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Sample records for acid sa plays

  1. Salicylic acid (SA) bioaccessibility from SA-based poly(anhydride-ester).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael A; Yan, Yim-Fan; Ben-Elazar, Karen; Lan, Yaqi; Faig, Jonathan; Smith, Kervin; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-09-08

    The bioaccessibility of salicylic acid (SA) can be effectively modified by incorporating the pharmacological compound directly into polymers such as poly(anhydride-esters). After simulated digestion conditions, the bioaccessibility of SA was observed to be statistically different (p < 0.0001) in each sample: 55.5 ± 2.0% for free SA, 31.2 ± 2.4% the SA-diglycolic acid polymer precursor (SADG), and 21.2 ± 3.1% for SADG-P (polymer). The release rates followed a zero-order release rate that was dependent on several factors, including (1) solubilization rate, (2) macroscopic erosion of the powdered polymer, (3) hydrolytic cleavage of the anhydride bonds, and (4) subsequent hydrolysis of the polymer precursor (SADG) to SA and diglycolic acid.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  3. Effects of the new ethacrynic acid derivative SA9000 on intraocular pressure in cats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Masaki; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Kirihara, Tomoko; Konomi, Kouji; Epstein, David Lee; Hara, Hideaki

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological characteristics of the new ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivative SA9000, we examined its ocular hypotensive effects in cats and cynomolgus monkeys, its corneal toxicity in rabbits, and its binding affinities for forty-three receptors, ion channels, and second messenger systems. A 20 microl injection into the anterior chamber of eye (intracameral injection) of 0.1 mM SA9000 significantly reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) 3.8 mmHg in cats. A 10 microl intracameral injection of 1 mM SA9000 significantly reduced IOP 7 mmHg in living monkeys without evidence of in vivo (or in vitro) toxicity. The ocular hypotensive effect of SA9000 in monkeys was greater than that of ECA. The morphology of corneal endothelial and epithelial cells in rabbit eyes after intracameral injection of SA9000 was observed using electron microphotography. SA9000 at 2 mM did not induce any abnormalities, indicating that it has no corneal toxicity at a concentration higher than the minimum needed for an ocular hypotensive effect (1 mM). SA9000 at 0.01 mM showed negligible binding affinity for, or inhibition of, forty-three different receptors, ion channel proteins, and second messenger systems. These findings indicate that SA9000 has the potential to be both effective and safe as an ocular hypotensive drug, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  4. Effects of the new ethacrynic acid oxime derivative SA12590 on intraocular pressure in cats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Atsushi; Kirihara, Tomoko; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Tajima, Hisashi; Matsugi, Takeshi; Epstein, David Lee

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological characteristics of SA12590, a new oxime-derivative of the ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivative SA9000, we examined both its ocular hypotensive effects (in ocular normotensive cats and cynomolgus monkeys) and its potential corneal toxicity (in rats). A 50 microl topical administration of 3% SA12590 significantly reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) (by 3.5 mmHg) in anesthetized cats (p<0.05). Twenty-four hours after 3 drops (5-min intervals) of 20 microl 3% SA12590, IOP was reduced by 8 mmHg (p<0.05, n=4) in conscious monkeys without evidence of corneal toxicity. Three days' daily single 20 microl dosing with 3% SA12590 reduced IOP by 4 mmHg (p<0.01, n=3) at 72 h after the first administration in conscious monkeys. The toxicity of topically administered 20 microl 3% SA9000 or SA12590 (3 drops with 5-min intervals) on rat corneal epithelium was assessed using a photo-slit lamp. In this study, 3% SA12590, unlike 3% SA9000, exhibited no corneal toxicity. In a glutathione assay for sulfhydryl (SH) reactivity, SA12590, unlike SA9000, displayed no in vitro SH reactivity. Thus, oxime-modification may both improve efficacy towards IOP upon topical administration and improve the safety profile, probably by enhancing corneal penetration and minimizing SH reactivity-related toxicity. These findings indicate that SA12590 has potential as a new ocular hypotensive drug.

  5. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  6. Enhanced expression of SaHMA3 plays critical roles in Cd hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Min; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Tian, Shengke; Song, Haiyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-03-01

    The enhanced expression of a P 1B -type ATPase gene ( SaHMA3 ) is essential for Cd hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in Sedum alfredii Hance. A functional understanding of the mechanism through which hyperaccumulator plants accumulate and tolerate extremely toxic metals is a prerequisite for the development of novel strategies for improving phytoremediation using engineered plants or natural hyperaccumulators as well as biofortification and food crop safety. Most hyperaccumulator species, however, are small and slow-growing, and their potential for large-scale decontamination of polluted soils is limited. Sedum alfredii Hance, the only one metal hyperaccumulator from the Crassulaceae family, is an ideal candidate for gaining a functional understanding of the intra-family hyperaccumulation mechanisms as well as their potential applications. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a P1B-type ATPase gene (SaHMA3) from S. alfredii Hance. SaHMA3 alleles from a hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were constitutively expressed in both shoot and root and encoded tonoplast-localized proteins, but showed differences in transport substrate specificity and expression level. SaHMA3 h from the HE plant was a Cd transporter. In contrast, SaHMA3n from NHE plants was able to transport both Zn and Cd. SaHMA3 showed a significantly higher constitutive expression level in HE plants than in NHE plants. Furthermore, the expression level of SaHMA3 in the shoots of HE plants was considerably higher than in the roots. Overexpression of SaHMA3h in tobacco plants significantly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation and greatly increased the root sequestration of Cd. In summary, our data suggested that SaHMA3 plays critical roles in Cd hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii Hance.

  7. Expression of tomato salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related genes in Mi-1-mediated and SA-induced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Sergio; Fanelli, Elena; Leonetti, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The expression pattern of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5, considered as markers for salicylic acid (SA)-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was examined in the roots and shoots of tomato plants pre-treated with SA and subsequently infected with root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne incognita). PR-1 was up-regulated in both roots and shoots of SA-treated plants, whereas the expression of PR-5 was enhanced only in roots. The over-expression of PR-1 in the whole plant occurred as soon as 1 day after SA treatment. Up-regulation of the PR-1 gene was considered to be the main marker of SAR elicitation. One day after treatment, plants were inoculated with active juveniles (J2s) of M. incognita. The number of J2s that entered the roots and started to develop was significantly lower in SA-treated than in untreated plants at 5 and 15 days after inoculation. The expression pattern of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5 was also examined in the roots and shoots of susceptible and Mi-1-carrying resistant tomato plants infected by RKNs. Nematode infection produced a down-regulation of PR genes in both roots and shoots of SA-treated and untreated plants, and in roots of Mi-carrying resistant plants. Moreover, in resistant infected plants, PR gene expression, in particular PR-1 gene expression, was highly induced in shoots. Thus, nematode infection was demonstrated to elicit SAR in shoots of resistant plants. The data presented in this study show that the repression of host defence SA signalling is associated with the successful development of RKNs, and that SA exogenously added as a soil drench is able to trigger a SAR-like response to RKNs in tomato.

  8. p38 MAPK Is Activated but Does Not Play a Key Role during Apoptosis Induction by Saturated Fatty Acid in Human Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Balušíková, Kamila; Daniel, Petr; Jelínek, Michael; James, Roger F.; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Saturated stearic acid (SA) induces apoptosis in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We showed that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in these cells. Therefore, we tested the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway activation in apoptosis induction by SA in NES2Y cells. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and accompanying ERK pathway inhibition after SA application was also tested. The inhibition of p38 MAPK expression by siRNA silencing resulted in a decrease in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA application, but it had no significant effect on cell viability or the level of phosphorylated ERK pathway members. The inhibition of p38 MAPK activity by the specific inhibitor SB202190 resulted in inhibition of MAPKAPK-2 activation and noticeable activation of ERK pathway members after SA treatment but in no significant effect on cell viability. p38 MAPK overexpression by plasmid transfection produced an increase in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA exposure but no significant influence on cell viability or ERK pathway activation. The activation of p38 MAPK by the specific activator anisomycin resulted in significant activation of MAPKAPK-2. Concerning the effect on cell viability, application of the activator led to apoptosis induction similar to application of SA (PARP cleavage and caspase-7, -8, and -9 activation) and in inhibition of ERK pathway members. We demonstrated that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and that this activation could be involved in apoptosis induction by SA in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, this involvement does not seem to play a key role. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and ERK pathway inhibition in NES2Y cells seems likely. Thus, the ERK pathway inhibition by p38 MAPK activation does not also seem to be essential for SA-induced apoptosis. PMID:26861294

  9. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  10. Induction of salicylic acid (SA) on transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes and astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Miao, Xuexia; Wang, Yitao; Yang, Liming; Lv, Hongxin; Chen, Lingling; Ye, Naihao

    2012-09-10

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis can produce large amounts of pink carotenoid astaxanthin which is a high value ketocarotenoid. In our study, transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis in response to SA were measured using qRT-PCR. Results indicated that both 25 and 50 mg/L salicylic acid (SA) could increase astaxanthin productivity and enhance transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis. But these genes exhibited different expression profiles. Moreover, SA25 (25 mg/L SA) induction had a greater effect on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, psy, pds, crtR-B and lyc (more than 6-fold up-regulation) than on ipi-2, bkt and crtO, but SA50 (50 mg/L SA) treatment had a greater impact on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, pds, crtR-B and lyc than on psy, bkt and crtO. Furthermore, astaxanthin biosynthesis under SA was up-regulated mainly by ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, crtR-B, bkt and crtO at transcriptional level, lyc at post-transcriptional level and pds at both levels. Summarily, these results suggest that SA constitute molecular signals in the network of astaxanthin biosynthesis. Induction of astaxanthin accumulation by SA without any other stimuli presents an attractive application potential in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis.

  11. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  12. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  13. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Castelló, María José; Canet, Juan Vicente; Lamilla, Julián; Colombo, María Laura

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants. PMID:28753666

  14. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Castelló, María José; Canet, Juan Vicente; Lamilla, Julián; Colombo, María Laura; Tornero, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants.

  15. Sialic acid (SA)-modified selenium nanoparticles coated with a high blood-brain barrier permeability peptide-B6 peptide for potential use in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiantian; Yang, Licong; Liu, Yanan; Zhou, Xianbo; Sun, Jing; Liu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable gatekeeper toward exogenous substances, playing an important role in brain homeostasis and maintaining a healthy microenvironment for complex neuronal activities. However, it also greatly hinders drug permeability into the brain and limits the management of brain diseases. The development of new drugs that show improved transport across the BBB represents a promising strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) intervention. Whereas, previous study of receptor-mediated endogenous BBB transport systems has focused on a strategy of using transferrin to facilitate brain drug delivery system, a system that still suffers from limitations including synthesis procedure, stability and immunological response. In the present study, we synthetised sialic acid (SA)-modified selenium (Se) nanoparticles conjugated with an alternative peptide-B6 peptide (B6-SA-SeNPs, a synthetic selenoprotein analogue), which shows high permeability across the BBB and has the potential to serve as a novel nanomedicine for disease modification in AD. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy ICP-AES revealed high cellular uptake of B6-SA-SeNPs by cerebral endothelial cells (bEnd.3). The transport efficiency of B6-SA-SeNPs was evaluated in a Transwell experiment based on in vitro BBB model. It provided direct evidence for B6-SA-SeNPs crossing the BBB and being absorbed by PC12 cells. Moreover, inhibitory effects of B6-SA-SeNPs on amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) fibrillation could be demonstrated in PC12 cells and bEnd3 cells. B6-SA-SeNPs could not only effectively inhibit Aβ aggregation but could disaggregate preformed Aβ fibrils into non-toxic amorphous oligomers. These results suggested that B6-SA-SeNPs may provide a promising platform, particularly for the application of nanoparticles in the treatment of brain diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the world's most common form of

  16. Abscisic acid uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferases play a crucial role in abscisic acid homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Park, Youngmin; Kim, Dae Heon; Lee, Yongjik; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-05-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is crucial for plant growth and adaptive responses to various stress conditions. Plants continuously adjust the ABA level to meet physiological needs, but how ABA homeostasis occurs is not fully understood. This study provides evidence that UGT71B6, an ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (UGT), and its two closely related homologs, UGT71B7 and UGT71B8, play crucial roles in ABA homeostasis and in adaptation to dehydration, osmotic stress, and high-salinity stresses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). UGT RNA interference plants that had low levels of these three UGT transcripts displayed hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and high-salt conditions during germination and exhibited a defect in plant growth. However, the ectopic expression of UGT71B6 in the atbg1 (for β-glucosidase) mutant background aggravated the ABA-deficient phenotype of atbg1 mutant plants. In addition, modulation of the expression of the three UGTs affects the expression of CYP707A1 to CYP707A4, which encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases; four CYP707As were expressed at higher levels in the UGT RNA interference plants but at lower levels in the UGT71B6:GFP-overexpressing plants. Based on these data, this study proposes that UGT71B6 and its two homologs play a critical role in ABA homeostasis by converting active ABA to an inactive form (abscisic acid-glucose ester) depending on intrinsic cellular and environmental conditions in plants.

  17. Bacillus licheniformis SA03 Confers Increased Saline-Alkaline Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Plants by Induction of Abscisic Acid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Yue; Li, Feiyue; Xiao, Xin; Ma, Zhongyou; Wang, Jianfei

    2017-01-01

    Soil saline-alkalization is a major abiotic stress that leads to low iron (Fe) availability and high toxicity of sodium ions (Na(+)) for plants. It has recently been shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance the ability of plants to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiency. However, the possible involvement of PGPR in improving saline-alkaline tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03) on the growth of Chrysanthemum plants under saline-alkaline conditions. Our results revealed that inoculation with SA03 alleviated saline-alkaline stress in plants with increased survival rates, photosynthesis and biomass. The inoculated plants accumulated more Fe and lower Na(+) concentrations under saline-alkaline stress compared with the non-inoculated plants. RNA-Sequencing analyses further revealed that SA03 significantly activated abiotic stress- and Fe acquisition-related pathways in the stress-treated plants. However, SA03 failed to increase saline-alkaline tolerance in plants when cellular abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis were inhibited by treatment with fluridone (FLU) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), respectively. Importantly, we also found that NO acted downstream of SA03-induced ABA to activate a series of adaptive responses in host plants under saline-alkaline stress. These findings demonstrated the potential roles of B. licheniformis SA03 in enhancing saline-alkaline tolerance of plants and highlighted the intricate integration of microbial signaling in regulating cellular Fe and Na(+) accumulation.

  18. Bacillus licheniformis SA03 Confers Increased Saline–Alkaline Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Plants by Induction of Abscisic Acid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Yue; Li, Feiyue; Xiao, Xin; Ma, Zhongyou; Wang, Jianfei

    2017-01-01

    Soil saline-alkalization is a major abiotic stress that leads to low iron (Fe) availability and high toxicity of sodium ions (Na+) for plants. It has recently been shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance the ability of plants to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiency. However, the possible involvement of PGPR in improving saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03) on the growth of Chrysanthemum plants under saline–alkaline conditions. Our results revealed that inoculation with SA03 alleviated saline–alkaline stress in plants with increased survival rates, photosynthesis and biomass. The inoculated plants accumulated more Fe and lower Na+ concentrations under saline–alkaline stress compared with the non-inoculated plants. RNA-Sequencing analyses further revealed that SA03 significantly activated abiotic stress- and Fe acquisition-related pathways in the stress-treated plants. However, SA03 failed to increase saline–alkaline tolerance in plants when cellular abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis were inhibited by treatment with fluridone (FLU) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), respectively. Importantly, we also found that NO acted downstream of SA03-induced ABA to activate a series of adaptive responses in host plants under saline–alkaline stress. These findings demonstrated the potential roles of B. licheniformis SA03 in enhancing saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and highlighted the intricate integration of microbial signaling in regulating cellular Fe and Na+ accumulation. PMID:28706529

  19. Surfactant-modified fatty acid composition of Citrobacter sp. SA01 and its effect on phenanthrene transmembrane transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-07-01

    The effects of the surfactants, Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on a membrane's fatty acid composition and the transmembrane transport of phenanthrene were investigated. The results indicated that both surfactants could modify the composition of fatty acids of Citrobacter sp. Strain SA01 cells, 50 mg L(-1) of both surfactants changed the composition of the fatty acids the most, increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The comparison of fatty acid profiles with diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy, a probe for plasma membrane fluidity, suggested that an increased amount of unsaturated fatty acids corresponded to greater membrane fluidity. In addition, increased unsaturated fatty acids promoted phenanthrene to partition from the extracellular matrix to cell debris, which increased reverse partitioning from the cell debris to the cytochylema. The results of this study were expected in that the addition of a surfactant is a simple and effective method for accelerating the rate-limiting step of transmembrane transport of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in bioremediation.

  20. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  1. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice.

  2. p21 induction plays a dual role in anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis by ursolic acid is associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) protein p21 in multiple types of cancer cells. However, the functional role of p21 induction in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of p21 induction by ursolic acid have not been critically addressed. In the current study, we demonstrated that p21 played a mediator role in G1 cell cycle arrest by ursolic acid, whereas p21-mediated up-regulation of Mcl-1 compromised apoptotic effect of ursolic acid. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a dual role in the anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid in terms of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. p21 induction by ursolic acid was attributed to p53 transcriptional activation. Moreover, we found that ursolic acid was able to inhibit murine double minute-2 protein (MDM2) and T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), the two negative regulator of p53, which in turn contributed to ursolic acid-induced p53 activation. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in response to ursolic acid exposure. PMID:26582056

  3. Amino acid contribution to protein solubility: Asp, Glu, and Ser contribute more favorably than the other hydrophilic amino acids in RNase Sa

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Saul R.; Scholtz, J. Martin; Pace, C. Nick

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Poor protein solubility is a common problem in high resolution structural studies, formulation of protein pharmaceuticals, and biochemical characterization of proteins. One popular strategy to improve protein solubility is to use site-directed mutagenesis to make hydrophobic to hydrophilic mutations on the protein surface. However, a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of all twenty amino acids to protein solubility has not been done. Here, twenty variants at the completely solvent-exposed position 76 of Ribonuclease (RNase) Sa are made to compare the contributions of each amino acid. Stability measurements were also made for these variants, which occur at the i+1 position of a type II β-turn. Solubility measurements in ammonium sulfate solutions were made at high positive net charge, low net charge, and high negative net charge. Surprisingly, there was a wide range of contributions to protein solubility even among the hydrophilic amino acids. The results suggest that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and serine contribute significantly more favorably than the other hydrophilic amino acids especially at high net charge. Therefore, to increase protein solubility, asparagine, glutamine, or threonine should be replaced with aspartic acid, glutamic acid or serine. PMID:17174328

  4. Cationic amino acid transporters play key roles in the survival and transmission of apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Esther; Hapuarachchi, Sanduni V; Miller, Catherine M; Fairweather, Stephen J; Cai, Yeping; Smith, Nicholas C; Cockburn, Ian A; Bröer, Stefan; Kirk, Kiaran; van Dooren, Giel G

    2017-02-16

    Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that scavenge essential nutrients from their hosts via transporter proteins on their plasma membrane. The identities of the transporters that mediate amino acid uptake into apicomplexans are unknown. Here we demonstrate that members of an apicomplexan-specific protein family-the Novel Putative Transporters (NPTs)-play key roles in the uptake of cationic amino acids. We show that an NPT from Toxoplasma gondii (TgNPT1) is a selective arginine transporter that is essential for parasite survival and virulence. We also demonstrate that a homologue of TgNPT1 from the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei (PbNPT1), shown previously to be essential for the sexual gametocyte stage of the parasite, is a cationic amino acid transporter. This reveals a role for cationic amino acid scavenging in gametocyte biology. Our study demonstrates a critical role for amino acid transporters in the survival, virulence and life cycle progression of these parasites.

  5. Cationic amino acid transporters play key roles in the survival and transmission of apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Esther; Hapuarachchi, Sanduni V.; Miller, Catherine M.; Fairweather, Stephen J.; Cai, Yeping; Smith, Nicholas C.; Cockburn, Ian A.; Bröer, Stefan; Kirk, Kiaran; van Dooren, Giel G.

    2017-01-01

    Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that scavenge essential nutrients from their hosts via transporter proteins on their plasma membrane. The identities of the transporters that mediate amino acid uptake into apicomplexans are unknown. Here we demonstrate that members of an apicomplexan-specific protein family—the Novel Putative Transporters (NPTs)—play key roles in the uptake of cationic amino acids. We show that an NPT from Toxoplasma gondii (TgNPT1) is a selective arginine transporter that is essential for parasite survival and virulence. We also demonstrate that a homologue of TgNPT1 from the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei (PbNPT1), shown previously to be essential for the sexual gametocyte stage of the parasite, is a cationic amino acid transporter. This reveals a role for cationic amino acid scavenging in gametocyte biology. Our study demonstrates a critical role for amino acid transporters in the survival, virulence and life cycle progression of these parasites. PMID:28205520

  6. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Melissa A.; Bish, David L.; Raff, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day. PMID:25512517

  7. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Melissa A; Bish, David L; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-12-30

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼ 3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day.

  8. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  9. Ohr plays a central role in bacterial responses against fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Thiago G. P.; Hugo, Martín; Trujillo, Madia; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Queiroz, Raphael F.; Valadares, Napoleão Fonseca; Garratt, Richard C.; Radi, Rafael; Di Mascio, Paolo; Augusto, Ohara

    2017-01-01

    Organic hydroperoxide resistance (Ohr) enzymes are unique Cys-based, lipoyl-dependent peroxidases. Here, we investigated the involvement of Ohr in bacterial responses toward distinct hydroperoxides. In silico results indicated that fatty acid (but not cholesterol) hydroperoxides docked well into the active site of Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa and were efficiently reduced by the recombinant enzyme as assessed by a lipoamide-lipoamide dehydrogenase–coupled assay. Indeed, the rate constants between Ohr and several fatty acid hydroperoxides were in the 107–108 M−1⋅s−1 range as determined by a competition assay developed here. Reduction of peroxynitrite by Ohr was also determined to be in the order of 107 M−1⋅s−1 at pH 7.4 through two independent competition assays. A similar trend was observed when studying the sensitivities of a ∆ohr mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward different hydroperoxides. Fatty acid hydroperoxides, which are readily solubilized by bacterial surfactants, killed the ∆ohr strain most efficiently. In contrast, both wild-type and mutant strains deficient for peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases were equally sensitive to fatty acid hydroperoxides. Ohr also appeared to play a central role in the peroxynitrite response, because the ∆ohr mutant was more sensitive than wild type to 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1 , a peroxynitrite generator). In the case of H2O2 insult, cells treated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (a catalase inhibitor) were the most sensitive. Furthermore, fatty acid hydroperoxide and SIN-1 both induced Ohr expression in the wild-type strain. In conclusion, Ohr plays a central role in modulating the levels of fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite, both of which are involved in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:28028230

  10. Ohr plays a central role in bacterial responses against fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Alegria, Thiago G P; Meireles, Diogo A; Cussiol, José R R; Hugo, Martín; Trujillo, Madia; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Queiroz, Raphael F; Valadares, Napoleão Fonseca; Garratt, Richard C; Radi, Rafael; Di Mascio, Paolo; Augusto, Ohara; Netto, Luis E S

    2017-01-10

    Organic hydroperoxide resistance (Ohr) enzymes are unique Cys-based, lipoyl-dependent peroxidases. Here, we investigated the involvement of Ohr in bacterial responses toward distinct hydroperoxides. In silico results indicated that fatty acid (but not cholesterol) hydroperoxides docked well into the active site of Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa and were efficiently reduced by the recombinant enzyme as assessed by a lipoamide-lipoamide dehydrogenase-coupled assay. Indeed, the rate constants between Ohr and several fatty acid hydroperoxides were in the 10(7)-10(8) M(-1)⋅s(-1) range as determined by a competition assay developed here. Reduction of peroxynitrite by Ohr was also determined to be in the order of 10(7) M(-1)⋅s(-1) at pH 7.4 through two independent competition assays. A similar trend was observed when studying the sensitivities of a ∆ohr mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward different hydroperoxides. Fatty acid hydroperoxides, which are readily solubilized by bacterial surfactants, killed the ∆ohr strain most efficiently. In contrast, both wild-type and mutant strains deficient for peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases were equally sensitive to fatty acid hydroperoxides. Ohr also appeared to play a central role in the peroxynitrite response, because the ∆ohr mutant was more sensitive than wild type to 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1 , a peroxynitrite generator). In the case of H2O2 insult, cells treated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (a catalase inhibitor) were the most sensitive. Furthermore, fatty acid hydroperoxide and SIN-1 both induced Ohr expression in the wild-type strain. In conclusion, Ohr plays a central role in modulating the levels of fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite, both of which are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Combined ability of chromium (Cr) tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and salicylic acid (SA) in attenuation of chromium stress in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Imran, Qaiser; Ali, Irfan

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil has become a serious global problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of two chromium (Cr) tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in combination with salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth, physiological, biochemical responses and heavy metal uptake under Cr contamination. A pot experiment (autoclaved sand as growing medium) was performed using maize (Zea mays L.) as a test crop under controlled conditions. Cr toxicity significantly reduced plant growth, photosynthetic pigment, carbohydrates metabolism and increased H2O2, MDA, relative membrane permeability, proline and Cr contents in maize leaves. However, inoculation with selected PGPB (T2Cr and CrP450) and SA application either alone or in combination alleviated the Cr toxicity and promoted plant growth by decreasing Cr accumulation, H2O2 and MDA level in maize. Furthermore, dual PGPB inoculation with SA application also improved plant performance under Cr-toxicity. Results obtained from this study indicate that PGPB inoculation and SA application enhanced Cr tolerance in maize seedlings by decreasing Cr uptake from root to shoot. Additionally, combination of both PGPB and SA also reduced oxidative stress by elevating the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant, also indicated by improved carbohydrate metabolism in maize plant exposed to Cr contamination. Comparatively, alleviation effects were more pronounced in PGPB inoculated plants than SA applied plants alone. The results suggest that combined use of PGPB and SA application may be exploited for improving production potential of maize in metal (Cr) contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current (if) of rabbit SA node myocytes by niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Accili, E A; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-03-01

    The effects of the amphiphilic substance niflumic acid (NFA) were examined in myocytes isolated from the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. NFA (50 and 500 microM), for 30-60 s, produced a reversible negative chronotropic effect by reducing the rate of diastolic depolarization, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (if). NFA (from 0.05 to 500 microM) inhibited if by modifying the current kinetics, without alteration of the conductance. This was shown by evidence indicating that: (1) NFA inhibited if during hyperpolarizing pulses to the mid-point of if activation but not at fully activating voltages; (2) the slope and reversal potential of the fully activated current/voltage (I/V) relation were not altered by NFA, indicating no change in slope conductance or ion selectivity; and (3) hyperpolarizing ramp protocols confirmed the lack of action of 50 microM NFA on the fully activated current and a shift of approximately -8 mV. Although similar to inhibition by acetylcholine (ACh), inhibition by NFA was only partly additive with the action of ACh and was not altered by atropine or pertussis toxin, both of which eliminated the action of ACh. The effect of NFA was present after stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and after inhibition of phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In cell-attached patch measurements, NFA applied externally did not affect if measured in the patch. Finally, application of NFA to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches did not alter the current in the absence or presence of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). These results suggest an external, membrane-delimited action of NFA on if.

  13. Mig-6 Plays a Critical Role in the Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis and Bile Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon Jeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jae Hee; Buras, Eric D.; White, Lisa D.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Bain, James R.; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    The disruption of cholesterol homeostasis leads to an increase in cholesterol levels which results in the development of cardiovascular disease. Mitogen Inducible Gene 6 (Mig-6) is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens, stresses, and hormones. To identify the metabolic role of Mig-6 in the liver, we conditionally ablated Mig-6 in the liver using the Albumin-Cre mouse model (Albcre/+Mig-6f/f; Mig-6d/d). Mig-6d/d mice exhibit hepatomegaly and fatty liver. Serum levels of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and hepatic lipid were significantly increased in the Mig-6d/d mice. The daily excretion of fecal bile acids was significantly decreased in the Mig-6d/d mice. DNA microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the livers of these mice showed alterations in genes that regulate lipid metabolism, bile acid, and cholesterol synthesis, while the expression of genes that regulate biliary excretion of bile acid and triglyceride synthesis showed no difference in the Mig-6d/d mice compared to Mig-6f/f controls. These results indicate that Mig-6 plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Mice with liver specific conditional ablation of Mig-6 develop hepatomegaly and increased intrahepatic lipid and provide a novel model system to investigate the genetic and molecular events involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Defining the molecular mechanisms by which Mig-6 regulates cholesterol homeostasis will provide new insights into the development of more effective ways for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22912762

  14. Mig-6 plays a critical role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bon Jeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jae Hee; Buras, Eric D; White, Lisa D; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; DeMayo, Francesco J; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2012-01-01

    The disruption of cholesterol homeostasis leads to an increase in cholesterol levels which results in the development of cardiovascular disease. Mitogen Inducible Gene 6 (Mig-6) is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens, stresses, and hormones. To identify the metabolic role of Mig-6 in the liver, we conditionally ablated Mig-6 in the liver using the Albumin-Cre mouse model (Alb(cre/+)Mig-6(f/f); Mig-6(d/d)). Mig-6(d/d) mice exhibit hepatomegaly and fatty liver. Serum levels of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and hepatic lipid were significantly increased in the Mig-6(d/d) mice. The daily excretion of fecal bile acids was significantly decreased in the Mig-6(d/d) mice. DNA microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the livers of these mice showed alterations in genes that regulate lipid metabolism, bile acid, and cholesterol synthesis, while the expression of genes that regulate biliary excretion of bile acid and triglyceride synthesis showed no difference in the Mig-6(d/d) mice compared to Mig-6(f/f) controls. These results indicate that Mig-6 plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Mice with liver specific conditional ablation of Mig-6 develop hepatomegaly and increased intrahepatic lipid and provide a novel model system to investigate the genetic and molecular events involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Defining the molecular mechanisms by which Mig-6 regulates cholesterol homeostasis will provide new insights into the development of more effective ways for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Island Cotton Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 Gene Encoding a Lipase-Like Protein Plays a Crucial Role in Response to Verticillium dahliae by Regulating the SA Level and H2O2 Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhang; Xingfen, Wang; Wei, Rong; Jun, Yang; Zhiying, Ma

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most economically important crops, but most cultivated varieties lack adequate innate immunity or resistance to Verticillium wilt. This results in serious losses to both yield and fiber quality. To identify the genetic resources for innate immunity and understand the pathways for pathogen defenses in this crop, here we focus on orthologs of the central Arabidopsis thaliana defense regulator Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 (EDS1). The full-length cDNA of GbEDS1 was obtained by screening the full-length cDNA library of Gossypium barbadense combining with RACE strategy. Its open reading frame is 1848 bp long, encoding 615 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis showed that GbEDS1 contains a conserved N-terminal lipase domain and an EDS1-specific KNEDT motif. Expression profiling indicated that the gene is induced by Verticillium dahliae as well as salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Subcellular localization assays revealed that GbEDS1 is located in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of GbEDS1 in Arabidopsis dramatically up-regulated SA and H2O2 production, resulting in enhanced disease resistance to V. dahliae. Silencing of GbEDS1 in G. barbadense significantly decreased SA and H2O2 accumulation, leading to the cotton more susceptibility. Moreover, combining the gene expression results from transgenic Arabidopsis and silenced-GbEDS1 cotton, it indicated that GbEDS1 could activate GbNDR1 and GbBAK1 expression. These findings not only broaden our knowledge about the biological role of GbEDS1, but also provide new insights into the defense mechanisms of GbEDS1 against V. dahliae in cotton. PMID:28018374

  16. Acid-Tolerant Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Play a Major Role in Iron Cycling in Acidic Iron Rich Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, K. A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    acidic conditions. The dsrAB genes are related to other novel SRB lineages derived from acidic environments in previous reports, suggesting that these species have adapted to the acidity rather than colonized more circumneutral microenvironments. In an acidic hypersaline lake system in NW Victoria (Australia), previous studies suggested that pore water bisulfide derived from anoxic groundwater transported from distal locations. However, isolated potholes of oxic Fe(III)-rich springwater exhibited nearly a two-fold increase in conductivity and pH increase from 4.5 to 8.0 over time periods on the order of days; and biogeochemical and mineralogical observations were consistent with the presence of active acid- and halo-tolerant SRB. Furthermore, stratified active microbial mat communities, with zones of black FeS formation localized several millimeters below the sediment-air interface, were identified in cross-section from lakeshore sediments near groundwater discharge springs. Culture-independent and culture-based work to characterize the SRB population is ongoing at this site. We infer, from previous sulfur isotope tracer experiments at the lake, that overall sulfate reduction rates may be slow, but are nonetheless proceeding and contributing to the recycling of oxidized iron to a significant degree given the abundance of sulfate evidenced by widespread gypsum precipitation. We conclude from the two study-sites described above that acid-tolerant SRB species play an important role in the linked S, Fe and C cycles in acidifying, iron-rich environments, and their phylogenetic and physiological diversity should be further investigated.

  17. Hepatic Induction of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Plays a Pathogenic Role in Sepsis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bingfang; Li, Yujin; Gao, Li; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Yiwen; Chai, Xiaojuan; Xu, Meishu; Yan, Jiong; Lu, Peipei; Ren, Songrong; Zeng, Su; Liu, Yulan; Xie, Wen; Huang, Min

    2017-03-06

    Sepsis is defined as the host's deleterious systemic inflammatory response to microbial infections. Herein, we report an essential role of the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4; alias adipocyte protein 2 or aP2), a lipid-binding chaperone, in sepsis response. Bioinformatic analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus data sets showed the level of FABP4 was higher in the nonsurvival sepsis patients' whole blood compared to the survival cohorts. The expression of Fabp4 was induced in a liver-specific manner in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and lipopolysaccharide treatment models of sepsis. The induction of Fabp4 may have played a pathogenic role, because ectopic expression of Fabp4 in the liver sensitized mice to CLP-induced inflammatory response and worsened the animal's survival. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of Fabp4 markedly alleviated the CLP responsive inflammation and tissue damage and improved survival. We conclude that FABP4 is an important mediator of the sepsis response. Early intervention by pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 may help to manage sepsis in the clinic.

  18. The stringent response plays a key role in Bacillus subtilis survival of fatty acid starvation.

    PubMed

    Pulschen, André A; Sastre, Diego E; Machinandiarena, Federico; Crotta Asis, Agostina; Albanesi, Daniela; de Mendoza, Diego; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J

    2017-02-01

    The stringent response is a universal adaptive mechanism to protect bacteria from nutritional and environmental stresses. The role of the stringent response during lipid starvation has been studied only in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report that the stringent response also plays a crucial role in the adaptation of the model Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis to fatty acid starvation. B. subtilis lacking all three (p)ppGpp-synthetases (RelBs , RelP and RelQ) or bearing a RelBs variant that no longer synthesizes (p)ppGpp suffer extreme loss of viability on lipid starvation. Loss of viability is paralleled by perturbation of membrane integrity and function, with collapse of membrane potential as the likely cause of death. Although no increment of (p)ppGpp could be detected in lipid starved B. subtilis, we observed a substantial increase in the GTP/ATP ratio of strains incapable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp. Artificially lowering GTP with decoyinine rescued viability of such strains, confirming observations that low intracellular GTP is important for survival of nutritional stresses. Altogether, our results show that activation of the stringent response by lipid starvation is a broadly conserved response of bacteria and that a key role of (p)ppGpp is to couple biosynthetic processes that become detrimental if uncoordinated.

  19. Silicon-mediated resistance of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew involves mechanisms other than the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence pathway.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Labbé, Caroline; Menzies, James G; Bélanger, Richard R

    2015-08-01

    On absorption by plants, silicon (Si) offers protection against many fungal pathogens, including powdery mildews. The mechanisms by which Si exerts its prophylactic role remain enigmatic, although a prevailing hypothesis suggests that Si positively influences priming. Attempts to decipher Si properties have been limited to plants able to absorb Si, which excludes the model plant Arabidopsis because it lacks Si influx transporters. In this work, we were able to engineer Arabidopsis plants with an Si transporter from wheat (TaLsi1) and to exploit mutants (pad4 and sid2) deficient in salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence responses to study their phenotypic response and changes in defence expression against Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) following Si treatment. Our results showed that TaLsi1 plants contained significantly more Si and were significantly more resistant to Gc infection than control plants when treated with Si, the first such demonstration in a plant transformed with a heterologous Si transporter. The resistant plants accumulated higher levels of SA and expressed higher levels of transcripts encoding defence genes, thus suggesting a role for Si in the process. However, TaLsi1 pad4 and TaLsi1 sid2 plants were also more resistant to Gc than were pad4 and sid2 plants following Si treatment. Analysis of the resistant phenotypes revealed a significantly reduced production of SA and expression of defence genes comparable with susceptible controls. These results indicate that Si contributes to Arabidopsis defence priming following pathogen infection, but highlight that Si will confer protection even when priming is altered. We conclude that Si-mediated protection involves mechanisms other than SA-dependent defence responses. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

  1. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-09-03

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence.

  2. Hydrolysis of substance P in the presence of the osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2: release of free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Marini, Mario; Roda, L Giorgio; Tarantino, Umberto; Valenti, Angela

    2011-12-01

    The possible hydrolysis of substance P (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met) in presence of the osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2 was measured by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass detection. The results obtained indicate that a very rapid disappearance of the intact undecapeptide was associated to a slower appearance of seven of its eight component amino acids. These results can be interpreted as indicating that an extremely fast hydrolysis of substance P by endopeptidases, which released peptidic by-products, was followed by a noticeably slower secondary degradation which released free amino acids. In decreasing quantitative importance, these phenomena appear to originate by the hydrolysis of the Pro(4)-Gln(5) bond, followed by C-terminal sequential degradation of the Arg(1)-Pro(4) tetrapeptide; by the hydrolysis of or Phe(7)-Phe(8) bond (or, possibly, of Gln(6)-Phe(7)) leading to release of free Phe and Gln; by hydrolysis of the Gly(9)-Leu(10) bond with subsequent release of Met and Leu. Results obtained appear to be compatible with the expression by SaOS-2 cells of enzymes already known to catalyze substance P hydrolysis, together with an apparent low efficiency of aminopeptidases. Because of the activity of C-terminal fragments on NK1 receptors, the delay between primary hydrolysis of substance P and secondary hydrolysis of its peptidic fragments indicated by the data shown implies a possible persistence of substance P physiological effects even after degradation of the intact peptide.

  3. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1Δ mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1Δ mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1Δ mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1Δ mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1Δ mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1Δ mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

  4. Ursolic acid plays a role in Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham CNS depressing effects.

    PubMed

    Taviano, M F; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2007-04-01

    The sedative, anticonvulsant and analgesic activity of ursolic acid, a terpenoid bioassay-isolated from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham, was evaluated in mice. The oral administration of ursolic acid (2.3 mg/kg) produced a significant depressant effect on CNS by reducing spontaneous motor activity and the number and lethality of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Two models of nociception, the writhing test and the hot plate test, were also used to examine the analgesic effect of ursolic acid. At a dose of 2.3 mg/kg, ursolic acid caused an inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, but was inactive in the hot plate test. Treatment at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) significantly increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. This effect, reversed by naloxone, evidently involves opioid receptors, but the analgesic activity of ursolic acid may be related also to the antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of this compound.

  5. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant-pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed.

  6. Intra-myocellular fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in mediating responses to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Katewa, Subhash D.; Demontis, Fabio; Kolipinski, Marysia; Hubbard, Allan; Gill, Matthew S.; Perrimon, Norbert; Melov, Simon; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Summary Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism towards increasing both fatty acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes specifically in the muscle tissue inhibited lifespan extension upon DR. Furthermore, DR enhances spontaneous activity of flies which was found to be dependent on the enhanced fatty acid metabolism. This increase in activity was found to be at least partially required for the lifespan extension upon DR. Over-expression of adipokinetic hormone (dAKH), the functional ortholog of glucagon, enhances fat metabolism, spontaneous activity and lifespan. Together, these results suggest that enhanced fat metabolism in the muscle and physical activity play a key role in the protective effects of DR. PMID:22768842

  7. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  8. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  9. G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor plays a key role in bile acid metabolism and fasting-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Boehme, Shannon; Li, Feng; Chiang, John Y L

    2017-03-01

    Bile acids are signaling molecules that play a critical role in regulation of hepatic metabolic homeostasis by activating nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and membrane G-protein-coupled receptor (Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5; Tgr5). The role of FXR in regulation of bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism has been studied extensively. However, the role of TGR5 in hepatic metabolism has not been explored. The liver plays a central role in lipid metabolism, and impaired response to fasting and feeding contributes to steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver and obesity. We have performed a detailed analysis of gallbladder bile acid and lipid metabolism in Tgr5(-/-) mice in both free-fed and fasted conditions. Lipid profiles of serum, liver and adipose tissues, bile acid composition, energy metabolism, and messenger RNA and protein expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed. Results showed that deficiency of the Tgr5 gene in mice alleviated fasting-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression of liver oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase in the alternative bile acid synthesis pathway was reduced. Analysis of gallbladder bile acid composition showed marked increase of taurocholic acid and decrease of tauro-α and β-muricholic acid in Tgr5(-/-) mice. Tgr5(-/-) mice had increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation rate and decreased hepatic fatty acid uptake. Interestingly, fasting induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 in liver was attenuated. In addition, fasted Tgr5(-/-) mice had increased activation of hepatic growth hormone-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (GH-Stat5) signaling compared to wild-type mice.

  10. Mouse ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) plays a critical role in bile acid reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kihwa; Schmahl, Jennifer; Lee, Jong-Min; Garcia, Karen; Patil, Ketan; Chen, Amelia; Keene, Michelle; Murphy, Andrew; Sleeman, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a unique peptide gut hormone that requires post-translational modification to stimulate both feeding and growth hormone release. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified as a specific acyl-transferase for ghrelin, and recent genetic deletion studies of the Goat gene (Goat(-/-)) uncovered the role of ghrelin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. To further understand the physiological functions of the GOAT/ghrelin system, we have conducted a metabolomic and microarray profile of Goat-null mice, as well as determined Goat expression in different tissues using the lacZ reporter gene. Serum metabolite profile analysis revealed that Goat(-/-) mice exhibited increased secondary bile acids >2.5-fold. This was attributed to increased mRNA and protein expression of the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ISBT) in the intestinal and biliary tract. Increased expression of additional solute carrier proteins, including Slc5a12 (>10-fold) were also detected in the small intestine and bile duct. Goat staining was consistently observed in the pituitary glands, stomach, and intestines, and to a lesser extent in the gallbladder and pancreatic duct. This is the first report that the GOAT/ghrelin system regulates bile acid metabolism, and these findings suggest a novel function of GOAT in the regulation of intestinal bile acid reabsorption..

  11. Interconversion of the salicylic acid signal and its glucoside in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hennig, J; Malamy, J; Grynkiewicz, G; Indulski, J; Klessig, D F

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been proposed to play a role in the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco. Since SA is rapidly converted to salicylic acid beta-glucoside (SAG) in tobacco, we have attempted to assess the role of SAG in pathogenesis by application of chemically synthesized SAG to tobacco leaves. SAG was as active as SA in induction of PR-1 gene expression. This induction was preceded by a transient release of SA, which occurred in the extracellular spaces. The existence of a mechanism that releases SA from SAG suggests a possible role for SAG in SAR.

  12. A purple acid phosphatase plays a role in nodule formation and nitrogen fixation in Astragalus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Si, Zaiyong; Li, Fang; Xiong, Xiaobo; Lei, Lei; Xie, Fuli; Chen, Dasong; Li, Yixing; Li, Youguo

    2015-08-01

    The AsPPD1 gene from Astragalus sinicus encodes a purple acid phosphatase. To address the functions of AsPPD1 in legume-rhizobium symbiosis, its expression patterns, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and phenotypes associated with its over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) were investigated. The expression of AsPPD1 was up-regulated in roots and nodules after inoculation with rhizobia. Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation.

  13. Lipoic acid plays a role in scleroderma: insights obtained from scleroderma dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Pei-Suen; Balogh, Beatrix; Pinney, Adam J; Zakhem, George; Lozier, Ann; Amin, M Asif; Stinson, William A; Schiopu, Elena; Khanna, Dinesh; Fox, David A; Koch, Alisa E

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and organs. Increase in oxidative stress and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) activation promote collagen I (Col I) production, leading to fibrosis in SSc. Lipoic acid (LA) and its active metabolite dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are naturally occurring thiols that act as cofactors and antioxidants, and are produced by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS). The goal of this study was to examine whether LA and LIAS was deficient in SSc patients and determine the effect of DHLA on the phenotype of SSc dermal fibroblasts. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used thiol antioxidant, was included as a comparison. Dermal fibroblasts were isolated from healthy subjects and patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and LIAS were measured by ELISA. The expression of Col I was measured by immunofluorescence, hydroxyproline assay, and quantitative PCR. PDGFR phosphorylation and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was measured by Western blotting. Student's t-tests were performed for statistical analysis and p-values of less than 0.05 with two-tailed analysis were considered statistically significant. The expression of LA and LIAS in SSc dermal fibroblasts was lower than normal fibroblasts, however LIAS was significantly higher in SSc plasma and appeared to be released from monocytes. DHLA lowered cellular oxidative stress, and decreased PDGFR phosphorylation, Col I, PAI-1, and α-SMA expression in SSc dermal fibroblasts. It also restored the activities of phosphatases that inactivated the PDGFR. SSc fibroblasts produced lower levels of MMP-1 and 3, and DHLA increased them. In contrast, TIMP-1 levels were higher in SSc but DHLA had minimal effect. Both DHLA and NAC increased MMP-1 activity when SSc cells were stimulated with PDGF. In general, DHLA showed better efficacy than NAC in most

  14. On play and playing.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  15. Thioesterase II of Escherichia coli Plays an Important Role in 3-Hydroxydecanoic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Gong, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Deng, Ying; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    3-Hydroxydecanoic acid (3HD) was produced in Escherichia coli by mobilizing (R)-3-hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein-coenzyme A transacylase (PhaG, encoded by the phaG gene). By employing an isogenic tesB (encoding thioesterase II)-negative knockout E. coli strain, CH01, it was found that the expressions of tesB and phaG can up-regulate each other. In addition, 3HD was synthesized from glucose or fructose by recombinant E. coli harboring phaG and tesB. This study supports the hypothesis that the physiological role of thioesterase II in E. coli is to prevent the abnormal accumulation of intracellular acyl-coenzyme A. PMID:15240249

  16. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Monomethyl Branched-Chain Fatty Acids Play an Essential Role in Caenorhabditis elegans Development

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Quinn T; Seiber, Matt; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly found in many organisms from bacteria to mammals. In humans, they have been detected in skin, brain, blood, and cancer cells. Despite a broad distribution, mmBCFAs remain exotic in eukaryotes, where their origin and physiological roles are not understood. Here we report our study of the function and regulation of mmBCFAs in Caenorhabditis elegans, combining genetics, gas chromatography, and DNA microarray analysis. We show that C. elegans synthesizes mmBCFAs de novo and utilizes the long-chain fatty acid elongation enzymes ELO-5 and ELO-6 to produce two mmBCFAs, C15ISO and C17ISO. These mmBCFAs are essential for C. elegans growth and development, as suppression of their biosynthesis results in a growth arrest at the first larval stage. The arrest is reversible and can be overcome by feeding the arrested animals with mmBCFA supplements. We show not only that the levels of C15ISO and C17ISO affect the expression of several genes, but also that the activities of some of these genes affect biosynthesis of mmBCFAs, suggesting a potential feedback regulation. One of the genes, lpd-1, encodes a homolog of a mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP 1c). We present results suggesting that elo-5 and elo-6 may be transcriptional targets of LPD-1. This study exposes unexpected and crucial physiological functions of C15ISO and C17ISO in C. elegans and suggests a potentially important role for mmBCFAs in other eukaryotes. PMID:15340492

  18. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-11-25

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  19. LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic, human sperm-related protein, plays a role in fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Li, Wenshu; Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Yixin; Bao, Jianying; Jiang, Deke; Dong, Xianping

    2017-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the c-type lysozyme/α-lactalbumin family and are selectively expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. Two members, human sperm lysozyme-like protein (SLLP) -1 and mouse LYZL4, have been reported to contribute to fertilization but show no bacteriolytic activity. Here, we focused on the possible contribution of LYZL6 to immunity and fertilization. In humans, LYZL6 was selectively expressed by the testis and epididymis and became concentrated on spermatozoa. Native LYZL6 isolated from sperm extracts exhibited bacteriolytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Recombinant LYZL6 (rLYZL6) reached its peak activity at pH 5.6 and 15 mM of Na+, and could inhibit the growth of Gram-positive, but not Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, the bacteriolytic activity of rLYZL6 proved to be much lower than that of human lysozyme under physiological conditions. Immunodetection with a specific antiserum localized the LYZL6 protein on the postacrosomal membrane of mature spermatozoa. Immunoneutralization of LYZL6 significantly decreased the numbers of human spermatozoa fused with zona-free hamster eggs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus, we report here for the first time that LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic and human sperm-related protein, is likely important for fertilization but not for the innate immunity of the male reproductive tract. PMID:28182716

  20. Does α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid (BMAA) play a role in neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Alexander S; Gehringer, Michelle M; Welch, Jeffrey H; Neilan, Brett A

    2011-09-01

    The association of α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid (BMAA) with elevated incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson's disease complex (ALS/PDC) was first identified on the island of Guam. BMAA has been shown to be produced across the cyanobacterial order and its detection has been reported in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial environments worldwide, suggesting that it is ubiquitous. Various in vivo studies on rats, mice, chicks and monkeys have shown that it can cause neurodegenerative symptoms such as ataxia and convulsions. Zebrafish research has also shown disruption to neural development after BMAA exposure. In vitro studies on mice, rats and leeches have shown that BMAA acts predominantly on motor neurons. Observed increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) influx, coupled with disruption to mitochondrial activity and general neuronal death, indicate that the main mode of activity is via excitotoxic mechanisms. The current review pertaining to the neurotoxicity of BMAA clearly demonstrates its ability to adversely affect neural tissues, and implicates it as a potentially significant compound in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disease. When considering the potential adverse health effects upon exposure to this compound, further research to better understand the modes of toxicity of BMAA and the environmental exposure limits is essential.

  1. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919

  2. Autocrine abscisic acid plays a key role in quartz-induced macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Magnone, Mirko; Sturla, Laura; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Scarfì, Sonia; Bruzzone, Santina; Usai, Cesare; Guida, Lucrezia; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2012-03-01

    Inhalation of quartz induces silicosis, a lung disease where alveolar macrophages release inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Here we report the pivotal role of abscisic acid (ABA), a recently discovered human inflammatory hormone, in silica-induced activation of murine RAW264.7 macrophages and of rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). Stimulation of both RAW264.7 cells and AMs with quartz induced a significant increase of ABA release (5- and 10-fold, respectively), compared to untreated cells. In RAW264.7 cells, autocrine ABA released after quartz stimulation sequentially activates the plasma membrane receptor LANCL2 and NADPH oxidase, generating a Ca(2+) influx resulting in NFκ B nuclear translocation and PGE(2) and TNF-α release (3-, 2-, and 3.5-fold increase, respectively, compared to control, unstimulated cells). Quartz-stimulated RAW264.7 cells silenced for LANCL2 or preincubated with a monoclonal antibody against ABA show an almost complete inhibition of NFκ B nuclear translocation and PGE(2) and TNF-α release compared to controls electroporated with a scramble oligonucleotide or preincubated with an unrelated antibody. AMs showed similar early and late ABA-induced responses as RAW264.7 cells. These findings identify ABA and LANCL2 as key mediators in quartz-induced inflammation, providing possible new targets for antisilicotic therapy.

  3. Hypothesis: Nitro-fatty acids play a role in plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J

    2013-02-01

    The free radical molecule nitric oxide (NO) is involved in a wide range of plant functions such as growth, senescence, fruit ripening, and responses to adverse environmental conditions. NO and NO-derived molecules peroxynitrite and S-nitrosoglutathione are reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that can directly or indirectly interact with a broad spectrum of biomolecules that affect their biological functions. Plant NO research has focused on post-translational modifications in proteins, mainly S-nitrosylation and nitration. There are other potential target biomolecules in plants that have not been studied, which have been studied in animal systems, such as lipids. Nitro-fatty acids (NO(2)-FAs) are involved in pleiotropic activities in animal systems, including modulation of macrophage activation, prevention of leukocyte and platelet activation, and promotion of blood vessel relaxation. NO(2)-FAs are therefore novel mediators in NO signaling pathways and metabolism. This review will focus on these molecules and will highlight their potential in relation to the physiology of higher plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of a highly dispersive sinapinic acid@graphene oxide (SA@GO) and its applications as a novel surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for proteomics and pathogenic bacteria biosensing.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2015-03-07

    Graphene oxide (GO)-modified sinapinic acid (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, SA) (SA@GO) was synthesized and characterized; it was then investigated as a new surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) for proteomics and pathogenic bacteria biosensing. SA@GO could effectively decrease the time necessary for sweet spotting searching, reducing the amount of organic matrix and solvent and enhance the sensitivity. SA@GO shows high performance as a matrix alone without the need to add trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). However, the analysis of the intact bacteria cells shows improvement in the signal intensity (2-5 fold) and offers a low limit of detection. All these analyses could be performed with low concentrations (1-10 fmol) and tiny volumes (0.5-1 μL). This study demonstrated that the exploration of new hybrid materials is pivotal to achieve high performance and high ionization. Because of the plane of GO, it assists protein-protein interactions that make it undergo softer ionization.

  5. Aspartic acids 96 and 85 play a central role in the function of bacteriorhodopsin as a proton pump.

    PubMed Central

    Butt, H J; Fendler, K; Bamberg, E; Tittor, J; Oesterhelt, D

    1989-01-01

    A spectroscopic and functional analysis of two point-mutated bacteriorhodopsins (BRs) from phototrophic negative halobacterial strains is reported. Bacteriorhodopsin from strain 384 contains a glutamic acid instead of an aspartic acid at position 85 and BR from strain 326 contains asparagine instead of aspartic acid at position 96. Compared to wild-type BR, the M formation in BR Asp85---Glu is accwelerated approximately 10-fold, whereas the M decay in BR Asp96---Asn is slowed down approximately 50-fold at pH6. Purple membrane sheets containing the mutated BRs were oriented and immobilized in polyacrylamide gels or adsorbed to planar lipid films. The measured kinetics of the photocurrents under various conditions agree with the observed photocycle kinetics. The ineffectivity of BR Asp85---Glu resides in the dominance of an inactive species absorbing maximally at approximately 610 nm, while BR Asp96---Asn is ineffective due to its slow photocycle. These experimental results suggest that aspartic acid 96 plays a crucial role for the reprotonation of the Schiff base. Both residues are essential for an effective proton pump. PMID:2548851

  6. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  7. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, Thomas; Valentová, Olga; Balesdent, Marie-HelEne; Rouxel, Thierry; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    To achieve host colonization, successful pathogens need to overcome plant basal defences. For this, (hemi)biotrophic pathogens secrete effectors that interfere with a range of physiological processes of the host plant. AvrLm4-7 is one of the cloned effectors from the hemibiotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicaceae' infecting mainly oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Although its mode of action is still unknown, AvrLm4-7 is strongly involved in L. maculans virulence. Here, we investigated the effect of AvrLm4-7 on plant defence responses in a susceptible cultivar of B. napus. Using two isogenic L. maculans isolates differing in the presence of a functional AvrLm4-7 allele [absence ('a4a7') and presence ('A4A7') of the allele], the plant hormone concentrations, defence-related gene transcription and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were analysed in infected B. napus cotyledons. Various components of the plant immune system were affected. Infection with the 'A4A7' isolate caused suppression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling, the pathways regulating an effective defence against L. maculans infection. Furthermore, ROS accumulation was decreased in cotyledons infected with the 'A4A7' isolate. Treatment with an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid, increased the aggressiveness of the 'a4a7' L. maculans isolate, but not that of the 'A4A7' isolate. Together, our results suggest that the increased aggressiveness of the 'A4A7' L. maculans isolate could be caused by defects in ROS-dependent defence and/or linked to suppressed SA and ET signalling. This is the first study to provide insights into the manipulation of B. napus defence responses by an effector of L. maculans. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endogenous salicylic acid protects rice plants from oxidative damage caused by aging as well as biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinong; Qi, Min; Mei, Chuansheng

    2004-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key endogenous signal that mediates defense gene expression and disease resistance in many dicotyledonous species. In contrast to tobacco and Arabidopsis, which contain low basal levels of SA, rice has two orders of magnitude higher levels of SA and appears to be insensitive to exogenous SA treatment. To determine the role of SA in rice plants, we have generated SA-deficient transgenic rice by expressing the bacterial salicylate hydroxylase that degrades SA. Depletion of high levels of endogenous SA in transgenic rice does not measurably affect defense gene expression, but reduces the plant's capacity to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). SA-deficient transgenic rice contains elevated levels of superoxide and H2O2, and exhibits spontaneous lesion formation in an age- and light-dependent manner. Exogenous application of SA analog benzothiadiazole complements SA deficiency and suppresses ROI levels and lesion formation. Although an increase of conjugated catechol was detected in SA-deficient rice, catechol does not appear to significantly affect ROI levels based on the endogenous catechol data and exogenous catechol treatment. When infected with the blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea), SA-deficient rice exhibits increased susceptibility to oxidative bursts elicited by avirulent isolates. Furthermore, SA-deficient rice is hyperresponsive to oxidative damage caused by paraquat treatment. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that SA plays an important role to modulate redox balance and protect rice plants from oxidative stress.

  10. Acetolactate synthase regulatory subunits play divergent and overlapping roles in branched-chain amino acid synthesis and Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Foreman, Curtis; Jalili, Espanta; Pal, Mrinal; Dhaliwal, Rajdeep K; Roberto, Don Karl A; Imre, Kathleen M; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Crosby, William L

    2017-04-07

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are synthesized by plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea with plants being the major source of these amino acids in animal diets. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first enzyme in the BCAA synthesis pathway. Although the functional contribution of ALS to BCAA biosynthesis has been extensively characterized, a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of this pathway at the molecular level is still lacking. To characterize the regulatory processes governing ALS activity we utilized several complementary approaches. Using the ALS catalytic protein subunit as bait we performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen which resulted in the identification of a set of interacting proteins, two of which (denoted as ALS-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 and 3 [AIP1 and AIP3, respectively]) were found to be evolutionarily conserved orthologues of bacterial feedback-regulatory proteins and therefore implicated in the regulation of ALS activity. To investigate the molecular role AIPs might play in BCAA synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined the functional contribution of aip1 and aip3 knockout alleles to plant patterning and development and BCAA synthesis under various growth conditions. Loss-of-function genetic backgrounds involving these two genes exhibited differential aberrant growth responses in valine-, isoleucine-, and sodium chloride-supplemented media. While BCAA synthesis is believed to be localized to the chloroplast, both AIP1 and AIP3 were found to localize to the peroxisome in addition to the chloroplast. Analysis of free amino acid pools in the mutant backgrounds revealed that they differ in the absolute amount of individual BCAAs accumulated and exhibit elevated levels of BCAAs in leaf tissues. Despite the phenotypic differences observed in aip1 and aip3 backgrounds, functional redundancy between these loci was suggested by the finding that aip1/aip3 double knockout mutants are severely developmentally compromised. Taken together the

  11. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Novel interrelationship between salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and PIP2-specific phospholipase C in heat acclimation-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yan-Yan; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Yang, Hao-Ru; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that heat acclimation and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) may lead to the enhancement of thermotolerance in plants. In this study, the roles that free SA, conjugated SA, ABA, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-specific phospholipase C (PLC) play in thermotolerance development induced by heat acclimation (38 degrees C) were investigated. To evaluate their potential functions, three inhibitors of synthesis or activity were infiltrated into pea leaves prior to heat acclimation treatment. The results showed that the burst of free SA in response to heat acclimation could be attributed to the conversion of SA 2-O-D-glucose, the main conjugated form of SA, to free SA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis also resulted in a defect in the free SA peak during heat acclimation. In acquired thermotolerance assessment, the greatest weakness of antioxidant enzyme activity and the most severe heat injury (malondialdehyde content and degree of wilting) were found in pea leaves pre-treated with neomycin, a well-known inhibitor of PIP(2)-PLC activity. PsPLC gene expression was activated by exogenous ABA, SA treatments, and heat acclimation after pre-treatments with a SA biosynthesis inhibitor. From these results, PIP(2)-PLC appears to play a key role in free SA- and ABA-associated reinforcement of thermotolerance resulting from heat acclimation.

  13. Identification of multiple salicylic acid-binding proteins using two high throughput screens

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Park, Sang-Wook; Choi, Hyong Woo; Fei, Zhangjun; Friso, Giulia; Asif, Muhammed; Manosalva, Patricia; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Shi, Kai; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; O'Doherty, Inish; Schroeder, Frank C.; van Wijk, Klass J.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important hormone involved in many diverse plant processes, including floral induction, stomatal closure, seed germination, adventitious root initiation, and thermogenesis. It also plays critical functions during responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. The role(s) of SA in signaling disease resistance is by far the best studied process, although it is still only partially understood. To obtain insights into how SA carries out its varied functions, particularly in activating disease resistance, two new high throughput screens were developed to identify novel SA-binding proteins (SABPs). The first utilized crosslinking of the photo-reactive SA analog 4-AzidoSA (4AzSA) to proteins in an Arabidopsis leaf extract, followed by immuno-selection with anti-SA antibodies and then mass spectroscopy-based identification. The second utilized photo-affinity crosslinking of 4AzSA to proteins on a protein microarray (PMA) followed by detection with anti-SA antibodies. To determine whether the candidate SABPs (cSABPs) obtained from these screens were true SABPs, recombinantly-produced proteins were generated and tested for SA-inhibitable crosslinking to 4AzSA, which was monitored by immuno-blot analysis, SA-inhibitable binding of the SA derivative 3-aminoethylSA (3AESA), which was detected by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, or SA-inhibitable binding of [3H]SA, which was detected by size exclusion chromatography. Based on our criteria that true SABPs must exhibit SA-binding activity in at least two of these assays, nine new SABPs are identified here; nine others were previously reported. Approximately 80 cSABPs await further assessment. In addition, the conflicting reports on whether NPR1 is an SABP were addressed by showing that it bound SA in all three of the above assays. PMID:25628632

  14. Caveolin-1 plays a key role in the oleanolic acid-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Wang, Di-Di; Li, Li; Feng, Yu-Kuan; Gu, Hong-Mei; Zhu, Gui-Ming; Piao, Jin-Hua; Yang, Yu; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Peng-Xia

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study found that caveolin-1 (CAV-1) protein expression is upregulated during oleanolic acid (OA)-induced inhibition of proliferation and promotion of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. CAV-1 is the main structural protein component of caveolae, playing important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development. It has been shown that cav-1 expression is lower in leukemia cancer cell lines SUP-B15, HL-60, THP-1 and K562 and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary (CLP) cells when compared with normal white blood cells, with the lowest cav-1 expression level found in HL-60 cells. To study the effects of cav-1 in HL-60 cells and the effects of cav-1 overexpression on OA drug efficacy, cav-1 was overexpressed in HL-60 cells using lentiviral-mediated transfection combined with OA treatment. The results showed that cav-1 overexpression inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase and inhibited activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of CAV-1 also increased HL-60 cell sensitivity to OA. To further verify whether OA affects HL-60 cells via the activation of downstream signaling pathways by CAV-1, cav-1 gene expression was silenced using RNAi, and the cells were treated with OA to examine its efficacy. The results showed that after cav-1 silencing, OA had little effect on cell activity, apoptosis, the cell cycle and phosphorylation of HL-60 cells. This study is the first to show that CAV-1 plays a crucial role in the effects of OA on HL-60 cells.

  15. The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

  16. Abscisic acid plays critical role in ozone-induced taxol production of Taxus chinensis suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Maojun; Jin, Haihong; Dong, Jufang; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Xiangbin; Zhou, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ozone induced a rapid increase in the levels of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and sequentially followed by the enhancement of Taxol production in suspension cell cultures of Taxus chinensis. The observed increases in ABA and Taxol were dependent on the concentration of ozone applied to T. chinensis cell cultures. To examine the role of ABA in ozone-induced Taxol production, we pretreated the cells with ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone to abolish ozone-triggered ABA generation and assayed the effect of fluridone on ozone-induced Taxol production. The results showed that pretreatment of the cells with fluridone not only suppressed the ozone-triggered ABA generation but also blocked the ozone-induced Taxol production. Moreover, our data indicate that the effect of ABA on Taxol production of T. chinensis cell cultures is dose-dependent. Interestingly, the suppression of fluridone on ozone-induced Taxol production was reversed by exogenous application of low dose of ABA, although treatment of low dose ABA alone had no effect on Taxol production of the cells. Together, the data indicated that ozone was an efficient elicitor for improving Taxol production of plant cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ABA played critical roles in ozone-induced Taxol production of T. chinensis suspension cell cultures. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Exogenous salicylic acid enhances the resistance of wheat seedlings to hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation under heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant resistanc...

  18. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response. PMID:25763618

  19. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response.

  20. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  1. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  2. Dissection of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The small phenolic molecule salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense. Significant progress has been made recently in understanding SA-mediated defense signaling networks. Functional analysis of a large number of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and regulation of SA accumulation and signal transduction has revealed distinct but interconnecting pathways that orchestrate the control of plant defense. Further studies utilizing combinatorial approaches in genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry and genomics will uncover finer details of SA-mediated defense networks as well as further insights into the crosstalk of SA with other defense signaling pathways. The complexity of defense networks illustrates the capacity of plants to integrate multiple developmental and environmental signals into a tight control of the costly defense responses. PMID:19820324

  3. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  4. Crystal Structure and Substrate Recognition of Cellobionic Acid Phosphorylase, Which Plays a Key Role in Oxidative Cellulose Degradation by Microbes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Young-Woo; Nihira, Takanori; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Saito, Yuka; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2015-07-24

    The microbial oxidative cellulose degradation system is attracting significant research attention after the recent discovery of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases. A primary product of the oxidative and hydrolytic cellulose degradation system is cellobionic acid (CbA), the aldonic acid form of cellobiose. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 94 from cellulolytic fungus and bacterium is cellobionic acid phosphorylase (CBAP), which catalyzes reversible phosphorolysis of CbA into glucose 1-phosphate and gluconic acid (GlcA). In this report, we describe the biochemical characterization and the three-dimensional structure of CBAP from the marine cellulolytic bacterium Saccharophagus degradans. Structures of ligand-free and complex forms with CbA, GlcA, and a synthetic disaccharide product from glucuronic acid were determined at resolutions of up to 1.6 Å. The active site is located near the dimer interface. At subsite +1, the carboxylate group of GlcA and CbA is recognized by Arg-609 and Lys-613. Additionally, one residue from the neighboring protomer (Gln-190) is involved in the carboxylate recognition of GlcA. A mutational analysis indicated that these residues are critical for the binding and catalysis of the aldonic and uronic acid acceptors GlcA and glucuronic acid. Structural and sequence comparisons with other glycoside hydrolase family 94 phosphorylases revealed that CBAPs have a unique subsite +1 with a distinct amino acid residue conservation pattern at this site. This study provides molecular insight into the energetically efficient metabolic pathway of oxidized sugars that links the oxidative cellulolytic pathway to the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways in cellulolytic microbes.

  5. Crystal Structure and Substrate Recognition of Cellobionic Acid Phosphorylase, Which Plays a Key Role in Oxidative Cellulose Degradation by Microbes*

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young-Woo; Nihira, Takanori; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Saito, Yuka; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The microbial oxidative cellulose degradation system is attracting significant research attention after the recent discovery of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases. A primary product of the oxidative and hydrolytic cellulose degradation system is cellobionic acid (CbA), the aldonic acid form of cellobiose. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 94 from cellulolytic fungus and bacterium is cellobionic acid phosphorylase (CBAP), which catalyzes reversible phosphorolysis of CbA into glucose 1-phosphate and gluconic acid (GlcA). In this report, we describe the biochemical characterization and the three-dimensional structure of CBAP from the marine cellulolytic bacterium Saccharophagus degradans. Structures of ligand-free and complex forms with CbA, GlcA, and a synthetic disaccharide product from glucuronic acid were determined at resolutions of up to 1.6 Å. The active site is located near the dimer interface. At subsite +1, the carboxylate group of GlcA and CbA is recognized by Arg-609 and Lys-613. Additionally, one residue from the neighboring protomer (Gln-190) is involved in the carboxylate recognition of GlcA. A mutational analysis indicated that these residues are critical for the binding and catalysis of the aldonic and uronic acid acceptors GlcA and glucuronic acid. Structural and sequence comparisons with other glycoside hydrolase family 94 phosphorylases revealed that CBAPs have a unique subsite +1 with a distinct amino acid residue conservation pattern at this site. This study provides molecular insight into the energetically efficient metabolic pathway of oxidized sugars that links the oxidative cellulolytic pathway to the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways in cellulolytic microbes. PMID:26041776

  6. Influence of Salicylic Acid on In Vitro Micropropagation and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species, H. acetosella and H. moscheutos (cv ‘Luna Red’)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. It has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on i...

  7. Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunping; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance. PMID:24840293

  8. Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunping; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance.

  9. Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity is a novel function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). However, the functional site for this new effect is presently unknown. Methods and Results In this study, recombinant human HMGB1 A box and B box (rHMGB1 A box, rHMGB1 B box), recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the truncated C-terminal acidic tail mutant (tHMGB1) were prepared by the prokaryotic expression system. The C-terminal acidic tail (C peptide) was synthesized, which was composed of 30 amino acid residues. Antibacterial assays showed that both the full length rHMGB1 and the synthetic C peptide alone could efficiently inhibit bacteria proliferation, but rHMGB1 A box and B box, and tHMGB1 lacking the C-terminal acidic tail had no antibacterial function. These results suggest that C-terminal acidic tail is the key region for the antibacterial activity of HMGB1. Furthermore, we prepared eleven different deleted mutants lacking several amino acid residues in C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1. Antibacterial assays of these mutants demonstrate that the amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region is the core functional site for the antibacterial activity of the molecule. Conclusion In sum, these results define the key region and the crucial site in HMGB1 for its antibacterial function, which is helpful to illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of HMGB1. PMID:19751520

  10. SalSA status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy; SalSA Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    I review the status of SalSA, a proposed antenna array in a large volume salt formation for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos. We report on measurements taken in 2007 of attenuation lengths in the 125-900 MHz frequency range at the Cote Blanche salt mine near New Iberia, Louisiana, which is the most precise in situ measurement of attenuation lengths in salt to date. We comment on the impact of these measurements on the feasibility of SalSA.

  11. RodZ and PgsA Play Intertwined Roles in Membrane Homeostasis of Bacillus subtilis and Resistance to Weak Organic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Johan; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Folkerts, Hendrik; de Boer, Richard; Zakrzewska, Anna; Kulik, Wim; Vaz, Fred M.; Brul, Stanley; Ter Beek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell’s rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase) we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed. We show that both genes are co-transcribed and that both the rodZ::mini-Tn10 mutant and a conditional pgsA mutant, under conditions of minimal pgsA expression, were sensitive to sorbic and acetic acid. Both strains displayed a severely altered membrane composition. Compared to the wild-type strain, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin levels were lowered and the average acyl chain length was elongated. Induction of rodZ expression from a plasmid in our transposon mutant led to no recovery of weak acid susceptibility comparable to wild-type levels. However, pgsA overexpression in the same mutant partly restored sorbic acid susceptibility and fully restored acetic acid sensitivity. A construct containing both rodZ and pgsA as on the genome led to some restored growth as well. We propose that RodZ and PgsA play intertwined roles in membrane homeostasis and tolerance to weak organic acid stress. PMID:27818647

  12. Defective fatty acid oxidation in renal tubular epithelial cells plays a key role in kidney fibrosis development

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun Mi; Ahn, Seon Ho; Choi, Peter; Ko, Yi-An; Han, Seung Hyeok; Chinga, Frank; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Tao, Jianling; Sharma, Kumar; Pullman, James; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Susztak, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is the histological manifestation of a progressive usually irreversible process causing chronic and end stage kidney disease. Genome-wide transcriptome studies of a large cohort (n=95) of normal and fibrotic human kidney tubule samples followed by systems and network analyses identified inflammation and metabolism as top dysregulated pathways in diseased kidneys. In particular, we found that humans and mouse models with tubulointerstitial fibrosis had lower expression of key enzymes and regulators of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increased intracellular lipid deposition. In vitro experiments indicated that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in tubule epithelial cells caused ATP depletion, cell death, dedifferentiation and intracellular lipid deposition; a phenotype observed in fibrosis. Restoring fatty acid metabolism by genetic or pharmacological methods protected mice from tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Our results raise the possibility that correcting the metabolic defect may be useful for preventing and treating chronic kidney disease. PMID:25419705

  13. Degradation of oxalic acid by the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans plays an important role in interacting with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coniothyrium minitans is a mycoparasite of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces a virulence factor oxalic acid (OA) which is toxic to plants and also to C. minitans, and C. minitans detoxifies OA by degradation. In this study, two oxalate decarboxyla...

  14. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  16. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Duncan, Robin E; Bazinet, Richard P; Archer, Michael C

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from (14)C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as (14)C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2-3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells.

  17. Quantitative analysis of changes in the phosphoproteome of maize induced by the plant hormone salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liuji; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Shunxi; Tian, Lei; Pang, Yanjie; Han, Zanping; Wu, Liancheng; Chen, Yanhui

    2015-12-11

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in regulating various physiological and biochemical processes. Our previous study identified several protein kinases responsive to SA, suggesting that phosphorylation events play an important role in the plant response to SA. In this study, we characterized the phosphoproteome of maize in response to SA using isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology and TiO2 enrichment method. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, we found a total of 858 phosphoproteins among 1495 phosphopeptides. Among them, 291 phosphopeptides corresponding to 244 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly changed after SA treatment. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of biological processes, which indicate that the response to SA encompasses a reformatting of major cellular processes. Furthermore, some of the phosphoproteins which were not previously known to be involved with SA were found to have significantly changed phosphorylation levels. Many of these changes are phosphorylation decreases, indicating that other currently unknown SA signaling pathways that result in decreased phosphorylation of downstream targets must be involved. Our study represents the first attempt at global phosphoproteome profiling in response to SA, and provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulated by SA.

  18. Quantitative analysis of changes in the phosphoproteome of maize induced by the plant hormone salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liuji; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Shunxi; Tian, Lei; Pang, Yanjie; Han, Zanping; Wu, Liancheng; Chen, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in regulating various physiological and biochemical processes. Our previous study identified several protein kinases responsive to SA, suggesting that phosphorylation events play an important role in the plant response to SA. In this study, we characterized the phosphoproteome of maize in response to SA using isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology and TiO2 enrichment method. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, we found a total of 858 phosphoproteins among 1495 phosphopeptides. Among them, 291 phosphopeptides corresponding to 244 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly changed after SA treatment. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of biological processes, which indicate that the response to SA encompasses a reformatting of major cellular processes. Furthermore, some of the phosphoproteins which were not previously known to be involved with SA were found to have significantly changed phosphorylation levels. Many of these changes are phosphorylation decreases, indicating that other currently unknown SA signaling pathways that result in decreased phosphorylation of downstream targets must be involved. Our study represents the first attempt at global phosphoproteome profiling in response to SA, and provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulated by SA. PMID:26659305

  19. The source of inoculum plays a defining role in the development of MEC microbial consortia fed with acetic and propionic acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Vianey; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Buitrón, Germán

    2014-07-20

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used as a downstream process to dark fermentation to further capture electron in volatile fatty acids that remain after fermentation, improving this way the viability of the overall process. Acetic and propionic acid are common products of dark fermentation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different initial concentrations of a mixture of acetic and propionic acids on MECs microbial ecology and hydrogen production performance. To link microbial structure and function, we characterized the anode respiring biofilm communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative-PCR. The best hydrogen production rates (265mL/d/Lreactor) were obtained in the first block of experiments by MEC fed with 1500mg/L acetic acid and 250mg/L propionic acid. This reactor presents in the anode biofilm an even distribution of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and Arcobacter was the dominant genera. The above fact also correlated to the highest electron load among all the reactors. It was evidenced that although defined acetic and propionic acid concentrations fed affected the structure of the microbial consortia that developed at the anode, the initial inoculum played a major role in the development of MEC microbial consortia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2014-10-01

    Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates the prevention of ketoprofen-induced GI mucosal ulcers. Recent reports suggested that Nrf2 becomes unstable in the absence of DJ-1/PARK7, attenuating the activity of Nrf2-regulated downstream antioxidant enzymes. Thus, increasing Nrf2 translocation by DJ-1 may represent a novel means for GI protection. In vitro, caffeic acid increases the nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 ratio and the mRNA expression of the downstream antioxidant enzymes, ϒ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and heme oxygenase-1, by activating the JNK/p38 pathway in Int-407 cells. Moreover, knockdown of DJ-1 also reversed caffeic acid-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression in a JNK/p38-dependent manner. Our results also indicated that treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with caffeic acid prior to the administration of ketoprofen inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the inhibitory effects of ketoprofen on the antioxidant system and DJ-1 protein expression in the GI mucosa. Our observations suggest that DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the GI mucosa.

  1. Amino acid contacts in proteins adapted to different temperatures: hydrophobic interactions and surface charges play a key role.

    PubMed

    Saelensminde, Gisle; Halskau, Øyvind; Jonassen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Thermophiles, mesophiles, and psychrophiles have different amino acid frequencies in their proteins, probably because of the way the species adapt to very different temperatures in their environment. In this paper, we analyse how contacts between sidechains vary between homologous proteins from species that are adapted to different temperatures, but displaying relatively high sequence similarity. We investigate whether specific contacts between amino acids sidechains is a key factor in thermostabilisation in proteins. The dataset was divided into two subsets with optimal growth temperatures from 0-40 and 35-102 degrees C. Comparison of homologues was made between low-temperature species and high-temperature species within each subset. We found that unspecific interactions like hydrophobic interactions in the core and solvent interactions and entropic effects at the surface, appear to be more important factors than specific contact types like salt bridges and aromatic clusters.

  2. Proton play in the formation of low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) by hydrolyzing chitosan with a carbon based solid acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R Akhil; Deshmukh, Pranjal; Agarwal, Siddharth; Purohit, Poorvi; Dhoble, Deepa; Waske, Prashant; Khandekar, Dileep; Jain, Ratnesh; Dandekar, Prajakta

    2016-10-20

    Low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) constitute a special class of value added chemicals that are primarily obtained from crustacean shells, which are the main water pollutants from crabs and shrimp processing centers. Unlike chitin and chitosan, LWCS possess improved solubility in water and aqueous solutions, making them widely applicable in numerous fields ranging from drug delivery to waste water treatment. Among the methods employed for their production, chemical breakdown by strong liquid acids has yielded good success. However, this method is met with severe concerns arising from the harsh nature of liquid acids, which may corrode the reactors for commercial synthesis, and their limited reusability. The physical methods like ultrasound and microwave are energy intensive in nature, while the enzymatic methods are expensive and offers limited scope for reuse. We have attempted to overcome these problems by employing carbon based solid acid (CSA) for hydrolyzing chitosan to LWCS. CSA can be easily produced using activated carbon, a cost-effective and easily available raw material. Reactions were carried out between chitosan and CSA in a hydrothermal glass reactor and the products, separated by cold centrifugation, were purified and dried. The dried products were characterized for their molecular weight and solubility. Results indicated more than ten-fold decrease in the molecular weight of chitosan and the product exhibited water solubility. The CSA could be used upto four times, without regeneration, to give a consistent quality product. The aqueous solution of resulting LWCS exhibited a pH of 6.03±0.11, as against the acidic pH range of solutions of commercially available LWCS, indicating its suitability for biomedical applications. Our investigation facilitates a 'green approach' that may be employed for commercial production of value added chemicals from waste products of marine industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  4. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  5. Wanna Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenfeld, Mimi Brodsky

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the importance of play in the lives of children and describes how games and imaginative play contribute to the development of children. From her decades-old collection of countless incidents demonstrating children's love for self-directed, informal, imaginative play, the author shares three incidents that…

  6. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  7. Degradation of oxalic acid by the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans plays an important role in interacting with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-Mei; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yong-Chao; Yang, Long; Wu, Ming-de; Jiang, Dao-Hong; Chen, Weidong; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Coniothyrium minitans (Cm) is a mycoparasite of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss). Ss produces a virulence factor oxalic acid (OA) which is toxic to plants and also to Cm, and Cm detoxifies OA by degradation. In this study, two oxalate decarboxylase genes, Cmoxdc1 and Cmoxdc2, were cloned from Cm strain Chy-1. OA and low pH induced expression of Cmoxdc1, but not Cmoxdc2. Cmoxdc1 was partially responsible for OA degradation, whereas Cmoxdc2 had no effect on OA degradation. Disruption of Cmoxdc1 in Cm reduced its ability to infect Ss in dual cultures where OA accumulated. Compared with Chy-1, the Cmoxdc1-disrupted mutants had reduced expression levels of two mycoparasitism-related genes chitinase (Cmch1) and β-1,3-glucanase (Cmg1), and had no detectable activity of extracellular proteases in the presence of OA. On the other hand, the cultural filtrates of the Cmoxdc1-disrupted mutants in OA-amended media showed enhanced antifungal activity, possibly because of increased production of antifungal substances under acidic pH condition resulted from reduced Cmoxdc1-mediated OA degradation. This study provides direct genetic evidence of OA degradation regulating mycoparasitism and antibiosis of Cm against Ss, and sheds light on the sophisticated strategies of Cm in interacting with metabolically active mycelia and dormant sclerotia of Ss. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Poly-lactic acid and agarose gelatin play an active role in the recovery of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qi-Yue; Li, Shu-Rong; Cai, Wen-Qin; Su, Bing-Yin

    2006-03-01

    Objective To investigate the role of poly-lactic acid and agarose gelatin in promoting the functional recovery of the injured spinal cord. Methods Poly-lactic acid (PLA) or agarose was embedded in the space between two stumps of the hemisectioned spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry was used to show astroglia proliferation and the infiltration of RhoA-positive cells. Locomotor activity recovery was evaluated by testing the function of hindlimbs. Results Astroglias and RhoA labeled non-neuronal cells accumulated in the area adjacent to the implant, while the number of RhoA-positive cells was decreased dramatically in the absence of implant. Animals implanted with agarose gelatin recovered more quickly than those with PLA, concomitant with a higher survival rate of the neurons. Conclusion Both PLA and agarose gelatin benefited the recovery of spinal cord after injury by providing a scaffold for astroglia processes. Modulation of the rigidity, pore size and inner structure of PLA and agarose gelatin might make these biodegradable materials more effective in the regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS).

  9. β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianquan; Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Jianghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids serve many functions in plants, but the effects of some key genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis on plants growth and development are not well understood yet. To understand the functions of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I (KASI) in tobacco, we isolated two KASI homologs, which we have designated NtKASI-1 and NtKASI-2. Expression analysis showed that these two KASI genes were transcribed constitutively in all tissues examined. Over-expression of NtKASI-1 in tobacco changed the fatty acid content in leaves, whereas over-expressed lines of NtKASI-2 exhibited distinct phenotypic features such as slightly variegated leaves and reduction of the fatty acid content in leaves, similar to the silencing plants of NtKASI-1 gene. Interestingly, the silencing of NtKASI-2 gene had no discernibly altered phenotypes compared to wild type. The double silencing plants of these two genes enhanced the phenotypic changes during vegetative and reproductive growth compared to wild type. These results uncovered that these two KASI genes had the partially functional redundancy, and that the KASI genes played a key role in regulating fatty acids synthesis and in mediating plant growth and development in tobacco. PMID:27509494

  10. Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2016-06-21

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish.

  11. Human acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-9 plays a novel role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ensenauer, Regina; He, Miao; Willard, Jan-Marie; Goetzman, Eric S; Corydon, Thomas J; Vandahl, Brian B; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Isaya, Grazia; Vockley, Jerry

    2005-09-16

    Unsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the prevention of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, their oxidation in vivo by acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) that catalyze the first step of each cycle of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation is not entirely understood. Recently, a novel ACAD (ACAD-9) of unknown function that is highly homologous to human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was identified by large-scale random sequencing. To characterize its enzymatic role, we have expressed ACAD-9 in Escherichia coli, purified it, and determined its pattern of substrate utilization. The N terminus of the mature form of the enzyme was identified by in vitro mitochondrial import studies of precursor protein. A 37-amino acid leader peptide was cleaved sequentially by two mitochondrial peptidases to yield a predicted molecular mass of 65 kDa for the mature subunit. Submitochondrial fractionation studies found native ACAD-9 to be associated with the mitochondrial membrane. Gel filtration analysis indicated that, like very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ACAD-9 is a dimer, in contrast to the other known ACADs, which are tetramers. Purified mature ACAD-9 had maximal activity with long-chain unsaturated acyl-CoAs as substrates (C16:1-, C18:1-, C18:2-, C22:6-CoA). These results suggest a previously unrecognized role for ACAD-9 in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. Because of the substrate specificity and abundance of ACAD-9 in brain, we speculate that it may play a role in the turnover of lipid membrane unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane integrity and structure.

  12. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  13. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mobeen; Spelbrink, Robin E J; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette

    2007-12-11

    In this study, we investigated how the presence of anionic lipids influenced the stability and folding properties of the potassium channel KcsA. By using a combination of gel electrophoresis, tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments, we found that the presence of the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer slightly stabilized the tetramer and protected it from trifluoroethanol-induced dissociation. Surprisingly, the presence of phosphatidic acid (PA) had a much larger effect on the stability of KcsA and this lipid, in addition, significantly influenced the folding properties of the protein. The data indicate that PA creates some specificity over PG, and that it most likely stabilizes the tetramer via both electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions.

  14. Assessing the Role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR Transcriptional Repressors in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes.

    PubMed

    Caarls, Lotte; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Hickman, Richard; Jansen, Wouter; Verk, Marcel C Van; Proietti, Silvia; Lorenzo, Oscar; Solano, Roberto; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) cross-communicate in the plant immune signaling network to finely regulate induced defenses. In Arabidopsis, SA antagonizes many JA-responsive genes, partly by targeting the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-type transcriptional activator ORA59. Members of the ERF transcription factor family typically bind to GCC-box motifs in the promoters of JA- and ethylene-responsive genes, thereby positively or negatively regulating their expression. The GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Here, we investigated whether SA-induced ERF-type transcriptional repressors, which may compete with JA-induced ERF-type activators for binding at the GCC-box, play a role in SA/JA antagonism. We selected ERFs that are transcriptionally induced by SA and/or possess an EAR transcriptional repressor motif. Several of the 16 ERFs tested suppressed JA-dependent gene expression, as revealed by enhanced JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 expression levels in the corresponding erf mutants, while others were involved in activation of these genes. However, SA could antagonize JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 in all erf mutants, suggesting that the tested ERF transcriptional repressors are not required for SA/JA cross-talk. Moreover, a mutant in the co-repressor TOPLESS, that showed reduction in repression of JA signaling, still displayed SA-mediated antagonism of PDF1.2 and VSP2. Collectively, these results suggest that SA-regulated ERF transcriptional repressors are not essential for antagonism of JA-responsive gene expression by SA. We further show that de novo SA-induced protein synthesis is required for suppression of JA-induced PDF1.2, pointing to SA-stimulated production of an as yet unknown protein that suppresses JA-induced transcription.

  15. Play Sheets. Let's Play! Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Center for Assistive Technology.

    This collection of play sheets for parents and early intervention personnel was developed by the "Let's Play! Project," a 3-year federally supported project that worked to promote play in infants and toddlers with disabilities through the use of "low-tech" assistive technology. Each single page guide provides guidance to…

  16. Small amplicons high resolution melting analysis (SA-HRMA) allows successful genotyping of acid phosphatase 1 (ACP1) polymorphisms in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Angelo; Canu, Giulia; Gentile, Leonarda; Zuppi, Cecilia; Giardina, Bruno; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2013-02-01

    The ACP1 gene, encoding a low-molecular-weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP), has been suggested as a common genetic factor of several human diseases, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, favism and tumors. For this reason, the ACP1 enzyme has been investigated by case-control studies for decades. Initially based on protein electrophoresis, the ACP1 phenotype is now determined by DNA-based techniques. Here, we report a rapid optimized method which employs HRMA for ACP1 polymorphism identification, a molecular approach that we used to screen 80 healthy Italian subjects. HRMA proved particularly suitable for detecting ACP1 genotypes. In fact, HRMA results were 100% concordant with direct sequencing. In addition, ACP1 genotype frequency in the Italian population was in accordance with the literature [4% (*A/A), 36% (*A/B), 4% (*A/C), 50% (*B/B), 6% (*B/C)]. HRMA was found to be a simple, rapid, sensitive and low cost method potentially useful in research and diagnostic laboratories. Finally, use of small amplicons for the set-up allowed us a better optimization of HRMA. For this reason, we present such an approach as small amplicons high resolution melting analysis (SA-HRMA). Finally, ACP1 genotype frequency in the Italian population reported in this study may contribute to a better interpretation of ACP1 allelic frequency variation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Interrelationship between Abscisic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Plays a Key Role in Barley Seed Dormancy and Germination.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Aoki, Nozomi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Watabe, Gaku; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Seed dormancy is one of the adaptive responses in the plant life cycle and an important agronomic trait. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) release seed dormancy and promote seed germination in several cereal crops; however, the key regulatory mechanism of ROS-mediated seed dormancy and germination remains controversial. Here, we focused on the relationship between hydrogen peroxide (a ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA) in dormant and non-dormant barley seeds. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level produced in barley seed embryos after imbibition was higher in non-dormant seeds than in dormant seeds. H2O2 regulated the ABA content in the embryos through ABA-8'-hydroxylase, an ABA catabolic enzyme. Moreover, compared with non-dormant seeds, in dormant seeds the activity of NADPH oxidase, which produces ROS, was lower, whereas the activity of catalase, which is a H2O2 scavenging enzyme, was higher, as was the expression of HvCAT2. Furthermore, precocious germination of isolated immature embryos was suppressed by the transient introduction of HvCAT2 driven by the maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. HvCAT2 expression was regulated through an ABA-responsive transcription factor (HvABI5) induced by ABA. These results suggest that the changing of balance between ABA and ROS is active in barley seed embryos after imbibition and regulates barley seed dormancy and germination.

  18. The Interrelationship between Abscisic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Plays a Key Role in Barley Seed Dormancy and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Aoki, Nozomi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Watabe, Gaku; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Seed dormancy is one of the adaptive responses in the plant life cycle and an important agronomic trait. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) release seed dormancy and promote seed germination in several cereal crops; however, the key regulatory mechanism of ROS-mediated seed dormancy and germination remains controversial. Here, we focused on the relationship between hydrogen peroxide (a ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA) in dormant and non-dormant barley seeds. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level produced in barley seed embryos after imbibition was higher in non-dormant seeds than in dormant seeds. H2O2 regulated the ABA content in the embryos through ABA-8′-hydroxylase, an ABA catabolic enzyme. Moreover, compared with non-dormant seeds, in dormant seeds the activity of NADPH oxidase, which produces ROS, was lower, whereas the activity of catalase, which is a H2O2 scavenging enzyme, was higher, as was the expression of HvCAT2. Furthermore, precocious germination of isolated immature embryos was suppressed by the transient introduction of HvCAT2 driven by the maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. HvCAT2 expression was regulated through an ABA-responsive transcription factor (HvABI5) induced by ABA. These results suggest that the changing of balance between ABA and ROS is active in barley seed embryos after imbibition and regulates barley seed dormancy and germination. PMID:28377774

  19. Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1, in combination with salvianolic acid B, play different roles in myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanping; Zhang, Tingting; Teng, Fukang; Li, Defang; Xu, Feng; Cho, Kenka; Xu, Jinghua; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Li; Liu, Qian; Yang, Ming; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-An; Jiang, Baohong

    2015-02-01

    The herb pair of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng has widely been used for improving coronary and cerebral circulation in China. However, the exact contribution of the major active components of S. miltiorrhiza and P. notoginseng to cardioprotection is far from clear. In the present study, three representative ingredients, salvianolic acid B (SalB) from S. miltiorrhiza and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) from P. notoginseng, were selected to elucidate the mechanism of the herb pair at the ingredient level. The purity of SalB, Rg1, and Rb1 was >99%, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acute myocardial infarction was introduced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery near the main pulmonary artery. Cardiac contractility was detected through a Mikro-tipped catheter, and cardiac infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain. The combination of SalB and Rg1, and not the combination of SalB and Rb1, improved heart contractility in rats with myocardial infarction. The different contributions of Rg1 and Rb1, in combination with SalB, to cardioprotection provides further direction to optimize and modernize the herbal medicines containing S. miltiorrhiza and P. notoginseng. The combination of SalB and Rg1 may provide potential protection against myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Five glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal domain of the ChlD subunit play a major role in conferring Mg(2+) cooperativity upon magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Brindley, Amanda A; Adams, Nathan B P; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2015-11-10

    Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the first committed step in chlorophyll biosynthesis by inserting a Mg(2+) ion into protoporphyrin IX in an ATP-dependent manner. The cyanobacterial (Synechocystis) and higher-plant chelatases exhibit a complex cooperative response to free magnesium, while the chelatases from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and photosynthetic bacteria do not. To investigate the basis for this cooperativity, we constructed a series of chimeric ChlD proteins using N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains from Synechocystis and Thermosynechococcus. We show that five glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal domain play a major role in this process.

  2. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 1 (LPA1) plays a functional role in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption activity.

    PubMed

    David, Marion; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Kikuta, Junichi; Ottewell, Penelope; Mima, Fuka; Leblanc, Raphael; Bonnelye, Edith; Ribeiro, Johnny; Holen, Ingunn; Lopez Vales, Rùben; Jurdic, Pierre; Chun, Jerold; Clézardin, Philippe; Ishii, Masaru; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2014-03-07

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural bioactive lipid that acts through six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6) with pleiotropic activities on multiple cell types. We have previously demonstrated that LPA is necessary for successful in vitro osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells. Bone cells controlling bone remodeling (i.e. osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes) express LPA1, but delineating the role of this receptor in bone remodeling is still pending. Despite Lpar1(-/-) mice displaying a low bone mass phenotype, we demonstrated that bone marrow cell-induced osteoclastogenesis was reduced in Lpar1(-/-) mice but not in Lpar2(-/-) and Lpar3(-/-) animals. Expression of LPA1 was up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis, and LPA1 antagonists (Ki16425, Debio0719, and VPC12249) inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Blocking LPA1 activity with Ki16425 inhibited expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein and interfered with the fusion but not the proliferation of osteoclast precursors. Similar to wild type osteoclasts treated with Ki16425, mature Lpar1(-/-) osteoclasts had reduced podosome belt and sealing zone resulting in reduced mineralized matrix resorption. Additionally, LPA1 expression markedly increased in the bone of ovariectomized mice, which was blocked by bisphosphonate treatment. Conversely, systemic treatment with Debio0719 prevented ovariectomy-induced cancellous bone loss. Moreover, intravital multiphoton microscopy revealed that Debio0719 reduced the retention of CX3CR1-EGFP(+) osteoclast precursors in bone by increasing their mobility in the bone marrow cavity. Overall, our results demonstrate that LPA1 is essential for in vitro and in vivo osteoclast activities. Therefore, LPA1 emerges as a new target for the treatment of diseases associated with excess bone loss.

  4. Corticotropin Releasing Factor–Induced Amygdala Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Release Plays a Key Role in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa; Cruz, Maureen T.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Sabino, Valentina; Schweitzer, Paul; Bajo, Michal; Cottone, Pietro; Madamba, Samuel G.; Stouffer, David G.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.; Siggins, George R.; Parsons, Loren H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic systems in the central amygdala (CeA) are implicated in the high-anxiety, high-drinking profile associated with ethanol dependence. Ethanol augments CeA GABA release in ethanol-naive rats and mice. Methods Using naive and ethanol-dependent rats, we compared electrophysiologic effects and interactions of CRF and ethanol on CeA GABAergic transmission, and we measured GABA dialyzate in CeA after injection of CRF1 antagonists and ethanol. We also compared mRNA expression in CeA for CRF and CRF1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We assessed effects of chronic treatment with a CRF1 antagonist on withdrawal-induced increases in alcohol consumption in dependent rats. Results CRF and ethanol augmented CeA GABAergic transmission in naive rats via increased GABA release. Three CRF1 receptor (CRF1) antagonists decreased basal GABAergic responses and abolished ethanol effects. Ethanol-dependent rats exhibited heightened sensitivity to CRF and CRF1 antagonists on CeA GABA release. Intra-CeA CRF1 antagonist administration reversed dependence–related elevations in GABA dialysate and blocked ethanol-induced increases in GABA dialyzate in both dependent and naive rats. Polymerase chain reaction studies indicate increased expression of CRF and CRF1 in CeA of dependent rats. Chronic CRF1 antagonist treatment blocked withdrawal-induced increases in alcohol drinking by dependent rats and tempered moderate increases in alcohol consumption by nondependent rats in intermittent testing. Conclusions These combined findings suggest a key role for specific presynaptic CRF-GABA interactions in CeA in the development and maintenance of ethanol dependence. PMID:20060104

  5. Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 (LPA1) Plays a Functional Role in Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption Activity*

    PubMed Central

    David, Marion; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Kikuta, Junichi; Ottewell, Penelope; Mima, Fuka; Leblanc, Raphael; Bonnelye, Edith; Ribeiro, Johnny; Holen, Ingunn; Vales, Rùben Lopez; Jurdic, Pierre; Chun, Jerold; Clézardin, Philippe; Ishii, Masaru; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural bioactive lipid that acts through six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1–6) with pleiotropic activities on multiple cell types. We have previously demonstrated that LPA is necessary for successful in vitro osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells. Bone cells controlling bone remodeling (i.e. osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes) express LPA1, but delineating the role of this receptor in bone remodeling is still pending. Despite Lpar1−/− mice displaying a low bone mass phenotype, we demonstrated that bone marrow cell-induced osteoclastogenesis was reduced in Lpar1−/− mice but not in Lpar2−/− and Lpar3−/− animals. Expression of LPA1 was up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis, and LPA1 antagonists (Ki16425, Debio0719, and VPC12249) inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Blocking LPA1 activity with Ki16425 inhibited expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein and interfered with the fusion but not the proliferation of osteoclast precursors. Similar to wild type osteoclasts treated with Ki16425, mature Lpar1−/− osteoclasts had reduced podosome belt and sealing zone resulting in reduced mineralized matrix resorption. Additionally, LPA1 expression markedly increased in the bone of ovariectomized mice, which was blocked by bisphosphonate treatment. Conversely, systemic treatment with Debio0719 prevented ovariectomy-induced cancellous bone loss. Moreover, intravital multiphoton microscopy revealed that Debio0719 reduced the retention of CX3CR1-EGFP+ osteoclast precursors in bone by increasing their mobility in the bone marrow cavity. Overall, our results demonstrate that LPA1 is essential for in vitro and in vivo osteoclast activities. Therefore, LPA1 emerges as a new target for the treatment of diseases associated with excess bone loss. PMID:24429286

  6. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  7. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alex

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of playful gaming (an idea not expressed fully by either term alone) and uses it as an analytical tool to study the playfulness of games in the context of several social phenomena; i.e., social change, socialization, utopian systems, and educational gaming. An extensive reference list is provided. (MBR)

  8. Why Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, O.

    This paper draws together briefly theories and knowledge from research in morphology and cognitive psychology, as well as some hypothetical information from traditional psychiatry, to show the ramifications of play in children's development. Play is defined as any of a wide variety of behaviors through which an individual attempts to discover what…

  9. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  10. Playing Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  11. Development of Inhibitors of Salicylic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Kurimoto, Tetsuya; Seo, Eun-kyung; Miyazaki, Sho; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Asami, Tadao

    2015-08-19

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Determining the mechanism of SAR will extend our understanding of plant defenses against pathogens. We recently reported that PAMD is an inhibitor of SA signaling, which suppresses the expression of the pathogenesis-related PR genes and is expected to facilitate the understanding of SA signaling. However, PAMD strongly inhibits plant growth. To minimize the side effects of PAMD, we synthesized a number of PAMD derivatives, and identified compound 4 that strongly suppresses the expression of the PR genes with fewer adverse effects on plant growth than PAMD. We further showed that the adverse effects on plant growth were partially caused the stabilization of DELLA, which is also related to the pathogen responses. These results indicate that compound 4 would facilitate our understanding of SA signaling and its cross talk with other plant hormones.

  12. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant–pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed. PMID:24478784

  13. Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rongxia; Su, Jianbin; Meng, Xiangzong; Li, Sen; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene, a key phytohormone involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plays a positive role in plant resistance against fungal pathogens. However, its function in plant bacterial resistance remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed analysis of ethylene induction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). Ethylene biosynthesis is highly induced in both pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the induction is potentiated by salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment. In addition, Pst actively suppresses PAMP-triggered ethylene induction in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. SA potentiation of ethylene induction is dependent mostly on MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and MPK3 and their downstream ACS2 and ACS6, two type I isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs). ACS7, a type III ACS whose expression is enhanced by SA pretreatment, is also involved. Pst expressing the avrRpt2 effector gene (Pst-avrRpt2), which is capable of triggering ETI, induces a higher level of ethylene production, and the elevated portion is dependent on SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, two key players in SA biosynthesis and signaling. High-order ACS mutants with reduced ethylene induction are more susceptible to both Pst and Pst-avrRpt2, demonstrating a positive role of ethylene in plant bacterial resistance mediated by both PAMP-triggered immunity and ETI.

  14. Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-10-01

    • Findings regarding the role of salicylic acid (SA) in seed germination are somewhat variable, depending on the plant genotypes and experimental conditions used, and thus the molecular mechanisms underlying SA regulation of germination are still unclear. Here, we report that physiological concentrations of SA promote germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis. • Germination of SA induction deficient 2 (sid2) seeds was hypersensitive to high salinity. While the inhibitory effect of high salinity was exaggerated in the presence of higher concentrations of SA (> 100 μM), it was significantly reduced in the presence of lower concentrations of SA (< 50 μM). Under high salinity, the endogenous contents of H(2) O(2) were elevated in wild-type and sid2 seeds but reduced to original concentrations after treatment with 1 μM SA. • Germination of NahG transgenic plants was influenced to a lesser degree by high salinity (NahG is a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol). We found that catechol, an SA degradation product accumulated in the transgenic plants, acts as an antioxidant that compromises the inhibitory effects of high salinity. • Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  15. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  16. Use of a synthetic salicylic acid analog to investigate the roles of methyl salicylate and its esterases in plant disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Wook; Liu, Po-Pu; Forouhar, Farhad; Vlot, A Corina; Tong, Liang; Tietjen, Klaus; Klessig, Daniel F

    2009-03-13

    We previously demonstrated that salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) of tobacco is an integral component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SABP2 is a methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase that has high affinity for SA, which feedback inhibits its esterase activity. MeSA esterase activity is required in distal, healthy tissue of pathogen-infected plants to hydrolyze MeSA, which functions as a long-distance, phloem-mobile SAR signal; this hydrolysis releases the biologically active defense hormone SA. In this study, we examined the inhibitory interaction of SA with SABP2, and identified a synthetic SA analog, 2,2,2,2'-tetra-f luoroacetophenone (tetraFA) that, like SA, competitively inhibits the activity of SABP2 and targets esterases, which utilize MeSA as a substrate. However, in contrast to SA, tetraFA does not induce downstream defense responses and, therefore, is effective in planta at blocking SAR development in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected tobacco and Pseudomonas syringae-infected Arabidopsis. These results confirm the importance of SABP2 and MeSA for SAR development in tobacco and establish similar roles for MeSA and the orthologs of SABP2 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, they demonstrate that tetraFA can be used to determine whether MeSA and its corresponding esterase(s) play a role in SAR signaling in other plant species. In planta analyses using tetraFA, in conjunction with leaf detachment assays and MeSA quantification, were used to assess the kinetics with which MeSA is generated in pathogen-infected leaves, transmitted through the phloem, and processed in the distal healthy leaves. In TMV-infected tobacco, these studies revealed that critical amounts of MeSA are generated, transmitted, and processed between 48 and 72 h post primary infection.

  17. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  19. Fatty acid degradation plays an essential role in proliferation of mouse female primordial germ cells via the p53-dependent cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hui; Sui, Xuesong; Zhou, Cheng; Shen, Cong; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Pang; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are embryonic founders of germ cells that ultimately differentiate into oocytes and spermatogonia. Embryonic proliferation of PGCs starting from E11.5 ensures the presence of germ cells in adulthood, especially in female mammals whose total number of oocytes declines after this initial proliferation period. To better understand mechanisms underlying PGC proliferation in female mice, we constructed a proteome profile of female mouse gonads at E11.5. Subsequent KEGG pathway analysis of the 3,662 proteins profiled showed significant enrichment of pathways involved in fatty acid degradation. Further, the number of PGCs found in in vitro cultured fetal gonads significantly decreased with application of etomoxir, an inhibitor of the key rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid degradation carnitine acyltransferase I (CPT1). Decrease in PGCs was further determined to be the result of reduced proliferation rather than apoptosis. The inhibition of fatty acid degradation by etomoxir has the potential to activate the Ca(2+)/CamKII/5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway; while as an upstream activator, activated AMPK can function as activator of p53 to induce cell cycle arrest. Thus, we detected the expressional level of AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (P-AMPK), phosphorylated p53 (P-p53) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21) by Western blots, the results showed increased expression of them after treatment with etomoxir, suggested the activation of p53 pathway was the reason for reduced proliferation of PGCs. Finally, the involvement of p53-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest in defective proliferation of PGCs was verified by rescue experiments. Our results demonstrate that fatty acid degradation plays an important role in proliferation of female PGCs via the p53-dependent cell cycle regulation.

  20. Fatty acid degradation plays an essential role in proliferation of mouse female primordial germ cells via the p53-dependent cell cycle regulation

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Hui; Sui, Xuesong; Zhou, Cheng; Shen, Cong; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Pang; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are embryonic founders of germ cells that ultimately differentiate into oocytes and spermatogonia. Embryonic proliferation of PGCs starting from E11.5 ensures the presence of germ cells in adulthood, especially in female mammals whose total number of oocytes declines after this initial proliferation period. To better understand mechanisms underlying PGC proliferation in female mice, we constructed a proteome profile of female mouse gonads at E11.5. Subsequent KEGG pathway analysis of the 3,662 proteins profiled showed significant enrichment of pathways involved in fatty acid degradation. Further, the number of PGCs found in in vitro cultured fetal gonads significantly decreased with application of etomoxir, an inhibitor of the key rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid degradation carnitine acyltransferase I (CPT1). Decrease in PGCs was further determined to be the result of reduced proliferation rather than apoptosis. The inhibition of fatty acid degradation by etomoxir has the potential to activate the Ca2+/CamKII/5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway; while as an upstream activator, activated AMPK can function as activator of p53 to induce cell cycle arrest. Thus, we detected the expressional level of AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (P-AMPK), phosphorylated p53 (P-p53) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21) by Western blots, the results showed increased expression of them after treatment with etomoxir, suggested the activation of p53 pathway was the reason for reduced proliferation of PGCs. Finally, the involvement of p53-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest in defective proliferation of PGCs was verified by rescue experiments. Our results demonstrate that fatty acid degradation plays an important role in proliferation of female PGCs via the p53-dependent cell cycle regulation. PMID:26716399

  1. Stability of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 modulates salicylic acid signalling and SUMO1/2 conjugation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark; Srivastava, Anjil; Conti, Lucio; Nelis, Stuart; Zhang, Cunjin; Florance, Hannah; Love, Andrew; Milner, Joel; Napier, Richard; Grant, Murray; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 and 2 (SUMO1/2) have been linked to the regulation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to define the role of the SUMO proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 (OTS1/2) in defence and to provide insight into SUMO1/2-mediated regulation of SA signalling, we examined the status of SA-mediated defences in ots1/2 mutants. The ots1 ots2 double mutant displayed enhanced resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae and higher levels of SA compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, ots1 ots2 mutants exhibited upregulated expression of the SA biosynthesis gene ICS1 in addition to enhanced SA-responsive ICS1 expression beyond that of WT. SA stimulated OTS1/2 degradation and promoted accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates. These results indicate that OTS1 and -2 act in a feedback loop in SA signalling and that de novo OTS1/2 synthesis works antagonistically to SA-promoted degradation, adjusting the abundance of OTS1/2 to moderate SA signalling. Accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates coincides with SA-promoted OTS degradation and may play a positive role in SA-mediated signalling in addition to its repressive roles reported elsewhere.

  2. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  3. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Water Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  5. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  6. Play School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes Fifth Dimension, an after-school program which mixes play and computer games to improve the education and social skills of mostly poor, disadvantaged kids. Although Fifth Dimension seems tailor-made for a poor, rural community, its roots are urban. The after-school program was founded by a group of researchers in San Diego…

  7. Playing Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  8. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  9. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  10. The purple acid phosphatase GmPAP21 enhances internal phosphorus utilization and possibly plays a role in symbiosis with rhizobia in soybean.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengchen; Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Haiyan; Liao, Hong; Wang, Xiurong

    2017-02-01

    Induction of secreted and intracellular purple acid phosphatases (PAPs; EC 3.1.3.2) is widely recognized as an adaptation of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. The secretion of PAPs plays important roles in P acquisition. However, little is known about the functions of intracellular PAP in plants and nodules. In this study, we identified a novel PAP gene GmPAP21 in soybean. Expression of GmPAP21 was induced by P limitation in nodules, roots and old leaves, and increased in roots with increasing duration of P starvation. Furthermore, the induction of GmPAP21 in nodules and roots was more intensive than in leaves in both P-efficient genotype HN89 and P-inefficient genotype HN112 in response to P starvation, and the relative expression in the leaves and nodules of HN89 was significantly greater than that of HN112 after P deficiency treatment. Further functional analyses showed that over-expressing GmPAP21 significantly enhanced both acid phosphatase activity and growth performance of hairy roots under P starvation condition, indicating that GmPAP21 plays an important role in P utilization. Moreover, GUS expression driven by GmPAP21 promoter was shown in the nodules besides roots. Overexpression of GmPAP21 in transgenic soybean significantly inhibited nodule growth, and thereby affected plant growth after inoculation with rhizobia. This suggests that GmPAP21 is also possibly involved in regulating P metabolism in nodules. Taken together, our results suggest that GmPAP21 is a novel plant PAP that functions in the adaptation of soybean to P starvation, possibly through its involvement in P recycling in plants and P metabolism in nodules. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Quorum sensing and indole-3-acetic acid degradation play a role in colonization and plant growth promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana by Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Ana; Poupin, María Josefina; Donoso, Raúl; Ledger, Thomas; Guiliani, Nicolás; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; González, Bernardo

    2013-05-01

    Although not fully understood, molecular communication in the rhizosphere plays an important role regulating traits involved in plant-bacteria association. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a well-known plant-growth-promoting bacterium, which establishes rhizospheric and endophytic colonization in different plants. A competent colonization is essential for plant-growth-promoting effects produced by bacteria. Using appropriate mutant strains of B. phytofirmans, we obtained evidence for the importance of N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated (quorum sensing) cell-to-cell communication in efficient colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the establishment of a beneficial interaction. We also observed that bacterial degradation of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a key role in plant-growth-promoting traits and is necessary for efficient rhizosphere colonization. Wildtype B. phytofirmans but not the iacC mutant in IAA mineralization is able to restore promotion effects in roots of A. thaliana in the presence of exogenously added IAA, indicating the importance of this trait for promoting primary root length. Using a transgenic A. thaliana line with suppressed auxin signaling (miR393) and analyzing the expression of auxin receptors in wild-type inoculated plants, we provide evidence that auxin signaling in plants is necessary for the growth promotion effects produced by B. phytofirmans. The interplay between ethylene and auxin signaling was also confirmed by the response of the plant to a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase bacterial mutant strain.

  12. A vacuolar β-glucosidase homolog that possesses glucose-conjugated abscisic acid hydrolyzing activity plays an important role in osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng-Yi; Lee, Kwang Hee; Dong, Ting; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Jin, Jing Bo; Kanno, Yuri; Kim, Dae Heon; Kim, Soo Youn; Seo, Mitsunori; Bressan, Ray A; Yun, Dae-Jin; Hwang, Inhwan

    2012-05-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in various physiological processes, including adaptation to abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ABA levels are increased both through de novo biosynthesis and via β-glucosidase homolog1 (BG1)-mediated hydrolysis of Glc-conjugated ABA (ABA-GE). However, it is not known how many different β-glucosidase proteins produce ABA from ABA-GE and how the multiple ABA production pathways are coordinated to increase ABA levels. Here, we report that a previously undiscovered β-glucosidase homolog, BG2, produced ABA by hydrolyzing ABA-GE and plays a role in osmotic stress response. BG2 localized to the vacuole as a high molecular weight complex and accumulated to high levels under dehydration stress. BG2 hydrolyzed ABA-GE to ABA in vitro. In addition, BG2 increased ABA levels in protoplasts upon application of exogenous ABA-GE. Overexpression of BG2 rescued the bg1 mutant phenotype, as observed for the overexpression of NCED3 in bg1 mutants. Multiple Arabidopsis bg2 alleles with a T-DNA insertion in BG2 were more sensitive to dehydration and NaCl stress, whereas BG2 overexpression resulted in enhanced resistance to dehydration and NaCl stress. Based on these observations, we propose that, in addition to the de novo biosynthesis, ABA is produced in multiple organelles by organelle-specific β-glucosidases in response to abiotic stresses.

  13. A Vacuolar β-Glucosidase Homolog That Possesses Glucose-Conjugated Abscisic Acid Hydrolyzing Activity Plays an Important Role in Osmotic Stress Responses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng-Yi; Lee, Kwang Hee; Dong, Ting; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Jin, Jing Bo; Kanno, Yuri; Kim, Dae Heon; Kim, Soo Youn; Seo, Mitsunori; Bressan, Ray A.; Yun, Dae-Jin; Hwang, Inhwan

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in various physiological processes, including adaptation to abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ABA levels are increased both through de novo biosynthesis and via β-glucosidase homolog1 (BG1)-mediated hydrolysis of Glc-conjugated ABA (ABA-GE). However, it is not known how many different β-glucosidase proteins produce ABA from ABA-GE and how the multiple ABA production pathways are coordinated to increase ABA levels. Here, we report that a previously undiscovered β-glucosidase homolog, BG2, produced ABA by hydrolyzing ABA-GE and plays a role in osmotic stress response. BG2 localized to the vacuole as a high molecular weight complex and accumulated to high levels under dehydration stress. BG2 hydrolyzed ABA-GE to ABA in vitro. In addition, BG2 increased ABA levels in protoplasts upon application of exogenous ABA-GE. Overexpression of BG2 rescued the bg1 mutant phenotype, as observed for the overexpression of NCED3 in bg1 mutants. Multiple Arabidopsis bg2 alleles with a T-DNA insertion in BG2 were more sensitive to dehydration and NaCl stress, whereas BG2 overexpression resulted in enhanced resistance to dehydration and NaCl stress. Based on these observations, we propose that, in addition to the de novo biosynthesis, ABA is produced in multiple organelles by organelle-specific β-glucosidases in response to abiotic stresses. PMID:22582100

  14. The Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase AtPAP10 is predominantly associated with the root surface and plays an important role in plant tolerance to phosphate limitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangsheng; Li, Zheng; Qian, Weiqiang; Guo, Wanli; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Lingling; Wang, Han; Zhu, Huifen; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Daowen; Liu, Dong

    2011-11-01

    Induction of secreted acid phosphatase (APase) is a universal response of higher plants to phosphate (Pi) limitation. These enzymes are thought to scavenge Pi from organophosphate compounds in the rhizosphere and thus to increase Pi availability to plants when Pi is deficient. The tight association of secreted APase with the root surface may make plants more efficient in the utilization of soil Pi around root tissues, which is present in organophosphate forms. To date, however, no systematic molecular, biochemical, and functional studies have been reported for any of the Pi starvation-induced APases that are associated with the root surface after secretion. In this work, using genetic and molecular approaches, we identified Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Purple Acid Phosphatase10 (AtPAP10) as a Pi starvation-induced APase that is predominantly associated with the root surface. The AtPAP10 protein has phosphatase activity against a variety of substrates. Expression of AtPAP10 is specifically induced by Pi limitation at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Functional analyses of multiple atpap10 mutant alleles and overexpressing lines indicated that AtPAP10 plays an important role in plant tolerance to Pi limitation. Genetic manipulation of AtPAP10 expression may provide an effective means for engineering new crops with increased tolerance to Pi deprivation.

  15. Superoxide anions produced by inflammatory cells play an important part in the pathogenesis of acid and pepsin induced oesophagitis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Naya, M J; Pereboom, D; Ortego, J; Alda, J O; Lanas, A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen metabolites have been associated with gastrointestinal injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mucosal reactive oxygen metabolites are involved in acid and pepsin induced oesophagitis, and if so, which specific metabolites. METHODS: The effects of free radical scavengers and the anti-inflammatory drug ketotifen on rabbit oesophagitis induced by acidified pepsin were studied. Isolated oesophageal cells were obtained before and after oesophageal injury and the generation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide was analysed by flow cytometry. The presence of inflammatory cells was determined by indirect immunofluorescence with a mouse antirabbit CD11b antibody. RESULTS: Of the free radical scavengers tested, superoxide dismutase, which reacts with the superoxide anion, significantly reduced oesophagitis, whereas catalase, which reacts with hydrogen peroxide, had only a mild effect and dimethylsulphoxide had no effect. Ketotifen significantly reduced the inflammation and also prevented the induction of oesophagitis. Isolated cells obtained from the oesophageal mucosa after acidified pepsin exposure generated increased amounts of superoxide anions, which were mainly produced by CD11b positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: Reactive oxygen metabolites, especially superoxide anion, produced by inflammatory cells play a significant part in the genesis of oesophagitis induced by acid and pepsin in rabbits and might be a target for future medical therapy. Images PMID:9071927

  16. Early Changes in Cytochrome P450s and Their Associated Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Play a Crucial Role in the Initiation of Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Althurwi, Hassan N; Maayah, Zaid H; Elshenawy, Osama H; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2015-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s), along with their cardioprotective metabolites the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and cardiotoxic metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE), were found to be altered in cardiac hypertrophy; however, it is unclear whether these changes are causal or epiphenomenon. Therefore, we hypothesized that P450s and their metabolites play a crucial role in the initiation of cardiac hypertrophy. To test our hypothesis, rats and RL-14 cells were treated with the hypertrophic agonist isoproterenol for different time periods. Thereafter, in vivo heart function and wall thickness were assessed using echocardiography. Moreover, the role of P450 epoxygenases, ω-hydroxylases, and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were determined at mRNA, protein, and activity levels using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Our results show that in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy was initiated after 72 hours and 6 hours of isoproterenol treatment, respectively. Studies performed at the prehypertrophy phase showed a significant decrease in P450 epoxygenases along with a significant induction of sEH activity. Consequently, lower EET and higher dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid levels were observed during this phase. However, significant increases in P450 ω-hydroxylase along with its associated metabolite, 20-HETE, were detected only in vivo. Interestingly, increasing EET levels by P450 epoxygenase induction, sEH inhibition, or exogenous administration of EET prevented the initiation of cardiac hypertrophy through a nuclear factor-κB-mediated mechanism. Taken together, these findings reveal a crucial role of P450 epoxygenases and EETs in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, which could uncover novel targets for prevention of heart failure at early stages. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Synergistic effect of antioxidant system and osmolyte in hydrogen sulfide and salicylic acid crosstalk-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), is a plant hormone with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development and the acquisition of stress tolerance. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging similar functions, but crosstalk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. Our recent study firstly reported that SA treatment enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, followed by induced endogenous H2S accumulation, which in turn improved the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. (1) In addition, NaHS, a H2S donor, enhanced SA-induced heat tolerance, while its biosynthesis inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and scavenger hydroxylamine (HT) weakened SA-induced heat tolerance. Also, NaHS had no significant effect on SA accumulation and its biosynthesis enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H) activities, as well as significant difference was not observed in NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings by SA biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosph- onic acid (AIP) treatment. (1) Further study displayed that SA induced osmolytes (proline, betaine and trehalose) accumulation and enhancement in activity of antioxidant system in maize seedlings. These results showed that antioxidant system and osmolyte play a synergistic role in SA and H2S crosstalk-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings.

  18. Spatial play.

    PubMed

    Forrest, D V

    1978-02-01

    More than sharpening our tools or making them sterile, our task in psychotherapy and analysis is to enliven them, find in them the organic, the animate, and the fecund. For our tools are formed of language, more like living nets than like knives, dies, taps, or templates, and our familiary with them might as well be a marriage of love as one of convenience. One's own onymy (Forrest, 1973) of words and phrases that seem to be one's property and private treasury will include, in the case of a doctor who uses words, several such verbal tools that have acquired greater frequency of use and richer and deeper meanings with experience. For me the word play in its affinity for very spatial senses has grown increasingly helpful in meeting both the practical demands of therapeutic communication and the personal need to maintain theoretical structures to support therapeutic work. I wish here to explore the concept of play--contributions to its definition, its developmental stages, applications of play, and its extended properties.

  19. Induction of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase in virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Yalpani, N.; Raskin, I.; Lawton, M.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in the induction of plant resistance to pathogens. An accompanying article shows that SA is synthesized via the decarboxylation of cinnamic acid to benzoic acid (BA), which is, in turn, hydroxylated to SA. Leaf extracts of tobacco catalyze the 2-hydroxylation of Ba to SA. The monooxygenase catalyzing this reaction, benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), required NAD(P)H or reduced methyl viologen as an electron donor. BA2H activity was detected in healthy tobacco leaf extracts (1-2 nmol h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight) and was significantly increased upon inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This increase paralleled the levels of free SA in the leaves. Induction of BA2H activity was restricted to tissue expressing a hypersensitive response at 24[degrees]C. TMV induction of BA2H activity and Sa accumulation were inhibited when inoculated tobacco plants were incubated for 4 d at 32[degrees]C and then transferred to 24[degrees]C, they showed a 15-fold increase in BA2H activity and a 65-fold increase in free SA content compared with healthy plants incubated at 24[degrees]C. Treatment of leaf tissue with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked the induction of BA2H activity by TMV. The effect of TMV inoculation on BA2H could be duplicated by infiltrating leaf discs of healthy plants with BA. This response was observed even when applied levels of BA were much lower than the levels observed in vivo after virus inoculation. Feeding tobacco leaves with phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, or o-coumaric acid (putative precursors of SA) failed to trigger the induction of BA2H activity. BA2H appears to be a pathogen-inducible protein with an important regulatory role in SA accumulation during the development of induced resistance to TMV in tobacco. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Determination of proteins induced in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in resistant and susceptible cultivars of tomato.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Amber; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2010-07-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are signaling molecules that play key roles in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction, and defense against pathogens. The proteomics approach was used to identify proteins that are induced by JA and SA in the tomato cultivars Roma and Pant Bahr, which are susceptible and resistant to bacterial wilt, respectively. Threonine deaminase and leucine amino peptidase were upregulated, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small chain was downregulated by time-course application of JA. Translationally controlled tumor protein was upregulated by time-course application of SA. Protein disulfide isomerase was upregulated by application of either JA or SA. Proteins related to defense, energy, and protein destination/storage are suspected to be responsible for the susceptibility or resistance of the cultivars. Furthermore, in Roma, iron ABC transporter was upregulated by JA and down-regulated by SA. Iron ABC transporter plays a part in the signal transduction of both JA and SA in cultivars of tomato that are resistant to bacterial wilt.

  1. Antagonism between salicylic and abscisic acid reflects early host-pathogen conflict and moulds plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Bennett, Mark H; Truman, William H; Grant, Murray R

    2009-08-01

    The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Recently it has been demonstrated that abscisic acid signalling pathways are utilized by the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae to promote pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the dynamics, inter-relationship and impact of three key acidic phytohormones, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, and the bacterial virulence factor, coronatine, during progression of P. syringae infection of Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that levels of SA and ABA, but not JA, appear to play important early roles in determining the outcome of the infection process. SA is required in order to mount a full innate immune responses, while bacterial effectors act rapidly to activate ABA biosynthesis. ABA suppresses inducible innate immune responses by down-regulating SA biosynthesis and SA-mediated defences. Mutant analyses indicated that endogenous ABA levels represent an important reservoir that is necessary for effector suppression of plant-inducible innate defence responses and SA synthesis prior to subsequent pathogen-induced increases in ABA. Enhanced susceptibility due to loss of SA-mediated basal resistance is epistatically dominant over acquired resistance due to ABA deficiency, although ABA also contributes to symptom development. We conclude that pathogen-modulated ABA signalling rapidly antagonizes SA-mediated defences. We predict that hormonal perturbations, either induced or as a result of environmental stress, have a marked impact on pathological outcomes, and we provide a mechanistic basis for understanding priming events in plant defence.

  2. Salicylic acid beyond defence: its role in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rivas-San Vicente, Mariana; Plasencia, Javier

    2011-06-01

    In recent years salicylic acid (SA) has been the focus of intensive research due to its function as an endogenous signal mediating local and systemic plant defence responses against pathogens. It has also been found that SA plays a role during the plant response to abiotic stresses such as drought, chilling, heavy metal toxicity, heat, and osmotic stress. In this sense, SA appears to be, just like in mammals, an 'effective therapeutic agent' for plants. Besides this function during biotic and abiotic stress, SA plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological and biochemical processes during the entire lifespan of the plant. The discovery of its targets and the understanding of its molecular modes of action in physiological processes could help in the dissection of the complex SA signalling network, confirming its important role in both plant health and disease. Here, the evidence that supports the role of SA during plant growth and development is reviewed by comparing experiments performed by exogenous application of SA with analysis of genotypes affected by SA levels and/or perception.

  3. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and 5 Play a Crucial Role in Thermogenesis under the Conditions of Fasting and Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A. A.; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Putri, Mirasari; Obokata, Masaru; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Endo, Keigo; Tsushima, Yoshito; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is rapidly induced during cold exposure when thermoregulatory mechanisms, including fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. FA binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5, which are abundantly expressed in adipose tissues and macrophages, have been identified as key molecules in the pathogenesis of overnutrition-related diseases, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. We have recently shown that FABP4/5 are prominently expressed in capillary endothelial cells in the heart and skeletal muscle and play a crucial role in FA utilization in these tissues. However, the role of FABP4/5 in thermogenesis remains to be determined. In this study, we showed that thermogenesis is severely impaired in mice lacking both FABP4 and FABP5 (DKO mice), as manifested shortly after cold exposure during fasting. In DKO mice, the storage of both triacylglycerol in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and glycogen in skeletal muscle (SkM) was nearly depleted after fasting, and a biodistribution analysis using 125I-BMIPP revealed that non-esterified FAs (NEFAs) are not efficiently taken up by BAT despite the robustly elevated levels of serum NEFAs. In addition to the severe hypoglycemia observed in DKO mice during fasting, cold exposure did not induce the uptake of glucose analogue 18F-FDG by BAT. These findings strongly suggest that DKO mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to the depletion of energy storage in BAT and SkM and the reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. In conclusion, FABP4/5 play an indispensable role in thermogenesis in BAT and SkM. Our study underscores the importance of FABP4/5 for overcoming life-threatening environments, such as cold and starvation. PMID:24603714

  4. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 plays a major role in the intestinal permeability and absorption of 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yehua; Hu, Yongjun; Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been widely used in photodynamic therapy and immunofluorescence of tumours. In the present study, the intestinal permeability and oral pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA were evaluated to probe the contribution of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) to the oral absorption and systemic exposure of this substrate. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusions and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed in wildtype and Pept1 knockout mice. Perfusion studies were performed as a function of concentration dependence, specificity and permeability of 5-ALA in different intestinal segments. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed after 0.2 and 2.0 μmoL·g(-1) doses of 5-ALA. The permeability of 5-ALA was substantial in duodenal, jejunal and ileal regions of wildtype mice, but the residual permeability of 5-ALA in the small intestine from Pept1 knockout mice was only about 10% of that in wildtype animals. The permeability of 5-ALA in jejunum was specific for PEPT1 with no apparent contribution of other transporters, including the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1). After oral dosing, the systemic exposure of 5-ALA was reduced by about twofold during PEPT1 ablation, and the pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional after the 0.2 and 2.0 µmol·g(-1) doses. PEPT1 had a minor effect on the disposition and peripheral tissue distribution of 5-ALA. Our findings suggested a major role of PEPT1 in the intestinal permeability and oral absorption of 5-ALA. In contrast, another proton-coupled transporter, PAT1, appeared to play a limited role, at best. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Characterization of amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 that play a role in Ubc9 nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhri, Palak; Tao, Tao; Kaplan, Feige; Zhang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-27

    As the sole E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, Ubc9 is predominantly nuclear. However, the underlying mechanisms of Ubc9 nuclear localization are still not well understood. Here we show that RNAi-depletion of Imp13, an importin known to mediate Ubc9 nuclear import, reduces both Ubc9 nuclear accumulation and global SUMOylation. Furthermore, Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation previously shown to interrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOs reduces the nuclear enrichment of Ubc9, suggesting that the interaction of Ubc9 with the nuclear SUMOs may enhance Ubc9 nuclear retention. Moreover, Ubc9-R17E mutation, which is known to disrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with both SUMOs and Imp13, causes a greater decrease in Ubc9 nuclear accumulation than Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation. Lastly, Ubc9-K74A/S89D mutations that perturb the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOylation-consensus motifs has no effect on Ubc9 nuclear localization. Altogether, our results have elucidated that the amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 play a pivotal role in regulation of Ubc9 nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Imp13-mediated nuclear import of Ubc9 is critical for global SUMOylation. • Ubc9 mutations disrupting Ubc9-SUMO interaction decrease Ubc9 nuclear accumulation. • N-terminal amino acid residues of Ubc9 are critical for Ubc9 nuclear enrichment.

  6. Abscisic acid interacts antagonistically with salicylic acid signaling pathway in rice-Magnaporthe grisea interaction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Kojima, Mikiko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Inoue, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Nagao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Plant hormones play pivotal signaling roles in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we report characterization of an antagonistic interaction of abscisic acid (ABA) with salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathways in the rice-Magnaporthe grisea interaction. Exogenous application of ABA drastically compromised the rice resistance to both compatible and incompatible M. grisea strains, indicating that ABA negatively regulates both basal and resistance gene-mediated blast resistance. ABA markedly suppressed the transcriptional upregulation of WRKY45 and OsNPR1, the two key components of the SA signaling pathway in rice, induced by SA or benzothiadiazole or by blast infection. Overexpression of OsNPR1 or WRKY45 largely negated the enhancement of blast susceptibility by ABA, suggesting that ABA acts upstream of WRKY45 and OsNPR1 in the rice SA pathway. ABA-responsive genes were induced during blast infection in a pattern reciprocal to those of WRKY45 and OsPR1b in the compatible rice-blast interaction but only marginally in the incompatible one. These results suggest that the balance of SA and ABA signaling is an important determinant for the outcome of the rice-M. grisea interaction. ABA was detected in hyphae and conidia of M. grisea as well as in culture media, implying that blast-fungus-derived ABA could play a role in triggering ABA signaling at host infection sites.

  7. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1) in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Enze; Yi, Shanze; Bai, Fang; Niu, Dewei; Zhong, Junjie; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Shufang; Zhou, Renchao; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1) cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1). SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%–90%) with the superoxide dismutase (CSD) of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I) vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), H2O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. PMID:26703583

  8. Microarray and genetic analysis reveals that csa-miR159b plays a critical role in abscisic acid-mediated heat tolerance in grafted cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ze; Guo, Xie; Wang, Feng; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Root-shoot communication plays a vital role in plant growth, development and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Grafting-induced stress tolerance is associated with the induction of plentiful stress-related genes and proteins; the mechanism involved, however, remains obscure. Here, we show that the enhanced tolerance against heat stress in cucumber plants with luffa as rootstock was accompanied with an increased accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), down-regulation of a subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) but up-regulation of their target genes and CsHSP70 accumulation in the shoots. Significantly, luffa rootstock and foliar application of ABA both down-regulated csa-miR159b and up-regulated its target mRNAs CsGAMYB1 and CsMYB29-like and CsHSP70 accumulation in cucumber, while ectopic expression of csa-miR159b led to decreased heat tolerance, AtMYB33 transcript and AtHSP70 accumulation in Arabidopsis plants. Taken together, our results suggest that root-originated signals such as ABA could alter miRNAs in the shoots, which have a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of the stress-responsive genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ellagic acid plays a protective role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress by up-regulating antioxidant components in human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Beomyeol; Lee, Su Hee; Lim, Hye-Won

    2016-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), an antioxidant polyphenolic constituent of plant origin, has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. This work aimed to clarify the skin anti-photoaging properties of EA in human dermal fibroblasts. The skin anti-photoaging activity was evaluated by analyzing the reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels as well as cell viability in dermal fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. When fibroblasts were exposed to EA prior to UV-B irradiation, EA suppressed UV-B-induced ROS and proMMP-2 elevation. However, EA restored total GSH and SOD activity levels diminished in fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. EA had an up-regulating activity on the UV-B-reduced Nrf2 levels in fibroblasts. EA, at the concentrations used, was unable to interfere with cell viabilities in both non-irradiated and irradiated fibroblasts. In human dermal fibroblasts, EA plays a defensive role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress possibly through an Nrf2-dependent pathway, indicating that this compound has potential skin antiphotoaging properties. PMID:27162481

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  11. [Synergistion mechanism of exogenous Ca2+ to SA-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-lin; Li, Tian-lai; Jiang, Guo-bin; Jin, Hua; Zou, Ji-xiang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato seedlings. We treated a tomato strain susceptible to Botrytis cinerea with foliar spraying of water, SA, SA+CaCl2 and SA+EGTA (Ca2+ chelating agent) for one to five days. During the treatment, leaves were collected to analyze the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, chintase and β-1,3-glucanase levels, and the expression of pathogenesis related protein 1, 2, 3 (PR1, PR2, PR3). Three days after infection, the disease index was 74.8 in control plants, and 46.9, 38.5 and 70.3 in SA, SA+Ca and SA+ EGTA treated plants, respectively. SA treatment significantly increased ROS leaf accumulation, and activities of PAL, chintase and β-1,3-glucanase. These values were further enhanced in SA+Ca treated plants, but decreased in SA+EGTA treated plants. Application of SA significantly increased the expression levels of PR1, PR2a and PR3b, which were further elevated by the combination treatment with Ca2+. These effects were counteracted by the combination treatment of SA and EGTA. The transcription levels of PR2b and PR3a were up-regulated by 1-2 folds, and PR1, 2a and 3b by 2-5 folds in SA- and SA+Ca-treated plants relative to control. These data suggested that application of Ca2+ could synergistically increase SA-induced resistance to B. cinerea. The resistance was associated with ROS accumulation, therefore the increase in resistance might be through ROS ability to increase the activity of defense-related enzymes and expression levels of PR1, PR2a and PR3b.

  12. SNAT2 amino acid transporter is regulated by amino acids of the SLC6 gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter subfamily in neocortical neurons and may play no role in delivering glutamine for glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Sukhjeevan; Defamie, Norah; Zhang, Xiong; De Gois, Stéphanie; Shawki, Ali; Mackenzie, Bryan; Chen, Chu; Varoqui, Hélène; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2009-04-24

    System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2 mediate uptake of neutral alpha-amino acids (e.g. glutamine, alanine, and proline) and are expressed in central neurons. We tested the hypothesis that SNAT2 is required to support neurotransmitter glutamate synthesis by examining spontaneous excitatory activity after inducing or repressing SNAT2 expression for prolonged periods. We stimulated de novo synthesis of SNAT2 mRNA and increased SNAT2 mRNA stability and total SNAT2 protein and functional activity, whereas SNAT1 expression was unaffected. Increased endogenous SNAT2 expression did not affect spontaneous excitatory action-potential frequency over control. Long term glutamine exposure strongly repressed SNAT2 expression but increased excitatory action-potential frequency. Quantal size was not altered following SNAT2 induction or repression. These results suggest that spontaneous glutamatergic transmission in pyramidal neurons does not rely on SNAT2. To our surprise, repression of SNAT2 activity was not limited to System A substrates. Taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and beta-alanine (substrates of the SLC6 gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter family) repressed SNAT2 expression more potently (10x) than did System A substrates; however, the responses to System A substrates were more rapid. Since ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein are known to bind to an amino acid response element within the SNAT2 promoter and mediate induction of SNAT2 in peripheral cell lines, we tested whether either factor was similarly induced by amino acid deprivation in neurons. We found that glutamine and taurine repressed the induction of both transcription factors. Our data revealed that SNAT2 expression is constitutively low in neurons under physiological conditions but potently induced, together with the taurine transporter TauT, in response to depletion of neutral amino acids.

  13. Arabidopsis GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE1 plays a crucial role in leaf responses to intracellular hydrogen peroxide and in ensuring appropriate gene expression through both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Amna; Hager, Jutta; Chaouch, Sejir; Queval, Guillaume; Han, Yi; Taconnat, Ludivine; Saindrenan, Patrick; Gouia, Houda; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Noctor, Graham

    2010-07-01

    Glutathione is a major cellular thiol that is maintained in the reduced state by glutathione reductase (GR), which is encoded by two genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; GR1 and GR2). This study addressed the role of GR1 in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) responses through a combined genetic, transcriptomic, and redox profiling approach. To identify the potential role of changes in glutathione status in H(2)O(2) signaling, gr1 mutants, which show a constitutive increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG), were compared with a catalase-deficient background (cat2), in which GSSG accumulation is conditionally driven by H(2)O(2). Parallel transcriptomics analysis of gr1 and cat2 identified overlapping gene expression profiles that in both lines were dependent on growth daylength. Overlapping genes included phytohormone-associated genes, in particular implicating glutathione oxidation state in the regulation of jasmonic acid signaling. Direct analysis of H(2)O(2)-glutathione interactions in cat2 gr1 double mutants established that GR1-dependent glutathione status is required for multiple responses to increased H(2)O(2) availability, including limitation of lesion formation, accumulation of salicylic acid, induction of pathogenesis-related genes, and signaling through jasmonic acid pathways. Modulation of these responses in cat2 gr1 was linked to dramatic GSSG accumulation and modified expression of specific glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases, but there is little or no evidence of generalized oxidative stress or changes in thioredoxin-associated gene expression. We conclude that GR1 plays a crucial role in daylength-dependent redox signaling and that this function cannot be replaced by the second Arabidopsis GR gene or by thiol systems such as the thioredoxin system.

  14. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Tri-sa-maw recipe.

    PubMed

    Nanna, Urarat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon

    2015-03-01

    Tri-sa-maw recipe is composed of equal proportions of the three fruits including Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia sp. and Terminalia bellirica Roxb. In Southeast Asia, these fruits are used as both food and medicine. In Thai traditional medicine, Tri-sa-maw recipe is well known for treating fever, expectorant, periodic maintenance, and tight stomach relief To study anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Tri-sa-maw recipe in experimental animals. The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by two experimental models; ethyl phenylpropiolate- induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. For analgesic activity, the pain was induced by acetic acid or heat. In addition, yeast-induced hyperthermia was performedfor the study of antipyretic activity. The results showed that Tri-sa-maw recipe extract reduced ear edema ofrat induced by EPP but did not inhibit acute inflammation in the carrageenin-inducedpaw edema. However the extract at the doses of 300-1,200 mg/kg was able to inhibit the acetic acid-induced writhing response, but not the heat-induced pain. This result suggests the peripheral effect of its analgesic activity, which inhibits the biosynthesis, and/or release of some pain mediators. Finally, oral administration ofthe extract at the dose of 1,200 mg/kg body weight effectively reduced the hyperthermia, which possibly is due to the inhibition of prostaglandins. The present study has clearly demonstrated both analgesic and antipyretic activities of Tri-sa-maw recipe.

  15. Factors affecting production of the group A streptococcus bacteriocin SA-FF22.

    PubMed

    Jack, R W; Tagg, J R

    1992-02-01

    Factors influencing the production of streptococcin A-FF22 (SA-FF22) in liquid media were examined. Despite good growth of the producer strain, no SA-FF22 was detected during incubation at 40 degrees C, at pH 7, in Brain Heart Infusion Broth or in Mg(2+)-supplemented media. Optimal SA-FF22 production occurred at 32 degrees C, at pH 6.7, in cultures in Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with glucose 2.25% and yeast extract 1%. Under these conditions SA-FF22 remained cell-associated but could be extracted with acid.

  16. 75 FR 36581 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-360C, SA-365C, SA-365C1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-360C, SA-365C, SA-365C1, SA-365C2, SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS- 365N2, AS 365 N3... additional crack has been found in the MGB planet gear carrier of a Eurocopter Model EC 155 helicopter. That.... Applicability Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-360C, SA-365C, SA-365C1, SA-365C2, SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, AS...

  17. Suppression or knockout of SaF/SaM overcomes the Sa-mediated hybrid male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yongyao; Niu, Baixiao; Long, Yunming; Li, Gousi; Tang, Jintao; Zhang, Yaling; Ren, Ding; Liu, Yao-Guang; Chen, Letian

    2017-09-01

    Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines. The resultant artificial neutral alleles did not affect pollen viability and other agricultural traits, but did break down the reproductive barrier in the hybrids. We found that some rice lines have natural neutral allele Sa-n, which was compatible with the typical japonica or indica Sa alleles in hybrids. Our results demonstrate that SaF and SaM are required for hybrid male sterility, but are not essential for pollen development. This study provides effective approaches for the generation of hybrid-compatible lines by knocking out the Sa locus or using the natural Sa-n allele to overcome hybrid male sterility in rice breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  19. Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Prithiviraj, B.; Bais, H. P.; Weir, T.; Suresh, B.; Najarro, E. H.; Dayakar, B. V.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 showed reduced attachment and biofilm formation on the roots of the Arabidopsis mutants lox2 and cpr5-2, which produce elevated amounts of SA, as well as on wild-type Arabidopsis plants primed with exogenous SA, a treatment known to enhance endogenous SA concentration. Salicylic acid at a concentration that did not inhibit PA14 growth was sufficient to significantly affect the ability of the bacteria to attach and form biofilm communities on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, SA down regulated three known virulence factors of PA14: pyocyanin, protease, and elastase. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa produced more pyocyanin when infiltrated into leaves of the Arabidopsis transgenic line NahG, which accumulates less SA than wild-type plants. This finding suggests that endogenous SA plays a role in down regulating the synthesis and secretion of pyocyanin in vivo. To further test if SA directly affects the virulence of P. aeruginosa, we used the Caenorhabiditis elegans-P. aeruginosa infection model. The addition of SA to P. aeruginosa lawns significantly diminished the bacterium's ability to kill the worms, without affecting the accumulation of bacteria inside the nematodes' guts, suggesting that SA negatively affects factors that influence the virulence of P. aeruginosa. We employed microarray technology to identify SA target genes. These analyses showed that SA treatment affected expression of 331 genes. It selectively repressed transcription of exoproteins and other virulence factors, while it had no effect on expression of housekeeping

  20. Functional interplay between SA1 and TRF1 in telomeric DNA binding and DNA–DNA pairing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Chen, Haijiang; Pan, Hai; Fan, Yanlin; Jiang, Yunyun; Kaur, Parminder; Miao, Wang; Gurgel, Gisele; You, Changjiang; Piehler, Jacob; Kad, Neil M.; Riehn, Robert; Opresko, Patricia L.; Smith, Susan; Tao, Yizhi Jane; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Proper chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis depend on cohesion between sister chromatids. Cohesion is thought to occur through the entrapment of DNA within the tripartite ring (Smc1, Smc3 and Rad21) with enforcement from a fourth subunit (SA1/SA2). Surprisingly, cohesin rings do not play a major role in sister telomere cohesion. Instead, this role is replaced by SA1 and telomere binding proteins (TRF1 and TIN2). Neither the DNA binding property of SA1 nor this unique telomere cohesion mechanism is understood. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we discover that SA1 displays two-state binding on DNA: searching by one-dimensional (1D) free diffusion versus recognition through subdiffusive sliding at telomeric regions. The AT-hook motif in SA1 plays dual roles in modulating non-specific DNA binding and subdiffusive dynamics over telomeric regions. TRF1 tethers SA1 within telomeric regions that SA1 transiently interacts with. SA1 and TRF1 together form longer DNA–DNA pairing tracts than with TRF1 alone, as revealed by atomic force microscopy imaging. These results suggest that at telomeres cohesion relies on the molecular interplay between TRF1 and SA1 to promote DNA–DNA pairing, while along chromosomal arms the core cohesin assembly might also depend on SA1 1D diffusion on DNA and sequence-specific DNA binding. PMID:27298259

  1. Fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation in mammals: roles played by different isoforms of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fumin; Black, Paul N; Coleman, Rosalind A; DiRusso, Concetta C

    2006-03-01

    Mammals express multiple isoforms of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1 and ACSL3-6) in various tissues. These enzymes are essential for fatty acid metabolism providing activated intermediates for complex lipid synthesis, protein modification, and beta-oxidation. Yeast in contrast express four major ACSLs, which have well-defined functions. Two, Faa1p and Faa4p, are specifically required for fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation. Four ACSLs from the rat were expressed in a yeast faa1delta faa4delta strain and their roles in fatty acid transport and trafficking characterized. All four restored ACS activity yet varied in substrate preference. ACSL1, 4, and 6 were able to rescue fatty acid transport activity and triglyceride synthesis. ACSL5, however, was unable to facilitate fatty acid transport despite conferring robust oleoyl-CoA synthetase activity. This is the first study evaluating the role of the mammalian ACSLs in fatty acid transport and supports a role for ACSL1, 4, and 6 in transport by vectorial acylation.

  2. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Ullman-Zeunert, Lynn; Govind, Geetha; Bartram, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-11-13

    Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from increased nitrogen or CO

  4. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  5. Recent progress of the JT-60SA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, H.; Barabaschi, P.; Kamada, Y.; the JT-60SA Team

    2017-10-01

    The JT-60SA project has been implemented for the purpose of an early realization of fusion energy. With a powerful and versatile NBI and ECRF system, a flexible plasma-shaping capability, and various kinds of in-vessel coils to suppress MHD instabilities, JT-60SA plays an essential role in addressing the key physics and engineering issues of ITER and DEMO. It aims to achieve the long sustainment of high integrated performance plasmas under the high β N condition required in DEMO. The fabrication and installation of components and systems of JT-60SA procured by the EU and Japan are steadily progressing. The installation of toroidal field (TF) coils around the vacuum vessel started in December 2016. The commissioning of the cryogenic system and power supply system has been implemented in the Naka site, and JT-60SA will start operation in 2019. The JT-60SA research plan covers a wide area of issues in ITER and DEMO relevant operation regimes, and has been regularly updated on the basis of intensive discussion among European and Japanese researchers.

  6. Restoring the youth of aged red blood cells and extending their lifespan in circulation by remodelling membrane sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Tuo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Di; Kang, Li-Li; Chen, Xing-Yao; Luo, Man

    2016-02-01

    Membrane sialic acid (SA) plays an important role in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs), the age-related reduction in SA content negatively impacts both the structure and function of these cells. We have therefore suggested that remodelling the SA in the membrane of aged cells would help recover cellular functions characteristic of young RBCs. We developed an effective method for the re-sialylation of aged RBCs by which the cells were incubated with SA in the presence of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and α-2,3-sialytransferase. We found that RBCs could be re-sialylated if they had available SA-binding groups and after the re-sialylation, aged RBCs could restore their membrane SA to the level in young RBCs. Once the membrane SA was restored, the aged RBCs showed recovery of their biophysical and biochemical properties to similar levels as in young RBCs. Their life span in circulation was also extended to twofold. Our findings indicate that remodelling membrane SA not only helps restore the youth of aged RBCs, but also helps recover injured RBCs.

  7. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  8. Production of shikimic acid from Escherichia coli through chemically inducible chromosomal evolution and cofactor metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shikimic acid (SA) produced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) is a key intermediate for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), an anti-influenza drug. However, plants cannot deliver a stable supply of SA. To avoid the resulting shortages and price fluctuations, a stable source of affordable SA is required. Although recent achievements in metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains have significantly increased SA productivity, commonly-used plasmid-based expression systems are prone to genetic instability and require constant selective pressure to ensure plasmid maintenance. Cofactors also play an important role in the biosynthesis of different fermentation products. In this study, we first constructed an E. coli SA production strain that carries no plasmid or antibiotic marker. We then investigated the effect of endogenous NADPH availability on SA production. Results The pps and csrB genes were first overexpressed by replacing their native promoter and integrating an additional copy of the genes in a double gene knockout (aroK and aroL) of E. coli. The aroG fbr , aroB, aroE and tktA gene cluster was integrated into the above E. coli chromosome by direct transformation. The gene copy number was then evolved to the desired value by triclosan induction. The resulting strain, E. coli SA110, produced 8.9-fold more SA than did the parental strain E. coli (ΔaroKΔaroL). Following qRT-PCR analysis, another copy of the tktA gene under the control of the 5Ptac promoter was inserted into the chromosome of E. coli SA110 to obtain the more productive strain E. coli SA110. Next, the NADPH availability was increased by overexpressing the pntAB or nadK genes, which further enhanced SA production. The final strain, E. coli SA116, produced 3.12 g/L of SA with a yield on glucose substrate of 0.33 mol/mol. Conclusion An SA-producing E. coli strain that carries neither a plasmid nor an antibiotic marker was

  9. N-terminal basic amino acid residues of Beet black scorch virus capsid protein play a critical role in virion assembly and systemic movement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yanjing; Niu, Shaofang; Qu, Feng; Zhang, Yongliang; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2013-06-20

    Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) is a small single-stranded, positive-sense RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Necrovirus, family Tombusviridae. Its capsid protein (CP) contains a 13 amino acid long basic region at the N-terminus, rich in arginine and lysine residues, which is thought to interact with viral RNA to initiate virion assembly. In the current study, a series of BBSV mutants containing amino acid substitutions as well as deletions within the N-terminal region were generated and examined for their effects on viral RNA replication, virion assembly, and long distance spread in protoplasts and whole host plants of BBSV. The RNA-binding activities of the mutated CPs were also evaluated in vitro. These experiments allowed us to identify two key basic amino acid residues in this region that are responsible for initiating virus assembly through RNA-binding. Proper assembly of BBSV particles is in turn needed for efficient viral systemic movement. We have identified two basic amino acid residues near the N-terminus of the BBSV CP that bind viral RNA with high affinity to initiate virion assembly. We further provide evidence showing that systemic spread of BBSV in infected plants requires intact virions. This study represents the first in-depth investigation of the role of basic amino acid residues within the N-terminus of a necroviral CP.

  10. A molecularly cloned, live-attenuated japanese encephalitis vaccine SA14-14-2 virus: a conserved single amino acid in the ij Hairpin of the Viral E glycoprotein determines neurovirulence in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Yun, Gil-Nam; Lee, Eun-Young; Li, Long; Kuhn, Richard J; Rossmann, Michael G; Morrey, John D; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes fatal neurological disease in humans, is one of the most important emerging pathogens of public health significance. JEV represents the JE serogroup, which also includes West Nile, Murray Valley encephalitis, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Within this serogroup, JEV is a vaccine-preventable pathogen, but the molecular basis of its neurovirulence remains unknown. Here, we constructed an infectious cDNA of the most widely used live-attenuated JE vaccine, SA14-14-2, and rescued from the cDNA a molecularly cloned virus, SA14-14-2MCV, which displayed in vitro growth properties and in vivo attenuation phenotypes identical to those of its parent, SA14-14-2. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of neurovirulence, we selected three independent, highly neurovirulent variants (LD50, <1.5 PFU) from SA14-14-2MCV (LD50, >1.5×105 PFU) by serial intracerebral passage in mice. Complete genome sequence comparison revealed a total of eight point mutations, with a common single G1708→A substitution replacing a Gly with Glu at position 244 of the viral E glycoprotein. Using our infectious SA14-14-2 cDNA technology, we showed that this single Gly-to-Glu change at E-244 is sufficient to confer lethal neurovirulence in mice, including rapid development of viral spread and tissue inflammation in the central nervous system. Comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis of E-244, coupled with homology-based structure modeling, demonstrated a novel essential regulatory role in JEV neurovirulence for E-244, within the ij hairpin of the E dimerization domain. In both mouse and human neuronal cells, we further showed that the E-244 mutation altered JEV infectivity in vitro, in direct correlation with the level of neurovirulence in vivo, but had no significant impact on viral RNA replication. Our results provide a crucial step toward developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies against JEV and possibly other

  11. A Molecularly Cloned, Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine SA14-14-2 Virus: A Conserved Single Amino Acid in the ij Hairpin of the Viral E Glycoprotein Determines Neurovirulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Yun, Gil-Nam; Lee, Eun-Young; Li, Long; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Morrey, John D.; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes fatal neurological disease in humans, is one of the most important emerging pathogens of public health significance. JEV represents the JE serogroup, which also includes West Nile, Murray Valley encephalitis, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Within this serogroup, JEV is a vaccine-preventable pathogen, but the molecular basis of its neurovirulence remains unknown. Here, we constructed an infectious cDNA of the most widely used live-attenuated JE vaccine, SA14-14-2, and rescued from the cDNA a molecularly cloned virus, SA14-14-2MCV, which displayed in vitro growth properties and in vivo attenuation phenotypes identical to those of its parent, SA14-14-2. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of neurovirulence, we selected three independent, highly neurovirulent variants (LD50, <1.5 PFU) from SA14-14-2MCV (LD50, >1.5×105 PFU) by serial intracerebral passage in mice. Complete genome sequence comparison revealed a total of eight point mutations, with a common single G1708→A substitution replacing a Gly with Glu at position 244 of the viral E glycoprotein. Using our infectious SA14-14-2 cDNA technology, we showed that this single Gly-to-Glu change at E-244 is sufficient to confer lethal neurovirulence in mice, including rapid development of viral spread and tissue inflammation in the central nervous system. Comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis of E-244, coupled with homology-based structure modeling, demonstrated a novel essential regulatory role in JEV neurovirulence for E-244, within the ij hairpin of the E dimerization domain. In both mouse and human neuronal cells, we further showed that the E-244 mutation altered JEV infectivity in vitro, in direct correlation with the level of neurovirulence in vivo, but had no significant impact on viral RNA replication. Our results provide a crucial step toward developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies against JEV and possibly other

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  13. Number of SA Astronomy Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    The SA professional astronomical community has grown enormously in recent years with the advent of SALT, SKA/MeerKAT/KAT and HESS (Namibia). In this article I have made an attempt to list the people involved, namely those with doctorates working in fields of astronomy and related technologies, cosmic rays, cosmology and space science.

  14. Alteration of a single amino acid in the basic domain of Marek's disease virus Meq oncoprotein plays an important role in T-cell transformation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, has been shown to play a major role in transformation of T-lymphocytes. We have earlier shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens resulted in virus attenuation in chickens. To dete...

  15. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates occurrence of citrus canker in susceptible navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-08-15

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H₂O₂ level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of IKK-beta: a new development in the mechanism of the anti-obesity effects of PTP1B inhibitors SA18 and SA32.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Bharat Raj; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Shrestha, Suja; Kafle, Bhooshan; Cho, Heeyeong; Kang, Ju-Hee; Cho, Hyeongjin

    2010-02-01

    In a previous study, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, SA18 and SA32, exhibited anti-obesity effects in a mouse model by suppressing weight gain and improving blood parameters, including free fatty acid (FFA) levels. In a separate study, depletion of the PTP1B gene in mice suppressed weight gain without significant change in FFA levels. The discrepancy in FFA concentrations between the two studies suggested that the in vivo target of the SA compounds might not be limited to PTP1B. In this study, SA18 and SA32 were found to be potent inhibitors of IkappaB Kinase-beta (IKK-beta). In vivo relevance of the inhibitory activity was evaluated in differentiated adipocytes. Inhibition of IKK-beta, in addition to inhibition of PTP1B, in mice treated with the SA compounds, could be a possible mechanism of the compound's biological response including the resistance to diet-induced weight gain and improvement in blood parameters. As potent and cell-permeable IKK-beta inhibitors, SA18 and SA32 could also be valuable in biological experiments. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-level exogenous trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid plays an anti-lipogenesis role in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfang; Liu, Hongyun; Liu, Jianxin; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Chong; Yang, Weiren

    2014-07-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) were treated by 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150 μmol/L trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to evaluate the effects of different level trans10, cis12 CLA on lipogenesis in BMEC. Addition of 75-150 μmol/L trans10, cis12 CLA reduced significantly the triacylglycerol (TAG) content (P<0.05), but did not have inhibiting action on cell proliferation (P>0.05). Treatment with 150 μmol/L trans10, cis12 CLA for 48 h resulted in a 17.1% reduction (P<0.0001) of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C14acids (UFA) and a corresponding reduction of the mRNA abundance of acetyl coenzyme A (acetylCoA) carboxylase (ACC) (P=0.046), fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P=0.017) and stearoylCoA desaturase1 (SCD1) (P=0.002). Another finding was that trans10, cis12 CLA elevated expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase2 (DGAT2) (P=0.020) and long chain acylCoA synthetases (ACSL) (P=0.032). In conclusion, higher trans10, cis12 CLA, not low trans10, cis12 CLA, inhibited milk fat synthesis and changed fatty acid composition by regulating the expression of FAS, ACC, SCD1, DGAT2 and ACSL. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  19. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  20. Proteomic analysis on salicylic acid-induced salt tolerance in common wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kang, Guozhang; Li, Gezi; Zheng, Beibei; Han, Qiaoxia; Wang, Chenyang; Zhu, Yunji; Guo, Tiancai

    2012-12-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the salt tolerance mechanism in seedlings of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using physiological measurements combined with global expression profiling (proteomics). In the present study, 0.5mM SA significantly reduced NaCl-induced growth inhibition in wheat seedlings, manifesting as increased fresh weights, dry weights, and photosynthetic pigments, but decreased lipid peroxidation. Two-week-old wheat seedlings treated with 0.5mM SA, 250 mM NaCl and 250 mM NaCl+0.5mM SA for 3 days were used for the proteomic analyses. In total, 39 proteins differentially regulated by both salt and SA were revealed by 2D PAGE, and 38 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes including signal transduction, stress defense, energy, metabolism, photosynthesis, and others of unknown function. All protein spots involved in signal transduction and the defense response were significantly upregulated by SA under salt stress, suggesting that these proteins could play a role in the SA-induced salt resistance in wheat seedlings.

  1. Imperative roles of salicylic acid and nitric oxide in improving salinity tolerance in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Yadu, Shrishti; Dewangan, Teman Lal; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Keshavkant, S

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to scrutinize efficacy of salicylic acid (SA) and/or sodium nitroprusside [SNP, source of nitric oxide (NO)] to mitigate injury symptoms of saline stress in Pisum sativum L. Exposure to sodium chloride (NaCl) was found to be injurious to germinating P. sativum L. (var. Shubhra IM-9101) and a direct correlation between severity of toxicity and NaCl-concentrations could be discernible. Both SA and NO serves as signal molecules in plant stress responses, and play crucial roles in key regulatory pathways of growth, development and metabolism. The limiting effects of salinity on radicle length and biomass accumulation were considerably released by SA and/or SNP and among which their combined application was found to be the most promising. Supplemented SA and/or SNP, particularly their cocktail, resulted in a substantial decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation, which later caused reduced accumulations of malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and protein carbonyl, in NaCl subjected germinating P. sativum L. seeds. SA and/or SNP had significant inducing effects on activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. Additionally, exogenous SA and/or SNP led to the higher proline, sugar and glycinebetaine contents, than that of the control. On the basis of accumulated results, it could be concluded that the cocktail of SA and SNP may be efficiently used to overcome the adverse signatures of salinity stress.

  2. Expression of the inactive ZmMEK1 induces salicylic acid accumulation and salicylic acid-dependent leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Chongchong; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao

    2016-08-01

    Leaf senescence is the final leaf developmental process that is regulated by both intracellular factors and environmental conditions. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been shown to play important roles in regulating leaf senescence; however, the component(s) downstream of the MAPK cascades in regulating leaf senescence are not fully understood. Here we showed that the transcriptions of ZmMEK1, ZmSIMK1, and ZmMPK3 were induced during dark-induced maize leaf senescence. Furthermore, in-gel kinase analysis revealed the 42 kDa MAPK was activated. ZmMEK1 interacted with ZmSIMK1 in yeast and maize mesophyll protoplasts and ZmSIMK1 was activated by ZmMEK1 in vitro. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of ZmMEK1 in Arabidopsis transgenic plants induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and SA-dependent leaf senescence. ZmMEK1 interacted with Arabidopsis MPK4 in yeast and activated MPK4 in vitro. SA treatment accelerated dark-induced maize leaf senescence. Moreover, blockage of MAPK signaling increased endogenous SA accumulation in maize leaves. These findings suggest that ZmMEK1-ZmSIMK1 cascade and its modulating SA levels play important roles in regulating leaf senescence.

  3. The role played by acid and basic centers in the activity of biomimetic catalysts of the catalase, peroxidase, and monooxidase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerramov, A. M.; Nagieva, I. T.

    2010-11-01

    The acid-basic centers of heterogeneous carriers of catalase, peroxidase, and monooxigenase biomimetics, in particular, iron protoporphyrin deposited on active or neutral aluminum magnesium silicate, were studied. The catalytic activity of biomimetics was stabilized, which allowed us not only to synthesize fairly effective biomimetics but also to clarify certain details of the mechanism of their action and perform a comparative analysis of the functioning of biomimetics and the corresponding enzymes.

  4. The amino acids upstream of NH(2)-terminal dileucine motif play a role in regulating the intracellular sorting of the Class III transporters GLUT8 and GLUT12.

    PubMed

    Aerni-Flessner, Lauren B; Otu, Mitch C; Moley, Kelle H

    2011-01-01

    The transport of glucose across cell membranes is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). The class III glucose transporters GLUT8 and GLUT12 both contain a similar [DE]XXXL[LI] dileucine sorting signal in their amino terminus. This type of dileucine motif facilitates protein trafficking to various organelles or to the plasma membrane via interactions with adaptor protein (AP) complexes. The [DE]XXXL[LI] motif in GLUT8 is thought to direct it to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments via its interactions with AP1 and AP2. Unlike GLUT8, the [DE]XXXL[LI] motif does not direct GLUT12 to a lysosomal compartment. Rather, GLUT12 resides in the Golgi network and at the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we found that exchanging the XXX (TQP) residues in GLUT8 with the corresponding residues in GLUT12 (GPN) resulted in a dramatic missorting of GLUT8 to the cell surface. We postulated that the XXX amino acids upstream of the dileucine motif in GLUT8 influence the degree of interaction between the [DE]XXXL[LI] motif and adaptor proteins. To further explore its trafficking mechanisms, we created mutant constructs to identify the role that each of the individual XXX amino acids has for regulating the intracellular sorting of GLUT8. Here we find that the XXX amino acids, specifically the position of a proline -2 from the dileucine residues, influence the affinity of APs for GLUT8 and GLUT12.

  5. The response of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells to modified titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pivodova, Veronika; Frankova, Jana; Dolezel, Petr; Ulrichova, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of different chemically modified titanium surfaces on the proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. In this work, six different titanium materials were tested and compared to each other: (1) glazed; (2) unglazed; (3) unglazed and alkali-etched; (4) unglazed, sandblasted, acid- and alkali-etched; (5) unglazed and coated with zirconium nitride; and (6) unglazed, sandblasted, and acid-etched. The production of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-2, and the expression of adhesion proteins (integrin α3β1, vinculin) were evaluated using ELISA. Finally, the apoptosis of cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The most significant differences were found for unglazed sandblasted acid- and alkali-etched titanium discs compared with unglazed titanium discs. The production of TNF-α was decreased after 24 hours, as was the production of ALP after 72 hours. In contrast, the expression of integrin α3β1 was increased after 6 hours. None of the titanium discs showed an apoptotic effect on cells. This study has shown that physical surface treatments (such as surface roughness) play a more important role than chemical modifications. Generally, chemical modifications such as acid- and alkali-etching can affect the wettability of titanium surfaces, making a surface hydrophilic or hydrophobic according to the modification. The cell attachment is better on hydrophilic surfaces, while hydrophilic surfaces may slightly decrease the expression of ALP activity.

  6. [Effects of salicylic acid on sucrose metabolism of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Li, Tian-Lai; Li, Nan; Yang, Feng-Jun; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-06-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted with the seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivar Liaoyuanduoli to study the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on their sucrose metabolism under NaCl stress. The seedlings were treated with different concentrations (100, 300, and 500 mg x L(-1)) of SA, and the contents of sucrose, glucose, and fructose as well as the related enzyme activities of sucrose metabolism, including acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SS), in seedling leaves were determined. Under NaCl stress, SA could maintain or enhance the leaf fructose and glucose contents and the leaf AI, NI, SPS and SS activities, with the highest increment of fructose and glucose contents being 30.0% and 31.1% and that of AI, NI, SPS and SS activities being 24.7%, 27.9%, 22.0% and 24.5%, respectively, in comparing with no SA application, while had less effect on the leaf sucrose content, which suggested that SA could play a protective role in the NaCl-tolerance of tomato seedlings via enhancing the leaf invertase activity to increase leaf fructose and glucose contents. The best alleviating effect was observed at 500 mg x L(-1) of SA.

  7. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Signals Glutathione-Mediated Nickel Tolerance in Thlaspi Nickel Hyperaccumulators1

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Garcia, Daniel; Kim, Donggiun; Hopf, Amber; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation in the six diverse Thlaspi species investigated, including the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi goesingense, Thlaspi rosulare, Thlaspi oxyceras, and Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators Thlaspi arvense and Thlaspi perfoliatum. Furthermore, the SA metabolites phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, salicyloyl-glucose, and catechol are also elevated in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense when compared to the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and T. arvense. Elevation of free SA levels in Arabidopsis, both genetically and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance. Such SA-mediated Ni resistance in Arabidopsis phenocopies the glutathione-based Ni tolerance previously observed in Thlaspi, suggesting a biochemical linkage between SA and Ni tolerance in this genus. Intriguingly, the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense also shows enhanced sensitivity to the pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and fails to induce SA biosynthesis after infection. Nickel hyperaccumulation reverses this pathogen hypersensitivity, suggesting that the interaction between pathogen resistance and Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation may have played a critical role in the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in the Thlaspi genus. PMID:15734913

  8. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid signals glutathione-mediated nickel tolerance in Thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulators.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Garcia, Daniel; Kim, Donggiun; Hopf, Amber; Salt, David E

    2005-03-01

    Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation in the six diverse Thlaspi species investigated, including the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi goesingense, Thlaspi rosulare, Thlaspi oxyceras, and Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators Thlaspi arvense and Thlaspi perfoliatum. Furthermore, the SA metabolites phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, salicyloyl-glucose, and catechol are also elevated in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense when compared to the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and T. arvense. Elevation of free SA levels in Arabidopsis, both genetically and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance. Such SA-mediated Ni resistance in Arabidopsis phenocopies the glutathione-based Ni tolerance previously observed in Thlaspi, suggesting a biochemical linkage between SA and Ni tolerance in this genus. Intriguingly, the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense also shows enhanced sensitivity to the pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and fails to induce SA biosynthesis after infection. Nickel hyperaccumulation reverses this pathogen hypersensitivity, suggesting that the interaction between pathogen resistance and Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation may have played a critical role in the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in the Thlaspi genus.

  9. Niflumic acid-sensitive ion channels play an important role in the induction of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by cyclic AMP in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, W.; Miki, T.; Ogura, T.; Zhang, M.; Seino, Y.; Satin, L. S.; Nakaya, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We have previously reported that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is induced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in mice lacking ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels (Kir6.2−/− mice [up-to-date symbol for Kir6.2 gene is Kcnj11]), in which glucose alone does not trigger insulin secretion. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the induction of GSIS by GLP-1. Methods Pancreas perfusion experiments were performed using wild-type (Kir6.2+/+) or Kir6.2−/− mice. Glucose concentrations were either changed abruptly from 2.8 to 16.7 mmol/l or increased stepwise (1.4 mmol/l per step) from 2.8 to 12.5 mmol/l. Electrophysiological experiments were performed using pancreatic beta cells isolated from Kir6.2−/− mice or clonal pancreatic beta cells (MIN6 cells) after pharmacologically inhibiting their KATP channels with glibenclamide. Results The combination of cyclic AMP plus 16.7 mmol/l glucose evoked insulin secretion in Kir6.2−/− pancreases where glucose alone was ineffective as a secretagogue. The secretion was blocked by the application of niflumic acid. In KATP channel-inactivated MIN6 cells, niflumic acid similarly inhibited the membrane depolarisation caused by cAMP plus glucose. Surprisingly, stepwise increases of glucose concentration triggered insulin secretion only in the presence of cAMP or GLP-1 in Kir6.2+/+, as in Kir6.2−/− pancreases. Conclusions/interpretation Niflumic acid-sensitive ion channels participate in the induction of GSIS by cyclic AMP in Kir6.2−/− beta cells. Cyclic AMP thus not only acts as a potentiator of insulin secretion, but appears to be permissive for GSIS via novel, niflumic acid-sensitive ion channels. This mechanism may be physiologically important for triggering insulin secretion when the plasma glucose concentration increases gradually rather than abruptly. PMID:19266181

  10. Physiological and metabolic changes of Cucurbita pepo leaves in response to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infection and salicylic acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Deya Eldeen Mohammed; Fayez, Khalaf Ali; Mahmoud, Sabry Younis; Hamad, Ahmed; Lu, Guoquan

    2007-01-01

    The changes of some physiological and biochemical parameters in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cv Eskandarani) leaves associated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infection and the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) were studied in this paper. In comparison to the untreated leaves, ZYMV infected leaves showed many symptoms, including severe mosaic, size reduction, stunting and deformation. Results from analysis of physiological parameters indicated that viral infection and SA treatments affected metabolism. Viral infection decreased pigment, protein and carbohydrate levels. But with all SA treatments, the protein and carbohydrate contents are noticeably increased. Moreover, the other biochemical parameters showed variable alterations. The peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activity and proline contents were induced by both viral infection and SA treatments. In addition, protein patterns represent some newly synthesized polypeptides which reflect formation of pathogenesis related proteins in all treatments. SA treatment increases the plant resistance against ZYMV. This can be noticed through reduction of percentage of the infected plants, decrease in disease severity and virus concentration of the plants treated with SA then inoculated with virus. All results show significant changes in metabolism affected by either viral infection or SA treatments and also indicate that exogenous SA plays an important role in induction of defense mechanism against ZYMV infection.

  11. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  12. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  13. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  14. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Plays a Critical Role in Naive and Effector Murine T Cells but Not Natural Regulatory T Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ramadan A.; Camick, Christina; Wiles, Katherine; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Giovannucci, David R.; Wall, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), the most potent Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger discovered to date, has been implicated in Ca2+ signaling in some lymphomas and T cell clones. In contrast, the role of NAADP in Ca2+ signaling or the identity of the Ca2+ stores targeted by NAADP in conventional naive T cells is less clear. In the current study, we demonstrate the importance of NAADP in the generation of Ca2+ signals in murine naive T cells. Combining live-cell imaging methods and a pharmacological approach using the NAADP antagonist Ned-19, we addressed the involvement of NAADP in the generation of Ca2+ signals evoked by TCR stimulation and the role of this signal in downstream physiological end points such as proliferation, cytokine production, and other responses to stimulation. We demonstrated that acidic compartments in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum were the Ca2+ stores that were sensitive to NAADP in naive T cells. NAADP was shown to evoke functionally relevant Ca2+ signals in both naive CD4 and naive CD8 T cells. Furthermore, we examined the role of this signal in the activation, proliferation, and secretion of effector cytokines by Th1, Th2, Th17, and CD8 effector T cells. Overall, NAADP exhibited a similar profile in mediating Ca2+ release in effector T cells as in their counterpart naive T cells and seemed to be equally important for the function of these different subsets of effector T cells. This profile was not observed for natural T regulatory cells. PMID:26728458

  15. Abscisic acid modulates salicylic acid biosynthesis for systemic acquired resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kusajima, Miyuki; Okumura, Yasuko; Fujita, Moeka; Nakashita, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Among the regulatory mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tomato, antagonistic interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways was investigated. Treatment with 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (BIT) induced SAR in tomato thorough SA biosynthesis. Pretreatment of ABA suppressed BIT-induced SAR including SA accumulation, suggesting that ABA suppressed SAR by inhibiting SA biosynthesis.

  16. The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7.

    PubMed

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP)(3) reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin β2 or importin β3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis.

  17. The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP){sub 3} reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin β2 or importin β3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis. - Highlights: ► We introduce a numeric index system that represents the degree of nuclear import. ► The rate of nuclear import is dictated by the sequence context of the basic cluster. ► Importin β2 and β3 were mainly responsible for the N4 mediated nuclear import.

  18. Children's Play and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

  19. Children's Play and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

  20. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when…

  1. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when…

  2. Saturn I (SA-4) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight's upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for 'Project Highwater' physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket

  3. Saturn I (SA-4) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles, developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight's upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for 'Project Highwater' physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket

  4. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney D; Park, Joonho; Tran, Hue T; Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Zins, Jacqui L; Patel, Ketan; McKnight, Thomas D; Plaxton, William C

    2012-11-01

    Orthophosphate (P(i)) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (P(o)), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of P(i)-deficient (-P(i)) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous P(o) compounds such as glycerol-3-phosphate or herring sperm DNA: (i) effectively substituted for P(i) in supporting the P nutrition of Arabidopsis seedlings, and (ii) caused upregulation and secretion of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 into the growth medium. When cultivated under -P(i) conditions or supplied with P(o) as its sole source of P nutrition, an atpap26/atpap12 T-DNA double insertion mutant exhibited impaired growth coupled with >60 and >30% decreases in root secretory APase activity and rosette total P(i) concentration, respectively. Development of the atpap12/atpap26 mutant was unaffected during growth on P(i)-replete medium but was completely arrested when 7-day-old P(i)-sufficient seedlings were transplanted into a -P(i), P(o)-containing soil mix. Both PAPs were also strongly upregulated on root surfaces and in shoot cell-wall extracts of -P(i) seedlings. It is hypothesized that secreted AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate the acclimation of Arabidopsis to nutritional Pi deficiency by: (i) functioning in the rhizosphere to scavenge P(i) from the soil's accessible P(o) pool, while (ii) recycling P(i) from endogenous phosphomonoesters that have been leaked into cell walls from the cytoplasm. Thus, AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are promising targets for improving crop P-use efficiency.

  5. Weekly iron folic acid supplementation plays differential role in maintaining iron markers level in non-anaemic and anaemic primigravida: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Hari; Kumar, Neeta; Sandhir, Rajat; Mittal, Suneeta; Kurra, Santosh; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Kaur, Gurjit; Chandhiok, Nomita; Dhillon, B S; Rao, D N

    2016-11-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is most commonly observed and highly prevalent in South-East Asia. Various effective programmes have been laid down for its management, mainly daily supplementation of iron folic acid (IFA) tablets. Following the same, standard obstetrical practice has included the IFA supplementation without requiring the determination of iron deficiency. In this study, a total of 120 primigravida (N = 60; non-anaemic (Hb > 11 g/dl) and N = 60 anaemic (Hb = 8-11 g/dl)) were selected among those attending the Antenatal Clinic in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. They were supplemented with daily and weekly IFA tablets till 6 weeks postpartum. Corresponding changes in haemoglobin level on advance of pregnancy, side effects and compliance associated with daily and weekly IFA supplementation and its associations with iron status markers were studied. The inflammatory markers were also estimated. The statistical significance level (p < 0.05) between the groups were assessed by applying unpaired t-test using SPSS (version 16.0). The obtained results publicized the salutary role of daily IFA supplementation in improving the haemoglobin level and iron status markers in anaemic pregnant women though the levels could not reach up to the non-anaemic haemoglobin levels. However, weekly IFA supplementation seems to be a better approach in non-anaemic pregnant women where almost comparable results were obtained in terms of haematological parameters, gestation length and birth weight. Weekly IFA supplementation found to be as effective as daily supplementation in iron sufficient non-anaemic pregnant women whereas anaemic pregnant women should be prescribed daily IFA supplementation irrespective of iron replete/deplete state.

  6. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to <10% of WT levels) was observed in the SlGAD3- and triple SlGAD-suppressed lines. These findings suggest that both SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 expression are crucial for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll.

  8. War, Conflict and Play. Debating Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyder, Tina

    2004-01-01

    Young refugees from many parts of the world are increasingly present in UK early years settings. This book explores the crucial importance of play for young refugee children's development. It considers the implications of war and conflict on young children and notes how opportunities for play are denied. It provides a framework for early years…

  9. "Then What Happened?" Studying Emergent Literacy in the Narrative Play of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Denise H.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research was on examining a play-based, child-centered instructional technique known as story telling/story acting (ST/SA) within a Canadian preschool setting. The goal was to examine the changes that occurred in the narrative features of preschool children's stories, and to investigate whether ST/SA fostered emerging literacy…

  10. Rice GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 play different roles in ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Deng, Zaian; Zhang, Chuanyu; Wang, Yayun; Wang, Juan; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhili; Huang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Zhijin

    2016-02-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) catalyzes the synthesis of GDP-D-mannose, which is a precursor for ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis in plants. The rice genome encodes three GMPase homologs OsVTC1-1, OsVTC1-3 and OsVTC1-8, but their roles in AsA synthesis are unclear. The overexpression of OsVTC1-1 or OsVTC1-3 restored the AsA synthesis of vtc1-1 in Arabidopsis, while that of OsVTC1-8 did not, indicating that only OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 are involved in AsA synthesis in rice. Similar to Arabidopsis VTC1, the expression of OsVTC1-1 was high in leaves, induced by light, and inhibited by dark. Unlike OsVTC1-1, the expression level of OsVTC1-3 was high in roots and quickly induced by the dark, while the transcription level of OsVTC1-8 did not show obvious changes under constant light or dark treatments. In OsVTC1-1 RNAi plants, the AsA content of rice leaves decreased, and the AsA production induced by light was limited. In contrast, OsVTC1-3 RNAi lines altered AsA synthesis levels in rice roots, but not in the leaves or under the light/dark treatment. The enzyme activity showed that OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 had higher GMPase activities than OsVTC1-8 in vitro. Our data showed that, unlike in Arabidopsis, the rice GPMase homologous proteins illustrated a new model in AsA synthesis: OsVTC1-1 may be involved in the AsA synthesis, which takes place in leaves, while OsVTC1-3 may be responsible for AsA synthesis in roots. The different roles of rice GMPase homologous proteins in AsA synthesis may be due to their differences in transcript levels and enzyme activities.

  11. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts. PMID:24790323

  12. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts.

  13. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  14. Understanding Playful Pedagogies, Play Narratives and Play Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goouch, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a tentative attempt to unwrap and understand one aspect of playful practice and the influences which determine its existence in early years settings. "Storying" events, those occasions when teachers and children together "make up" stories or parts of stories, develop roles or co-construct fantasies, occur moment by moment in some…

  15. 75 FR 61980 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, AS-365N3, SA-366G1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Model SA-365N, SA- 365N1, AS-365N2, AS-365N3, SA-366G1, EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-365C, SA- 365C1, SA-365C2... of a Eurocopter Model EC 155 helicopter. That crack was caused by a progressive fatigue failure...-13965; Docket No. FAA-2005-20294; Directorate Identifier 2004-SW-39-AD. Applicability: Model EC...

  16. Children's Empowerment in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  17. The Play of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  18. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.

  19. Salicylic acid regulates Plasmodesmata closure during innate immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Sager, Ross; Cui, Weier; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Hua; Lee, Jung-Youn

    2013-06-01

    In plants, mounting an effective innate immune strategy against microbial pathogens involves triggering local cell death within infected cells as well as boosting the immunity of the uninfected neighboring and systemically located cells. Although not much is known about this, it is evident that well-coordinated cell-cell signaling is critical in this process to confine infection to local tissue while allowing for the spread of systemic immune signals throughout the whole plant. In support of this notion, direct cell-to-cell communication was recently found to play a crucial role in plant defense. Here, we provide experimental evidence that salicylic acid (SA) is a critical hormonal signal that regulates cell-to-cell permeability during innate immune responses elicited by virulent bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that direct exogenous application of SA or bacterial infection suppresses cell-cell coupling and that SA pathway mutants are impaired in this response. The SA- or infection-induced suppression of cell-cell coupling requires an enhanced desease resistance1- and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1-dependent SA pathway in conjunction with the regulator of plasmodesmal gating Plasmodesmata-located protein5. We discuss a model wherein the SA signaling pathway and plasmodesmata-mediated cell-to-cell communication converge under an intricate regulatory loop.

  20. Salicylic Acid Regulates Plasmodesmata Closure during Innate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Sager, Ross; Cui, Weier; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Hua; Lee, Jung-Youn

    2013-01-01

    In plants, mounting an effective innate immune strategy against microbial pathogens involves triggering local cell death within infected cells as well as boosting the immunity of the uninfected neighboring and systemically located cells. Although not much is known about this, it is evident that well-coordinated cell–cell signaling is critical in this process to confine infection to local tissue while allowing for the spread of systemic immune signals throughout the whole plant. In support of this notion, direct cell-to-cell communication was recently found to play a crucial role in plant defense. Here, we provide experimental evidence that salicylic acid (SA) is a critical hormonal signal that regulates cell-to-cell permeability during innate immune responses elicited by virulent bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that direct exogenous application of SA or bacterial infection suppresses cell–cell coupling and that SA pathway mutants are impaired in this response. The SA- or infection-induced suppression of cell–cell coupling requires an ENHANCED DESEASE RESISTANCE1– and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1–dependent SA pathway in conjunction with the regulator of plasmodesmal gating PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN5. We discuss a model wherein the SA signaling pathway and plasmodesmata-mediated cell-to-cell communication converge under an intricate regulatory loop. PMID:23749844

  1. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases.

  2. Amino Acids in the Basic Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus ZEBRA Protein Play Distinct Roles in DNA Binding, Activation of Early Lytic Gene Expression, and Promotion of Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Heston, Lee; El-Guindy, Ayman; Countryman, Jill; Dela Cruz, Charles; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2006-01-01

    The ZEBRA protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) drives the viral lytic cycle cascade. The capacity of ZEBRA to recognize specific DNA sequences resides in amino acids 178 to 194, a region in which 9 of 17 residues are either lysine or arginine. To define the basic domain residues essential for activity, a series of 46 single-amino-acid-substitution mutants were examined for their ability to bind ZIIIB DNA, a high-affinity ZEBRA binding site, and for their capacity to activate early and late EBV lytic cycle gene expression. DNA binding was obligatory for the protein to activate the lytic cascade. Nineteen mutants that failed to bind DNA were unable to disrupt latency. A single acidic replacement of a basic amino acid destroyed DNA binding and the biologic activity of the protein. Four mutants that bound weakly to DNA were defective at stimulating the expression of Rta, the essential first target of ZEBRA in lytic cycle activation. Four amino acids, R183, A185, C189, and R190, are likely to contact ZIIIB DNA specifically, since alanine or valine substitutions at these positions drastically weakened or eliminated DNA binding. Twenty-three mutants were proficient in binding to ZIIIB DNA. Some DNA binding-proficient mutants were refractory to supershift by BZ-1 monoclonal antibody (epitope amino acids 214 to 230), likely as the result of the increased solubility of the mutants. Mutants competent to bind DNA could be separated into four functional groups: the wild-type group (eight mutants), a group defective at activating Rta (five mutants, all with mutations at the S186 site), a group defective at activating EA-D (three mutants with the R179A, S186T, and K192A mutations), and a group specifically defective at activating late gene expression (seven mutants). Three late mutants, with a Y180A, Y180E, or K188A mutation, were defective at stimulating EBV DNA replication. This catalogue of point mutants reveals that basic domain amino acids play distinct functions in binding

  3. Beyond SaGMRotI: Conversion to SaArb, SaSN, and SaMaxRot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson-Lamprey, J. A.; Boore, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the seismic design of structures, estimates of design forces are usually provided to the engineer in the form of elastic response spectra. Predictive equations for elastic response spectra are derived from empirical recordings of ground motion. The geometric mean of the two orthogonal horizontal components of motion is often used as the response value in these predictive equations, although it is not necessarily the most relevant estimate of forces within the structure. For some applications it is desirable to estimate the response value on a randomly chosen single component of ground motion, and in other applications the maximum response in a single direction is required. We give adjustment factors that allow converting the predictions of geometric-mean ground-motion predictions into either of these other two measures of seismic ground-motion intensity. In addition, we investigate the relation of the strike-normal component of ground motion to the maximum response values. We show that the strike-normal component of ground motion seldom corresponds to the maximum horizontal-component response value (in particular, at distances greater than about 3 km from faults), and that focusing on this case in exclusion of others can result in the underestimation of the maximum component. This research provides estimates of the maximum response value of a single component for all cases, not just near-fault strike-normal components. We provide modification factors that can be used to convert predictions of ground motions in terms of the geometric mean to the maximum spectral acceleration (SaMaxRot) and the random component of spectral acceleration (SaArb). Included are modification factors for both the mean and the aleatory standard deviation of the logarithm of the motions.

  4. Targeted delivery of salicylic acid from acne treatment products into and through skin: role of solution and ingredient properties and relationships to irritation.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Linda; Chaudhuri, Bhaskar; Jivani, Nur; Fares, Hani; Davis, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a beta hydroxy acid and has multifunctional uses in the treatment of various diseases in skin such as acne, psoriasis, and photoaging. One problem often cited as associated with salicylic acid is that it can be quite irritating at pH 3-4, where it exhibits the highest activity in the treatment of skin diseases. We have identified strategies to control the irritation potential of salicylic acid formulations and have focused on hydroalcoholic solutions used in acne wipes. One strategy is to control the penetration of SA into the skin. Penetration of the drug into various layers of skin, i.e., epidermis, dermis, and receptor fluid, was measured using a modified Franz in vitro diffusion method after various exposure times up to 24 hours. A polyurethane polymer (polyolprepolymer-15) was found to be an effective agent in controlling delivery of SA. In a dose-dependent fashion it targeted delivery of more SA to the epidermis as compared to penetration through the skin into the receptor fluid. It also reduced the rapid rate of permeation of a large dose of SA through the skin in the first few hours of exposure. A second strategy that proved successful was incorporation of known mild nonionic surfactants like isoceteth-20. These surfactants cleanse the skin, yet due to their inherent mildness (because of their reduced critical micelle concentration and monomer concentration), keep the barrier intact. Also, they reduce the rate of salicylic acid penetration, presumably through micellar entrapment (either in solution or on the skin surface after the alcohol evaporates). Cumulative irritation studies showed that targeting delivery of SA to the epidermis and reducing the rapid early rate of penetration of large amounts of drug through the skin resulted in a reduced irritation potential. In vivo irritation studies also showed that the surfactant system is the most important factor controlling irritancy. SA delivery is secondary, as formulations with less

  5. NITRIC OXIDE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (AtNOA1) is essential for salicylic acid-induced root waving in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Xi-Li; Zhao, Qing-Ping; Kong, Pei-Tao; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Root waving responses have been attributed to both environmental and genetics factors, but the potential inducers and transducers of root waving remain elusive. Thus, the identification of novel signal elements related to root waving is an intriguing field of research. Genetic, physiological, cytological, live cell imaging, and pharmacological approaches provide strong evidence for the involvement of Arabidopsis thaliana NITRIC OXIDE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (AtNOA1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced root waving. SA specially induced root waving, with an overall decrease in root elongation in A. thaliana, and this SA-induced response was disrupted in the Atnoa1 mutant, as well as in nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (npr1), which is defective in SA-mediated plant defense signal transduction, but not in npr3/4 single and double mutants. The expression assays revealed that the abundance of AtNOA1 was significantly increased by application of SA. Genetic and pharmacological analyses showed that SA-induced root waving involved an AtNOA1-dependent Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway, and PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) -based polar auxin transport possibly plays a crucial role in this process. Our work suggests that SA signaling through NPR1 and AtNOA1 is involved in the control of root waving, which provides new insights into the mechanisms that control root growth behavior on a hard agar surface.

  6. Salicylic acid alters antioxidant and phenolics metabolism in Catharanthus roseus grown under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Misra, Neelam; Misra, Rahul; Mariam, Ajiboye; Yusuf, Kafayat; Yusuf, Lateefat

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid accumulation in salt stressed Catharanthus roseus were investigated. Catharanthus roseus seeds were grown for two months in a glass house at 27-30°C in sunlight, and then divided into four different groups and transplanted with each group with the following solutions for one month: group I (non-saline control), group II, 100 mM NaCl, group III, 0.05 mM SA, group IV, 100 mM NaCl+0.05 mM SA and to determine the physiological parameters (DW, FW, WC), chlorophyll contents, carotenoid contents, lipid peroxidation, phenolics, lignin, alkaloid and enzymatic assays in each leaf pairs and roots. SA exhibited growth-promoting property, which correlated with the increase of dry weight, water content, photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins. SA has additive effect on the significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics and lignin contents in all leaf pairs and root of C. roseus. SA enhances malondialdehyde content in all leaf pairs and root. The antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-tranferase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase) as well as alkaloid accumulation increased in all treatments over that of non-saline control but the magnitude of increase was found more in root. Further, the magnitude of increase of alkaloid accumulation was significantly higher in 100 mM NaCl, but highly significant was found in presence of 0.05 mM SA and intermediate in presence of both 0.05 mM SA+100 mM NaCl. We concluded that applied SA to salt stress, antioxidant and phenolic metabolism, and alkaloid accumulation were significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied

  7. Electrocatalytic oxidation of phytohormone salicylic acid at copper nanoparticles-modified gold electrode and its detection in oilseed rape infected with fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Wei, Fang; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Xu, Qiao; Huang, Jun-Yan; Dong, Xu-Yan; Yu, Jiu-Hong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a biological substance that acts as a phytohormone and plays an important role in signal transduction in plants. It is important to accurately and sensitively detect SA levels. A gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles was used to assay the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid. It was found that the electrochemical behavior of salicylic acid was greatly improved at copper nanoparticles, indicating that anodic oxidation could be catalyzed at copper nanoparticles. And the pH had remarkable effect on the electrochemical process, a very well-defined oxidation peak appeared at pH 13.3 (0.2M NaOH). The kinetics parameters of this process were calculated and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k) was determined to be 1.34x10(-3)cms(-1), and (1-alpha)n(alpha) was 1.22. The gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles could detect SA at a higher sensitivity than common electrodes. The electrode was used to detect the SA levels in oilseed rape infected with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The results showed that the SA concentration reached a maximum during the 10th-25th hours after infection. This result was very similar to that determined by HPLC, indicating that the gold electrodes modified with copper nanoparticles could be used as salicylic acid sensors.

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide Is Involved in Salicylic Acid-Elicited Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenfang; Zhang, Jingyi; Hu, Gege; Yao, Yaqin; Dong, Juane

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an elicitor to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plant cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role as a key signaling molecule in response to various stimuli and is involved in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. However, the relationship between them is unclear and their synergetic functions on accumulation of secondary metabolites are unknown. In this paper, the roles of SA and H2O2 in rosmarinic acid (RA) production in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced H2O2 production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and RA accumulation. Exogenous H2O2 could also promote PAL activity and enhance RA production. If H2O2 production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (IMD) or scavenged by quencher (DMTU), RA accumulation would be blocked. These results indicated that H2O2 is secondary messenger for signal transduction, which can be induced by SA, significantly and promotes RA accumulation. PMID:24995364

  9. Comparison of the live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA14-14-2 strain with its pre-attenuated virulent parent SA14 strain: similarities and differences in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Polejaeva, Irina A; Davies, Christopher J; White, Kenneth L; Lee, Young-Min

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the main cause of acute viral encephalitis, primarily affecting children and young adults in the Asia-Pacific region. JEV is a vaccine-preventable pathogen, with four types of JE vaccine licensed in different regions of the world. To date, the most common JEV strain used in vaccine development and production is SA14-14-2, an attenuated strain derived from its wild-type parental strain SA14. In this study, we directly compared the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of SA14 and SA14-14-2 to determine the biological and genetic properties associated with their differential virulence. In susceptible BHK-21 cells, SA14-14-2 grew slightly more slowly and formed smaller plaques than SA14, but unlike SA14, it showed almost no expression of the viral protein NS1', the product of a conserved predicted RNA pseudoknot-mediated ribosomal frameshift. In weanling ICR mice, SA14-14-2 was highly attenuated in terms of both neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence, with its median lethal doses invariably over five logs higher than those of SA14 when inoculated intramuscularly and intracerebrally. Interestingly, the neurovirulence of SA14-14-2 was dependent on mouse age, with the 1- to 7-day-old mice being highly susceptible and the 14- to 21-day-old mice becoming resistant to intracerebral inoculation. At the genome level, SA14-14-2 differed from SA14 by 57 nucleotides, including one silent G-to-A substitution at position 3599 within the predicted RNA pseudoknot for NS1' synthesis; of the 57 differences, 25 resulted in amino acid substitutions. Our data pave the way for the development of new genetically modified JE vaccines.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the CST2 locus coding for cystatin SA.

    PubMed

    Shintani, M; Minaguchi, K; Isemura, S; Saitoh, E; Sanada, K; Semba, T

    1994-07-01

    A new genetic polymorphism of cystatin SA has been identified in human submandibular-sublingual saliva by means of basic gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-cystatin S. Two proteins, SA1 and SA2, are given by two alleles of CST2, viz., CST2*1 and CST*2. Inheritance is controlled by two codominant alleles at an autosomal locus. This hypothesis is supported by studies of 16 families 32 children. Gene frequencies for CST2*1 and CST2*2 are 0.935 and 0.065, respectively (n = 341). Eighteen amino acids determined among 20 N-terminal residues of cystatin SA2 are identical with the sequence encoded by CST2. Three forms of cystatin S (mono-phosphorylated cystatin S, di-phosphorylated cystatin S, and non-phosphorylated cystatin S) are present in the 341 saliva samples tested.

  11. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ↔ micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA.

  12. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Playing It Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kay

    1973-01-01

    Described is one technique, referred to as "playing it right," to aid the therapist in the treatment of borderline children. "Playing it right" is based on the introduction of reality rules into the fantasy world of the borderline child. (CS)

  15. Playful "Moments" in Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terr, Lenore C.; Deeney, John M.; Drell, Martin; Dodson, Jerry W.; Gaensbauer, Theodore J.; Massie, Henry; Minde, Klaus; Stewart, George; Teal, Stewart; Winters, Nancy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates how taking the time out to play, commenting pungently on play, serving up surprise and adventure, and developing mutually understood codes or inside jokes help the psychiatrist to turn a child around. In this article, the authors categorized what principles of treatment their 10 vignettes about playfulness illustrated,…

  16. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  17. Life! Through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Anne, Nancy

    This speech presents a review of research concerning the nature of play. Some of the formal characteristics of play are: (a) it is distinct from ordinary life in its "temporariness" and its limitless location; (b) there is an element of tension in play that leads to uncertainty concerning the outcome but at the same time provides the opportunity…

  18. The Excellence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet R., Ed.

    Recognizing that for young children, play is a tool for learning, this book compiles contributions by different authors, reflecting both up-to-date research and current classroom practice as they relate to children's play. Part 1 of the book explores the value of play as a cross-cultural concept as well as one rooted in the Western world. Gender…

  19. Playing against the Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  20. The Importance of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Allen

    Play is the spontaneous or organized recreational activity of children; it is at the heart of the preschool curriculum. Play aids in the development of physical, intellectual, and social skills. Children's play progresses through three developmental stages: solitary, parallel, and social. Preschool teachers should arrange for four kinds of…

  1. Outdoor Creative Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Guidelines are given for the development of outdoor play areas on school sites to provide children with natural areas and simple facilities for creative play. Site selection, analysis, and development are discussed. Natural, topographical features of the environment and natural play equipment are suggested. Illustrations are also presented to aid…

  2. Play Is the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Sanderson, Rebecca Cornelli

    2012-01-01

    Historically, play has been viewed as a frivolous break from important endeavors like working and learning when, in fact, a child's ability to fully and freely engage in play is essential to their learning, productivity, and overall development. A natural drive to play is universal across all young mammals. Children from every society on earth…

  3. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  4. Play Is the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Sanderson, Rebecca Cornelli

    2012-01-01

    Historically, play has been viewed as a frivolous break from important endeavors like working and learning when, in fact, a child's ability to fully and freely engage in play is essential to their learning, productivity, and overall development. A natural drive to play is universal across all young mammals. Children from every society on earth…

  5. Playful Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, Bill

    2005-01-01

    In physical education, playful teaching practices are essential to relationship building and creating "connections" for successful group dynamics. Perhaps most importantly, playful teachers develop positive attitudes in their students and help students understand that learning can be fun and joyful. Playful teaching practices also greatly enhance…

  6. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    What does IP/SA handle? IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,&nbs

  7. Saturn I (SA-3) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Saturn I (SA-3) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, November 16, 1962. The third launch of Saturn launch vehicles, developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet. and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. During the SA-3 flight, the upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for 'Project Highwater' physics experiment. The water was released at an altitude of 65 miles, where within only 5 seconds, it expanded into a massive ice cloud 4.6 miles in diameter. Release of this vast

  8. mTOR inactivation by ROS-JNK-p53 pathway plays an essential role in psedolaric acid B induced autophagy-dependent senescence in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Min; Zhou, Haiyan; Fan, Simiao; Li, Zhao; Yao, Guodong; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Xia, Mingyu; Ikejima, Takashi

    2013-09-05

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB), the primary biologically active compound isolated from the root bark of P. kaempferi Gordon, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor effect primarily via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our previous study demonstrated that PAB triggered mitotic catastrophe in L929 cells. In addition, a small percentage of the cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe displayed an apoptotic phenotype. Therefore, we continued to investigate the fate of the other cells. The results indicated that PAB induced senescence through p19-p53-p21 and p16-Rb pathways in L929 cells. PAB also triggered autophagy via inhibiting Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in L929 cells. In addition, autophagy was demonstrated to reinforce senescence through regulating the senescence pathways. Thus, we focused on the detailed molecular mechanisms whereby autophagy promoted senescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important in autophagy and senescence. We found that PAB triggered a ROS-JNK-p53 positive feedback loop and this feedback loop played a crucial role in autophagy via repressing the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, ROS-JNK-p53 positive feedback loop was demonstrated to regulate senescence. Tuberous sclerosis proteins1 and 2, also known as TSC1 and TSC2, form a protein-complex. TSC1/TSC2 heterodimer is a downstream target of growth factor-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling which negatively regulates mTOR activity. Activation of mTOR by insulin or inhibition of endogenous TSC2 levels by siRNA obviously delayed PAB-induced senescence. In conclusion, mTOR inactivation by ROS-JNK-p53 pathway played an important role in autophagy-dependent senescence in PAB-treated L929 cells. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  10. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  11. Salicylic Acid sans Aspirin in Animals and Man: Persistence in Fasting and Biosynthesis from Benzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A 13C6 benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology. PMID:19053387

  12. Salicylic acid sans aspirin in animals and man: persistence in fasting and biosynthesis from benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Baxter, Gwendoline; Dreyer, Jacob S; Halket, John M; Flynn, Robert; Lawrence, James R

    2008-12-24

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A (13)C(6) benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology.

  13. IRE1/bZIP60-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Plays Distinct Roles in Plant Immunity and Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Francisca; Boatwright, Jon Lucas; Moreno, Ignacio; Jordan, Melissa R.; Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica; Dong, Xinnian

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA). However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR), whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm)-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent functions in

  14. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit P; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (As(V)) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by As(V) and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (As(III)). SA also overcame As(V) induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity.

  15. Serum salicylic acid and fruit and vegetable consumption in obese and normal-weight children: a pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Mariani, Benedetta; Battezzati, Alberto; Diaferio, Lucia; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Verduci, Elvira

    2016-11-02

    Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. This pilot study evaluated whether there might be an association between serum SA and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in obese and normal-weight children. Thirty-four obese children (17 boys and 17 girls) and 34 normal-weight children were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 7-day dietary record. Serum SA was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. FV intake in obese and normal-weight children was not different between groups (175.00 (97.66) g versus 192.29 (90.54) g, p = .455). Obese children had lower serum SA than normal-weight children [mean difference, -0.025; 95% CI (-0.044; -0.006) μmol/L]. Serum SA was not associated with daily intake of FV in obese (p = .111) and normal-weight (p = .092) children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of FV on serum SA, taking into account also the quantity and the type.

  16. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  17. Glycosphingolipid Binding Specificities of Rotavirus: Identification of a Sialic Acid-Binding Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Cécile; Brüssow, Harald; Sidoti, Josette; Roche, Niamh; Karlsson, Karl-Anders; Neeser, Jean-Richard; Teneberg, Susann

    2001-01-01

    The glycosphingolipid binding specificities of neuraminidase-sensitive (simian SA11 and bovine NCDV) and neuraminidase-insensitive (bovine UK) rotavirus strains were investigated using the thin-layer chromatogram binding assay. Both triple-layered and double-layered viral particles of SA11, NCDV, and UK bound to nonacid glycosphingolipids, including gangliotetraosylceramide (GA1; also called asialo-GM1) and gangliotriaosylceramide (GA2; also called asialo-GM2). Binding to gangliosides was observed with triple-layered particles but not with double-layered particles. The neuraminidase-sensitive and neuraminidase-insensitive rotavirus strains showed distinct ganglioside binding specificities. All three strains bound to sialylneolactotetraosylceramide and GM2 and GD1a gangliosides. However, NeuAc-GM3 and the GM1 ganglioside were recognized by rotavirus strain UK but not by strains SA11 and NCDV. Conversely, NeuGc-GM3 was bound by rotaviruses SA11 and NCDV but not by rotavirus UK. Thus, neuraminidase-sensitive strains bind to external sialic acid residues in gangliosides, while neuraminidase-insensitive strains recognize gangliosides with internal sialic acids, which are resistant to neuraminidase treatment. By testing a panel of gangliosides with triple-layered particles of SA11 and NCDV, the terminal sequence sialyl-galactose (NeuGc/NeuAcα3-Galβ) was identified as the minimal structural element required for the binding of these strains. The binding of triple-layered particles of SA11 and NCDV to NeuGc-GM3, but not to NeuAc-GM3, suggested that the sequence NeuGcα3Galβ is preferred to NeuAcα3Galβ. Further dissection of this binding epitope showed that the carboxyl group and glycerol side chain of sialic acid played an important role in the binding of such triple-layered particles. PMID:11160731

  18. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  19. Rice WRKY45 plays important roles in fungal and bacterial disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Masaki; Koga, Hironori; Akagi, Aya; Hayashi, Nagao; Goto, Shingo; Sawada, Miyuki; Kurihara, Takayuki; Matsushita, Akane; Sugano, Shoji; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Plant 'activators', such as benzothiadiazole (BTH), protect plants from various diseases by priming the plant salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway. We have reported previously that a transcription factor identified in rice, WRKY45 (OsWRKY45), plays a pivotal role in BTH-induced disease resistance by mediating SA signalling. Here, we report further functional characterization of WRKY45. Different plant activators vary in their action points, either downstream (BTH and tiadinil) or upstream (probenazole) of SA. Rice resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, induced by both types of plant activator, was markedly reduced in WRKY45-knockdown (WRKY45-kd) rice, indicating a universal role for WRKY45 in chemical-induced resistance. Fungal invasion into rice cells was blocked at most attempted invasion sites (pre-invasive defence) in WRKY45-overexpressing (WRKY45-ox) rice. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated within the cell wall underneath invading fungus appressoria or between the cell wall and the cytoplasm, implying a possible role for H(2)O(2) in pre-invasive defence. Moreover, a hypersensitive reaction-like reaction was observed in rice cells, in which fungal growth was inhibited after invasion (post-invasive defence). The two levels of defence mechanism appear to correspond to Type I and II nonhost resistances. The leaf blast resistance of WRKY45-ox rice plants was much higher than that of other known blast-resistant varieties. WRKY45-ox plants also showed strong panicle blast resistance. BTH-induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was compromised in WRKY45-kd rice, whereas WRKY45-ox plants were highly resistant to this pathogen. However, WRKY45-ox plants were susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani. These results indicate the versatility and limitations of the application of this gene.

  20. Growing Up with Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Many adults are afraid of boys' play today, believing that the aggression that is so common in boys' fantasies is dangerous and might make them become violent men. This personal reflection describes the importance of multiage play in showing little boys how to become big boys while encouraging empathy and emotional growth in older boys. The author…

  1. Play and Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James E.; Christie, James F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how play is affected by computers and digital toys. Research indicates that when computer software targeted at children is problem-solving oriented and open-ended, children tend to engage in creative play and interact with peers in a positive manner. On the other hand, drill-and-practice programs can be quite boring and limit…

  2. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  3. Play as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  4. Let's Just Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  5. Clinical Intuition at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2014-01-01

    A clinical psychologist and consulting psychotherapist discusses how elements of play, inherent in the intuition required in analysis, can provide a cornerstone for serious therapeutic work. She argues that many aspects of play--its key roles in human development, individual growth, and personal creativity, among others--can help therapists and…

  6. The Play's the Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The modern special education theater in the United States has hosted many plays, none with a larger or more diverse cast than the learning disabilities (LD) play. During the prologue, the children with LD were waiting in the wings, not yet identified as LD but there, nonetheless. With the advent of compulsory education in this country, awareness…

  7. Let's Just Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  8. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  9. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  10. Is Play Serious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, John

    1983-01-01

    The importance of play (1) to players--players' values, attitudes, and mental states, and whether or not players take their playing seriously; (2) in child development as argued by Rousseau, Froebel, and Neill; and (3) as serious or nonserious business as argued by Johan Huizinga and R. F. Dearden is examined. (SR)

  11. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  12. Play, Epideictic and Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, David C.

    This paper explores the relationship between epideictic and argument, noting that the relationship is a "troublesome" one. The first part moves toward new definitions of epideictic and argument (taking the view that epideictic rises out of human play) and locates argument on the boundary where the play-world meets the "real" or…

  13. The Fear of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Real play--play that is initiated and directed by children and that bubbles up from within the child rather than being imposed by adults--has largely disappeared from the landscape of childhood in the United States. There are many reasons for this, such as the long hours spent in front of screens each day or in activities organized by adults. In…

  14. The Fear of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Real play--play that is initiated and directed by children and that bubbles up from within the child rather than being imposed by adults--has largely disappeared from the landscape of childhood in the United States. There are many reasons for this, such as the long hours spent in front of screens each day or in activities organized by adults. In…

  15. Play, Policy & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Edgar, Ed.

    In 1992, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), in conjunction with Wheelock College (Boston), sponsored its second workshop on children's play, entitled "Play and Cognitive Ability: The Cultural Context." This volume reflects the presentations and discussions held at the workshop, offering perspectives on children's play…

  16. Play, Policy & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Edgar, Ed.

    In 1992, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), in conjunction with Wheelock College (Boston), sponsored its second workshop on children's play, entitled "Play and Cognitive Ability: The Cultural Context." This volume reflects the presentations and discussions held at the workshop, offering perspectives on children's play…

  17. Theories of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peller, Lili E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses several theories of play advanced before the development of psychoanalysis, including the theories of surplus energy, recreation, and practice. Examines the psychoanalytical view advanced by Freud and others, which focuses on the emotional release of play and its role in discovery and learning. (MDM)

  18. Play, Toys and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles

    In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of…

  19. An Invitation to Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Jenny; Zieher, Connie

    The manual is intended to provide suggestions for play to parents of young children with exceptional educational needs. Nineteen types of activities are described and pictured, including make believe with boxes, dress-up activities, kitchen play, bubbles, small motor activities using beans and buttons, use of throw-away materials, painting,…

  20. Play, experimentation and creativity.

    PubMed

    Caper, R

    1996-10-01

    Beginning with Klein's description of a psychotic boy's inability to play, published in 1930, the author explores the relationship between play and symbol-formation, and the use of play by children and adults as a serious type of experimentation by means of which one learns about the internal and external worlds. In this view, play is a way of externalising fantasies originating in one's inner world so they may be seen and learned about. Play is also a vehicle of projection, a fact that allows one to use it to assess the impact of one's inner world on the external world, especially on the minds of one's objects. In this way, playing becomes a way of probing external reality as well. This type of learning depends on the ability to keep internal and external realities distinct even while projecting the former into the latter. In psychotic states, this ability is lost, and the psychotic patient's projections, instead of being usable as a form of playful experimentation, lead to delusions and claustrophobic anxiety. A brief clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these points. The author then explores the application of these ideas to an understanding of artistic creativity, and makes some observations about possible underlying unities between play, scientific experimentation and artistic creativity.

  1. Electrostatic interactions play an essential role in the binding of oleic acid with α-lactalbumin in the HAMLET-like complex: a study using charge-specific chemical modifications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yongjing; Min, Soyoung; Harte, Níal P; Kirk, Hannah; O'Brien, John E; Voorheis, H Paul; Svanborg, Catharina; Hun Mok, K

    2013-01-01

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and its analogs are partially unfolded protein-oleic acid (OA) complexes that exhibit selective tumoricidal activity normally absent in the native protein itself. To understand the nature of the interaction between protein and OA moieties, charge-specific chemical modifications of lysine side chains involving citraconylation, acetylation, and guanidination were employed and the biophysical and biological properties were probed. Upon converting the original positively-charged lysine residues to negatively-charged citraconyl or neutral acetyl groups, the binding of OA to protein was eliminated, as were any cytotoxic activities towards osteosarcoma cells. Retention of the positive charges by converting lysine residues to homoarginine groups (guanidination); however, yielded unchanged binding of OA to protein and identical tumoricidal activity to that displayed by the wild-type α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex. With the addition of OA, the wild-type and guanidinated α-lactalbumin proteins underwent substantial conformational changes, such as partial unfolding, loss of tertiary structure, but retention of secondary structure. In contrast, no significant conformational changes were observed in the citraconylated and acetylated α-lactalbumins, most likely because of the absence of OA binding. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positively-charged basic groups on α-lactalbumin and the negatively-charged carboxylate groups on OA molecules play an essential role in the binding of OA to α-lactalbumin and that these interactions appear to be as important as hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The fish oil ingredient, docosahexaenoic acid, activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 via GPR120 receptor to produce prostaglandin E2 and plays an anti-inflammatory role in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yueqin; Chen, Li-Yuan; Sokolowska, Milena; Eberlein, Michael; Alsaaty, Sara; Martinez-Anton, Asuncion; Logun, Carolea; Qi, Hai-Yan; Shelhamer, James H

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the major ingredients of fish oil and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties mediated through the GPR120 receptor. Whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and lipid mediators produced from cPLA2 activation are involved in the anti-inflammatory role of DHA in macrophages has not been reported. We report here that DHA and the GPR120 agonist, GW9508, activate cPLA2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and cause prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in a murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. DHA and GW9508 activate cPLA2 via GPR120 receptor, G protein Gαq and scaffold protein β-arrestin 2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation is involved in DHA- and GW9508-induced cPLA2 activation, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The anti-inflammatory role of DHA and GW9508 is in part via activation of cPLA2, COX-2 and production of PGE2 as a cPLA2 inhibitor or a COX-2 inhibitor partially reverses the DHA- and GW9508-induced inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 secretion. The cPLA2 product arachidonic acid and PGE2 also play an anti-inflammatory role. This effect of PGE2 is partially through inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway and through the EP4 receptor of PGE2 because an EP4 inhibitor or knock-down of EP4 partially reverses DHA inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 secretion. Hence, DHA has an anti-inflammatory effect partially through induction of PGE2. PMID:24673159

  3. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    PubMed Central

    López-Gresa, M. Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants. PMID:27893781

  4. Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salicylic acid (SA) regulates multiple anti-viral mechanisms, including mechanism(s) that may be negatively regulated by the mitochondrial enzyme, alternative oxidase (AOX), the sole component of the alternative respiratory pathway. However, studies of this mechanism can be confounded by SA-mediated induction of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1, a component of the antiviral RNA silencing pathway. We made transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants in which alternative respiratory pathway capacity was either increased by constitutive expression of AOX, or decreased by expression of a dominant-negative mutant protein (AOX-E). N. benthamiana was used because it is a natural mutant that does not express a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1. Results Antimycin A (an alternative respiratory pathway inducer and also an inducer of resistance to viruses) and SA triggered resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Resistance to TMV induced by antimycin A, but not by SA, was inhibited in Aox transgenic plants while SA-induced resistance to this virus appeared to be stronger in Aox-E transgenic plants. These effects, which were limited to directly inoculated leaves, were not affected by the presence or absence of a transgene constitutively expressing a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (MtRDR1). Unexpectedly, Aox-transgenic plants infected with potato virus X (PVX) showed markedly increased susceptibility to systemic disease induction and virus accumulation in inoculated and systemically infected leaves. SA-induced resistance to PVX was compromised in Aox-transgenic plants but plants expressing AOX-E exhibited enhanced SA-induced resistance to this virus. Conclusions We conclude that AOX-regulated mechanisms not only play a role in SA-induced resistance but also make an important contribution to basal resistance against certain viruses such as PVX. PMID:21356081

  5. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    PubMed

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  6. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles.

  7. The Scottish Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Recounts an episode when, as young schoolboys, Prince Charles and classmates presented "Macbeth" as an end-of-term-play. Traces the events at school that took on different meanings when viewed from maturity. (NH)

  8. Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. PMID:22057329

  9. Effects of salicylic acid on alternative pathway respiration and alternative oxidase expression in tobacco calli.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tao; Yan, Ying-Cai; Xi, De-Hui; Feng, Hong; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Wei-Lin; Liang, Hou-Guo; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The alternative pathway (AP) respiration of plants is a cyanide-resistant and non-phosphorylating electron transport pathway in mitochondria. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the AP and exists in plant mitochondria as two states: the reduced, noncovalently linked state or the oxidized, covalently cross-linked state. In the present study, the effects of 20 microM exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on both AP activity and AOX expression in mitochondria of tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L. cv. yellow flower) calli were investigated. The results showed that SA treatment enhanced the AP activity. During the process of SA treatment, the AP activity increased dramatically and achieved the peak value after 8 h of treatment. Then it declined until 16 h, and maintained a steady level between 16 and 24 h. Changes in both the total AOX protein level and the reduced state were in accordance with the AP activity, but the oxidized state changed differently. The aox1 gene transcript level also showed a similar change as the AP activity and AOX protein level. The induction of AOX expression by low concentrations of SA was inferred through a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent pathway. These results indicate that the enhancement of AP activity in response to SA is correlated to the expression of AOX, and the reduced, non-covalently linked state of AOX plays an important role during this process.

  10. A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S

    2007-05-31

    Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.

  11. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-ß-D-...

  12. Overexpression of salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase reduces salicylic acid-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeon Jong; Kim, Myeong Ae; Kim, Eun Hye; Song, Jong Tae; Jung, Choonkyun; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Kim, Jeong-Han; Seo, Hak Soo; Song, Sang Ik; Kim, Ju-Kon; Lee, Jong Seob; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

    2007-05-01

    We cloned a salicylic acid/benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene, OsBSMT1, from Oryza sativa. A recombinant OsBSMT1 protein obtained by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli exhibited carboxyl methyltransferase activity in reactions with salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and de-S-methyl benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (dSM-BTH), producing methyl salicylate (MeSA), methyl benzoate (MeBA), and methyl dSM-BTH (MeBTH), respectively. Compared to wild-type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsBSMT1 accumulated considerably higher levels of MeSA and MeBA, some of which were vaporized into the environment. Upon infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae or the fungal pathogen Golovinomyces orontii, transgenic plants failed to accumulate SA and its glucoside (SAG), becoming more susceptible to disease than wild-type plants. OsBSMT1-overexpressing Arabidopsis showed little induction of PR-1 when treated with SA or G. orontii. Notably, incubation with the transgenic plant was sufficient to trigger PR-1 induction in neighboring wild-type plants. Together, our results indicate that in the absence of SA, MeSA alone cannot induce a defense response, yet it serves as an airborne signal for plant-to-plant communication. We also found that jasmonic acid (JA) induced AtBSMT1, which may contribute to an antagonistic effect on SA signaling pathways by depleting the SA pool in plants.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Sa/Scc3p Subunits in the Xenopus and Human Cohesin Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Losada, Ana; Yokochi, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2000-01-01

    A multisubunit protein complex, termed cohesin, plays an essential role in sister chromatid cohesion in yeast and in Xenopus laevis cell-free extracts. We report here that two distinct cohesin complexes exist in Xenopus egg extracts. A 14S complex (x-cohesinSA1) contains XSMC1, XSMC3, XRAD21, and a newly identified subunit, XSA1. In a second 12.5S complex (x-cohesinSA2), XSMC1, XSMC3, and XRAD21 associate with a different subunit, XSA2. Both XSA1 and XSA2 belong to the SA family of mammalian proteins and exhibit similarity to Scc3p, a recently identified component of yeast cohesin. In Xenopus egg extracts, x-cohesinSA1 is predominant, whereas x-cohesinSA2 constitutes only a very minor population. Human cells have a similar pair of cohesin complexes, but the SA2-type is the dominant form in somatic tissue culture cells. Immunolocalization experiments suggest that chromatin association of cohesinSA1 and cohesinSA2 may be differentially regulated. Dissociation of x-cohesinSA1 from chromatin correlates with phosphorylation of XSA1 in the cell-free extracts. Purified cdc2-cyclin B can phosphorylate XSA1 in vitro and reduce the ability of x-cohesinSA1 to bind to DNA or chromatin. These results shed light on the mechanism by which sister chromatid cohesion is partially dissolved in early mitosis, far before the onset of anaphase, in vertebrate cells. PMID:10931856

  14. Avocado roots treated with salicylic acid produce phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), a compound with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Sánchez, Gerardo; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrated the ability of salicylic acid (SA) to induce a compound in avocado roots that strengthens their defense against Phytophthora cinnamomi. The SA content of avocado roots, before and after the application of exogenous SA, was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After 4h of SA feeding, the endogenous level in the roots increased to 223 μg g(-1) FW, which was 15 times the amount found in control roots. The methanolic extract obtained from SA-treated avocado roots inhibited the radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A thin layer chromatographic bioassay with the methanolic extract and spores of Aspergillus showed a distinct inhibition zone. The compound responsible for the inhibition was identified as phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the substance reduced germinative tube length in Aspergillus and radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A commercial preparation of phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) caused the same effects on mycelium morphology and radial growth as our isolate, confirming the presence of this compound in the root extracts. This is the first report of the induction of this compound in plants by SA, and the results suggest that it plays an important role in the defense response of avocado.

  15. Reduction of oxidative stress may play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of the novel herbal formulation in a rat model of hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woong-Jin; Ha, U-Syn; Kim, Seol; Kim, Su-Jin; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Lee, Ji-Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun; Kim, Hong-Jun; Kim, Sae-Woong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the multi-herbal medicine, WSY-1075 in an animal model of hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced cystitis. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham-operated (control), HCl-induced only (HC), and HC treated with WSY-1075 (HC + WT). Oral administration of either distilled water (control, HC) or WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg) was continued for 4 weeks. In HC and HC + WT groups, cystitis was induced with 0.4 M HCl beginning on the 22nd day. Rats in each group underwent cystometrography, and bladders were examined for evidence of inflammation and oxidative stress. Treatment with WSY-1075 decreased the frequency of urination and reduced inflammation of the bladder tissue in a rat model of HCl-induced cystitis. Compared with the control group, the HC group showed severe chronic inflammatory and fibrosis signs, and the inflammatory grades significantly decreased following WSY-1075 treatment in the HC-WT group. The HC + WT group showed a markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to the HC group. The level of malondialdehyde was significantly greater in the HC group compared to the control group, and it was significantly reduced in the treated (HC + WT) group. The levels of superoxide dismutase increased in the HC + WT group, which confirmed the anti-oxidant effect of WSY-1075. We suggest that reduction of oxidative stress may play a role in this anti-inflammatory effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  17. The RNA-Binding Chaperone Hfq Is an Important Global Regulator of Gene Expression in Pasteurella multocida and Plays a Crucial Role in Production of a Number of Virulence Factors, Including Hyaluronic Acid Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Mégroz, Marianne; Kleifeld, Oded; Wright, Amy; Powell, David; Harrison, Paul; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a number of economically important animal diseases, including avian fowl cholera. Numerous P. multocida virulence factors have been identified, including capsule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and filamentous hemagglutinin, but little is known about how the expression of these virulence factors is regulated. Hfq is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates riboregulation via interaction with small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules and their mRNA targets. Here, we show that a P. multocida hfq mutant produces significantly less hyaluronic acid capsule during all growth phases and displays reduced in vivo fitness. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during mid-exponential-phase growth revealed altered transcript levels for 128 genes and altered protein levels for 78 proteins. Further proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during the early exponential growth phase identified 106 proteins that were produced at altered levels. Both the transcript and protein levels for genes/proteins involved in capsule biosynthesis were reduced in the hfq mutant, as were the levels of the filamentous hemagglutinin protein PfhB2 and its secretion partner LspB2. In contrast, there were increased expression levels of three LPS biosynthesis genes, encoding proteins involved in phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine addition to LPS, suggesting that these genes are negatively regulated by Hfq-dependent mechanisms. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that Hfq plays a crucial role in regulating the global expression of P. multocida genes, including the regulation of key P. multocida virulence factors, capsule, LPS, and filamentous hemagglutinin. PMID:26883595

  18. Reactivity of chemical sensitizers toward amino acids in cellulo plays a role in the activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in human monocyte dendritic cells and the THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Migdal, Camille; Botton, Jérémie; El Ali, Zeina; Azoury, Marie-Eliane; Guldemann, Joan; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Pallardy, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from skin sensitization is an inflammatory skin disease linked to the use of chemicals termed haptens. Chemical reactivity is necessary for a chemical to be a sensitizer, allowing both covalent binding to proteins and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by mimicking "danger signals." The aim of this study was to evaluate how the reactivity of chemical sensitizers toward amino acids translates into a biological response using the activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, which was assessed by the induction of three Nrf2 target genes (ho-1, nqo1, and il-8) and Nrf2 protein accumulation. Nrf2 activation is known to play a role in numerous detoxification mechanisms that could regulate danger signal outcomes in myeloid cells. Monocyte-derived DCs and THP-1 cells were exposed to (a) haptens with cysteine, lysine, or cysteine/lysine reactivity, (b) pro-/prehaptens, and (c) nonsensitizing molecules with reducing or oxidative properties (17 molecules in total). Chemicals were classified as "Nrf2 pathway activators" when at least two Nrf2 target genes associated with Nrf2 protein expression were induced. Results showed that most chemical sensitizers having cysteine and cysteine/lysine affinities were inducers of the Nrf2 pathway in both cell models, whereas lysine-reactive chemicals were less efficient. In THP-1 cells, the Nrf2 pathway was also activated by pro-/prehaptens. Regression analysis revealed that ho-1 and nqo1 expressions were found to be associated with chemical sensitizer reactivity to cysteine, providing evidence of the importance of chemical reactivity, as a part of danger signals, in DC biology.

  19. Computational Elucidation of a Role That Brønsted Acidification of the Lewis Acid-Bound Water Might Play in the Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds with H2 in Lewis Basic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Heshmat, Mojgan; Privalov, Timofei

    2017-08-25

    Brønsted acidification of water by Lewis acid (LA) complexation is one of the fundamental principles in chemistry. Using transition-state calculations (TS), herein we investigate the role that Brønsted acidification of the LA-bound water might play in the mechanism of the hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds in Lewis basic solvents under non-anhydrous conditions. The potential energy scans and TS calculations were carried out with a series of eight borane LAs as well as the commonly known strong LA AlCl3 in 1,4-dioxane or THF as Lewis basic solvents. Our molecular model consists of the dative LA-water adduct with hydrogen bonds to acetone and a solvent molecule plus one additional solvent molecule that participates is the TS structure describing the cleavage of H2 at acetone's carbonyl carbon atom. In all the molecular models applied here, acetone (O=CMe2 ) is the archetypical carbonyl substrate. We demonstrate that Brønsted acidification of the LA-bound water can indeed lower the barrier height of the solvent-involving H2 -cleavage at the acetone's carbonyl carbon atom. This is significant because at present it is believed that the mechanism of the herein considered reaction is described by the same mechanism regardless of whether the reaction conditions are strictly anhydrous or non-anhydrous. Our results offer an alternative to this belief that warrants consideration and further study. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Looking into Children's Play Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Mark; Fucigna, Carolee

    2009-01-01

    Play, particularly children's sociodramatic play, is the cornerstone of early childhood classrooms in the United States. Early childhood educators learn and expound mantras of "the value of play," "play-based programs," "children learning through play," and "play as child's work." They strive to promote the importance of making a place for play in…

  1. Purification and characterization of native and recombinant SaPIN2a, a plant sieve element-localized proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Fanghai; Li, Ning; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-01-01

    SaPIN2a encodes a proteinase inhibitor in nightshade (Solanum americanum), which is specifically localized to the enucleate sieve elements. It has been proposed to play an important role in phloem development by regulating proteolysis in sieve elements. In this study, we purified and characterized native SaPIN2a from nightshade stems and recombinant SaPIN2a expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified native SaPIN2a was found as a charge isomer family of homodimers, and was weakly glycosylated. Native SaPIN2a significantly inhibited serine proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and subtilisin, with the most potent inhibitory activity on subtilisin. It did not inhibit cysteine proteinase papain and aspartic proteinase cathepsin D. Recombinant SaPIN2a had a strong inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin, but its inhibitory activities toward trypsin and especially toward subtilisin were greatly reduced. In addition, native SaPIN2a can effectively inhibit midgut trypsin-like activities from Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera litura larvae, suggesting a potential for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  2. Playing with Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth; Lucht, Petra; Hughes-McDonnell, Fiona

    2000-01-01

    Challenges the belief that high stakes tests are the keystone of students' educational attainment, describing a series of exploratory workshops, developed in reaction to this issue, in which teachers (as essential preparation for developing students' curiosity) deepened their understanding of the principles of physics by playing with light. Such…

  3. Playing To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol; Kottkamp, Robert; Becker, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    A study to determine effects of Lightspan Partnership Inc.'s interactive materials on student achievement in a Denver- area elementary school revealed higher reading and math test scores for Lightspan schools, compared to control schools. This serious play curriculum, assisted by parents, benefited neediest kids most. (MLH)

  4. Bicentennial Plays and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Aileen

    This book contains royalty-free material on bicentennial themes for presentation by schools and amateur groups. The first section, Plays and Pageants, contains "Our Great Declaration,""A Star for Old Glory,""Sing, America, Sing,""Washington Marches On,""When Freedom Was News," and "A Dish of…

  5. Play's Importance in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  6. Games Professors Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, James A.; Herzing, Thomas W.

    1969-01-01

    The games are Build a Reputation (REP), Confuse the Student (CON), Blame the Opposition (BOP), and Pass the Buck (BUCK). Professors play these games because they "want to show off on occasion, . . . want to get off the hook and avoid responsibility, . . . are prone to blame others, or simply because they are lazy. (WM)

  7. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional…

  8. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional…

  9. Play's Importance in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  10. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  11. "Playing" with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dave

    2012-01-01

    When faced with a multitude of tasks, any opportunity to "kill two birds with one stone" is welcome. Drama has always excited the author: as a child performing in plays, later as a student and now as a teacher directing performances and improvising within lessons. The author was lucky enough to have inspirational teachers during his…

  12. Playing with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieyra, Rebecca; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Gaming is becoming an effective form of learning and assessment and shouldn't be overlooked in an increasingly technological world. The games described in this article ("Impulse," "Quantum Spectre," and "Ravenous"), entertaining enough to be played by the general public, are also appropriate and useful in a classroom…

  13. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  14. Playing It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Offers tips for avoiding sports-related injuries: (1) expect more of coaches; (2) develop an athletic-safety plan; (3) consider hiring an athletic trainer; (4) check facilities and equipment regularly; (5) recognize athletes' limitations; (6) take precautions beyond the playing field; and (7) check liability coverage and obtain informed consent.…

  15. Children as Playing Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2017-01-01

    In this article, play is understood as activities of major importance for child-citizens and as activities that constitute various ways of participating. The researcher joined children in three early childhood education institutions in Norway in their activities and categorised their participation in their everyday life. The study depicts that, in…

  16. The Paradoxes of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1988-01-01

    The article makes a case against the structuring of intramural sports programs on the basis of the varsity athletics model, arguing that the latter model's components of competition and aggression mar the former's intrinsic rewards of play, creativity, and enhanced human relationships. (CB)

  17. "Playing" with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dave

    2012-01-01

    When faced with a multitude of tasks, any opportunity to "kill two birds with one stone" is welcome. Drama has always excited the author: as a child performing in plays, later as a student and now as a teacher directing performances and improvising within lessons. The author was lucky enough to have inspirational teachers during his…

  18. Playing with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieyra, Rebecca; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Gaming is becoming an effective form of learning and assessment and shouldn't be overlooked in an increasingly technological world. The games described in this article ("Impulse," "Quantum Spectre," and "Ravenous"), entertaining enough to be played by the general public, are also appropriate and useful in a classroom…

  19. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  20. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  1. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  2. Inhibitory effects of SA4503 on the rewarding effects of abused drugs.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Rahmadi, Mahardian; Yoshizawa, Kazumi; Itoh, Toshimasa; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    Previous findings have shown that sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) are upregulated by the self-administration of methamphetamine, whereas Sig-1R antisense can attenuate the behavioral effects of psychostimulants in rodents. Sig-1R is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein. However, the effects of Sig-1R agonist on the rewarding effects of abused drugs are not fully understood. Therefore, we examined the effects of selective Sig-1R agonists, such as SA4503 and (+)-pentazocine, on the rewarding effects of abused drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine and morphine in rats, as measured by the conditioned place preference. Methamphetamine, cocaine and morphine induced a significant place preference. SA4503, but not (+)-pentazocine, significantly attenuated the abused drug-induced place preference. We recently showed that (+)-pentazocine exerts U50,488H-like discriminative stimulus effects, which are related to its psychotomimetic/aversive effects. However, SA4503 did not generalize to the discriminative stimulus effects of U50,488H. These results suggest that SA4503 inhibits the rewarding effects of abused drugs, and that psychotomimetic/aversive effects may not play a role in the attenuating effects of SA4503 on the rewarding effects of abused drugs.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a surface antigen CiSA-32.6 from Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhiyu; Guo, Guowei; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Yang; Yuan, Liping; Liu, Cheng

    2012-03-01

    Cryptocaryon irritans is a ciliated parasite causing cryptocaryosis in marine fish. To isolate functional genes, a cDNA library of C. irritans trophonts was constructed and a gene designated CiSA-32.6 (GenBank ID: JF812643) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA (1158 bp) encoded a deduced polypeptide of 330 amino-acid (aa) with a signal peptide of 22 aa. To express the ciliate gene, a truncated open reading frame (CiSA-32.6t) was synthesized to remove fragments encoding the signal peptide and hydrophobic C-terminal and to modify non-universal genetic codes. CiSA-32.6t was subcloned into Escherichia coli DH5α strain using the pGEX-4T-1 vector and then expressed as a glutathione S transferase fusion protein (rCiSA-32.6t). Western blotting analysis showed that sera from mice immunized with rCiSA-32.6t reacted specifically with a native protein (32.6 kDa) in parasite lysates. Moreover, rCiSA-32.6t reacted specifically with sera from mice immunized with a C. irritans trophont lysate. Expression of the CiSA-32.6 gene in C. irritans was detected at all developmental stages by reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blotting analysis. This study provides the basis of further investigations into the pathogenic biology of C. irritans and the control of cryptocaryosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  5. Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Kalaiselvi, Marimuthu Maruthi; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2016-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars ‘IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46’ under greenhouse condition. MeSA seed treatments at 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L significantly increased seedling emergence. Effects were stronger in IR 50, and IR 64 and the effects were dose dependent, although the relationship between dose and effect was not always linear. MeSA seed treated rice plant against bacterial blight were analyzed. Bacterial blight was more effectively controlled by the seed treated with 100 mg/L than others. These results suggest that seed treatment with MeSA alters plant physiology in ways that may be useful for crop production as well as protection. PMID:27725719

  6. Zitkala Sa: The Evolution of a Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dexter

    1979-01-01

    Reviews life and literature of Zitkala Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin), Sioux Indian born in 1876 on Yankton Reservation (South Dakota), educated at Quaker schools and Earlham College (Indiana), accomplished orator, author of autobiographical essays and short stories, worker for Indian reform, lecturer, and founder of National Council of American…

  7. R4SA for Controlling Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazarian, Hrand

    2009-01-01

    The R4SA GUI mentioned in the immediately preceding article is a userfriendly interface for controlling one or more robot(s). This GUI makes it possible to perform meaningful real-time field experiments and research in robotics at an unmatched level of fidelity, within minutes of setup. It provides such powerful graphing modes as that of a digitizing oscilloscope that displays up to 250 variables at rates between 1 and 200 Hz. This GUI can be configured as multiple intuitive interfaces for acquisition of data, command, and control to enable rapid testing of subsystems or an entire robot system while simultaneously performing analysis of data. The R4SA software establishes an intuitive component-based design environment that can be easily reconfigured for any robotic platform by creating or editing setup configuration files. The R4SA GUI enables event-driven and conditional sequencing similar to those of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operations. It has been certified as part of the MER ground support equipment and, therefore, is allowed to be utilized in conjunction with MER flight hardware. The R4SA GUI could also be adapted to use in embedded computing systems, other than that of the MER, for commanding and real-time analysis of data.

  8. Viewpoints: The High School Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents opinions of professionals on the current state of the high school play. Participants include a playwright, play supplier, high school theater instructor, workshop leader, and play publisher. Discusses selection, production, and performance of plays. (JMF)

  9. Playing tricks to ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibfried, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Ted Hänsch's career is defined by breaking new ground in experimental physics. Curiosity, vivid imagination, deep understanding, patience and tenacity are part of the winning formula, but perhaps an equally important ingredient may be Ted's favorite past-time of exploring new tricks in his "Spiellabor" (play-lab), that often resurfaced as key ingredients in rather serious experiments later. On the occasion of Ted's 75th birthday, a few past and potential future experiments with trapped ions are playfully surveyed here. Some of these tricks are already part of the trade, some are currently emerging and a few are mostly speculation today. Maybe some of the latter will be realized and even prove useful in the future.

  10. Proline induces calcium-mediated oxidative burst and salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiugeng; Zhang, Yueqin; Wang, Cuiping; Lü, Weitao; Jin, Jing Bo; Hua, Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Although free proline accumulation is a well-documented phenomenon in many plants in response to a variety of environmental stresses, and is proposed to play protective roles, high intracellular proline content, by either exogenous application or endogenous over-production, in the absence of stresses, is found to be inhibitory to plant growth. We have shown here that exogenous application of proline significantly induced intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation in tobacco and calcium-dependent ROS production in Arabidopsis seedlings, which subsequently enhanced salicylic acid (SA) synthesis and PR genes expression. This suggested that proline can promote a reaction similar to hypersensitive response during pathogen infection. Other amino acids, such as glutamate, but not arginine and phenylalanine, were also found to be capable of inducing PR gene expression. In addition, proline at concentration as low as 0.5 mM could induce PR gene expression. However, proline could not induce the expression of PDF1.2 gene, the marker gene for jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Furthermore, proline-induced SA production is mediated by NDR1-dependent signaling pathway, but not that mediated by PAD4. Our data provide evidences that exogenous proline, and probably some other amino acids can specifically induce SA signaling and defense response.

  11. Binning of shallowly sampled metagenomic sequence fragments reveals that low abundance bacteria play important roles in sulfur cycling and degradation of complex organic polymers in an acid mine drainage community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, G. J.; Andersson, A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Our understanding of environmental microbiology has been greatly enhanced by community genome sequencing of DNA recovered directly the environment. Community genomics provides insights into the diversity, community structure, metabolic function, and evolution of natural populations of uncultivated microbes, thereby revealing dynamics of how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for reconstructing near-complete genomes from natural environments while highlighting the challenges of analyzing community genomic sequence, especially from diverse environments. A major challenge of shotgun community genome sequencing is identification of DNA fragments from minor community members for which only low coverage of genomic sequence is present. We analyzed community genome sequence retrieved from biofilms in an acid mine drainage (AMD) system in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA, with an emphasis on identification and assembly of DNA fragments from low-abundance community members. The Richmond mine hosts an extensive, relatively low diversity subterranean chemolithoautotrophic community that is sustained entirely by oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The activity of these microorganisms greatly accelerates the generation of AMD. Previous and ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on reconstrucing genomes of dominant community members, including several bacteria and archaea. We binned contigs from several samples (including one new sample and two that had been previously analyzed) by tetranucleotide frequency with clustering by Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The binning, evaluated by comparison with information from the manually curated assembly of the dominant organisms, was found to be very effective: fragments were correctly assigned with 95% accuracy. Improperly assigned fragments often contained sequences that are either evolutionarily constrained (e.g. 16S rRNA genes) or mobile elements that are

  12. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,request for assignment ofcopyri

  13. Envelope Protein Mutations L107F and E138K Are Important for Neurovirulence Attenuation for Japanese Encephalitis Virus SA14-14-2 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Huiqiang; Li, Zhushi; Wang, Wei; Lin, Hua; Liu, Lina; Ni, Qianzhi; Liu, Xinyu; Zeng, Xianwu; Wu, Yonglin; Li, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    The attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain SA14-14-2 has been successfully utilized to prevent JEV infection; however, the attenuation determinants have not been fully elucidated. The envelope (E) protein of the attenuated JEV SA14-14-2 strain differs from that of the virulent parental SA14 strain at eight amino acid positions (E107, E138, E176, E177, E264, E279, E315, and E439). Here, we investigated the SA14-14-2-attenuation determinants by mutating E107, E138, E176, E177, and E279 in SA14-14-2 to their status in the parental virulent strain and tested the replication capacity, neurovirulence, neuroinvasiveness, and mortality associated with the mutated viruses in mice, as compared with those of JEV SA14-14-2 and SA14. Our findings indicated that revertant mutations at the E138 or E107 position significantly increased SA14-14-2 virulence, whereas other revertant mutations exhibited significant increases in neurovirulence only when combined with E138, E107, and other mutations. Revertant mutations at all eight positions in the E protein resulted in the highest degree of SA14-14-2 virulence, although this was still lower than that observed in SA14. These results demonstrated the critical role of the viral E protein in controlling JEV virulence and identified the amino acids at the E107 and E138 positions as the key determinants of SA14-14-2 neurovirulence. PMID:28117725

  14. Chitosan signaling in guard cells requires endogenous salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Prodhan, Md Yeasin; Issak, Mohammad; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-01

    An elicitor chitosan (CHT) induces stomatal closure but the mechanism remains to be clarified. A phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is crucial for elicitor-induced defense signaling in plants. Here we investigated whether endogenous SA is required for CHT signaling in guard cells. In the SA-deficient nahG mutant, treatment of CHT did not induce either apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or stomatal closure but co-treatment of CHT and SA induced both apoplastic ROS production and stomatal closure, indicating the involvement of endogenous SA in CHT-induced apoplastic ROS production and CHT-induced stomatal closure. Furthermore, CHT induced transient cytosolic free calcium concentration increments in the nahG mutant in the presence of exogenous SA but not in the absence of exogenous SA. These results provide evidence that endogenous SA is a crucial element in CHT-induced stomatal closure.

  15. SA-inducible Arabidopsis glutaredoxin interacts with TGA factors and suppresses JA-responsive PDF1.2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, Ivan; Abdallat, Ayed Al; Thurow, Corinna; Fode, Benjamin; Zander, Mark; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2007-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant signaling molecule that mediates the induction of defense responses upon attack by a variety of pathogens. Moreover, it antagonizes gene induction by the stress signaling molecule jasmonic acid (JA). Several SA-responsive genes are regulated by basic/leucine zipper-type transcription factors of the TGA family. TGA factors interact with NPR1, a central regulator of many SA-induced defense responses including SA/JA antagonism. In order to identify further regulatory proteins of SA-dependent signaling pathways, a yeast protein interaction screen with tobacco TGA2.2 as bait and an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prey library was performed and led to the identification of a member of the glutaredoxin family (GRX480, encoded by At1g28480). Glutaredoxins are candidates for mediating redox regulation of proteins because of their capacity to catalyze disulfide transitions. This agrees with previous findings that the redox state of both TGA1 and NPR1 changes under inducing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing GRX480 show near wild-type expression of standard marker genes for SA- and xenobiotic-inducible responses. In contrast, transcription of the JA-dependent defensin gene PDF1.2 was antagonized by transgenic GRX480. This, together with the observation that GRX480 transcription is SA-inducible and requires NPR1, suggests a role of GRX480 in SA/JA cross-talk. Suppression of PDF1.2 by GRX480 depends on the presence of TGA factors, indicating that the GRX480/TGA interaction is effective in planta.

  16. Play in Practice: Case Studies in Young Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cheryl Render, Ed.; Marchant, Catherine, Ed.

    This book uses a collection of stories, or "cases," as a basis for reflection, discussion, and learning about the many roles "play" has in children's lives. Each of the 12 cases addresses an issue of play from one of three categories--the role of adults in play, the cultural meanings of play, and the issues related to play in…

  17. Play in Practice: Case Studies in Young Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cheryl Render, Ed.; Marchant, Catherine, Ed.

    This book uses a collection of stories, or "cases," as a basis for reflection, discussion, and learning about the many roles "play" has in children's lives. Each of the 12 cases addresses an issue of play from one of three categories--the role of adults in play, the cultural meanings of play, and the issues related to play in…

  18. Electrochemical Sensors for Detection of Acetylsalicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Supalkova, Veronika; Petrek, Jiri; Havel, Ladislav; Krizkova, Sona; Petrlova, Jitka; Adam, Vojtech; Potesil, David; Babula, Petr; Beklova, Miroslava; Horna, Ales; Kizek, Rene

    2006-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (AcSA), or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and has been used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggest electrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wave voltammetry (SWV) using both carbon paste electrode (CPE) and of graphite pencil electrode (GPE) as working ones to indirect determination of AcSA. The principle of indirect determination of AcSA bases in its hydrolysis on salicylic acid (SA), which is consequently detected. Thus, we optimized both determination of SA and conditions for AcSA hydrolysis and found out that the most suitable frequency, amplitude, step potential and the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte for the determination of SA was 260 Hz, 50 mV, 10 mV and Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.81), respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) of the SA was 1.3 ng/ml. After that, we aimed on indirect determination of AcSA by SWV CPE. We tested the influence of pH of Britton-Robinson buffer and temperature on yield of hydrolysis, and found out that 100% hydrolysis of AcSA was reached after 80 minutes at pH 1.81 and 90°C. The method for indirect determination of AcSA has been utilized to analyse pharmaceutical drug. The determined amount of AcSA in the pharmaceutical drug was in good agreement with the declared amounts. Moreover, we used GPE for determination of AcSA in a pharmaceutical drug. Base of the results obtained from stationary electrochemical instrument we used flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection to determine of salicylates (SA, AcSA, thiosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid – SuSA). We found out that we are able to determine all of detected salicylates directly without any pre-treatment, hydrolysis and so on at units of femtomoles per injection (5 μl).

  19. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  20. Role of tissue-type plasminogen activator in salicylic acid-induced sloughing of human corn tissue.

    PubMed

    Heda, Ghanshyam D; Roberts, Lee K

    2008-01-01

    Plasminogen activators (PAs) and their regulatory counterparts, PA inhibitors (PAIs), play a role in normal differentiation processes and various pathophysiologic conditions of the epidermis. Normal desquamation of corneocytes from the skin3s surface may, in part, be regulated by the balanced activities of tissue-type PA (tPA) and PAI-2. Salicylic acid (SA) is commonly used to remove the hyperkeratotic tissue of corns, calluses, and verrucae, and it may disrupt intercellular adhesion structures; however, its exact mechanism of keratolytic action is poorly defined. We sought to determine the effects of SA by comparing the levels of PA and PAI messenger RNA (mRNA) in normal skin, untreated corns, and SA-treated corns. Untreated and SA-treated human corn tissue samples were obtained from patients electing surgery to repair bony defects that underlay their lesions. Histopathologic examination of corns was performed by staining the tissue sections with hematoxylin and eosin and by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was used to compare mRNA expression of PAs and PAIs in normal skin, untreated corns, and SA-treated corns. We demonstrated lower tPA and higher PAI-2 mRNA levels in corn tissue compared with normal skin. In corn tissue treated with SA, the expression of tPA mRNA increased and of PAI-2 mRNA decreased to the levels found in normal skin. An altered balance in tPA and PAI-2 levels contributes to the induction of hyperkeratotic corn tissue and suggests that the keratolytic action of SA is associated with its ability to stimulate proteinase-meditated desquamation processes.

  1. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is related to the development of salicylic acid-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanyan; Liu, Hongtao; Pan, Qiuhong; Yang, Haoru; Zhan, Jicheng; Huang, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM H(+)-ATPase, EC.3.6.1.35) plays a key role in the plant response to environmental stress. In this study, a possible mechanistic link between the PM H(+)-ATPase and salicylic acid (SA)-induced thermotolerance was investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. NingXia) leaves. The burst of free SA in response to heat acclimation (38 +/- 0.5 degrees C) was observed, and peaks appeared subsequently both in activity and amount of PM H(+)-ATPase in pea leaves during heat acclimation. Similarly, exogenous SA also triggered the two peaks in the room temperature (25 +/- 0.5 degrees C). Paclobutrazol (PAC) was employed to infiltrate onto pea leaves prior to heat acclimation treatment. The results showed that the peaks of both free SA and activity of PM H(+)-ATPase still occurred after the PAC pretreatment. In acquired thermotolerance assessment (malondialdehyde content and degree of wilting), spraying SA and fusicoccin (FC, the activator of PM H(+)-ATPase) separately could protect pea leaves from heat injury. Results from RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that the increase in activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase was due to its transcriptional and translational regulation. The subcellular localizations of PM H(+)-ATPase after the FC or SA pretreatment also showed that the PM H(+)-ATPase is important to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane against the heat stress. Taken together, these results suggest PM H(+)-ATPase is related to the development of SA-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

  2. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  3. 77 FR 33334 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A... in the Airworthiness Limitation Section (ALS) of the Embraer S.A. ERJ 190 Maintenance Review Board... modifications in the Airworthiness Limitation Section (ALS) of the Embraer S.A. ERJ 190 Maintenance Review Board...

  4. Effects of novel ethacrynic acid derivatives on human trabecular meshwork cell shape, actin cytoskeletal organization, and transcellular fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Shimazaki, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Masaki; Franse-Carman, Linda; Alvarado, Jorge A; Epstein, David L

    2005-12-01

    To determine efficacy and therapeutic index in the context of ocular hypotensive activity of the new ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivatives of the series (SA8,248 and SA8,389), 9,000 series (SA9,000, SA9,622 and SA9,995) and ticrynafen, we undertook a comparative evaluation of the dose-dependent effects of these compounds on human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cell shape, actin cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesions and transcellular fluid flow. Responses were either scored using an arbitrary scale of 1-5 or quantified. Compounds of the 9000 series (SA9,995>SA9,000>SA9,622) were found to be 14- to 20-fold more potent than ECA, ticrynafen or analogs from the 8,000 series (SA8,389>SA8,248) in terms of ability to induce cell shape alterations in HTM cells. Similarly, compounds of the 9,000 series (SA9,995>SA9,622>SA9,000) were found to be much stronger (2 to 20 fold) than ECA, ticrynafen or analogs of the 8000 series in terms of affecting decreases in actin stress fiber content in HTM cells. Analogs of the 9000 series (SA9,622>SA9,995>SA9,000) were also observed to be 8 to 10 fold more potent than ECA (SA8,389>ECA>SA8,248>ticrynafen) at eliciting decreases in cellular focal adhesions. Interestingly, analogs of the 9000 series (SA9,000>SA9,622>SA9,995) and SA8,248 demonstrated a huge increase (by many folds) in transcellular fluid flow of HTM cell monolayers as compared to ECA and ticrynafen. Collectively, these analyses revealed that the structural modification of ECA improves its ocular hypotensive efficacy, indicating that the SA9,000 series compounds might be promising novel ocular hypotensive drugs.

  5. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Hormonal and hydroxycinnamic acids profiles in banana leaves in response to various periods of water stress.

    PubMed

    Mahouachi, Jalel; López-Climent, María F; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. "Grand Nain") subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  7. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    López-Climent, María F.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain”) subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress. PMID:24977208

  8. The Status of SalSA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milincic, Radovan

    2007-08-01

    We report on the current status of the Salt dome Shower Array (SalSA) ultra high energy neutrino detector. The astrophysics and particle physics prospects with SalSA detector are discussed as well as result of the calibration measurements of the shower development from ultra high energy particle interaction in rock salt. The 10 km3 water equivalent volume detector provides opportunity to advance measurements from mere detection to actual exploration and characterization of the high energy particles in the energy range above 1017 eV. Our MC simulations show that expected number of GZK neutrino events ranges between 10 and 200 depending on the theoretical models. The angular resolution provides us with the posibility of exploring different scenarios of large extra dimensions. The detector capability to distinguish between different neutrino flavors will result in study of neutrino oscillations in the extreme energy range and with largest L/E ratio.

  9. LLCySA: Making Sense of Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME 20, NUMBER 2, 2014 n LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 67 LLCySA: Making Sense of Cyberspace Scott M. Sawyer, Tamara H. Yu, Matthew L. Hubbell...work, and organizations expect sensitive data, including valuable proprietary or classified mate- rial , to be protected from destruction or...LABORATORY JOURNAL 69 SCOTT M. SAWYER, TAMARA H. YU, MATTHEW L. HUBBELL, AND B. DAVID O’GWYNN To support forensics and advanced analytics, the system must

  10. Saturn IB SA-206 (Skylab 2) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    SA-206 lifts off from Kennedy Space Center's launch complex 39B, in Florida, on May 25, 1973, for the first manned Skylab mission (SL-2) with astronauts Pete Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Paul Weitz. The Saturn IB, developed under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), launched five manned Earth-orbital missions between 1968 and 1975: Apollo 7, Skylab 2, Skylab 3, Skylab 4, and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP).

  11. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  12. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  13. The characterization of SaPIN2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from Solanum americanum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Bo-Lun; Yang, Xiao-Bei; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2012-11-16

    Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b), which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  14. Biophysicochemical characterization of Pyocin SA189 produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SA189

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Sehar Afshan; Jabeen, Nusrat; Sohail, Muhammad; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in spite of being a ubiquitous organism (as it is found in soil, water, and humans), is also an opportunistic pathogen. In order to maintain its diversity in the community, it produces various toxic proteins, known as, bacteriocins. In the present study, pyocin SA189, which is a bacteriocin produced by P. aeruginosa SA189 (isolated from a clinical sample) was characterized. P. aeruginosa SA189, as identified by the conventional and 16S rRNA gene amplification, produced pyocin SA189 of molecular weight of 66 k Da. The pyocin showed antimicrobial activity against several clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and was substantially stable for wide ranges of temperature and pH. Furthermore, the pyocin also retained its biological activity upon treatment with metal ions, organic solvents, and various proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The data from the growth kinetics indicated that the maximum bacteriocin production occurred in the late log phase. Overall, our results signify the potential of pyocin SA189 as a bio-control agent. PMID:26691474

  15. Low oleic acid-derived repression of jasmonic acid-inducible defense responses requires the WRKY50 and WRKY51 proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Signaling induced upon a reduction in oleic acid (18:1) levels simultaneously up-regulates salicylic acid (SA)-mediated responses and inhibits jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance to biotrophs but increased susceptibility to necrotrophs. SA and the signaling compon...

  16. Pathway of salicylic acid biosynthesis in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M.A.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied Sa biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of Sa accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. [sup 14]C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock- or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [[sup 14]C] benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogenesis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid but no in 0-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Playing My Heart Out: Original Play as Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, O. Fred

    1999-01-01

    "Original" play denotes play that is pre-cultural--before conceptualizations and learned responses. Four anecdotes about play with an infant with Down's syndrome, a child with leukemia, a lioness, and a dying woman illustrate the connections between beings and between the ordinary and the sacred during trusting, fearless, playful encounters. (SV)

  18. Playing My Heart Out: Original Play as Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, O. Fred

    1999-01-01

    "Original" play denotes play that is pre-cultural--before conceptualizations and learned responses. Four anecdotes about play with an infant with Down's syndrome, a child with leukemia, a lioness, and a dying woman illustrate the connections between beings and between the ordinary and the sacred during trusting, fearless, playful encounters. (SV)

  19. Child's Play: Revisiting Play in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dau, Elizabeth, Ed.; Jones, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Noting that play is an essential aspect of learning for young children, this book presents a collection of articles on children's play in Australia. Part 1, "Play, Development, and Learning," contains the following chapters: (1) "The Role of Play in Development and Learning" (Ann Glover); (2) "Stop, Look, and Listen:…

  20. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  1. Child's Play: Revisiting Play in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dau, Elizabeth, Ed.; Jones, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Noting that play is an essential aspect of learning for young children, this book presents a collection of articles on children's play in Australia. Part 1, "Play, Development, and Learning," contains the following chapters: (1) "The Role of Play in Development and Learning" (Ann Glover); (2) "Stop, Look, and Listen:…

  2. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: An Acid Can Be Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conard, Ed.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The uses of sulfuric acid in our technological society are given. The discussion includes sulfuric acid in the petroleum industry, construction industry, textile industry and in steel production. (SA)

  3. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: An Acid Can Be Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conard, Ed.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The uses of sulfuric acid in our technological society are given. The discussion includes sulfuric acid in the petroleum industry, construction industry, textile industry and in steel production. (SA)

  4. The Endophytic Bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, Improves the Potential for Zinc Phytoremediation by Its Host, Sedum alfredii

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xincheng; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin. PMID:25198772

  5. Stress enhances the gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the endogenous content of salicylic acid to induce flowering in pharbitis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kaede C; Mizuuchi, Kaori; Koshio, Aya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2014-07-01

    The involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in the regulation of stress-induced flowering in the short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory) Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil) was studied. Pharbitis cv. Violet was induced to flower when grown in 1/100-strength mineral nutrient solution under non-inductive long-day conditions. All fully expanded true leaves were removed from seedlings, leaving only the cotyledons, and flowering was induced under poor-nutrition stress conditions. This indicates that cotyledons can play a role in the regulation of poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering. The expression of the pharbitis homolog of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; E.C. 4.3.1.5) and the content of SA in the cotyledons were all up-regulated by the stress treatment. The Violet was also induced to flower by low-temperature stress, DNA demethylation and short-day treatment. Low-temperature stress enhanced PAL activity, whereas non-stress factors such as DNA demethylation and short-day treatment decreased the activity. The PAL enzyme activity was also examined in another cultivar, Tendan, obtaining similar results to Violet. The exogenously applied SA did not induce flowering under non-stress conditions but did promote flowering under weak stress conditions in both cultivars. These results suggest that stress-induced flowering in pharbitis is induced, at least partly, by SA, and the synthesis of SA is promoted by PAL.

  6. Salicylic acid increases the contents of glutathione and ascorbate and temporally regulates the related gene expression in salt-stressed wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Gezi; Peng, Xiaoqi; Wei, Liting; Kang, Guozhang

    2013-10-25

    Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) significantly improved abiotic tolerance in higher plants, and ascorbate (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) play important roles in abiotic tolerance. In this study, SA (0.5mM) markedly increased the contents of ASA and GSH in SA-treated plants during salt stress (250mM NaCl). The transcript levels of the genes encoding ASA and GSH cycle enzymes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The results indicated that, during salt stress, exogenous SA significantly enhanced the transcripts of glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX2) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) genes at 12h, glutathione reductase (GR) at 24h, 48h and 72h, glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), 2 (GST2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione synthetase (GS) at the 48h and 72h after salt stress, respectively. The results implied that SA temporally regulated the transcript levels of the genes encoding ASA-GSH cycle enzymes, resulting in the increased contents of GSH and ASA and enhanced salt tolerance.

  7. Salicylic acid-dependent restriction of Tomato ringspot virus spread in tobacco is accompanied by a hypersensitive response, local RNA silencing, and moderate systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Jovel, Juan; Walker, Melanie; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2011-06-01

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a Nepovirus sp.) systemically infects many herbaceous plants. Viral RNA accumulates in symptomatic leaves and in young, asymptomatic leaves that emerge late in infection. Here, we show that systemic infection by ToRSV is restricted in tobacco. After an initial hypersensitive response in inoculated leaves, only a few plants showed limited systemic symptoms. Viral RNA did not usually accumulate to detectable levels in asymptomatic leaves. ToRSV-derived small-interfering RNAs and PR1a transcripts were only detected in tissues that contained viral RNA, indicating local induction of RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense responses. Lesion size and viral systemic spread were reduced with SA pretreatment but enhanced in NahG transgenic lines deficient in SA accumulation, suggesting that SA-dependent mechanisms play a key role in limiting ToRSV spread in tobacco. Restriction of virus infection was enhanced in transgenic lines expressing the P1-HC-Pro suppressor of silencing. Knocking down the SA-inducible RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 exacerbated the necrotic reaction but did not affect viral systemic spread. ToRSV-infected tobacco plants were susceptible to reinoculation by ToRSV or Tobacco mosaic virus, although a small reduction in lesion size was observed. This moderate systemic resistance suggests inefficient induction or spread of RNA silencing and systemic acquired resistance signal molecules.

  8. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-02-19

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum.

  9. The Child's Right To Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Beverley

    This paper argues that play is an important and fundamental educational process and that the child's right to play should be respected. The paper also comments on the 1990 Tokyo International Conference on the Child's Right to Play. Several issues related to children's play, both in and out of school, are discussed. The focus is on the state of…

  10. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  11. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  12. Play: Children's Context for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Tovah P.; Wirth, Daniele; Linas, Keri

    2003-01-01

    Defines the elements of play, illuminating its central role in young children's learning and development. Focuses on how play experiences contribute to children's independence in negotiating, its role in keeping children involved, and the play-reality distinction. Offers suggestions to teachers for facilitating and supporting children's play,…

  13. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  14. The effect of net charge on the solubility, activity, and stability of ribonuclease Sa

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kevin L.; Grimsley, Gerald R.; Yakovlev, Gennady I.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Pace, C. Nick

    2001-01-01

    The net charge and isoelectric pH (pI) of a protein depend on the content of ionizable groups and their pK values. Ribonuclease Sa (RNase Sa) is an acidic protein with a pI = 3.5 that contains no Lys residues. By replacing Asp and Glu residues on the surface of RNase Sa with Lys residues, we have created a 3K variant (D1K, D17K, E41K) with a pI = 6.4 and a 5K variant (3K + D25K, E74K) with a pI = 10.2. We show that pI values estimated using pK values based on model compound data can be in error by >1 pH unit, and suggest how the estimation can be improved. For RNase Sa and the 3K and 5K variants, the solubility, activity, and stability have been measured as a function of pH. We find that the pH of minimum solubility varies with the pI of the protein, but that the pH of maximum activity and the pH of maximum stability do not. PMID:11369859

  15. Rough and Tumble Play 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Many people fear that play-fighting or rough and tumble play is the same as real fighting. There is also a fear that this rough play will become real fighting if allowed to continue. Most of all, parents and teachers fear that during the course of rough and tumble play a child may be hurt. To provide for and allow children to play rough without…

  16. Rough and Tumble Play 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Many people fear that play-fighting or rough and tumble play is the same as real fighting. There is also a fear that this rough play will become real fighting if allowed to continue. Most of all, parents and teachers fear that during the course of rough and tumble play a child may be hurt. To provide for and allow children to play rough without…

  17. Neutralization epitopes on rotavirus SA11 4fM outer capsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gorziglia, M; Larralde, G; Ward, R L

    1990-01-01

    The VP7 and VP4 genes of seven antigenic mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 4fM (serotype 3) selected after 39 passages in the presence of SA11 4fM hyperimmune antiserum, were sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated the following. (i) Twice as many amino acid substitutions occurred in the VP7 protein than in VP4, which has a molecular weight twice that of VP7. (ii) Most amino acid changes that occurred clustered in six variable regions of VP7 and in two variable regions of VP4; these variable regions may represent immunodominant epitopes. (iii) Most amino acid substitutions that occurred in VP7 and VP4 of these mutants were also observed in antigenic mutants selected with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NMAbs); however, some amino acid substitutions occurred that were not selected for NMAbs. (iv) On VP7, some of the neutralization epitopes appeared to be interrelated because amino acid substitution in one site affected binding of specific NMAbs to other sites, while other neutralization epitopes on VP7 appeared to be independent, in that amino acid substitution in one site did not affect the binding of NMAbs to another distant site. Images PMID:1696640

  18. Corrosion of SA1388-1 diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krska, C.; Stimetz, C.; Braithwaite, J.; Sorensen, R.; Hlava, P.

    1996-06-01

    After 5 y storage at Allied Signal, a subassembly with SA1388-1 diodes failed testing and the cause was an unacceptable current leak rate in one of the diodes. This was traced to a CuS deposit in a single production lot of diodes; however only about 0.3% failed the specification. A study was performed to determine the cause and potential long-term significance of this problem. Probable cause was determined to be the P-bearing braze material not being compatible with the Ag immersion plating solution (cyanide-based) and to the storage environment containing sulfur.

  19. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  20. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  1. Red clover HCT2, a hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, plays a crucial role in biosynthesis of phaselic acid and other hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves, phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate) accumulates to several mmol kg-1 fresh weight and is a crucial component of a natural system that prevents protein breakdown during harvest and storage of this forage crop. Previously, we identified HCT2, a red clover g...

  2. Distinct Functions of Human Cohesin-SA1 and Cohesin-SA2 in Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangduo; Ball, Alexander R.; Pham, Hoang Xuan; Zeng, Weihua; Chen, Hsiao-Yuan; Schmiesing, John A.; Kim, Jong-Soo; Berns, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cohesin is an essential multiprotein complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion critical for proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Cohesin is also involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. In mammalian cells, cohesin is involved in both DSB repair and the damage checkpoint response, although the relationship between these two functions is unclear. Two cohesins differing by one subunit (SA1 or SA2) are present in somatic cells, but their functional specificities with regard to DNA repair remain enigmatic. We found that cohesin-SA2 is the main complex corecruited with the cohesin-loading factor NIPBL to DNA damage sites in an S/G2-phase-specific manner. Replacing the diverged C-terminal region of SA1 with the corresponding region of SA2 confers this activity on SA1. Depletion of SA2 but not SA1 decreased sister chromatid homologous recombination repair and affected repair pathway choice, indicating that DNA repair activity is specifically associated with cohesin recruited to damage sites. In contrast, both cohesin complexes function in the intra-S checkpoint, indicating that cell cycle-specific damage site accumulation is not a prerequisite for cohesin's intra-S checkpoint function. Our findings reveal the unique ways in which cohesin-SA1 and cohesin-SA2 participate in the DNA damage response, coordinately protecting genome integrity in human cells. PMID:24324008

  3. Solar Power at Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    For the very first time, astronomers have witnessed the speeding up of an asteroid's rotation, and have shown that it is due to a theoretical effect predicted but never seen before. The international team of scientists used an armada of telescopes to discover that the asteroid's rotation period currently decreases by 1 millisecond every year, as a consequence of the heating of the asteroid's surface by the Sun. Eventually it may spin faster than any known asteroid in the solar system and even break apart. ESO PR Photo 11a/07 ESO PR Photo 11a/07 Asteroid 2000 PH5 "The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is believed to alter the way small bodies in the Solar System rotate," said Stephen Lowry (Queens University Belfast, UK), lead-author of one of the two companion papers in which this work is reported [1, 2]. "The warming caused by sunlight hitting the surfaces of asteroids and meteoroids leads to a gentle recoil effect as the heat is released," he added. "By analogy, if one were to shine light on a propeller over a long enough period, it would start spinning." Although this is an almost immeasurably weak force, its effect over millions of years is far from negligible. Astronomers believe the YORP effect may be responsible for spinning some asteroids up so fast that they break apart, perhaps leading to the formation of double asteroids. Others may be slowed down so that they take many days to complete a full turn. The YORP effect also plays an important role in changing the orbits of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, including their delivery to planet-crossing orbits, such as those of near-Earth asteroids. Despite its importance, the effect has never been seen acting on a solar system body, until now. Using extensive optical and radar imaging from powerful Earth-based observatories, astronomers have directly observed the YORP effect in action on a small near-Earth asteroid, known as (54509) 2000 PH5. Shortly after its discovery in 2000, it was

  4. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  5. Play technique in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yanof, Judith A

    2013-04-01

    Imaginary play is often a child's best way of communicating affects, fantasies, and internal states. In play children are freer to express their forbidden and conflicted thoughts. Consequently, one of the best ways for the therapist to enter the child's world is to do so from within the displacement of the play process. For children who cannot play, the therapist's goal is to teach the child to use play as a means of communication and to create meaning. This article present clinical examples to illustrate how the author uses play in the clinical situation.

  6. Ammonia Offgassing from SA9T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Nolek, Sara D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 is a degradation product of SA9T, a solid-amine sorbent developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, that is continually emitted into the gas stream being conditioned by this sorbent. NH3 offgassing rates were measured using FTIR spectroscopy using a packed bed at similar contact times as offgassing tests conducted at Hamilton Sundstrand and at the Ames Research Center. The bed was challenged with moist air at several flow rates and humidities and NH3 concentration of the effluent was measured for several hours. The NH3 offgassing rates in open-loop testing were calculated from the steady state outlet NH3 concentration and flow rate. NH3 offgassing rates from SA9T were found to be influenced by the contact time with the adsorbent (flow rate) and by the humidity of the inlet gas stream, which are consistent with previous studies. Closed-loop vacuum-swing adsorption cycling rates verified that NH3 offgassing continues when a constant source of water vapor is present.

  7. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  8. Safety Play Surfaces Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Describes standards for playing surfaces and characteristics of play surfaces made of organic loose material, inorganic loose material, and compact materials. Necessary site preparation is discussed. An extensive, annotated list of manufacturers of surfaces is included. (DR)

  9. Social Studies Teacher Writes Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaleo, Ralph J.

    1985-01-01

    The text of a teacher-written play "The Tragedy of Woodrow Wilson" that can be used in high school social studies classes is presented. The author also discusses how he went about writing the play. (RM)

  10. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  11. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  12. Revista de Saúde Pública: 50 years disseminating the knowledge in nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP – Public Health Journal) from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical “Revista de Saúde Pública” and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding. We observed significant increase in the number of articles published and diversification of subjects addressed over the 50 years, representing the consistent development of the scientific field of Nutrition in Brazil. Since its inception, RSP has played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about the main nutritional issues in Brazil. PMID:28099649

  13. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate.

  14. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing. PMID:25942516

  15. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    PubMed

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-04-30

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  16. The phosphate transporter PHT4;1 is a salicylic acid regulator likely controlled by the circadian clock protein CCA1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Zhang, Chong; Battle, Stephanie; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The small phenolic compound salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against broad-spectrum of pathogens. The phosphate transporter gene PHT4;1 was previously shown to affect SA-mediated defense and its expression is regulated by the circadian clock. To further understand how PHT4;1 affects SA accumulation, here we analyzed the genetic interactions between the gain-of-function mutant pht4;1-1 and several known SA mutants, including sid2-1, ald1-1, eds5-3, and pad4-1. The genetic analysis was conducted in the acd6-1 background since the change of acd6-1 dwarfism can be used as a convenient readout for the change of defense levels caused by impairments in some SA genes. We found that compared with the corresponding double mutants, the triple mutants acd6-1pht4;1-1ald1-1, acd6-1pht4;1-1eds5-3, and acd6-1pht4;1-1pad4-1 accumulated lower levels of SA and PR1 transcripts, suggesting that PHT4;1 contributes to acd6-1-conferred defense phenotypes independently of these known SA regulators. Although some triple mutants had wild type (wt)-like levels of SA and PR1 transcripts, these plants were smaller than wt and displayed minor cell death, suggesting that additional regulatory pathways contribute to acd6-1-conferred dwarfism and cell death. Our data further showed that circadian expression of PHT4;1 was dependent on CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), a central oscillator component of Arabidopsis circadian clock. Recombinant CCA1 protein was demonstrated to bind to the PHT4;1 promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, suggesting a direct transcriptional regulation of PHT4;1 by CCA1. Together these results indicate that PHT4;1 is a SA regulator acting independently of several known SA genes and they also implicate a role of the circadian clock mediated by CCA1 in regulating phosphate transport and/or innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

  17. 1HNMR study of methotrexate serum albumin (MTX SA) binding in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2008-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immunologically depended disease. It is characterized by a chronic, progressive inflammatory process. Methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid, MTX) is the modifying drug used to treat RA. The aim of the presented studies is to determine the low affinity binding site of MTX in bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) serum albumin with the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR) spectroscopy. The analysis of 1HNMR spectra of MTX in the presence of serum albumin (SA) allows us to observe the interactions between aromatic rings of the drug and the rings of amino acids located in the hydrophobic subdomains of the protein. On the basis of the chemical shifts σ [ppm] and the relaxation times T1 [s] of drug protons the hydrophobic interaction between MTX-SA and the stoichiometric molar ratio of the complex was evaluated. This work is a part of a spectroscopic study on MTX-SA interactions [A. Sułkowska, M. Maciążek, J. Równicka, B. Bojko, D. Pentak, W.W. Sułkowski, J. Mol. Struct. 834-836 (2007) 162-169].

  18. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  19. Piaget, Play and Cognition, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Piaget's early contribution to theorizing about play is discussed critically with reference to three major interrelated problems. These are: (1) that despite their equipotentiality in Piaget's theory of intelligence, imitation and play are not conceptualized as making an equal contribution to cognition, play taking a subordinate role; (2) that…

  20. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  1. Piaget, Play and Cognition, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Piaget's early contribution to theorizing about play is discussed critically with reference to three major interrelated problems. These are: (1) that despite their equipotentiality in Piaget's theory of intelligence, imitation and play are not conceptualized as making an equal contribution to cognition, play taking a subordinate role; (2) that…

  2. Meanings of Play among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nicole M.; Knight, Camilla J.; Holt, Nicholas L.; Spence, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine meanings of play among children. Thirty-eight students aged 7-9 years from a suburban public school in Western Canada participated in focus groups. Data analysis revealed participants saw almost anything as an opportunity for play and would play almost anywhere with anyone. However, they perceived parents…

  3. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  4. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  5. Meanings of Play among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nicole M.; Knight, Camilla J.; Holt, Nicholas L.; Spence, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine meanings of play among children. Thirty-eight students aged 7-9 years from a suburban public school in Western Canada participated in focus groups. Data analysis revealed participants saw almost anything as an opportunity for play and would play almost anywhere with anyone. However, they perceived parents…

  6. Play in Evolution and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Dupuis, Danielle; Smith, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may influence subsequent evolutionary…

  7. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  8. Play in Evolution and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Dupuis, Danielle; Smith, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may influence subsequent evolutionary…

  9. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  10. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  11. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  12. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  13. Suppression of the rice fatty-acid desaturase gene OsSSI2 enhances resistance to blast and leaf blight diseases in rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Shimono, Masaki; Maeda, Satoru; Inoue, Haruhiko; Mori, Masaki; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Sugano, Shoji; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Fatty acids and their derivatives play important signaling roles in plant defense responses. It has been shown that suppressing a gene for stearoyl acyl carrier protein fatty-acid desaturase (SACPD) enhances the resistance of Arabidopsis (SSI2) and soybean to multiple pathogens. In this study, we present functional analyses of a rice homolog of SSI2 (OsSSI2) in disease resistance of rice plants. A transposon insertion mutation (Osssi2-Tos17) and RNAi-mediated knockdown of OsSSI2 (OsSSI2-kd) reduced the oleic acid (18:1) level and increased that of stearic acid (18:0), indicating that OsSSI2 is responsible for fatty-acid desaturase activity. These plants displayed spontaneous lesion formation in leaf blades, retarded growth, slight increase in endogenous free salicylic acid (SA) levels, and SA/benzothiadiazole (BTH)-specific inducible genes, including WRKY45, a key regulator of SA/BTH-induced resistance, in rice. Moreover, the OsSSI2-kd plants showed markedly enhanced resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and leaf-blight bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. These results suggest that OsSSI2 is involved in the negative regulation of defense responses in rice, as are its Arabidopsis and soybean counterparts. Microarray analyses identified 406 genes that were differentially expressed (>or=2-fold) in OsSSI2-kd rice plants compared with wild-type rice and, of these, approximately 39% were BTH responsive. Taken together, our results suggest that induction of SA-responsive genes, including WRKY45, is likely responsible for enhanced disease resistance in OsSSI2-kd rice plants.

  14. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.

  15. Naringenin inhibits seed germination and seedling root growth through a salicylic acid-independent mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Iker; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-12-01

    Flavonoids fulfill an enormous range of biological functions in plants. In seeds, these compounds play several roles; for instance proanthocyanidins protect them from moisture, pathogen attacks, mechanical stress, UV radiation, etc., and flavonols have been suggested to protect the embryo from oxidative stress. The present study aimed at determining the role of flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) seed germination, and the involvement of salicylic acid (SA) and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), two phytohormones with the same biosynthetic origin as flavonoids, the shikimate pathway, in such a putative role. We show that naringenin, a flavanone, strongly inhibits the germination of A. thaliana seeds in a dose-dependent and SA-independent manner. Altered auxin levels do not affect seed germination in Arabidopsis, but impaired auxin transport does, although to a minor extent. Naringenin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) impair auxin transport through the same mechanisms, so the inhibition of germination by naringenin might involve impaired auxin transport among other mechanisms. From the present study it is concluded that naringenin inhibits the germination of Arabidopsis seeds in a dose-dependent and SA-independent manner, and the results also suggest that such effects are exerted, at least to some extent, through impaired auxin transport, although additional mechanisms seem to operate as well.

  16. Voltammetric determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals formulations of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Torriero, Angel A J; Luco, Juan M; Sereno, Leonides; Raba, Julio

    2004-02-06

    The electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) has been studied on a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. SA gives a single irreversible oxidation wave over the wide pH range studied. The irreversibility of the electrode process was verified by different criteria. The mechanism of oxidation is discussed. Using differential pulse voltammetry, SA yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer solution, pH 2.37 at 1.088V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method was linear over the SA concentration range: 1-60mugml(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of SA as a hydrolysis product, in solid pharmaceutical formulations containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).

  17. Nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells on rhombic µ-pillars.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Melanie; Stannard, Cleo; Anselme, Karine; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously shown that osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells respond to micropillared surfaces consisting of poly-L-lactic acid with strong deformation of the cell body and nucleus. Until now, cell nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells was only studied by exposing them to square shaped micropillars in an isotropic pattern. Here we report on experiments of the cell nucleus response of such cells to rhombic structures of different topographies generated from a rubbery polymer, namely poly(n-butyacrylate). It is observed that cells orientate themselves perpendicular to the long axis of the rhombi. While their spreading on the surface is not influenced by the opening angle of the structures, rhombic structures with sharper angles induce stronger deformation of the cells and accordingly more elongated nuclei.

  18. Green synthesis and surface properties of Fe3O4@SA core-shell nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Huimin; Li, Juchuan; Shen, Yuhua; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Xie, Anjian

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a one-step, economic and green approach was explored to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles by using L-cysteine as reducer and disperser without any inert gas protection. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were then modified with stearic acid (SA) to form Fe3O4@SA core-shell nanocomposites. The experiment results indicate that the core-shell nanocomposites prepared could form monolayer on the water surface or films by means of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology due to their hydrophobic and lipophilic properties. Also the composites exhibit paramagnetism, which make product dispersed stably in the oil medium to form magnetic fluid. Moreover, they are developed as sorbents to remove oil from water surface.

  19. The anticancer efficacy of pixantrone-loaded liposomes decorated with sialic acid-octadecylamine conjugate.

    PubMed

    She, Zhennan; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xuling; Li, Xuan; Song, Yanzhi; Cheng, Xiaobo; Huang, Zhenjun; Deng, Yihui

    2014-06-01

    Based on the knowledge that sialic acid is a critical element for tumor development and its receptors are highly expressed on the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) which play important roles in the growth and metastasis of tumors, we synthesized a sialic acid-octadecylamine conjugate (SA-ODA) and anchored it on the surface of pixantrone (Pix)-loaded liposomes, to achieve an improved anticancer effect. Four Pix formulations (Pix-S, Pix-CL, Pix-PL and Pix-SAL represent solution, conventional liposome, stealth liposome, and SA-ODA modified liposome, respectively) were developed, and various parameters, including drug loading, stability, in vitro release, cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics, were evaluated. The tumor growth inhibition and toxicity studies were performed in S180-bearing Kunming mice. Pix-S exhibited a strong toxicity to the immune system, accelerated the growth of tumors and reduced the lifespan of mice. In contrast, Pix-SAL displayed the strongest anticancer and life-prolonging effects among all of the formulations in this study. More importantly, injection of Pix-SAL induced a phenomenon whereby the cancerous tissues were "shed" from mice, after which the wound healed. We speculate that this special efficacy may be partly due to the killing of TAMs by Pix-SAL. This study suggests that SA-ODA modified liposomes may serve as an effective intravenous delivery vehicle for Pix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tomato susceptibility to root-knot nematodes requires an intact jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Kishor K; Xie, Qi-Guang; Mantelin, Sophie; Bishnoi, Usha; Girke, Thomas; Navarre, Duroy A; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2008-09-01

    Responses of resistant (Mi-1/Mi-1) and susceptible (mi-1/ mi-1) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.) infection were monitored using cDNA microarrays, and the roles of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense signaling were evaluated in these interactions. Array analysis was used to compare transcript profiles in incompatible and compatible interactions of tomato roots 24 h after RKN infestation. The jai1 and def1 tomato mutant, altered in JA signaling, and tomato transgenic line NahG, altered in SA signaling, in the presence or absence of the RKN resistance gene Mi-1, were evaluated. The array analysis identified 1,497 and 750 genes differentially regulated in the incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively. Of the differentially regulated genes, 37% were specific to the incompatible interactions. NahG affected neither Mi-1 resistance nor basal defenses to RKNs. However, jai1 reduced tomato susceptibility to RKNs while not affecting Mi-1 resistance. In contrast, the def1 mutant did not affect RKN susceptibility. These results indicate that JA-dependent signaling does not play a role in Mi-1-mediated defense; however, an intact JA signaling pathway is required for tomato susceptibility to RKNs. In addition, low levels of SA might be sufficient for basal and Mi-1 resistance to RKNs.

  1. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    PubMed

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  2. JT-60SA superconducting magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Wanner, M.; Barabaschi, P.; Cucchiaro, A.; Davis, S.; Decool, P.; Di Pietro, E.; Disset, G.; Genini, L.; Hajnal, N.; Heller, R.; Honda, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kamada, Y.; Kashiwa, Y.; Kizu, K.; Kamiya, K.; Murakami, H.; Michel, F.; Marechal, J. L.; Phillips, G.; Polli, G. M.; Rossi, P.; Shibanuma, K.; Takahata, K.; Tomarchio, V.; Tsuchiya, K.; Usui, K.; Verrecchia, M.; Zani, L.

    2015-08-01

    The most distinctive feature of the superconducting magnet system for JT-60SA is the optimized coil structure in terms of the space utilization as well as the highly accurate coil manufacturing, thus meeting the requirements for the steady-state tokamak research: a conceptually new outer inter-coil structure separated from the casing is introduced to the toroidal field coils to realize their slender shape, allowing large-bore diagnostic ports for detailed plasma measurements. A method to minimize the manufacturing error of the equilibrium-field coils has been established, aiming at the precise plasma shape/position control. A compact butt-joint has been successfully developed for the Central Solenoid, which allows an optimized utilization of the limited space for the Central Solenoid to extend the duration of the plasma pulse.

  3. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kai; Yan, Yan; Wang, Pengchong; Shi, Xianpeng; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA) and a multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS). The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MPEG) and stearic acid (SA). The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE). Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX) as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:27785018

  4. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kai; Yan, Yan; Wang, Pengchong; Shi, Xianpeng; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA) and a multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS). The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MPEG) and stearic acid (SA). The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE). Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX) as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in MDR cancer therapy.

  5. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  6. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thinking about Children's Play: Play Is Not Work, Nor Is Work Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the concept of "play as a child's work," from the viewpoints of Montessori, Freud, and Piaget. Contends that children's play: (1) like adult play, may be individual or social; (2) has immediate value for the child as a way of expressing feelings; and (3) is a healthy counterpoise to work. (SD)

  8. Thinking about Children's Play: Play Is Not Work, Nor Is Work Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the concept of "play as a child's work," from the viewpoints of Montessori, Freud, and Piaget. Contends that children's play: (1) like adult play, may be individual or social; (2) has immediate value for the child as a way of expressing feelings; and (3) is a healthy counterpoise to work. (SD)

  9. SA improvement of hyperhydricity reversion in Thymus daenensis shoots culture may be associated with polyamines changes.

    PubMed

    Hassannejad, Sahar; Bernard, Françoise; Mirzajani, Fateme; Gholami, Morteza

    2012-02-01

    In shoot cultures of Thymus daenensis, hyperhydricity syndrome promoted by benzyladenine (BA) is characterised by the development of chlorophyll-deficient shoots with a high water content and reduced growth that is less differentiated. By removing the BA from the culture medium, the hyperhydricity was reversed, and the reversion toward a normal growth in vitro was more efficient in shoots treated with 5 μM of salicylic acid (SA), showing a significant increase in chlorophyll b after 4 weeks of culture. In the present study, the effect of salicylic acid on the reversion of shoot hyperhydricity was investigated at the level of the free, soluble and insoluble conjugated polyamine content. In T. daenensis micropropagated shoots, the level of polyamines was high, with a predominance of putrescine. BA, which triggered hyperhydricity, caused a reduction of the polyamine (PA) content by one-half due to a decrease in the putrescine content and insoluble conjugated PAs that were not detected in the hyperhydric shoots. In the reverted shoots, changes of the free polyamines, spermidine and, more notably, spermine, were shown. The spermine content doubled after 4 weeks of culture, and its amount was the same as that found in normal shoots, suggesting that free spermine could be particularly involved in the reversion of hyperhydricity. In the SA-reverted tissues, the PA pattern was marked with a transient increase of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine and an enhancement of soluble conjugated spermine. This transitory SA-dependent amplification of PAs was concomitant with a remarkable transient increase of H(2)O(2), suggesting that SA may be implicated in PA signalling pathways for tissue differentiation during the reversion of hyperhydricity in T. daenensis.

  10. STS-48 ESC closeup of UARS solar array (SA) and SA mechanism, pre-deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An extremely closeup view shows the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) solar array (SA) and SA mechanism prior to deploy of the satellite. UARS, grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector (out of frame), is undergoing STS-48 pre-deployment checkout above the payload bay (PLB) of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. OV-103's vertical stabilizer can be seen in between the UARS hardware. This view demonstrates the capabilities of the Electronic Still Camera (ESC) to provide high resolution views of hardware for review by ground controllers. This ESC image was documented as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission.

  11. Salicylic acid stimulates secretion of the normally symplastic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase: a possible defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-yi; Zamski, Eli; Guo, Wei-wen; Pharr, D Mason; Williamson, John D

    2009-11-01

    The sugar alcohol mannitol is an important carbohydrate with well-documented roles in both metabolism and osmoprotection in many plants and fungi. In addition to these traditionally recognized roles, mannitol is reported to be an antioxidant and as such may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. Current research suggests that pathogenic fungi can secrete mannitol into the apoplast to suppress reactive oxygen-mediated host defenses. Immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and biochemical data reported here show that the normally symplastic plant enzyme, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD), is secreted into the apoplast after treatment with the endogenous inducer of plant defense responses salicylic acid (SA). In contrast, a cytoplasmic marker protein, hexokinase, remained cytoplasmic after SA-treatment. Secreted MTD retained activity after export to the apoplast. Given that MTD converts mannitol to the sugar mannose, MTD secretion may be an important component of plant defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens such as Alternaria. After SA treatment, MTD was not detected in the Golgi apparatus, and its SA-induced secretion was resistant to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of Golgi-mediated protein transport. Together with the absence of a known extracellular targeting sequence on the MTD protein, these data suggest that a plant's response to pathogen challenge may include secretion of selected defensive proteins by as yet uncharacterized, non-Golgi mechanisms.

  12. Salicylic Acid Regulates Pollen Tip Growth through an NPR3/NPR4-Independent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Duoyan; Luo, Nan; Mollet, Jean Claude; Liu, Xuanming; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-11-07

    Tip growth is a common strategy for the rapid elongation of cells to forage the environment and/or to target to long-distance destinations. In the model tip growth system of Arabidopsis pollen tubes, several small-molecule hormones regulate their elongation, but how these rapidly diffusing molecules control extremely localized growth remains mysterious. Here we show that the interconvertible salicylic acid (SA) and methylated SA (MeSA), well characterized for their roles in plant defense, oppositely regulate Arabidopsis pollen tip growth with SA being inhibitory and MeSA stimulatory. The effect of SA and MeSA was independent of known NPR3/NPR4 SA receptor-mediated signaling pathways. SA inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis in pollen tubes associated with an increased accumulation of less stretchable demethylated pectin in the apical wall, whereas MeSA did the opposite. Furthermore, SA and MeSA alter the apical activation of ROP1 GTPase, a key regulator of tip growth in pollen tubes, in an opposite manner. Interestingly, both MeSA methylesterase and SA methyltransferase, which catalyze the interconversion between SA and MeSA, are localized at the apical region of pollen tubes, indicating of the tip-localized production of SA and MeSA and consistent with their effects on the apical cellular activities. These findings suggest that local generation of a highly diffusible signal can regulate polarized cell growth, providing a novel mechanism of cell polarity control apart from the one involving protein and mRNA polarization.

  13. SEU characterization and design dependence of the SA3300 microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Treece, R.K.; Axness, C.L.; Hughes, K.H.; Hash, G.L.; Hass, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The SA3300 16-bit microprocessor is a key component for interplanetary space probes to be launched in the 1990's. A full SEU characterization of the D-latches of the SA3300 is given, including pattern sensitivity and temperature. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  14. EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. 78 FR 9800 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...-154-AD; Amendment 39-17348; AD 2013-03-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain ] Embraer S.A. Model ERJ... issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to include an AD that would apply...

  16. 77 FR 72776 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 170 and...., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service...

  17. 78 FR 39567 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...-107-AD; Amendment 39-17477; AD 2013-11-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A... Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 airplanes. AD 2010-14-14 currently requires, for certain airplanes... bleed system with a new check valve and new seals, replacing the low pressure check valves (LPCVs), and...

  18. 78 FR 19090 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...-146-AD; Amendment 39-17384; AD 2013-05-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report that high rate discharge (HRD) bottle...

  19. 77 FR 49702 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...-095-AD; Amendment 39-17156; AD 2012-16-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding two existing airworthiness directives (AD) for all Embraer S.A. Model... with a failed air management system (AMS) controller card. This new AD requires replacing the AMS...

  20. 77 FR 63272 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that high rate discharge (HRD) bottle...

  1. 77 FR 44437 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...-017-AD; Amendment 39-17132; AD 2012-15-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 190 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of damage on the rod end of the retracting actuator rod of the...

  2. Overcrowding of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) leads to the isolation of five new Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV-SA) isolates.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Debrah, John K; Hill, Martin P; Knox, Caroline; Moore, Sean D

    2013-03-01

    False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) is a serious pest of economic importance to the South African fruit industry. As part of sustainable efforts to control this pest, biological control options that involve the application of baculovirus-based biopesticides such as Cryptogran and Cryptex (both formulated with a South African isolate of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus, CrleGV-SA) are popularly used by farmers. In order to safeguard the integrity of these biopesticides as well as protect against any future development of resistance in the host, we conducted a study to bioprospect for additional CrleGV isolates as alternatives to existing ones. Using overcrowding as an induction method for latent infection, we recovered five new CrleGV isolates (CrleGV-SA Ado, CrleGV-SA Mbl, CrleGV-SA Cit, CrleGV-SA MixC and CrleGV-SA Nels). Single restriction endonuclease (REN) analysis of viral genomic DNA extracted from purified occlusion bodies showed that isolates differed in their DNA profiles. Partial sequencing of granulin and egt genes from the different isolates and multiple alignments of nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. Based on these findings as well as comparisons with other documented CrleGV isolates, we propose two phylogenetic groups for CrleGV-SA isolates recovered in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Second Extracellular Loop of Pore-Forming Subunits of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters for Basic Amino Acids Plays a Crucial Role in Interaction with the Cognate Solute Binding Protein(s)▿

    PubMed Central

    Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)2 complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP2 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P2 variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM. PMID:20154136

  4. The second extracellular loop of pore-forming subunits of ATP-binding cassette transporters for basic amino acids plays a crucial role in interaction with the cognate solute binding protein(s).

    PubMed

    Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

    2010-04-01

    In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)(2) complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP(2) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P(2) variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11 μg/mL and 0.03–0.36 μg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r 2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

  6. Behavioral approaches to promoting play.

    PubMed

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Ingersoll, Brooke; Carter, Cynthia

    2003-12-01

    A variety of techniques grounded in behavioral psychology, and more specifically in applied behavior analysis, have been established to increase and improve play skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders. This article introduces a set of efficacious methods, which range from highly structured techniques to more naturalistic strategies. It focuses on object play as other authors in the issue discuss social play in greater depth. Behavioral techniques that are reviewed include: discrete trial training, use of stereotyped behaviors to increase play skills, pivotal response training, reciprocal imitation training, differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, in vivo modeling and play scripts, and video modeling. A discussion of expanding behavior techniques to teach more complex play as well as training in varied environments is also presented. References are provided to allow the reader to obtain more in-depth information about each technique.

  7. Combined salicyclic acid and ultrasound treatments for reducing the chilling injury on peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Zheng, Yonghua; Jiang, Yueming

    2012-02-08

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 1 mmol L(-1)) and ultrasound treatment (40 kHz, 10 min) either separately or combined on the chilling injury (CI) in cold-stored peach fruit ( Prunus persica Batsch cv. Baifeng) were investigated. The results showed that SA treatment alone alleviated CI during storage. Ultrasound alone had no influence, but when it was combined with SA, it resulted in greater inhibition of CI than SA alone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase, were induced by a combination of SA with ultrasound. In addition, the combined treatment also increased the endogenous SA concentrations in peaches. These results suggested that the induced tolerance against CI by the combination of ultrasound and SA treatment in cold-stored peach fruit was related to the induction of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in the SA concentration.

  8. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  9. The Importance of Play: Why Children Need to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the important role of dramatic ("pretend") play in early childhood with increasing emphasis at school on developing academic skills in children at younger and younger ages. Play is especially beneficial to children's learning when it reaches a certain degree of sophistication. In other words, "unproductive"…

  10. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  11. Let's Play: Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Guenther, Tracee; Crozier, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Watch any young child and you will likely see him or her engaged in some form of play. Play is an integral part of early childhood development in which typically developing children learn social and language skills, as well as appropriate behaviors, problem solving, and a variety of other cognitive skills. By its very definition, autism is a…

  12. The Influence of Play Material on Discourse during Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Elizabeth I.; Murray, Sharon E.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the conversational behavior of 36 children (ages 48-59 months) playing in dyads with 3 different materials (modeling dough, a farm set, and animal puppets) found that each toy elicited the same amount of talking, though there were differences in discourse structure attributable to play materials. (DB)

  13. The Influence of Play Material on Discourse during Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Elizabeth I.; Murray, Sharon E.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the conversational behavior of 36 children (ages 48-59 months) playing in dyads with 3 different materials (modeling dough, a farm set, and animal puppets) found that each toy elicited the same amount of talking, though there were differences in discourse structure attributable to play materials. (DB)

  14. Children's Play in Diverse Cultures. Children's Play in Society Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; And Others

    This book illuminates play as a universal and culture-specific activity. It provides needed information about the behavior of children in diverse cultural contexts as well as about the play of children in unassimilated cultural or subcultural contexts. It offers readers the opportunity to develop greater sensitivity to and better understanding of…

  15. Understanding Young Children's Learning through Play: Building Playful Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhead, Pat; Burt, Andy

    2011-01-01

    This timely and accessible text introduces, theorises and practically applies two important concepts which now underpin early years practice: those of "playful learning" and "playful pedagogies". Pat Broadhead and Andy Burt draw upon filmed material, conversations with children, reflection, observation, and parental and staff interviews, in their…

  16. Is Salicylic Acid a Translocated Signal of Systemic Acquired Resistance in Tobacco?

    PubMed Central

    Shulaev, V.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous signal in the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in some dicotyledonous plants. In tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-resistant Xanthi-nc tobacco, SA levels increase systemically following the inoculation of a single leaf with TMV. To determine the extent to which systemic increases in SA result from SA export from the inoculated leaf, SA produced in TMV-inoculated or healthy leaves was noninvasively labeled with 18O2. Spatial and temporal distribution of 18O-SA indicated that most of the SA detected in the healthy tissues was synthesized in the inoculated leaf. No significant increase in the activity of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, the last enzyme involved in SA biosynthesis, was detected in upper uninoculated leaves, although the basal level of enzyme activity was relatively high. No increases in SA level, pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene expression, or TMV resistance in the upper uninoculated leaf were observed if the TMV-inoculated leaf was detached up to 60 hr after inoculation. Apart from the inoculated tissues, the highest increase in SA was observed in the leaf located directly above the inoculated leaf. The systemic SA increase observed during SAR may be explained by phloem transport of SA from the inoculation sites. PMID:12242358

  17. Symbolic play and language development.

    PubMed

    Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent.

  19. Morbid obesity in a young woman affected by advanced chronic kidney disease: an exceptional case report. Does a high dose of essential amino acids play a key role in therapeutic success?

    PubMed Central

    Caria, S; Murtas, S; Loria, G; Dioguardi, F S; Secci, R; Bolasco, P

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman, obese (219 kg), diabetic, hypertensive, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, with low plasma albumin level (2.9 g dl−1) and marked proteinuria (22 g per day) was studied. Given the advanced-stage CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, we supplemented low-protein diet with high doses of a tailored essential amino acid mixture (AAs: 44 g per day) to improve weight reduction in the patient. After 20 months of conservative therapy, the patient lost 43 kg; despite two episodes of infection, albumin plasma levels increased up to 3.7 g per day. After a further 20 months of dialysis, the patient maintained a diet of 1800 kcal supplemented with 32 g of AAs and lost 47 kg, whereas both albumin (3.89±0.12 g dl−1) and C reactive protein returned to normal. During the follow-up period, anemia improved, erythropoietin was thus discontinued and insulin requirement decreased to 105 IU. This therapeutic option may be beneficial in advanced CKD patients with obesity and diabetes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:26926587

  20. Nrf2- and Bach1 May Play a Role in the Modulation of Ultraviolet A-Induced Oxidative Stress by Acetyl-11-Keto-β-Boswellic Acid in Skin Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Wei; Xue, Fangfang; Nisar, Muhammad Farrukh; Bian, Chunxiang; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Li; Zhang, Yiguo; Bartsch, Jörg W; Zhong, Julia Li

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation causes severe oxidative stress with damage to various cellular components and concomitant inflammation and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) against UVA radiation on human skin keratinocytes. HaCaT cells were pretreated with AKBA followed by UVA irradiation. Radiation effects on cell morphology, cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and antioxidant enzymes were examined. AKBA reduces UVA irradiation-induced cell viability loss, accompanied by a decreased production of UVA-induced ROS, decreased malondialdehyde, and increased superoxide dismutase expression. In addition, AKBA increased basal and UVA-induced levels of Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2), the redox-sensitive factor, and its target genes NQO1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), whereas expression of the transcriptional repressor Bach1 (BTB and CNC homology 1) was reduced. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effects of AKBA against UVA-derived oxidative damage were accompanied by modulating expression of inflammatory mediators (i.e., cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-κB) and NOX1. AKBA protects skin cells from UVA-induced damage by modulating inflammatory mediators and/or ROS production. Therefore, AKBA has potential in the development of skin care products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Salicylic Acid Is an Uncoupler and Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Christel; Howell, Katharine A.; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James M.; Day, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on respiration and mitochondrial function was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cell cultures in the range of 0.01 to 5 mm. Cells rapidly accumulated SA up to 10-fold of the externally applied concentrations. At the lower concentrations, SA accumulation was transitory. When applied at 0.1 mm or less, SA stimulated respiration of whole cells and isolated mitochondria in the absence of added ADP, indicating uncoupling of respiration. However, at higher concentrations, respiration was severely inhibited. Measurements of ubiquinone redox poise in isolated mitochondria suggested that SA blocked electron flow from the substrate dehydrogenases to the ubiquinone pool. This inhibition could be at least partially reversed by re-isolating the mitochondria. Two active analogs of SA, benzoic acid and acetyl-SA, had the same effect as SA on isolated tobacco mitochondria, whereas the inactive p-hydroxybenzoic acid was without effect at the same concentration. SA induced an increase in Aox protein levels in cell suspensions, and this was correlated with an increase in Aox1 transcript abundance. However, when applied at 0.1 mm, this induction was transient and disappeared as SA levels in the cells declined. SA at 0.1 mm also increased the expression of other SA-responsive genes, and this induction was dependent on active mitochondria. The results indicate that SA is both an uncoupler and an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport and suggest that this underlies the induction of some genes by SA. The possible implications of this for the interpretation of SA action in plants are discussed. PMID:14684840

  2. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revista de Saúde Pública: 50 years disseminating the knowledge in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2016-12-22

    This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP - Public Health Journal) from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical "Revista de Saúde Pública" and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding. We observed significant increase in the number of articles published and diversification of subjects addressed over the 50 years, representing the consistent development of the scientific field of Nutrition in Brazil. Since its inception, RSP has played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about the main nutritional issues in Brazil. RESUMO Este trabalho descreve e comenta os artigos na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública, publicados na Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP) de 1967 a 2016. Foi realizada busca na base de dados PubMed restrita ao periódico "Revista de Saúde Pública" e utilizando termos relacionados com temáticas chaves da área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública. Foram recuperados 742 artigos e, após as exclusões dos artigos repetidos e daqueles não relacionados com a temática, foram analisados 441 artigos, agrupados segundo o tema: cárie dental, anemia, hipovitaminose A, macro/micronutrientes, desnutrição, avaliação do estado nutricional, sobrepeso/obesidade, consumo de alimentos, baixo peso ao nascer, e aleitamento materno. Observou-se incremento significativo no número de artigos publicados e a diversificação dos temas tratados ao longo destes 50 anos, retratando o consistente desenvolvimento do campo científico da Nutrição no Brasil. Desde seu início, a

  4. The Play of Socratic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those…

  5. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  6. Transmedia Play: Literacy across Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…

  7. Neuroscience, Play, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    This paper presents a brief overview of the array of neuroscience research as it applies to play and child development. The paper discusses research showing the importance of play for brain growth and child development, and recommends that families, schools and other social and corporate institutions rearrange their attitudes and priorities about…

  8. Principles of Play for Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, John

    2004-01-01

    Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

  9. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  10. The Play of Socratic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those…

  11. Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Alan B.

    In this book designed for the high school drama teacher, several commonly-taught plays are used to illustrate (1) ways to use the adolescents' experience with TV to increase their appreciation of other forms of drama, (2) practical means for removing some of the barriers to understanding plays and producing an active response to the world of the…

  12. The Fractal Self at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  13. The Social Competence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.

    This is a study of how young children gain social competence through pretend play or role playing. Subjects were 38 Caucasian children (19 females, 19 males) who were observed at four ages: 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The same set of toys, which included a doll, a saucepan, doll bottles, coffee mug, teacup, teaspoon, doll crib, blanket, toy phone…

  14. Playground Play: Educational and Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand that fun is one of the key ingredients to any playground activity. But what one may not realize is that play systems--including slides, tunnels, activity panels, and more--encourage a lot more than just fun: there is learning at work in playground play, as well as the opportunity to include children of all abilities in…

  15. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  16. Making Play Work for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Klahr, David

    2015-01-01

    Children, especially in the preschool years, learn a tremendous amount through play. Research on guided play demonstrates how schools can couple a curriculum-centered preschool program with a developmentally appropriate pedagogical approach to classroom teaching. However, to fully test this claim, we need a clear definition of the term…

  17. Including "Everyone" in Outdoor Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lynda L.; Kieff, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Presents guidelines for outdoor play that are important when young children have special needs. Details a decision-making process for planning adaptations and practical strategies for making adaptations and interventions to enhance outdoor play for children with special needs. Lists adaptations for a child who is blind, is deaf, has physical…

  18. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  19. Young Children and War Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  20. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.