaneously in the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative mode was used for quantification. The five studied phytohormones are gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid (SA). Only 100 mg of fresh leaves was needed, with one purification step based on C18 solid-phase extraction. Cinnamic acid was chosen as the internal standard instead of isotope-labeled internal standards. Under the optimized conditions, the five phytohormones with internal standard were separated within 4 min, with good linearities and high sensitivity. The validated method was applied to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the five phytohormones in G. uralensis under ABA stress. The levels of GA3, ABA, JA, and SA in leaves of G. uralensis were increased at different times and with different tendencies in the reported stress mode. These changes in phytohormone levels are discussed in the context of a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Understanding this mechanism will provide a good chance of revealing the mutual interplay between different biosynthetic routes, which could further help elucidate the mechanisms of effective composition accumulation in medicinal plants.

  11. Induction of heat shock protein 72 in C6 glioma cells by methyl jasmonate through ROS-dependent heat shock factor 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Su Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yoon, Chang Shin; Joo, Young Mi; Park, Jang Su; Han, Song Iy; Park, Hye Gyeong; Kang, Ho Sung

    2005-11-01

    Salicylate and jasmonates are two different types of plant hormone that play critical roles in plant defense responses against insect herbivores and microbial pathogens, through activating defense genes. These two natural products have been shown to have similar activities in animal cells: the compounds are able to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells including those of colon, prostate, breast, and leukemia, suggesting the chemicals may potentially be a novel class of anti-cancer drugs. Since sodium salicylate can induce the heat shock response in animals, we examined the effects of jasmonates on the heat shock response in C6 glioma cells. Here, we show that brief exposure to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), but not to jasmonic acid, induces heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), but not HSP73 and HSP90, via heat shock factor I (HSF1) activation in C6 glioma cells without affecting cell viability. Intracellular H2O2 and O2-, and mitochondrial ROS were prominently increased in response to 5 mM MeJA in C6 cells. MeJA-induced HSP72 expression, HSF1 DNA binding, and human HSP70 promoter-driven CAT activity were prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a general antioxidant), catalase (a specific antioxidant for H2O2), and sodium formate (an inhibitor of OH.), but not by Rac1 dominant negative mutant Rac1N17 and diphenyleneiodonium (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor), indicating that MeJA induces HSP72 expression though HSF1 that is activated via Rac1-NADPH oxidase-independent ROS production pathway. These results suggest that the plant stress hormones share the ability to induce heat shock response in animal cells.

  12. Jasmonate signaling in the field, part II: insect-guided characterization of genetic variations in jasmonate-dependent defenses of transgenic and natural Nicotiana attenuata populations.

    PubMed

    Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Stitz, Michael; Kallenbach, Mario; Baldwin, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified plants into natural habitats represents a valuable means to determine organismic level functions of a gene and its effects on a plant's interaction with other organisms. Nicotiana attenuata, a wild tobacco species native of the southwestern USA that grows in the immediate postfire environment, is one of the important host plants for herbivore populations recolonizing recently burned habitats in the Great Basin Desert. Here, we provide detailed guidelines for the analysis, under field conditions, of jasmonate-dependent defense and its impact on the plant's native herbivore community. The procedures are based on the field release of transgenic lines silenced for jasmonate biogenesis, metabolism, or perception to conduct association studies between defense trait expression (secondary metabolite and trypsin proteinase inhibitor accumulation) and insect infestations. Additionally, because some insects have evolved mechanisms to "eavesdrop" on jasmonate signaling when selecting their host plants, we describe how leafhoppers of the species Empoasca, which selectively colonize jasmonate-deficient plants, can be used as "bloodhounds" for identifying natural variations in jasmonate signaling among natural N. attenuata populations.

  13. Jasmonate signaling and manipulation by pathogens and insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Feng; Melotto, Maeli; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang

    2017-01-09

    Plants synthesize jasmonates (JAs) in response to developmental cues or environmental stresses, in order to coordinate plant growth, development or defense against pathogens and herbivores. Perception of pathogen or herbivore attack promotes synthesis of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which binds to the COI1-JAZ receptor, triggering the degradation of JAZ repressors and induction of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant defense. Interestingly, some virulent pathogens have evolved various strategies to manipulate JA signaling to facilitate their exploitation of plant hosts. In this review, we focus on recent advances in understanding the mechanism underlying the enigmatic switch between transcriptional repression and hormone-dependent transcriptional activation of JA signaling. We also discuss various strategies used by pathogens and insects to manipulate JA signaling and how interfering with this could be used as a novel means of disease control.

  14. Roles of jasmonate signalling in plant inflorescence and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-10-01

    Development of inflorescences and flowers in plants is controlled by the combined action of environmental and genetic signals. Investigations reveal that the phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays a critical function in plant reproduction such as male fertility, sex determination and seed maturation. Here, we review recent progress on JA synthesis, signalling, the interplay between JAs and other hormones, and regulatory network of JA in controlling the development of inflorescence, flower and the male organ. The conserved and diversified roles of JAs in meristem transition and specification of flower organ identity and number, and multiple regulatory networks of JAs in stamen development are highlighted. Further, this review provides perspectives on future research endeavors to elucidate mechanisms underlying JAs homeostasis and transport during plant reproductive development.

  15. Yeast two-hybrid analysis of jasmonate signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Amparo Pérez; Pauwels, Laurens; De Clercq, Rebecca; Goossens, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction studies are crucial to unravel how jasmonate (JA) signals are transduced. Among the different techniques available, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) is commonly used within the JA research community to identify proteins belonging to the core JA signaling module. The technique is based on the reconstitution of a transcriptional activator that drives the reporter gene expression upon protein-protein interactions. The method is sensitive and straightforward and can be adapted for different approaches. In this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol to perform targeted Y2H assays to test known proteins and/or protein domains for direct interaction in a pairwise manner and present the possibility to study ternary protein complexes through Y3H.

  16. Disruption of Abscisic Acid Signaling Constitutively Activates Arabidopsis Resistance to the Necrotrophic Fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; López, Gemma; Ramos, Brisa; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Riviere, Marie-Pierre; Llorente, Francisco; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Miedes, Eva; Estevez, José Manuel; Grant, Murray; Molina, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Plant resistance to necrotrophic fungi is regulated by a complex set of signaling pathways that includes those mediated by the hormones salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA). The role of ABA in plant resistance remains controversial, as positive and negative regulatory functions have been described depending on the plant-pathogen interaction analyzed. Here, we show that ABA signaling negatively regulates Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Arabidopsis plants impaired in ABA biosynthesis, such as the aba1-6 mutant, or in ABA signaling, like the quadruple pyr/pyl mutant (pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4), were more resistant to P. cucumerina than wild-type plants. In contrast, the hab1-1abi1-2abi2-2 mutant impaired in three phosphatases that negatively regulate ABA signaling displayed an enhanced susceptibility phenotype to this fungus. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of aba1-6 and wild-type plants revealed that the ABA pathway negatively regulates defense genes, many of which are controlled by the SA, JA, or ET pathway. In line with these data, we found that aba1-6 resistance to P. cucumerina was partially compromised when the SA, JA, or ET pathway was disrupted in this mutant. Additionally, in the aba1-6 plants, some genes encoding cell wall-related proteins were misregulated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and biochemical analyses of cell walls from aba1-6 and wild-type plants revealed significant differences in their Fourier transform infrared spectratypes and uronic acid and cellulose contents. All these data suggest that ABA signaling has a complex function in Arabidopsis basal resistance, negatively regulating SA/JA/ET-mediated resistance to necrotrophic fungi. PMID:23037505

  17. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  18. The RING E3 Ligase KEEP ON GOING Modulates JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN12 Stability1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Ritter, Andrés; Goossens, Jonas; Durand, Astrid Nagels; Liu, Hongxia; Gu, Yangnan; Geerinck, Jan; Boter, Marta; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Clercq, Rebecca; Van Leene, Jelle; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Solano, Roberto; Stone, Sophia; Innes, Roger W.; Callis, Judy; Goossens, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signaling in plants is mediated by the JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins that repress the activity of several transcription factors regulating JA-inducible gene expression. The hormone JA-isoleucine triggers the interaction of JAZ repressor proteins with the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), part of an S-phase kinase-associated protein1/Cullin1/F-box protein COI1 (SCFCOI1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, and their degradation by the 26S proteasome. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the JAZ family consists of 13 members. The level of redundancy or specificity among these members is currently not well understood. Here, we characterized JAZ12, encoded by a highly expressed JAZ gene. JAZ12 interacted with the transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 in vivo and repressed MYC2 activity. Using tandem affinity purification, we found JAZ12 to interact with SCFCOI1 components, matching with observed in vivo ubiquitination and with rapid degradation after treatment with JA. In contrast to the other JAZ proteins, JAZ12 also interacted directly with the E3 RING ligase KEEP ON GOING (KEG), a known repressor of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 transcription factor in abscisic acid signaling. To study the functional role of this interaction, we circumvented the lethality of keg loss-of-function mutants by silencing KEG using an artificial microRNA approach. Abscisic acid treatment promoted JAZ12 degradation, and KEG knockdown led to a decrease in JAZ12 protein levels. Correspondingly, KEG overexpression was capable of partially inhibiting COI1-mediated JAZ12 degradation. Our results provide additional evidence for KEG as an important factor in plant hormone signaling and a positive regulator of JAZ12 stability. PMID:26320228

  19. Methyl Jasmonate Ameliorates Testosterone Propionate-induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Castrated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe; Abiola, Olusoji John; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

    2017-04-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride. Results indicate that BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) elevated prostate weight and relative weight of prostate relative to control. Also, BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) increased activities of prostatic acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of zinc, and malondialdehyde. Further, levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidative indices were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in BPH. Histology of prostate revealed hyperplasia of transition lobe, increased expression of PSA, and Ki67 in BPH. Treatment with MeJA and finasteride attenuated the activities of the phosphatases and levels of antioxidants in BPH. Overall, MeJA ameliorates BPH via antioxidative mechanism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  1. Jasmonate and ethylene signaling mediate whitefly-induced interference with indirect plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Broekgaarden, Colette; Zheng, Si-Jun; Snoeren, Tjeerd A L; van Loon, Joop J A; Gols, Rieta; Dicke, Marcel

    2013-03-01

    Upon herbivore attack, plants activate an indirect defense, that is, the release of a complex mixture of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. When plants are simultaneously exposed to two herbivore species belonging to different feeding guilds, one herbivore may interfere with the indirect plant defense induced by the other herbivore. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying such interference. Here, we address the effect of herbivory by the phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci on the induced indirect defense of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to Plutella xylostella caterpillars, that is, the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum. Assays with various Arabidopsis mutants reveal that B. tabaci infestation interferes with indirect plant defense induced by P. xylostella, and that intact jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling are required for such interference caused by B. tabaci. Chemical analysis of plant volatiles showed that the composition of the blend emitted in response to the caterpillars was significantly altered by co-infestation with whiteflies. Moreover, whitefly infestation also had a considerable effect on the transcriptomic response of the plant to the caterpillars. Understanding the mechanisms underlying a plant's responses to multiple attackers will be important for the development of crop protection strategies in a multi-attacker context.

  2. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  3. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase gene from Poria cocos and its up-regulation by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Lin, Jun-Fang; Guo, Li-Qiong; You, Lin-Feng; Zeng, Xian-Lu; Wen, Jia-Ming

    2014-02-01

    Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to give presqualene diphosphate and the subsequent rearrangement to form squalene. The gene encoding squalene synthase was cloned from Poria cocos by degenerate PCR and inverse PCR. The open reading frame of the gene is 1,497 bp, which encodes 499 amino acid residues. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. cocos SQS belonged to the fungus group, and was more closely related to the SQS of Ganoderma lucidum than other fungi. The treatment of P. cocos with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly enhanced the transcriptional level of P. cocos sqs gene and the content of squalene in P. cocos. The transcriptional level of sqs gene was approximately fourfold higher than the control sample and the squalene content reached 128.62 μg/g, when the concentration of MeJA was 300 μM after 72 h induction.

  5. Methyl jasmonate downregulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiang-Song; Jiang, Guo-Song; Zheng, Li-Duan; Tang, Shao-Tao; Cai, Jia-Bin; Liu, Yuan; Zeng, Fu-Qing; Dong, Ji-Hua

    2008-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that methyl jasmonate, a plant stress hormone, exhibits anticancer activity on human cancer cells. Whether methyl jasmonate could inhibit the growth of human neuroblastoma cells still, however, remains largely unknown. In this study, administration of methyl jasmonate to cultured neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, resulted in a decrease of cell viability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner as demonstrated by MTT colorimetry and colony formation assay. The results from RT-PCR indicated that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, but not of cyclin D1, was downregulated by methyl jasmonate. Accordingly, the cell cycle of methyl jasmonate-treated neuroblastoma cells was arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, incubation of SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C cells with methyl jasmonate resulted in characteristic changes of apoptosis, as demonstrated by acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. Moreover, methyl jasmonate decreased the expression of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and survivin, critical members of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, in neuroblastoma cells. These findings indicate that methyl jasmonate suppresses the growth of cultured human neuroblastoma cells associated with downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and induces apoptosis accompanied by downregulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and survivin, which lays the groundwork for further investigation into the mechanisms of methyl jasmonate-mediated anticancer activities.

  6. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  7. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  8. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease.

  9. Induced responses to herbivory and jasmonate in three milkweed species.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Johnson, M Daisy; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2009-11-01

    We studied constitutive and induced defensive traits (latex exudation, cardenolides, proteases, and C/N ratio) and resistance to monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in three closely related milkweed species (Asclepias angustifolia, A. barjoniifolia and A. fascicularis). All traits showed significant induction in at least one of the species. Jasmonate application only partially mimicked the effect of monarch feeding. We found some correspondence between latex and cardenolide content and reduced larval growth. Larvae fed cut leaves of A. angustifolia grew better than larvae fed intact plants. Addition of the cardenolide digitoxin to cut leaves reduced larval growth but ouabain (at the same concentration) had no effect. We, thus, confirm that latex and cardenolides are major defenses in milkweeds, effective against a specialist herbivore. Other traits such as proteases and C/N ratio additionally may be integrated in the defense scheme of those plants. Induction seems to play an important role in plants that have an intermediate level of defense, and we advocate incorporating induction as an additional axis of the plant defense syndrome hypothesis.

  10. Exploring the impact of wounding and jasmonates on ascorbate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Suza, Walter P.; Avila, Carlos A.; Carruthers, Kelly; Kulkarni, Shashank; Goggin, Fiona L.; Lorence, Argelia

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate, AsA) is the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in plants. Ascorbate provides the first line of defense against damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and helps protect plant cells from many factors that induce oxidative stress, including wounding, ozone, high salinity, and pathogen attack. Plant defenses against these stresses are also dependent upon jasmonates (JAs), a class of plant hormones that promote ROS accumulation. Here, we review evidence showing that wounding and JAs influence AsA accumulation in various plant species, and we report new data from Arabidopsis and tomato testing the influence of JAs on AsA levels in wounded and unwounded plants. In both species, certain mutations that impair JA metabolism and signaling influence foliar AsA levels, suggesting that endogenous JAs may regulate steady-state AsA. However, the impact of wounding on AsA accumulation was similar in JA mutants and wild type controls, indicating that this wound response does not require JAs. Our findings also indicate that the effects of wounding and JAs on AsA accumulation differ between species; these factors both enhanced AsA accumulation in Arabidopsis, but depressed AsA levels in tomato. These results underscore the importance of obtaining data from more than one model species, and demonstrate the complexity of AsA regulation. PMID:20346686

  11. Methyl jasmonate affects phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    PubMed

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Rossoni, Mara; Gardana, Claudio; Mignani, Ilaria; Ferrante, Antonio; Spinardi, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a fruit very much appreciated by consumers for its antioxidant potential and health-promoting traits. Its beneficial potential properties are mainly due to a high content of anthocyanins and their amount can change after elicitation with methyl jasmonate. The aim of this work is to evaluate the changes in expression of several genes, accumulation of phenolic compounds and alterations in antioxidant potential in two different blueberry cultivars ('Duke' and 'Blueray') in response to methyl jasmonate (0.1 mM). Results showed that 9 h after treatment, the expression of phenylalanine ammonium lyase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase genes was stimulated more in the 'Blueray' variety. Among the phenols measured an increase was recorded also for epicatechin and anthocyanin concentrations. 'Duke' is a richer sourche of anthocyanins compared to 'Blueray', treatment with methyl jasmonate promoted in 'Blueray' an increase in pigments as well as in the antioxidant potential, especially in fully ripe berries, but treated 'Duke' berries had greater levels, which were not induced by methyl jasmonate treatment. In conclusion, methyl jasmonate was, in some cases, an effective elicitor of phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry, though with different intensity between cultivars.

  12. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) protein regulates host and nonhost pathogen-induced cell death in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Ishiga, Takako; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2013-01-01

    The nonhost-specific phytotoxin coronatine (COR) produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae functions as a jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) mimic and contributes to disease development by suppressing plant defense responses and inducing reactive oxygen species in chloroplast. It has been shown that the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is the receptor for COR and JA-Ile. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators for JA signaling in Arabidopsis. However, the physiological significance of JAZ proteins in P. syringae disease development and nonhost pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) cell death is not completely understood. In this study, we identified JAZ genes from tomato, a host plant for P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), and examined their expression profiles in response to COR and pathogens. Most JAZ genes were induced by COR treatment or inoculation with COR-producing Pst DC3000, but not by the COR-defective mutant DB29. Tomato SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 interacted with SlCOI1 in a COR-dependent manner. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we demonstrated that SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 have no effect on COR-induced chlorosis in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. However, SlJAZ2-, SlJAZ6- and SlJAZ7-silenced tomato plants showed enhanced disease-associated cell death to Pst DC3000. Furthermore, we found delayed HR cell death in response to the nonhost pathogen Pst T1 or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), INF1, in SlJAZ2- and SlJAZ6-silenced N. benthamiana. These results suggest that tomato JAZ proteins regulate the progression of cell death during host and nonhost interactions.

  13. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 μM) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs.

  14. Concurrent changes in methyl jasmonate emission and the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingkun; Ma, Cuiping; Yu, Rangcai; Mu, Lanling; Hou, Jia; Yu, Yunyi; Fan, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is one of most abundant scent compounds in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers. In this study, the emission of MeJA and its regulation mechanism were investigated. Our results showed that emission of MeJA in C. ensifolium flowers was controlled developmentally and rhythmically. It occurred in a tissue-specific manner, and high MeJA emission was found in sepals and petals. A group of vital genes involved in the MeJA biosynthesis via the octadecanoid pathway were isolated from C. ensifolium flowers, including CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT. MeJA emission was at very low levels in unopened or half-opened C. ensifolium flowers and reached its maximal level between day 4 and 6 and declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis. The expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT increased from day 1 to day 6, and then declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis, corresponding to the change in MeJA emission. Moreover, the expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT oscillated in a rhythmic manner could reach the maximum level between 8:00 h and 16:00 h, which coincided with the MeJA emission. The high level of MeJA emission in sepals and petals coincided with the high transcript levels. The results suggest that MeJA emission in C. ensifolium flower might be directly regulated at the transcription levels. Moreover, the recombinant protein of CeJMT could specifically catalyze the jasmonic acid to form the corresponding ester MeJA.

  15. Beyond the Canon: Within-Plant and Population-Level Heterogeneity in Jasmonate Signaling Engaged by Plant-Insect Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dapeng; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved sophisticated communication and defense systems with which they interact with insects. Jasmonates are synthesized from the oxylipin pathway and act as pivotal cellular orchestrators of many of the metabolic and physiological processes that mediate these interactions. Many of these jasmonate-dependent responses are tissue-specific and translate from modulations of the canonical jasmonate signaling pathway. Here we provide a short overview of within-plant heterogeneities in jasmonate signaling and dependent responses in the context of plant-insect interactions as illuminated by examples from recent work with the ecological model, Nicotiana attenuata. We then discuss means of manipulating jasmonate signaling by creating tissue-specific jasmonate sinks, and the micrografting of different transgenic plants. The metabolic phenotyping of these manipulations provides an integrative understanding of the functional significance of deviations from the canonical model of this hormonal pathway. Additionally, natural variation in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling both among and within species can explain polymorphisms in resistance to insects in nature. In this respect, insect-guided explorations of population-level variations in jasmonate metabolism have revealed more complexity than previously realized and we discuss how different “omic” techniques can be used to exploit the natural variation that occurs in this important signaling pathway. PMID:27135234

  16. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sandra S.; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W.; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  17. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng; Tong, Xiao-Hong; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Sun, Tai-ping; Li, Jigang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Lee, Chin Mei; Thomashow, Michael F; Yang, Yinong; He, Zuhua; He, Sheng Yang

    2012-05-08

    Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important plant hormones that mediate defense and growth, respectively. Binding of bioactive JA or GA ligands to cognate receptors leads to proteasome-dependent degradation of specific transcriptional repressors (the JAZ or DELLA family of proteins), which, at the resting state, represses cognate transcription factors involved in defense (e.g., MYCs) or growth [e.g. phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs)]. In this study, we found that the coi1 JA receptor mutants of rice (a domesticated monocot crop) and Arabidopsis (a model dicot plant) both exhibit hallmark phenotypes of GA-hypersensitive mutants. JA delays GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation, and the della mutant is less sensitive to JA for growth inhibition. Overexpression of a selected group of JAZ repressors in Arabidopsis plants partially phenocopies GA-associated phenotypes of the coi1 mutant, and JAZ9 inhibits RGA (a DELLA protein) interaction with transcription factor PIF3. Importantly, the pif quadruple (pifq) mutant no longer responds to JA-induced growth inhibition, and overexpression of PIF3 could partially overcome JA-induced growth inhibition. Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated.

  18. Phosphate Deficiency Induces the Jasmonate Pathway and Enhances Resistance to Insect Herbivory1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    During their life cycle, plants are typically confronted by simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses. Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies limiting plant growth in natural and agricultural ecosystems, while insect herbivory accounts for major losses in plant productivity and impacts ecological and evolutionary changes in plant populations. Here, we report that plants experiencing Pi deficiency induce the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and enhance their defense against insect herbivory. Pi-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) showed enhanced synthesis of JA and the bioactive conjugate JA-isoleucine, as well as activation of the JA signaling pathway, in both shoots and roots of wild-type plants and in shoots of the Pi-deficient mutant pho1. The kinetics of the induction of the JA signaling pathway by Pi deficiency was influenced by PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1, the main transcription factor regulating the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes. Phenotypes of the pho1 mutant typically associated with Pi deficiency, such as high shoot anthocyanin levels and poor shoot growth, were significantly attenuated by blocking the JA biosynthesis or signaling pathway. Wounded pho1 leaves hyperaccumulated JA/JA-isoleucine in comparison with the wild type. The pho1 mutant also showed an increased resistance against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis that was attenuated in JA biosynthesis and signaling mutants. Pi deficiency also triggered increased resistance to S. littoralis in wild-type Arabidopsis as well as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Nicotiana benthamiana, revealing that the link between Pi deficiency and enhanced herbivory resistance is conserved in a diversity of plants, including crops. PMID:27016448

  19. Transcriptional Responses and Gentiopicroside Biosynthesis in Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Gentiana macrophylla Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xiaorong; Yang, Xinbing; Wang, Huaiqin; Hua, Wenping; He, Yihan; Kang, Jiefang; Wang, Zhezhi

    2016-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, a medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, contains the bioactive compound gentiopicroside. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an effective elicitor for enhancing the production of such compounds. However, little is known about MeJA-mediated biosynthesis of gentiopicroside. We investigated this phenomenon as well as gene expression profiles to determine the molecular mechanisms for MeJA-mediated gentiopicroside biosynthesis and regulation in G. macrophylla. Our HPLC results showed that Gentiana macrophylla seedlings exposed to MeJA had significantly higher concentrations of gentiopicroside when compared with control plants. We used RNA sequencing to compare transcriptional profiles in seedlings treated for 5 d with either 0 μmol L-1 MeJA (C) or 250 μmol L-1 MeJA (M5) and detected differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In total, 77,482 unique sequences were obtained from approximately 34 million reads. Of these, 48,466 (57.46%) sequences were annotated based on BLASTs performed against public databases. We identified 5,206 DEGs between the C and M5 samples, including genes related to the α-lenolenic acid degradation pathway, JA signaling pathway, and gentiopicroside biosynthesis. Expression of numerous enzyme genes in the glycolysis pathway was significantly up-regulated. Many genes encoding transcription factors (e.g. ERF, bHLH, MYB, and WRKY) also responded to MeJA elicitation. Rapid acceleration of the glycolysis pathway that supplies precursors for IPP biosynthesis and up-regulates the expression of enzyme genes in that IPP pathway are probably most responsible for MeJA stimulation of gentiopicroside synthesis. Our qRT-PCR results showed that the expression profiles of 12 gentiopicroside biosynthesis genes were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. These results increase our understanding about how the gentiopicroside biosynthesis pathway in G. macrophylla responds to MeJA. PMID:27851826

  20. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  1. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  2. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  3. Defense against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Arabidopsis is dependent on jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomei; Stotz, Henrik U

    2007-11-01

    Genotypic differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have not been reported due to the extreme susceptibility of this cruciferous plant. To overcome this limitation, we have established inoculation conditions that enable evaluation of differences in susceptibility to S. sclerotiorum among Arabidopsis mutants and ecotypes. Two coil mutant alleles conferred hypersusceptibility to S. sclerotiorum. The plant defensin gene PDF1.2 was no longer induced after challenging the coi1-2 mutant with S. sclerotiorum. Hypersusceptibility of the coi1-2 mutant to S. sclerotiorum was not correlated with oxalate sensitivity. The mutants npr1 and ein2 were also hypersusceptible to S. sclerotiorum. Induction of PDF1.2 and the pathogenesis-related gene PR1 was reduced in ein2 and npr1 mutants, respectively. Actigard, a commercial formulation of the systemic acquired resistance inducer benzothiadiazole, reduced susceptibility to S. sclerotiorum. Based on histochemical analysis of oxalate-deficient and wild-type strains of S. sclerotiorum, oxalate caused a decrease in hydrogen peroxide production but no detectable changes in plant superoxide production or gene expression.

  4. Alternative oxidase (AOX) and phenolic metabolism in methyl jasmonate-treated hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Debabrata; Cardoso, Hélia G; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Mitra, Adinpunya; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2012-05-01

    Methyl-jasmonate (MJ)-treated hairy roots of Daucus carota L. were used to study the influence of alternative oxidase (AOX) in phenylpropanoid metabolism. Phenolic acid accumulation, as well as total flavonoids and lignin content of the MJ-treated hairy roots were decreased by treatment with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a known inhibitor of AOX. The inhibitory effect of SHAM was concentration dependent. Treatment with propyl gallate (PG), another inhibitor of AOX, also had a similar inhibitory effect on accumulation of phenolic acid, total flavonoids and lignin. The transcript levels of two DcAOX genes (DcAOX2a and DcAOX1a) were monitored at selected post-elicitation time points. A notable rise in the transcript levels of both DcAOX genes was observed preceding the MJ-induced enhanced accumulation of phenolics, flavonoids and lignin. An appreciable increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) transcript level was also observed prior to enhanced phenolics accumulation. Both DcAOX genes showed differential transcript accumulation patterns after the onset of elicitation. The transcript levels of DcAOX1a and DcAOX2a attained peak at 6hours post elicitation (hpe) and 12hpe, respectively. An increase in the transcript levels of both DcAOX genes preceding the accumulation of phenylpropanoid-derivatives and lignin showed a positive correlation between AOX activity and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The results provide important new insight about the influence of AOX in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.

  5. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  6. Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

    PubMed Central

    Aranega-Bou, Paz; de la O Leyva, Maria; Finiti, Ivan; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some alternative control strategies of currently emerging plant diseases are based on the use of resistance inducers. This review highlights the recent advances made in the characterization of natural compounds that induce resistance by a priming mechanism. These include vitamins, chitosans, oligogalacturonides, volatile organic compounds, azelaic and pipecolic acid, among others. Overall, other than providing novel disease control strategies that meet environmental regulations, natural priming agents are valuable tools to help unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the induced resistance (IR) phenomenon. The data presented in this review reflect the novel contributions made from studying these natural plant inducers, with special emphasis placed on hexanoic acid (Hx), proposed herein as a model tool for this research field. Hx is a potent natural priming agent of proven efficiency in a wide range of host plants and pathogens. It can early activate broad-spectrum defenses by inducing callose deposition and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. Later it can prime pathogen-specific responses according to the pathogen’s lifestyle. Interestingly, Hx primes redox-related genes to produce an anti-oxidant protective effect, which might be critical for limiting the infection of necrotrophs. Our Hx-IR findings also strongly suggest that it is an attractive tool for the molecular characterization of the plant alarmed state, with the added advantage of it being a natural compound. PMID:25324848

  7. Priming of jasmonate-mediated anti-herbivore defense responses in rice by silicon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the function of silicon (Si) in plant physiology has long been debated, its beneficial effects on plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, ¬including insect herbivory, have been well-documented. In addition, the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in mediating an...

  8. Ecological modulation of plant defense via phytochrome control of jasmonate sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Javier E.; Tao, Yi; Chory, Joanne; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2009-01-01

    For plants, the tradeoff between resource investment in defense and increased growth to out-compete neighbors creates an allocation dilemma. How plants resolve this dilemma, at the mechanistic level, is unclear. We found that Arabidopsis plants produced an attenuated defense phenotype under conditions of crowding and when exposed to far-red (FR) radiation, a light signal that plants use to detect the proximity of neighbors via the photoreceptor phytochrome. This phenotype was detectable through standard bioassays that measured the growth of Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars. Two possible explanations for the effect of FR are: (i) a simple by-product of the diversion of resources to competition, and (ii) a specific effect of phytochrome on defense signaling. The first possibility was ruled out by the fact that the auxin-deficient sav3 mutant, which fails to induce growth responses to FR, still responded to FR with an attenuated defense phenotype. In support of the second hypothesis, we found that phytochrome inactivation by FR caused a strong reduction of plant sensitivity to jasmonates, which are key regulators of plant immunity. The effects of FR on jasmonate sensitivity were restricted to certain elements of the pathway. Supporting the idea that the FR effects on jasmonate signaling are functionally significant, we found that FR failed to increase tissue quality in jar1, a mutant impaired in jasmonate response. We conclude that the plant modulates its investment in defense as a function of the perceived risk of competition, and that this modulation is effected by phytochrome via selective desensitization to jasmonates. PMID:19251652

  9. Effects of Light and Wounding on Jasmonates in Rice phyAphyC Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Rita; Svyatyna, Katharina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Takano, Makoto; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is a central event in photomorphogenesis. This growth inhibition is impaired, when jasmonate biosynthesis is knocked out. Previously, we found that JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (OsJAR1) transcripts were not induced in the phytochrome (phy) mutant phyAphyC. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the regulation of JA and its highly bioactive derivative (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), as well as the transcriptional regulation of several JA-dependent genes both in wild type and phyAphyC mutant. JA and JA-Ile levels increased in the mutant seedlings in response to blue light. However, in phyAphyC mutant leaves, which were continuously wounded, JA and JA-Ile levels were lower compared to those in the wild type. Hence, the mutation of phyA and phyC has differential effects on jasmonate levels depending on the tissue and developmental stage. Our results suggest that the contribution of JA-Ile to signaling during photomorphogenesis of rice is minor, as coleoptile phenotypes of phyAphyC mutants resemble those of jasmonate-deficient mutants despite the fact that induction by blue light leads to higher levels of JA-Ile compared to the wild type. We postulate that phyA and phyC could control the activity of specific enzymes metabolizing JA to active derivatives. PMID:27135497

  10. Auxin Is Rapidly Induced by Herbivore Attack and Regulates a Subset of Systemic, Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Ricardo A. R.; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Arce, Carla C. M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to herbivore attack are regulated by phytohormonal networks. To date, the role of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in this context is not well understood. We quantified and manipulated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAA accumulation in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata plants to unravel its role in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism. We found that IAA is strongly, rapidly, and specifically induced by herbivore attack. IAA is elicited by herbivore oral secretions and fatty acid conjugate elicitors and is accompanied by a rapid transcriptional increase of auxin biosynthetic YUCCA-like genes. IAA accumulation starts 30 to 60 s after local induction and peaks within 5 min after induction, thereby preceding the jasmonate (JA) burst. IAA accumulation does not require JA signaling and spreads rapidly from the wound site to systemic tissues. Complementation and transport inhibition experiments reveal that IAA is required for the herbivore-specific, JA-dependent accumulation of anthocyanins and phenolamides in the stems. In contrast, IAA does not affect the accumulation of nicotine or 7-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides in the same tissue. Taken together, our results uncover IAA as a rapid and specific signal that regulates a subset of systemic, JA-dependent secondary metabolites in herbivore-attacked plants. PMID:27485882

  11. Zinc hyperaccumulation substitutes for defense failures beyond salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways of Alternaria brassicicola attack in Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Berta; Martos, Soledad; Cabot, Catalina; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola-Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 µM), medium (12 µM) and high (102 µM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1.2, CHIB, LOX2, PR1 and BGL2) were activated 24 h upon inoculation. Based on the activation of defense genes 24 h after the inoculation an incompatible fungal-plant interaction could be predicted. Nonetheless, in the longer term (7 days) no effective protection against A. brassicicola was achieved in plants exposed to low and medium Zn supply. After 1 week the biotic stress markers were even further increased in these plants, and this compatible interaction was apparently not caused by a failure in the signaling of the fungal attack, but due to the lack of specificity in the type of the activated defense mechanisms. Only plants receiving high Zn exhibited an incompatible fungal interaction. High Zn accumulation in these plants, possibly in cooperation with high glucosinolate concentrations, substituted for the ineffective defense system and the interaction turned into incompatible. In a threshold-type response, these joint effects efficiently hampered fungal spread and, consequently decreased the biotic stress signaling.

  12. Jasmonate Hormone: Regulating Synthesis of Reduced Carbon Compounds in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Browse, John

    2016-05-13

    Our original interest in understanding the role of jasmonate (JA) in regulating the final stages of stamen and pollen development led to our discovery of the JAZ repressors, and the molecular mechanism of JA action is now a second important focus of our research. The specific goals for this grant period are to: 1. Investigate the generation and clearance of the hormone with emphasis on the regulation of the OPR3 enzyme and the hydrolysis of JA-Ile. 2. Use dominant-negative and overexpression constructs to explore the role of the MYC5 transcription factor in initiating and regulating JA responses. 3. Investigate specific JAZ protein interactions that will help us to recognize and understand the extended network of processes, such as sulfur nutrition, that interface with JA signaling. The COI1 F-Box protein is a JA-Ile coreceptor and coi1 mutant plants lack JA responses. We have tested the possibility that sites of JA action can be probed by using tissue-specific promoters to drive expression of a COI1-YFP fusion protein in coi1 mutant plants deficient in stamen and pollen function. When we expressed COI1 behind a filament-specific promoter (from the DAD1 gene), filament elongation was restored but not anther dehiscence or pollen function. Three tapetum specific promoters, all failed to restore any of these three functions but, unexpectedly, a promoter active in the stomium and epidermal cells, restored both pollen function and anther dehiscence. Most importantly, our results demonstrate the power of promoter::COI1-YFP constructs in revealing the primary sites of JA-regulated gene expression that control developmental and other responses in neighboring tissues. We now plan to use this new tool to test current hypotheses about JA action in other organs of the plant. The MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 proteins are the primary transcription factors initiating defense and root growth responses to JA signaling. However, transgenic plants overexpressing these proteins do not show

  13. The Role of the Jasmonate Response in Plant Susceptibility to Diverse Pathogens with a Range of Lifestyles1[w

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Jennifer S.; Owen, Blythe; Higgins, Verna J.

    2004-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack from insects and pathogens with various resistance strategies. The jasmonate and salicylate signaling pathways are two induced responses that protect plants against these attackers. Knowledge of the range of organisms that are affected by each response is important for understanding how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attackers and the generality of effect of different resistance mechanisms. The jasmonate response is known to protect plants against a wide range of insect herbivores; in this study, we examined the role of the jasmonate response in susceptibility to eight pathogens with diverse lifestyles in the laboratory and field. Recent biochemical models suggest that the lifestyle of the pathogen (necrotroph versus biotroph) should predict whether the jasmonate response will be involved in resistance. We tested this by examining the susceptibility of wild-type (cv Castlemart with no known genes for resistance to the pathogens used) and jasmonate-deficient mutant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants (def1) and by employing rescue treatments of the mutant. Plant susceptibility to five of the eight pathogens we examined was reduced by the jasmonate response, including two bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris), two fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici), and an oomycete (Phytophthora infestans). Susceptibility to three fungi was unaffected (Cladosporium fulvum, Oidium neolycopersici, and Septoria lycopersici). Our results indicate that the jasmonate response reduces damage by a wide range of pathogens from different lifestyles, a result that contrasts with the emerging picture of diseases on Arabidopsis. Thus, the generality of jasmonate-based resistance of tomato challenges the view that ecologically distinct plant parasites are resisted via different mechanisms. PMID:15133157

  14. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  15. Rewiring of the Jasmonate Signaling Pathway in Arabidopsis during Insect Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Verhage, Adriaan; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Raaymakers, Ciska; Van Dam, Nicole M.; Dicke, Marcel; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Plant defenses against insect herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens are differentially regulated by different branches of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. In Arabidopsis, the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (TF) MYC2 and the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) domain TF ORA59 antagonistically control these distinct branches of the JA pathway. Feeding by larvae of the specialist insect herbivore Pieris rapae activated MYC2 transcription and stimulated expression of the MYC2-branch marker gene VSP2, while it suppressed transcription of ORA59 and the ERF-branch marker gene PDF1.2. Mutant jin1 and jar1-1 plants, which are impaired in the MYC2-branch of the JA pathway, displayed a strongly enhanced expression of both ORA59 and PDF1.2 upon herbivory, indicating that in wild-type plants the MYC2-branch is prioritized over the ERF-branch during insect feeding. Weight gain of P. rapae larvae in a no-choice setup was not significantly affected, but in a two-choice setup the larvae consistently preferred jin1 and jar1-1 plants, in which the ERF-branch was activated, over wild-type Col-0 plants, in which the MYC2-branch was induced. In MYC2- and ORA59-impaired jin1-1/RNAi-ORA59 plants this preference was lost, while in ORA59-overexpressing 35S:ORA59 plants it was gained, suggesting that the herbivores were stimulated to feed from plants that expressed the ERF-branch rather than that they were deterred by plants that expressed the MYC2-branch. The feeding preference of the P. rapae larvae could not be linked to changes in glucosinolate levels. Interestingly, application of larval oral secretion into wounded leaf tissue stimulated the ERF-branch of the JA pathway, suggesting that compounds in the oral secretion have the potential to manipulate the plant response toward the caterpillar-preferred ERF-regulated branch of the JA response. Our results suggest that by activating the MYC2-branch of the JA pathway, plants prevent stimulation

  16. Salicylic acid-mediated innate immunity in Arabidopsis is regulated by SIZ1 SUMO E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyoung; Nam, Jaesung; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Na, Gunnam; Miura, Kenji; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Baek, Dongwon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sang Yeol; Salt, David E; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Bohnert, Hans J; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Bressan, Ray A; Hasegawa, Paul M; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Reversible modifications of target proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins are involved in many cellular processes in yeast and animals. Yet little is known about the function of sumoylation in plants. Here, we show that the SIZ1 gene, which encodes an Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase, regulates innate immunity. Mutant siz1 plants exhibit constitutive systemic-acquired resistance (SAR) characterized by elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), increased expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Transfer of the NahG gene to siz1 plants results in reversal of these phenotypes back to wild-type. Analyses of the double mutants, npr1 siz1, pad4 siz1 and ndr1 siz1 revealed that SIZ1 controls SA signalling. SIZ1 interacts epistatically with PAD4 to regulate PR expression and disease resistance. Consistent with these observations, siz1 plants exhibited enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 expressing avrRps4, a bacterial avirulence determinant that responds to the EDS1/PAD4-dependent TIR-NBS-type R gene. In contrast, siz1 plants were not resistant to Pst DC3000 expressing avrRpm1, a bacterial avirulence determinant that responds to the NDR1-dependent CC-NBS-type R gene. Jasmonic acid (JA)-induced PDF1.2 expression and susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea were unaltered in siz1 plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SIZ1 is required for SA and PAD4-mediated R gene signalling, which in turn confers innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

  17. Biosynthesis and Defensive Function of Nδ-Acetylornithine, a Jasmonate-Induced Arabidopsis Metabolite[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Adio, Adewale M.; Casteel, Clare L.; De Vos, Martin; Kim, Jae Hak; Joshi, Vijay; Li, Baohua; Juéry, Caroline; Daron, Josquin; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Jander, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Since research on plant interactions with herbivores and pathogens is often constrained by the analysis of already known compounds, there is a need to identify new defense-related plant metabolites. The uncommon nonprotein amino acid Nδ-acetylornithine was discovered in a targeted search for Arabidopsis thaliana metabolites that are strongly induced by the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Stable isotope labeling experiments show that, after MeJA elicitation, Arg, Pro, and Glu are converted to Orn, which is acetylated by NATA1 to produce Nδ-acetylornithine. MeJA-induced Nδ-acetylornithine accumulation occurs in all tested Arabidopsis accessions, other Arabidopsis species, Capsella rubella, and Boechera stricta, but not in less closely related Brassicaceae. Both insect feeding and Pseudomonas syringae infection increase NATA1 expression and Nδ-acetylornithine accumulation. NATA1 transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum and the addition of Nδ-acetylornithine to an artificial diet both decrease Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) reproduction, suggesting a direct toxic or deterrent effect. However, since broad metabolic changes that are induced by MeJA in wild-type Arabidopsis are attenuated in a nata1 mutant strain, there may also be indirect effects on herbivores and pathogens. In the case of P. syringae, growth on a nata1 mutant is reduced compared with wild-type Arabidopsis, but growth in vitro is unaffected by Nδ-acetylornithine addition. PMID:21917546

  18. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants' susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.

  19. Characterization of α-humulene synthases responsible for the production of sesquiterpenes induced by methyl jasmonate in Aquilaria cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kumeta, Yukie; Ito, Michiho

    2016-07-01

    The resinous portions of Aquilaria and Gyrinops plants are known as 'agarwood' and have a distinctive fragrance. To examine the biosynthesis of these fragrant compounds, we previously established cell cultures of Aquilaria crassna in which the production of three sesquiterpenes (α-guaiene, α-humulene, and δ-guaiene) could be induced by methyl jasmonate (MJ), and showed that cloned δ-guaiene synthase from MJ-treated cells is involved in the synthesis of these three compounds, although only very small amounts of α-humulene are produced. In the present study, cDNAs encoding α-humulene synthases were also isolated. Three putative sesquiterpene synthase clones (AcHS1-3) isolated from the MJ-treated cells had very similar amino acid sequences and shared 52 % identity with δ-guaiene synthases. The recombinant enzymes catalyzed the formation of α-humulene as a major product. Expression of transcripts of the α-humulene synthase and δ-guaiene synthase genes in cultured cells increased after treatment with MJ. These results revealed that these α-humulene and δ-guaiene synthases are involved in the synthesis of three sesquiterpenes induced by MJ treatment.

  20. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  1. Involvement of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in the systemic resistance induced in Arabidopsis by plant growth-promoting fungus Fusarium equiseti GF19-1.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hanae; Hossain, Md Motaher; Kubota, Mayumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) are effective biocontrol agents for a number of soil-borne diseases and are known for their ability to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms triggered by PGPF Fusarium equiseti GF19-1, which is known to increase pathogen resistance in plants, by using GF19-1 spores and the culture filtrate (CF) to treat the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, the leaves were challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) bacteria. Arabidopsis plants treated with GF19-1 spores or the CF elicited ISR against the Pst pathogen, resulting in a restriction of disease severity and suppression of pathogen proliferation. Examination of ISR in various signaling mutants and transgenic plants showed that GF19-1-induced protection was observed in the jasmonate response mutant jar1 and the ethylene response mutant etr1, whereas it was blocked in Arabidopsis plants expressing the NahG transgene or demonstrating a disruption of the NPR1 gene (npr1). Analysis of systemic gene expression revealed that GF19-1 modulates the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5 genes. Moreover, transient accumulation of SA was observed in GF19-1-treated plant, whereas the level was further enhanced after Pst infection of GF19-1-pretreated plants, indicating that accumulation of SA was potentiated when Arabidopsis plants were primed for disease resistance by GF19-1. In conclusion, these findings imply that the induced protective effect conferred by F. equiseti GF19-1 against the leaf pathogen Pst requires responsiveness to an SA-dependent pathway.

  2. Combined chemotherapy or biotherapy with jasmonates: targeting energy metabolism for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Elia, Uri; Flescher, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are known to play a key role in various cellular processes essential to both the life and death of cells, including calcium homeostasis, programmed cell death, and energy metabolism. Over 80 years ago, Otto Warburg discovered that in contrast to normal cells which produce most of their ATP via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis for production of ATP, a phenomenon known today as the "Warburg effect", and one which has been of great importance in the emergence of novel drugs and chemotherapeutic agents specifically targeting cancer cells. Several groups have reported in recent years that members of the plant stress hormones family of jasmonates, and some of their synthetic derivatives, exhibit anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Jasmonates have been shown to act directly on mitochondria of cancer cells, leading to mitochondrial swelling, membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release. Throughout the last few years, different groups have demonstrated that combination of jasmonates and various cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic agents yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect. These results have been demonstrated in a variety of different cancer cell lines and may provide a strong basis for future clinical treatments which involve combination of MJ and different anti-cancerous agents. The potential synergistic effect may allow reduction of the administered dose, decrease of unwanted side effects, and reduction of the likelihood that the tumor will display resistance to the combined therapy.

  3. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T.; de Oliveira Ferreira, Dalton; Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Froehlich, John E.; Johnson, Brendan F.; Kramer, David M.; Jander, Georg; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant (jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates from growth to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. The ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways. PMID:27573094

  4. Factors affecting production of the group A streptococcus bacteriocin SA-FF22.

    PubMed

    Jack, R W; Tagg, J R

    1992-02-01

    Factors influencing the production of streptococcin A-FF22 (SA-FF22) in liquid media were examined. Despite good growth of the producer strain, no SA-FF22 was detected during incubation at 40 degrees C, at pH 7, in Brain Heart Infusion Broth or in Mg(2+)-supplemented media. Optimal SA-FF22 production occurred at 32 degrees C, at pH 6.7, in cultures in Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with glucose 2.25% and yeast extract 1%. Under these conditions SA-FF22 remained cell-associated but could be extracted with acid.

  5. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and affects jasmonate composition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Hu, Tai-Hua; Chen, Qin-Fang; Suen, Yung-Lee; Wang, Mingfu; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Yeung, Edward; Chye, Mee-Len

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6) encodes a cytosolic 10-kDa AtACBP. It confers freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, possibly by its interaction with lipids as indicated by the binding of acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylcholine to recombinant AtACBP6. Herein, transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP6 promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct exhibited strong GUS activity in the vascular tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-AtACBP6 antibodies showed AtACBP6 localization in the phloem especially in the companion cells and sieve elements. Also, the presence of gold grains in the plasmodesmata indicated its potential role in systemic trafficking. The AtACBP6 protein, but not its mRNA, was found in phloem exudate of wild-type Arabidopsis. Fatty acid profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and a reduction in JA and/or its derivatives in acbp6 phloem exudates in comparison to the wild type. Quantitative real-time PCR showed down-regulation of COMATOSE (CTS) in acbp6 rosettes suggesting that AtACBP6 affects CTS function. AtACBP6 appeared to affect the content of JA and/or its derivatives in the sieve tubes, which is consistent with its role in pathogen-defense and in its wound-inducibility of AtACBP6pro::GUS. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of AtACBP6 in JA-biosynthesis in Arabidopsis phloem tissues.

  6. Induction of extracellular defense-related proteins in suspension cultured-cells of Daucus carota elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, María A

    2014-04-01

    Suspension cultured-cells (SCC) of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, separately or in combination, on the induction of defense responses, particularly the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. A comparative study of the extracellular proteome (secretome) between control and elicited carrot SCC pointed to the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to glycoproteins which have inhibitory activity against the cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by pathogens and/or are induced when carrot cells are exposed to a pathogen elicitor. Other amino acid sequences were homologous to Leucine-Rich Repeat domain-containing proteins, which play an essential role in defense against pathogens, as well as in the recognition of microorganisms, making them important players in the innate immunity of this plant. Also, some tryptic peptides were shown to be homologous to a thaumatin-like protein, showing high specificity to abiotic stress and to different reticuline oxidase-like proteins that displayed high levels of antifungal activity, suggesting that methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in SCC of D. carota. Apart from these elicitor-inducible proteins, we observed the presence of PR-proteins in both control and elicited carrot SCC, suggesting that their expression is mainly constitutive. These PR-proteins are putative class IV chitinases, which also have inhibitory activity against pathogen growth and the class III peroxidases that participate in response to environmental stress (e.g. pathogen attack and oxidative), meaning that they are involved in defense responses triggered by both biotic and abiotic factors.

  7. Analysis of low molecular weight acids by negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Rohit; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales

    2007-01-01

    Free 9-aminoacridine base is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix for negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOFMS) analysis of a wide range of low molecular weight organic acids including aliphatic (from acetic to palmitic acid), aromatic acids, phytohormones (e.g. jasmonic and salicylic acids), and amino acids. Low limits of quantitation in the femtomolar range (jasmonic - 250 fmol; caffeic - 160 fmol and salicylic - 12.5 fmol) and linear detector response over two concentration orders in the pico- and femtomolar range are extremely encouraging for the direct study of such acids in complex biological matrices.

  8. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways. PMID:26672615

  9. The Arabidopsis microtubule-associated protein MAP65-3 supports infection by filamentous biotrophic pathogens by down-regulating salicylic acid-dependent defenses.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Michaël; Baurès, Isabelle; Hoefle, Caroline; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Allasia, Valérie; Panabières, Franck; Abad, Pierre; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Keller, Harald; Favery, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and the ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing downy mildew and powdery mildew, respectively, on Arabidopsis. Upon infection, the filamentous pathogens induce the formation of intracellular bulbous structures called haustoria, which are required for the biotrophic lifestyle. We previously showed that the microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-3 plays a critical role in organizing cytoskeleton microtubule arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis. This renders the protein essential for the development of giant cells, which are the feeding sites induced by root knot nematodes. Here, we show that AtMAP65-3 expression is also induced in leaves upon infection by the downy mildew oomycete and the powdery mildew fungus. Loss of AtMAP65-3 function in the map65-3 mutant dramatically reduced infection by both pathogens, predominantly at the stages of leaf penetration. Whole-transcriptome analysis showed an over-represented, constitutive activation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, signaling, and defense execution in map65-3, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling was down-regulated. Preventing SA synthesis and accumulation in map65-3 rescued plant susceptibility to pathogens, but not the developmental phenotype caused by cytoskeleton defaults. AtMAP65-3 thus has a dual role. It positively regulates cytokinesis, thus plant growth and development, and negatively interferes with plant defense against filamentous biotrophs. Our data suggest that downy mildew and powdery mildew stimulate AtMAP65-3 expression to down-regulate SA signaling for infection.

  10. Attraction of New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus, to cis-jasmone, a volatile identified from Japanese honeysuckle flowers.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Mitchell, V J; McLaren, G F; Manning, L M; Bunn, B; Suckling, D M

    2009-06-01

    This work was undertaken to identify floral compound(s) produced by honeysuckle flowers, Lonicera japonica (Thunberg), that mediate the attraction of New Zealand flower thrips Thrips obscuratus (Crawford). Volatiles were collected during the day and night and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine their emission over these two periods. Nine compounds were identified in the headspace; the main compound was linalool, and the other compounds were germacrene D, E,E-alpha-farnesene, nerolidol, cis-jasmone, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and indole. There was a quantitative difference between day and night volatiles, with cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and cis-jasmone emitted in higher amounts during the day compared to the night. When the compounds were tested individually in field trapping experiments, only cis-jasmone attracted New Zealand flower thrips in a significant number. In another field trapping experiment, cis-jasmone caught similar numbers of New Zealand flower thrips compared to a floral blend formulated to mimic the ratios of the compounds emitted during the day, while catch with the night-emitted floral blend was not significantly different from the control. Subsequently, two field trapping experiments were conducted to determine the optimal attraction dose for cis-jasmone, a range of 1-100 mg loaded onto a red rubber stopper was tested, and the highest catches were in traps baited with 100 mg loading. A higher range of 100-1000 mg loaded into polyethylene vials was tested, and the highest catch was in traps baited with 500 mg. In another experiment aimed at comparing the attraction efficacy of cis-jasmone with the two other known thrips attractants (ethyl nicotinate and p-anisaldehyde), ethyl nicotinate showed the highest trap catch followed by cis-jasmone. A smaller number of Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) was attracted to traps baited with cis-jasmone. These results

  11. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P; Beuzón, Carmen R; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2016-01-15

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels.

  12. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P.; Beuzón, Carmen R.; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels. PMID:27135228

  13. Number of SA Astronomy Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    The SA professional astronomical community has grown enormously in recent years with the advent of SALT, SKA/MeerKAT/KAT and HESS (Namibia). In this article I have made an attempt to list the people involved, namely those with doctorates working in fields of astronomy and related technologies, cosmic rays, cosmology and space science.

  14. The moss Physcomitrella patens contains cyclopentenones but no jasmonates: mutations in allene oxide cyclase lead to reduced fertility and altered sporophyte morphology.

    PubMed

    Stumpe, Michael; Göbel, Cornelia; Faltin, Bernd; Beike, Anna K; Hause, Bettina; Himmelsbach, Kiyoshi; Bode, Julia; Kramell, Robert; Wasternack, Claus; Frank, Wolfgang; Reski, Ralf; Feussner, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    • Two cDNAs encoding allene oxide cyclases (PpAOC1, PpAOC2), key enzymes in the formation of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor (9S,13S)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA), were isolated from the moss Physcomitrella patens. • Recombinant PpAOC1 and PpAOC2 show substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 13-hydroperoxy linolenic acid (13-HPOTE); PpAOC2 also shows substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 12-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid (12-HPETE). • In protonema and gametophores the occurrence of cis-(+)-OPDA, but neither JA nor the isoleucine conjugate of JA nor that of cis-(+)-OPDA was detected. • Targeted knockout mutants for PpAOC1 and for PpAOC2 were generated, while double mutants could not be obtained. The ΔPpAOC1 and ΔPpAOC2 mutants showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology and interrupted sporogenesis.

  15. Methyl jasmonate promotes the transient reduction of the levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in Ricinus communis plants.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Soares, Alexandra Martins; de Souza, Thiago Freitas; de Souza Domingues, Sarah Jane; Jacinto, Tânia; Tavares Machado, Olga Lima

    2004-06-01

    Jasmonates are signaling molecules that play a key role in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction and defense against insects and pathogens. This study investigated the effects of methyl jasmonate on the protein pattern of Ricinus communis plants and the activity of guaiacol peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme. Methyl jasmonate treatment caused a transient reduction in guaiacol peroxidase activity. A similar response was observed for the levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin protein. Moreover, the levels of the small and large chains of Rubisco were also reduced. The transient reduction of the levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes could account for the increase in the levels of H2O2, an important signaling molecule in plant defense.

  16. Maize death acids, 9-lipoxygenase derived cyclopente(a)nones, display activity as cytotoxic phytoalexins and transcriptional mediators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant damage promotes the interaction of lipoxygenases (LOX) with fatty acids yielding 9-hydroperoxides, 13-hydroperoxides and complex arrays of oxylipins. The action of 13-LOX on linolenic acid enables production of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and its downstream products, termed jasmonates. ...

  17. Methyl jasmonate mediates upregulation of bacoside A production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poojadevi; Yadav, Sheetal; Srivastava, Anshu; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2013-07-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) enhances the production of a range of secondary metabolites including triterpenoid saponins in a variety of plant species. Here, it enhanced production of bacoside A, a valuable triterpenoid saponin having nootropic therapeutic activity in in vitro shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, the only known source of bacoside A. The highest yield was with 50 μM MJ giving 4.4 mg bacoside A/g dry wt; an 1.8-fold increase (compared to control) after 1 week.

  18. Dissecting a new connection between cytokinin and jasmonic acid in control of leaf growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth is mediated by two cellular processes: division and elongation. The maize leaf is an excellent model to study plant growth since these processes are spatially separated into discreet zones - a division zone (DZ), transition zone (TZ), and elongation zone (EZ) - at the base of the leaf. ...

  19. Tomato susceptibility to root-knot nematodes requires an intact jasmonic Acid signaling pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) infection was monitored using TOM1 cDNA microarray with resistant (‘Motelle’; Mi-1) and susceptible (‘Moneymaker’; mi) tomato at 24 h after RKN infection. The array analysis identified 1497 genes and 750 genes d...

  20. tasselseed1 is a lipoxygenase affecting jasmonic acid signaling in sex determination of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex determination in maize is controlled by a developmental cascade leading to the formation of unisexual florets derived from an initially bisexual floral meristem. Abortion of pistil primordia in staminate florets is controlled by a tasselseed-mediated cell death process. Here, we describe the pos...

  1. Investigating the roles of jasmonic acid and cytokinin in maize leaf growth control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth is the accumulation of biomass attributed to cell division and cell expansion. In the maize leaf, growth is spatially separated into three distinct growth zones: the division zone, elongation zone, and the maturation zone. This spatial separation makes the maize leaf a useful model for ...

  2. A Role for the GCC-Box in Jasmonate-Mediated Activation of the PDF1.2 Gene of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca L.; Kazan, Kemal; McGrath, Ken C.; Maclean, Don J.; Manners, John M.

    2003-01-01

    The PDF1.2 gene of Arabidopsis encoding a plant defensin is commonly used as a marker for characterization of the jasmonate-dependent defense responses. Here, using PDF1.2 promoter-deletion lines linked to the β-glucoronidase-reporter gene, we examined putative promoter elements associated with jasmonate-responsive expression of this gene. Using stably transformed plants, we first characterized the extended promoter region that positively regulates basal expression from the PDF1.2 promoter. Second, using promoter deletion constructs including one from which the GCC-box region was deleted, we observed a substantially lower response to jasmonate than lines carrying this motif. In addition, point mutations introduced into the core GCC-box sequence substantially reduced jasmonate responsiveness, whereas addition of a 20-nucleotide-long promoter element carrying the core GCC-box and flanking nucleotides provided jasmonate responsiveness to a 35S minimal promoter. Taken together, these results indicated that the GCC-box plays a key role in conferring jasmonate responsiveness to the PDF1.2 promoter. However, deletion or specific mutations introduced into the core GCC-box did not completely abolish the jasmonate responsiveness of the promoter, suggesting that the other promoter elements lying downstream from the GCC-box region may also contribute to jasmonate responsiveness. In other experiments, we identified a jasmonate- and pathogen-responsive ethylene response factor transcription factor, AtERF2, which when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants activated transcription from the PDF1.2, Thi2.1, and PR4 (basic chitinase) genes, all of which contain a GCC-box sequence in their promoters. Our results suggest that in addition to their roles in regulating ethylene-mediated gene expression, ethylene response factors also appear to play important roles in regulating jasmonate-responsive gene expression, possibly via interaction with the GCC-box. PMID:12805630

  3. Suppressing Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Alters Chloroplast Development and Triggers Sterol-Dependent Induction of Jasmonate- and Fe-Related Responses.

    PubMed

    Manzano, David; Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Altabella, Teresa; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes (FPS1 and FPS2) encoding FPS. Single fps1 and fps2 knockout mutants are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, while fps1/fps2 double mutants are embryo lethal. To assess the effect of FPS down-regulation at postembryonic developmental stages, we generated Arabidopsis conditional knockdown mutants expressing artificial microRNAs devised to simultaneously silence both FPS genes. Induction of silencing from germination rapidly caused chlorosis and a strong developmental phenotype that led to seedling lethality. However, silencing of FPS after seed germination resulted in a slight developmental delay only, although leaves and cotyledons continued to show chlorosis and altered chloroplasts. Metabolomic analyses also revealed drastic changes in the profile of sterols, ubiquinones, and plastidial isoprenoids. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcriptomic analysis showed that a reduction in FPS activity levels triggers the misregulation of genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses, the most prominent one being the rapid induction of a set of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway. Down-regulation of FPS also triggered an iron-deficiency transcriptional response that is consistent with the iron-deficient phenotype observed in FPS-silenced plants. The specific inhibition of the sterol biosynthesis pathway by chemical and genetic blockage mimicked these transcriptional responses, indicating that sterol depletion is the primary cause of the observed alterations. Our results highlight the importance of sterol homeostasis for normal chloroplast development and function and reveal important clues about how isoprenoid and sterol metabolism is integrated within plant physiology and development.

  4. Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Transcriptional Responses and Pentacyclic Triterpene Biosynthesis in Sweet Basil1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Maiti, Protiti; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Shanker, Karuna; Ghosh, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is well known for its diverse pharmacological properties and has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Although a variety of secondary metabolites with potent biological activities are identified, our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways that produce them has remained largely incomplete. We studied transcriptional changes in sweet basil after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, which is considered an elicitor of secondary metabolites, and identified 388 candidate MeJA-responsive unique transcripts. Transcript analysis suggests that in addition to controlling its own biosynthesis and stress responses, MeJA up-regulates transcripts of the various secondary metabolic pathways, including terpenoids and phenylpropanoids/flavonoids. Furthermore, combined transcript and metabolite analysis revealed MeJA-induced biosynthesis of the medicinally important ursane-type and oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenes. Two MeJA-responsive oxidosqualene cyclases (ObAS1 and ObAS2) that encode for 761- and 765-amino acid proteins, respectively, were identified and characterized. Functional expressions of ObAS1 and ObAS2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to the production of β-amyrin and α-amyrin, the direct precursors of oleanane-type and ursane-type pentacyclic triterpenes, respectively. ObAS1 was identified as a β-amyrin synthase, whereas ObAS2 was a mixed amyrin synthase that produced both α-amyrin and β-amyrin but had a product preference for α-amyrin. Moreover, transcript and metabolite analysis shed light on the spatiotemporal regulation of pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis in sweet basil. Taken together, these results will be helpful in elucidating the secondary metabolic pathways of sweet basil and developing metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of pentacyclic triterpenes. PMID:24367017

  5. [An intron-free methyl jasmonate inducible geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene from Taxus media and its functional identification in yeast].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhihua; Gong, Yifu; Kai, Guoyin; Zuo, Kaijing; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiumin; Wei, Yamin; Guo, Liang; Tan, Feng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2005-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS, EC: 2.5.1.29) catalyzes the biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which is a key precursor for diterpenes including Taxol, one of the most potent antitumor drugs. In order to investigate the role of GGPP synthase in taxol biosynthesis, we cloned, characterized and functionally expressed the GGPP synthase gene from Taxus media. A 3743-bp genomic sequence of T. media was isolated by genome walking strategy which contained an 1182-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 393-amino acid polypeptide that showed high similarity to other plant GGPPSs. Subsequently the full-length cDNA of the GGPPS gene of T. media (designated TmGGPPS) was amplified by RACE. Bioinformatic analysis showed that TmGGPPS was an intron-free gene and its deduced polypeptide contained all the five conserved domains and functional aspartate-rich motifs of the prenyltransferases. By constructing the phylogenetic tree of plant GGPPSs, it was found that plant-derived GGPPSs could be divided into two classes, angiosperm and gymnosperm classes, which might have evolved in parallel from the same ancestor. To our knowledge this was the first report that the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase genes were free of intron and evolved in parallel between angiosperms and gymnosperms. The coding sequence of TmGGPPS was expressed in yeast mutant (SFNY368) lacking of GGPP synthase activity through functional complementation, and the transgenic yeast showed to have activity of GGPP synthase. This was also the first time to use SFNY368 to identify the function of plant-derived GGPPSs. Furthermore, investigation of the impact of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the expression of TmGGPPS revealed that MeJA-treated T. media cultured cells had much higher expression of TmGGPPS than untreated cells.

  6. Methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses are associated with elevation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Aijun; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-10-15

    It has been known that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) interacts with ethylene to elicit resistance. In green mature tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun), 0.02mM MeJA increased the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), and consequently influenced the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Fruits treated with a combination of 0.02 MeJA and 0.02 α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB, a competitive inhibitor of ACO) exhibited a lower ethylene production comparing to that by 0.02mM MeJA alone. The increased activities of defense enzymes and subsequent control of disease incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea with 0.2mM MeJA treatment was impaired by AIB as well. A close relationship (P<0.05) was found between the activity alterations of ACO and that of chitinase (CHI) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU). In addition, this study further detected the changes of gene expressions and enzyme kinetics of ACO to different concentrations of MeJA. LeACO1 was found the principal member from the ACO gene family to respond to MeJA. Accumulation of LeACO1/3/4 transcripts followed the concentration pattern of MeJA treatments, where the largest elevations were reached by 0.2mM. For kinetic analysis, K(m) values of ACO stepped up during the experiment and reached the maximums at 0.2mM MeJA with ascending concentrations of treatments. V(max) exhibited a gradual increase from 3h to 24h, and the largest induction appeared with 1.0mM MeJA. The results suggested that ACO is involved in MeJA-induced resistance in tomato, and the concentration influence of MeJA on ACO was attributable to the variation of gene transcripts and enzymatic properties.

  7. The coat protein of Alfalfa mosaic virus interacts and interferes with the transcriptional activity of the bHLH transcription factor ILR3 promoting salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling response.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    During virus infection, specific viral component-host factor interaction elicits the transcriptional reprogramming of diverse cellular pathways. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) can establish a compatible interaction in tobacco and Arabidopsis hosts. We show that the coat protein (CP) of AMV interacts directly with transcription factor (TF) ILR3 of both species. ILR3 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family member of TFs, previously proposed to participate in diverse metabolic pathways. ILR3 has been shown to regulate NEET in Arabidopsis, a critical protein in plant development, senescence, iron metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. We show that the AMV CP-ILR3 interaction causes a fraction of this TF to relocate from the nucleus to the nucleolus. ROS, pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) mRNAs, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents are increased in healthy Arabidopsis loss-of-function ILR3 mutant (ilr3.2) plants, which implicates ILR3 in the regulation of plant defence responses. In AMV-infected wild-type (wt) plants, NEET expression is reduced slightly, but is induced significantly in ilr3.2 mutant plants. Furthermore, the accumulation of SA and JA is induced in Arabidopsis wt-infected plants. AMV infection in ilr3.2 plants increases JA by over 10-fold, and SA is reduced significantly, indicating an antagonist crosstalk effect. The accumulation levels of viral RNAs are decreased significantly in ilr3.2 mutants, but the virus can still systemically invade the plant. The AMV CP-ILR3 interaction may down-regulate a host factor, NEET, leading to the activation of plant hormone responses to obtain a hormonal equilibrium state, where infection remains at a level that does not affect plant viability.

  8. Methyl Jasmonate: An Alternative for Improving the Quality and Health Properties of Fresh Fruits.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Lobos, Tomas; Cardemil, Liliana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Retamales, Jorge; Jaakola, Laura; Alberdi, Miren; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra

    2016-05-31

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant growth regulator belonging to the jasmonate family. It plays an important role as a possible airborne signaling molecule mediating intra- and inter-plant communications and modulating plant defense responses, including antioxidant systems. Most assessments of this compound have dealt with post-harvest fruit applications, demonstrating induced plant resistance against the detrimental impacts of storage (chilling injuries and pathogen attacks), enhancing secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the interactions between MeJA and other compounds or technological tools for enhancing antioxidant capacity and quality of fruits were also reviewed. The pleiotropic effects of MeJA have raisen numerous as-yet unanswered questions about its mode of action. The aim of this review was endeavored to clarify the role of MeJA on improving pre- and post-harvest fresh fruit quality and health properties. Interestingly, the influence of MeJA on human health will be also discussed.

  9. Wound-Inducible Proteinase Inhibitors in Pepper. Differential Regulation upon Wounding, Systemin, and Methyl Jasmonate1

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Daniel S.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    2001-01-01

    Seven small (approximately 6,000 D) wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor proteins were isolated from leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants that are members of the potato inhibitor II family. N-terminal sequences obtained indicated that the pepper leaf proteinase inhibitors (PLPIs) exhibit homology to two GenBank accessions that code for preproteins containing three isoinhibitors domains each that, when post-translationally processed, can account for the mixture of isoinhibitors that are reported herein from pepper leaves. A constitutive level of PLPI proteins was found in pepper leaves, and these levels increased up to 2.6-fold upon wounding of the lower leaves. Exposing intact plants to methyl jasmonate vapors induced the accumulation of PLPIs. Supplying excised young pepper plants with water through the cut stems induced PLPI proteins to levels higher than those found in intact plants, but with high variability. Supplying the excised plants with systemin did not result in an increase of PLPI levels that were statistically higher than levels found in excised plants. Gel-blot analyses of PLPI induction revealed the presence of two mRNA bands, having slightly different mobilities in agarose gels. Only the low Mr mRNA is present in untreated control plants, and it appears to be responsible for the constitutive levels of PLPI found in leaves. Both mRNA species are wound- and methyl jasmonate-inducible. Only the low- Mr species is weakly induced by systemin, indicating a differential expression of the two PLPI species. PMID:11351092

  10. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER Is a Direct Target of JAZ3 and Modulates Responses to Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Ibañez, Selena; Fernandez-Barbero, Gemma; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating growth, development, and immunity. Activation of the JA-signaling pathway is based on the hormone-triggered ubiquitination and removal of transcriptional repressors (JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN [JAZ] proteins) by an SCF receptor complex (SCFCOI1/JAZ). This removal allows the rapid activation of transcription factors (TFs) triggering a multitude of downstream responses. Identification of TFs bound by the JAZ proteins is essential to better understand how the JA-signaling pathway modulates and integrates different responses. In this study, we found that the JAZ3 repressor physically interacts with the YABBY (YAB) family transcription factor FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YAB1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FIL regulates developmental processes such as axial patterning and growth of lateral organs, shoot apical meristem activity, and inflorescence phyllotaxy. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated responses in loss- and gain-of-function FIL lines suggested that YABs function as transcriptional activators of JA-triggered responses. Moreover, we show that MYB75, a component of the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex regulating anthocyanin production, is a direct transcriptional target of FIL. We propose that JAZ3 interacts with YABs to attenuate their transcriptional function. Upon perception of JA signal, degradation of JAZ3 by the SCFCOI1 complex releases YABs to activate a subset of JA-regulated genes in leaves leading to anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss, and reduced bacterial defense. PMID:26530088

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Nie, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhihui; Ye, Zhijian; Zou, Xiaotao; Zhang, Lianhui; Wang, Zhenzhong

    2014-05-01

    Jasmonate is an important endogenous chemical signal that plays a role in modulation of plant defense responses. To understand its mechanisms in regulation of rice resistance against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, comparative phenotype and proteomic analyses were undertaken using two near-isogenic cultivars with different levels of disease resistance. Methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment significantly enhanced the resistance against M. oryzae in both cultivars but the treated resistant cultivar maintained a higher level of resistance than the same treated susceptible cultivars. Proteomic analysis revealed 26 and 16 MeJA-modulated proteins in resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively, and both cultivars shared a common set of 13 proteins. Cumulatively, a total of 29 unique MeJA-influenced proteins were identified with many of them known to be associated with plant defense response and ROS accumulation. Consistent with the findings of proteomic analysis, MeJA treatment increased ROS accumulation in both cultivars with the resistant cultivar showing higher levels of ROS production and cell membrane damage than the susceptible cultivar. Taken together, our data add a new insight into the mechanisms of overall MeJA-induced rice defense response and provide a molecular basis of using MeJA to enhance fungal disease resistance in resistant and susceptible rice cultivars.

  12. Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Antioxidant Activity, Flavonoid Content and Antiproliferation of Human Cancer Cells in Blackberries (Rubus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of preharvest methyl jasmonate (MJ) application on fruit quality, antioxidant activity and flavonoid content in blackberries (Rubus spp.) were determined. Anticancer activity against human lung A549 cells and HL-60 leukemia cells was also evaluated. Three blackberry cultivars (Chester T...

  13. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine hydrolase 1 (JIH1) contributes to a termination of jasmonate signaling in N. attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Woldemariam, Melkamu G; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate signaling pathway is essential for plant development, reproduction, and defense against herbivores and pathogens. When attacked by herbivores, plants elicit defense responses through the rapid accumulation of jasmonates. Although the transduction of the jasmonate burst into downstream responses has been largely resolved in the past decade, how the jasmonate burst is switched off remained unknown. Recently, two mechanisms that involve cytochrome p450-mediated hydroxylation/carboxylation and NaJIH1-mediated hydrolysis of JA-Ile were identified as major termination mechanisms of JA signaling. Due to a lack of hydrolysis, N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of the JIH1 gene accumulated significantly more JA-Ile than did wild type plants and became more resistant to herbivore attack. Although less likely, additional functions of JIH1, such as contributing to the pool of free Ile and thereby increasing JA-Ile accumulation, remained untested. Here we show that increased isoleucine availability does not explain the observed phenotype in JIH1-deficient N. attenuata plants. PMID:24776843

  14. [Genetic screening and analysis of suppressors of asa1-1 (soa) defective in jasmonate-mediated lateral root formation in Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-An; Qi, Lin-Lin; Sun, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Chuan-You

    2011-09-01

    It has been shown that jasmonate modulates the lateral root development through crosstalk with auxin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous application of jasmonate stimulates lateral root formation in wild type but inhibits lateral root formation in asa1-1. Our previous work has demonstrated that the lateral root formation defect of asa1-1 is co-related with jasmonte effect on PIN2 protein levels. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying jasmonate-mediated reduction of plasma membrane (PM)-resident PIN2 abundance, we have conducted a genetic screen to identify suppressors of asa1-1 (soa), which showed lateral root formation in the presence of jasmonate. Here, we described the basic characterization of soa563 and soa856. We showed that both soa563 and soa856 displayed restored lateral root formation in response to exogenous jasmonate. In addition, jasmonate-induced PIN2:GFP reduction was blocked in these two mutants. Our on-going effort to identify genes defined by these mutants promise to shed new light on the understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling jasmonate-mediated regulation of PIN2 protein trafficking and turnover.

  15. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ˙OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  16. Synthetic cis-jasmone exposure induces wheat and barley volatiles that repel the pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J; Wawrzyniak, Maria; Lemańczyk, Grzegorz; Wrzesińska, Danuta; Piesik, Dariusz

    2013-05-01

    The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance that deters herbivores and attracts natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 μl of 1, 100, and 1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)) and durations of exposure (1, 3, and 6 h). Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, adult behavioral responses were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer to cis-jasmone induced plant VOC bouquets and to two synthetic blends of VOCs (3 green leaf volatiles (GLVs); 4 terpenes + indole). In both cereals, eight VOCs [(Z)-3-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanyl acetate, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and indole] were induced 100- to 1000-fold after cis-jasmone exposure. The degree of induction in both cereals was usually positively and linearly associated with increasing exposure dose and duration. However, VOC emission rate was only ~2-fold greater from plants exposed to the highest vs. lowest cis-jasmone exposure doses (1 × 10(4) difference) or durations (6-fold difference). Male and female O. melanopus were deterred by both cereal VOC bouquets after plant exposure to the high cis-jasmone dose (1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)), while females were also deterred after plant exposure to the low dose (1 ng μl(-1)) but attracted to unexposed plant VOC bouquets. Both O. melanopus sexes were repelled by terpene/indole and GLV blends at two concentrations (25 ng · min(-1); 125 ng · min(-1)), but attracted to the lowest dose (1 ng · min(-1)) of a GLV blend. It is possible that the biologically relevant low cis-jasmone dose has ecological activity and potential for inducing field crop VOCs to deter O. melanopus.

  17. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

  18. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-09-03

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence.

  19. Methyl jasmonate stimulates jaceosidin and hispidulin production in cell cultures of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chun-xiang; Cheng, Li-qin; Lv, Xiao-fen; Zhao, De-xiu; Ma, Fengshan

    2006-07-01

    Cell cultures of Saussurea medusa produce valuable secondary metabolites, and jaceosidin and hispidulin are the major bioactive compounds. In the present study, the cultures were challenged by methyl jasmonate (MJ). The highest jaceosidin and hispidulin concentrations (65.2 +/- 3.67 mg/L and 12.3 +/- 0.47 mg/L) were achieved with 5 microM MJ added to 9-d-old subcultures, being 2.2-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, higher than those from controls. The elicitor had little influence on cell growth, indicating that the changed biological processes did not include alterations in cell division. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase were transiently increased after treatment with MJ, which suggests that this elicitor modifies jaceosidin and hispidulin production by regulating the phenylpropanoid pathway.

  20. Enantioselective isolation of methyl jasmonate using permethyl-beta-cyclodextrin HPLC.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema; Del Mar Caja, Maria; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    A method based on the use of HPLC for the enantioselective resolution of the four stereoisomers of methyl jasmonate (MJ) with no need for the previous formation of the diastereoisomers is developed. To that end, a Nucleodex-beta-PM column as well as an optimization process considering different flow rates and mobile phase compositions were required. As a result, 0.8 mL/min and 55:45 methanol/water composition were the conditions selected to carry out the separation of the stereoisomers. Isolation of pure (-)- and (+)-MJ was accomplished by collecting the HPLC fractions corresponding to their elution time. SPE was subsequently used to concentrate and change the solvent of the HPLC fractions collected. Chiral GC and polarimetry were additionally employed to evaluate the purity and optical rotation, respectively, of the enantiomers separated. The results found in this study are particularly relevant considering that MJ stereoisomers are not commercially available.

  1. Effect of methyl jasmonate on phenolics, isothiocyanate, and metabolic enzymes in radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Choi, Ju-Hee

    2006-09-20

    The effect of spraying exogenous plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) upon radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.) was investigated in aspects of total phenolic content (TPC), isothiocyanate content, antioxidant activity of the radish extract, and enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and myrosinase. The MeJA treatment significantly increased the TPC that resulted in the increased DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the PAL activity also increased by 60% at 24 h after MeJA treatment. However, the same treatment decreased the amount of 4-methylthio-3-butenylisothiocyanate (MTBITC), a major isothiocyanate in radish sprout and the activity of myrosinase, an enzyme related to produce isothiocyanates.

  2. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  3. VIH2 Regulates the Synthesis of Inositol Pyrophosphate InsP8 and Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Laha, Debabrata; Johnen, Philipp; Azevedo, Cristina; Dynowski, Marek; Weiß, Michael; Capolicchio, Samanta; Mao, Haibin; Iven, Tim; Steenbergen, Merel; Freyer, Marc; Gaugler, Philipp; de Campos, Marília K.F.; Zheng, Ning; Feussner, Ivo; Jessen, Henning J.; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Saiardi, Adolfo; Schaaf, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Diphosphorylated inositol polyphosphates, also referred to as inositol pyrophosphates, are important signaling molecules that regulate critical cellular activities in many eukaryotic organisms, such as membrane trafficking, telomere maintenance, ribosome biogenesis, and apoptosis. In mammals and fungi, two distinct classes of inositol phosphate kinases mediate biosynthesis of inositol pyrophosphates: Kcs1/IP6K- and Vip1/PPIP5K-like proteins. Here, we report that PPIP5K homologs are widely distributed in plants and that Arabidopsis thaliana VIH1 and VIH2 are functional PPIP5K enzymes. We show a specific induction of inositol pyrophosphate InsP8 by jasmonate and demonstrate that steady state and jasmonate-induced pools of InsP8 in Arabidopsis seedlings depend on VIH2. We identify a role of VIH2 in regulating jasmonate perception and plant defenses against herbivorous insects and necrotrophic fungi. In silico docking experiments and radioligand binding-based reconstitution assays show high-affinity binding of inositol pyrophosphates to the F-box protein COI1-JAZ jasmonate coreceptor complex and suggest that coincidence detection of jasmonate and InsP8 by COI1-JAZ is a critical component in jasmonate-regulated defenses. PMID:25901085

  4. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  5. Jasmonoyl isoleucine accumulation is needed for abscisic acid build-up in roots of Arabidopsis under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-10-01

    Phytohormones are central players in sensing and signalling numerous environmental conditions like drought. In this work, hormone profiling together with gene expression of key enzymes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate biosynthesis were studied in desiccating Arabidopsis roots. Jasmonic acid (JA) content transiently increased after stress imposition whereas progressive and concomitant ABA and Jasmonoyl Isoleucine (JA-Ile) accumulations were detected. Molecular data suggest that, at least, part of the hormonal regulation takes place at the biosynthetic level. These observations also point to a possible involvement of jasmonates on ABA biosynthesis under stress. To test this hypothesis, mutants impaired in jasmonate biosynthesis (opr3, lox6 and jar1-1) and in JA-dependent signalling (coi1) were employed. Results showed that the early JA accumulation leading to JA-Ile build up was necessary for an ABA increase in roots under two different water stress conditions. Signal transduction between water stress-induced JA-Ile accumulation and COI1 is necessary for a full induction of the ABA biosynthesis pathway and subsequent hormone accumulation in roots of Arabidopsis plants. The present work adds a level of interaction between jasmonates and ABA at the biosynthetic level.

  6. Salicylic acid sans aspirin in animals and man: persistence in fasting and biosynthesis from benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Baxter, Gwendoline; Dreyer, Jacob S; Halket, John M; Flynn, Robert; Lawrence, James R

    2008-12-24

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A (13)C(6) benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology.

  7. Beyond SaGMRotI: Conversion to SaArb, SaSN, and SaMaxRot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson-Lamprey, J. A.; Boore, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the seismic design of structures, estimates of design forces are usually provided to the engineer in the form of elastic response spectra. Predictive equations for elastic response spectra are derived from empirical recordings of ground motion. The geometric mean of the two orthogonal horizontal components of motion is often used as the response value in these predictive equations, although it is not necessarily the most relevant estimate of forces within the structure. For some applications it is desirable to estimate the response value on a randomly chosen single component of ground motion, and in other applications the maximum response in a single direction is required. We give adjustment factors that allow converting the predictions of geometric-mean ground-motion predictions into either of these other two measures of seismic ground-motion intensity. In addition, we investigate the relation of the strike-normal component of ground motion to the maximum response values. We show that the strike-normal component of ground motion seldom corresponds to the maximum horizontal-component response value (in particular, at distances greater than about 3 km from faults), and that focusing on this case in exclusion of others can result in the underestimation of the maximum component. This research provides estimates of the maximum response value of a single component for all cases, not just near-fault strike-normal components. We provide modification factors that can be used to convert predictions of ground motions in terms of the geometric mean to the maximum spectral acceleration (SaMaxRot) and the random component of spectral acceleration (SaArb). Included are modification factors for both the mean and the aleatory standard deviation of the logarithm of the motions.

  8. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ↔ micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of the CST2 locus coding for cystatin SA.

    PubMed

    Shintani, M; Minaguchi, K; Isemura, S; Saitoh, E; Sanada, K; Semba, T

    1994-07-01

    A new genetic polymorphism of cystatin SA has been identified in human submandibular-sublingual saliva by means of basic gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-cystatin S. Two proteins, SA1 and SA2, are given by two alleles of CST2, viz., CST2*1 and CST*2. Inheritance is controlled by two codominant alleles at an autosomal locus. This hypothesis is supported by studies of 16 families 32 children. Gene frequencies for CST2*1 and CST2*2 are 0.935 and 0.065, respectively (n = 341). Eighteen amino acids determined among 20 N-terminal residues of cystatin SA2 are identical with the sequence encoded by CST2. Three forms of cystatin S (mono-phosphorylated cystatin S, di-phosphorylated cystatin S, and non-phosphorylated cystatin S) are present in the 341 saliva samples tested.

  10. New perspective of the bHLH-MYB complex in jasmonate-regulated plant fertility in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Huang, Huang; Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Bei; Song, Susheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of plant hormones, essential in plant development and defense. JA induces the interaction of the JA receptor Coronatine Insensitive 1 with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, and promotes subsequent JAZs degradation, leading to the release of downstream factors and activation of diverse plant development and defense processes. We recently revealed that the IIIe bHLH transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, MYC4 and MYC5 interact with the MYB transcription factors MYB21 and MYB24 to form the bHLH-MYB complex, and JAZs repress the bHLH-MYB complex to regulate JA-mediated stamen development. Here, we further discuss the different properties of the components of the bHLH-MYB complex in expression pattern and stamen regulation. PMID:26829586

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 mediates nuclear translocation of ORE3 to promote ORE9 gene expression in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yushan; Liu, Jian; Chai, Jinyu; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a potent promoter of plant senescence. ORESARA3 (ORE3)/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), a protein similar to the members of the disease-related Nramp metal transporter family, is involved in cross-talk among several senescence processes related to abscisic acid, ethylene, MeJA, age and darkness. Nevertheless, the mechanism involved in the regulation of ORE3/EIN2 in exogenous MeJA-induced leaf senescence remains unclear. The C-terminal end of ORE3/EIN2 (CEND) was cleaved from ORE3/EIN2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum and then transferred to the nucleus during MeJA-induced senescence. Further analyses showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) promoted CEND cleavage and nuclear translocation. Nuclear CEND accumulated ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), a transcription factor that accelerates MeJA-induced leaf senescence wherein ORESARA9 (ORE9) expression was suppressed in ein3, ore3, and mpk6 mutant plants. ChIP experiments revealed that EIN3 bound directly to the ORE9 promoter and this binding was enhanced in MeJA-induced leaf senescence. This study revealed the effect of the signalling pathway involving MPK6-ORE3-EIN3-ORE9 on regulating leaf senescence and provided insights into the mechanism of MeJA in promoting leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. Roles for jasmonate- and ethylene-induced transcription factors in the ability of Arabidopsis to respond differentially to damage caused by two insect herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Rehrig, Erin M.; Appel, Heidi M.; Jones, A. Daniel; Schultz, Jack C.

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to insects and wounding involve substantial transcriptional reprogramming that integrates hormonal, metabolic, and physiological events. The ability to respond differentially to various stresses, including wounding, generally involves hormone signaling and trans-acting regulatory factors. Evidence of the importance of transcription factors (TFs) in responses to insects is also accumulating. However, the relationships among hormone signaling, TF activity, and ability to respond specifically to different insects are uncertain. We examined transcriptional and hormonal changes in Arabidopsis thaliana after herbivory by larvae of two lepidopteran species, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Pieris rapae L. over a 24-h time course. Transcriptional responses to the two insects differed and were frequently weaker or absent in response to the specialist P. rapae. Using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR, we found 141 TFs, including many AP2/ERFs (Ethylene Response Factors) and selected defense-related genes, to be differentially regulated in response to the two insect species or wounding. Jasmonic Acid (JA), JA-isoleucine (JA-IL), and ethylene production by Arabidopsis plants increased after attack by both insect species. However, the amounts and timing of ethylene production differed between the two herbivory treatments. Our results support the hypothesis that the different responses to these two insects involve modifications of JA-signaling events and activation of different subsets of ERF TFs, resulting in different degrees of divergence from responses to wounding alone. PMID:25191332

  13. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  14. Pathogen-induced systemic activation of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis follows a salicylic acid-independent pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Penninckx, I A; Eggermont, K; Terras, F R; Thomma, B P; De Samblanx, G W; Buchala, A; Métraux, J P; Manners, J M; Broekaert, W F

    1996-01-01

    A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and mRNA rose both in inoculated leaves and in nontreated leaves of inoculated plants (systemic leaves). These events coincided with an increase in the endogenous jasmonic acid content of both types of leaves. Systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene was unaffected in Arabidopsis transformants (nahG) or mutants (npr1 and cpr1) affected in the salicylic acid response but was strongly reduced in the Arabidopsis mutants eln2 and col1 that are blocked in their response to ethylene and methyl jasmonate, respectively. Our results indicate that systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis is independent of salicylic acid but requires components of the ethylene and jasmonic acid response. PMID:8989885

  15. [Enhanced production of taxuyunnanine c in cell suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis by methyl jasmonate elicitation and in situ absorption].

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingbo; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2010-02-01

    A bioprocess intensification strategy that combines both elicitation and in situ absorption was developed to improve the production of taxuyunnanine c (Tc) in cell suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis. When 100 micromol/L methyl jasmonate was added as an elicitor on Day 7, the Tc content and yield increased 3.6 and 3.3 times respectively, however the cell growth was reduced by 10%-30%. Significant improvement in Tc yield was observed when an absorbent XAD-7 was added on different time of the culture period. The optimum Tc yield was achieved when 100 g/L XAD-7 was added simultaneously with 100 micromol/L methyl jasmonate on Day 7. The maximum Tc yield of 477.4 mg/L was obtained on Day 21 of the culture, being 6.3-fold of the control and 1.9-fold of the 100 micromol/L methyl jasmonate treatment alone. In the combined treatment, 94% of the Tc produced was secreted outside of the cells and absorbed on XAD-7 absorbents. The results demonstrated that the process strategy combining elicitation and in situ absorption was effective to intensify the Tc biosynthesis via elicitation with the removal of product feedback inhibition via absorption, presenting a great potential in commercial applications.

  16. Mutation of the Arabidopsis calmodulin-like protein CML37 deregulates the jasmonate pathway and enhances susceptibility to herbivory.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sandra S; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Heyer, Monika; Reichelt, Michael; Bender, Kyle W; Snedden, Wayne A; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-12-01

    Throughout their life, plants are challenged by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. Among those are attacks from herbivorous insects. The molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of herbivores and the subsequent signal transduction are not well understood. As a second messenger, fluxes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels play a key role in mediating stress response pathways. Ca(2+) signals are decoded by Ca(2+) sensor proteins such as calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs). Here, we demonstrate that recombinant CML37 behaves like a Ca(2+) sensor in vitro and, in Arabidopsis, AtCML37 is induced by mechanical wounding as well as by infestation with larvae of the generalist lepidopteran herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Loss of function of CML37 led to a better feeding performance of larvae suggesting that CML37 is a positive defense regulator. No herbivory-induced changes in secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates or flavonoids were detected in cml37 plants, although a significant reduction in the accumulation of jasmonates was observed, due to reduced expression of JAR1 mRNA and cellular enzyme activity. Consequently, the expression of jasmonate-responsive genes was reduced as well. Summarizing, our results suggest that the Ca(2+) sensor protein, CML37, functions as a positive regulator in Ca(2+) signaling during herbivory, connecting Ca(2+) and jasmonate signaling.

  17. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S.; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%–0.9% to 1.1%–1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  18. Methyl Jasmonate Regulates Antioxidant Defense and Suppresses Arsenic Uptake in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad A.; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Islam, Faisal; Ali, Basharat; Liu, Hongbo; Xu, Jianxiang; He, Shuiping; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however, its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As) stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type). The As treatment at 200 μM was more phytotoxic, however, its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis (H2O2 and OH-) in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD), secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD) and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622) as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758). The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars. PMID:27148299

  19. Methyl Jasmonate: Putative Mechanisms of Action on Cancer Cells Cycle, Metabolism, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Italo Mario; Figueiredo Rodrigues, Mariana; Mendonça, Bruna dos Santos; Amôedo, Nivea Dias; Rumjanek, Franklin David

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ), an oxylipid that induces defense-related mechanisms in plants, has been shown to be active against cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, without affecting normal cells. Here we review most of the described MJ activities in an attempt to get an integrated view and better understanding of its multifaceted modes of action. MJ (1) arrests cell cycle, inhibiting cell growth and proliferation, (2) causes cell death through the intrinsic/extrinsic proapoptotic, p53-independent apoptotic, and nonapoptotic (necrosis) pathways, (3) detaches hexokinase from the voltage-dependent anion channel, dissociating glycolytic and mitochondrial functions, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, favoring cytochrome c release and ATP depletion, activating pro-apoptotic, and inactivating antiapoptotic proteins, (4) induces reactive oxygen species mediated responses, (5) stimulates MAPK-stress signaling and redifferentiation in leukemia cells, (6) inhibits overexpressed proinflammatory enzymes in cancer cells such as aldo-keto reductase 1 and 5-lipoxygenase, and (7) inhibits cell migration and shows antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activities. Finally, MJ may act as a chemosensitizer to some chemotherapics helping to overcome drug resistant. The complete lack of toxicity to normal cells and the rapidity by which MJ causes damage to cancer cells turn MJ into a promising anticancer agent that can be used alone or in combination with other agents. PMID:24648844

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Promotes Activation and Vacuolar Acidification and Delays Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Leaf Senescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Ji, Yingbin; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2016-03-01

    PI3K and its product PI3P are both involved in plant development and stress responses. In this study, the down-regulation of PI3K activity accelerated leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and suppressed the activation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PI3K bound to the V-ATPase B subunit (VHA-B). Analysis of bimolecular fluorescence complementation in tobacco guard cells showed that PI3K interacted with VHA-B2 in the tonoplasts. Through the use of pharmacological and genetic tools, we found that PI3K and V-ATPase promoted vacuolar acidification and stomatal closure during leaf senescence. Vacuolar acidification was suppressed by the PIKfyve inhibitor in 35S:AtVPS34-YFP Arabidopsis during MeJA-induced leaf senescence, but the decrease was lower than that in YFP-labeled Arabidopsis. These results suggest that PI3K promotes V-ATPase activation and consequently induces vacuolar acidification and stomatal closure, thereby delaying MeJA-induced leaf senescence.

  1. Pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment enhances cauliflower chemoprotective attributes without a loss in postharvest quality.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kushad, Mosbah M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2013-06-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment can significantly increase glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in Brassica vegetables and potentially enhance anticancer bioactivity. Although MeJA treatment may promote ethylene biosynthesis, which can be detrimental to postharvest quality, there are no previous reports of its effect on cauliflower postharvest quality. To address this, cauliflower curds in field plots were sprayed with either 0.1 % Triton X-100 (control) or 500 μM MeJA solutions four days prior to harvest, then stored at 4 °C. Tissue subsamples were collected after 0, 10, 20, and 30 days of postharvest storage and assayed for visual color change, ethylene production, GS concentrations, and extract quinone reductase inductive activity. MeJA treatment increased curd GS concentrations of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, and neoglucobrassicin by 1.5, 2.4, and 4.6-fold over controls, respectively. MeJA treated cauliflower showed significantly higher quinone reductase activity, a biomarker for anticancer bioactivity, without reducing visual color and postharvest quality for 10 days at 4 °C storage.

  2. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-15

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  3. Host target modification as a strategy to counter pathogen hijacking of the jasmonate hormone receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yao, Jian; Withers, John; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Banerjee, Rahul; Fariduddin, Qazi; Nakamura, Yoko; Nomura, Kinya; Howe, Gregg A.; Boland, Wilhelm; Yan, Honggao; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. Here, we show that host target modification could be a promising new approach to “protect” the disease-vulnerable components of plants. In particular, recent studies have identified the plant hormone jasmonate (JA) receptor as one of the common targets of virulence factors from highly evolved biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens. Strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, for example, produce proteinaceous effectors, as well as a JA-mimicking toxin, coronatine (COR), to activate JA signaling as a mechanism to promote disease susceptibility. Guided by the crystal structure of the JA receptor and evolutionary clues, we succeeded in modifying the JA receptor to allow for sufficient endogenous JA signaling but greatly reduced sensitivity to COR. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing this modified receptor not only are fertile and maintain a high level of insect defense, but also gain the ability to resist COR-producing pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that host target modification can be a promising new approach to prevent the virulence action of highly evolved pathogens. PMID:26578782

  4. Growth-defence balance in grass biomass production: the role of jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Christine; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Growth-defence balance is the selective partitioning of resources between biomass accumulation and defence responses. Although it is generally postulated that reallocation of limited carbon pools drives the antagonism between growth and defence, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this regulation. Jasmonates (JAs) are a group of oxylipins that are required for a broad range of responses from defence against insects to reproductive growth. Application of JAs to seedlings also leads to inhibited growth and repression of photosynthesis, suggesting a role for JAs in regulating growth-defence balance. The majority of JA research uses dicot models such as Arabidopsis and tomato, while understanding of JA biology in monocot grasses, which comprise most bioenergy feedstocks, food for human consumption, and animal feed, is limited. Interestingly, JA mutants of grasses exhibit unique phenotypes compared with well-studied dicot models. Gene expression analyses in bioenergy grasses also suggest roles for JA in rhizome development, which has not been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. In this review we summarize current knowledge of JA biology in panicoid grasses-the group that consists of the world's emerging bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, sugarcane, Miscanthus, and sorghum. We discuss outstanding questions regarding the role of JAs in panicoid grasses, and highlight the importance of utilizing emerging grass models for molecular studies to provide a basis for engineering bioenergy grasses that can maximize biomass accumulation while efficiently defending against stress.

  5. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P < .05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n = 99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  6. Methyl jasmonate-induced lateral root formation in rice: the role of heme oxygenase and calcium.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yun Yen; Chao, Yun-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei

    2013-01-01

    Lateral roots (LRs) play important roles in increasing the absorptive capacity of roots as well as to anchor the plant in the soil. Therefore, understanding the regulation of LR development is of agronomic importance. In this study, we examined the effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on LR formation in rice. Treatment with MJ induced LR formation and heme oxygenase (HO) activity. As well, MJ could induce OsHO1 mRNA expression. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (the specific inhibitor of HO) and hemoglobin [the carbon monoxide/nitric oxide (NO) scavenger] reduced LR formation, HO activity and OsHO1 expression. LR formation and HO activity induced by MJ was reduced by the specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-oxide. The effects of Ca(2+) chelators, Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors, and calmodulin (CaM) antagonists on LR formation induced by MJ were also examined. All these inhibitors were effective in reducing the action of MJ. However, Ca(2+) chelators and Ca(2+) channel inhibitors induced HO activity when combining with MJ further. It is concluded that Ca(2+) may regulate MJ action mainly through CaM-dependent mechanism.

  7. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  8. Accumulation of anthocyanin and associated gene expression in radish sprouts exposed to light and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Yeon Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts have received attention as an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries. The flavonoid pathway leading to anthocyanin biosynthesis in radishes is induced by multiple regulatory genes as well as various developmental and environmental factors. This study investigated anthocyanin accumulation and the transcript level of associated genes in radish sprouts exposed to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The anthocyanin content of sprouts exposed to light and treated with MeJA was higher than that of