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Sample records for acid sa treatment

  1. Salicylic acid (SA) bioaccessibility from SA-based poly(anhydride-ester).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael A; Yan, Yim-Fan; Ben-Elazar, Karen; Lan, Yaqi; Faig, Jonathan; Smith, Kervin; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-09-08

    The bioaccessibility of salicylic acid (SA) can be effectively modified by incorporating the pharmacological compound directly into polymers such as poly(anhydride-esters). After simulated digestion conditions, the bioaccessibility of SA was observed to be statistically different (p < 0.0001) in each sample: 55.5 ± 2.0% for free SA, 31.2 ± 2.4% the SA-diglycolic acid polymer precursor (SADG), and 21.2 ± 3.1% for SADG-P (polymer). The release rates followed a zero-order release rate that was dependent on several factors, including (1) solubilization rate, (2) macroscopic erosion of the powdered polymer, (3) hydrolytic cleavage of the anhydride bonds, and (4) subsequent hydrolysis of the polymer precursor (SADG) to SA and diglycolic acid.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  3. Expression of tomato salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related genes in Mi-1-mediated and SA-induced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Sergio; Fanelli, Elena; Leonetti, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The expression pattern of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5, considered as markers for salicylic acid (SA)-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was examined in the roots and shoots of tomato plants pre-treated with SA and subsequently infected with root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne incognita). PR-1 was up-regulated in both roots and shoots of SA-treated plants, whereas the expression of PR-5 was enhanced only in roots. The over-expression of PR-1 in the whole plant occurred as soon as 1 day after SA treatment. Up-regulation of the PR-1 gene was considered to be the main marker of SAR elicitation. One day after treatment, plants were inoculated with active juveniles (J2s) of M. incognita. The number of J2s that entered the roots and started to develop was significantly lower in SA-treated than in untreated plants at 5 and 15 days after inoculation. The expression pattern of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5 was also examined in the roots and shoots of susceptible and Mi-1-carrying resistant tomato plants infected by RKNs. Nematode infection produced a down-regulation of PR genes in both roots and shoots of SA-treated and untreated plants, and in roots of Mi-carrying resistant plants. Moreover, in resistant infected plants, PR gene expression, in particular PR-1 gene expression, was highly induced in shoots. Thus, nematode infection was demonstrated to elicit SAR in shoots of resistant plants. The data presented in this study show that the repression of host defence SA signalling is associated with the successful development of RKNs, and that SA exogenously added as a soil drench is able to trigger a SAR-like response to RKNs in tomato.

  4. Induction of salicylic acid (SA) on transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes and astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Miao, Xuexia; Wang, Yitao; Yang, Liming; Lv, Hongxin; Chen, Lingling; Ye, Naihao

    2012-09-10

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis can produce large amounts of pink carotenoid astaxanthin which is a high value ketocarotenoid. In our study, transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis in response to SA were measured using qRT-PCR. Results indicated that both 25 and 50 mg/L salicylic acid (SA) could increase astaxanthin productivity and enhance transcriptional expression of eight carotenoid genes in H. pluvialis. But these genes exhibited different expression profiles. Moreover, SA25 (25 mg/L SA) induction had a greater effect on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, psy, pds, crtR-B and lyc (more than 6-fold up-regulation) than on ipi-2, bkt and crtO, but SA50 (50 mg/L SA) treatment had a greater impact on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, pds, crtR-B and lyc than on psy, bkt and crtO. Furthermore, astaxanthin biosynthesis under SA was up-regulated mainly by ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, crtR-B, bkt and crtO at transcriptional level, lyc at post-transcriptional level and pds at both levels. Summarily, these results suggest that SA constitute molecular signals in the network of astaxanthin biosynthesis. Induction of astaxanthin accumulation by SA without any other stimuli presents an attractive application potential in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis.

  5. Effects of the new ethacrynic acid derivative SA9000 on intraocular pressure in cats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Masaki; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Kirihara, Tomoko; Konomi, Kouji; Epstein, David Lee; Hara, Hideaki

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological characteristics of the new ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivative SA9000, we examined its ocular hypotensive effects in cats and cynomolgus monkeys, its corneal toxicity in rabbits, and its binding affinities for forty-three receptors, ion channels, and second messenger systems. A 20 microl injection into the anterior chamber of eye (intracameral injection) of 0.1 mM SA9000 significantly reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) 3.8 mmHg in cats. A 10 microl intracameral injection of 1 mM SA9000 significantly reduced IOP 7 mmHg in living monkeys without evidence of in vivo (or in vitro) toxicity. The ocular hypotensive effect of SA9000 in monkeys was greater than that of ECA. The morphology of corneal endothelial and epithelial cells in rabbit eyes after intracameral injection of SA9000 was observed using electron microphotography. SA9000 at 2 mM did not induce any abnormalities, indicating that it has no corneal toxicity at a concentration higher than the minimum needed for an ocular hypotensive effect (1 mM). SA9000 at 0.01 mM showed negligible binding affinity for, or inhibition of, forty-three different receptors, ion channel proteins, and second messenger systems. These findings indicate that SA9000 has the potential to be both effective and safe as an ocular hypotensive drug, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  6. Effects of the new ethacrynic acid oxime derivative SA12590 on intraocular pressure in cats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Atsushi; Kirihara, Tomoko; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Tajima, Hisashi; Matsugi, Takeshi; Epstein, David Lee

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological characteristics of SA12590, a new oxime-derivative of the ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivative SA9000, we examined both its ocular hypotensive effects (in ocular normotensive cats and cynomolgus monkeys) and its potential corneal toxicity (in rats). A 50 microl topical administration of 3% SA12590 significantly reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) (by 3.5 mmHg) in anesthetized cats (p<0.05). Twenty-four hours after 3 drops (5-min intervals) of 20 microl 3% SA12590, IOP was reduced by 8 mmHg (p<0.05, n=4) in conscious monkeys without evidence of corneal toxicity. Three days' daily single 20 microl dosing with 3% SA12590 reduced IOP by 4 mmHg (p<0.01, n=3) at 72 h after the first administration in conscious monkeys. The toxicity of topically administered 20 microl 3% SA9000 or SA12590 (3 drops with 5-min intervals) on rat corneal epithelium was assessed using a photo-slit lamp. In this study, 3% SA12590, unlike 3% SA9000, exhibited no corneal toxicity. In a glutathione assay for sulfhydryl (SH) reactivity, SA12590, unlike SA9000, displayed no in vitro SH reactivity. Thus, oxime-modification may both improve efficacy towards IOP upon topical administration and improve the safety profile, probably by enhancing corneal penetration and minimizing SH reactivity-related toxicity. These findings indicate that SA12590 has potential as a new ocular hypotensive drug.

  7. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1(st) step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2(nd) step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment.

  8. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  9. Salicylic acid treatment of pea seeds induces its de novo synthesis.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Gabriella; Horgosi, Szabina; Soós, Vilmos; Majláth, Imre; Balázs, Ervin; Janda, Tibor

    2011-02-15

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is known as a signal molecule in the induction of defense mechanisms in plants, could be a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the distribution of SA in young pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings grown from seeds soaked in (3)H-labeled SA solution before sowing, and to study the physiological changes induced by this seed treatment. The most pronounced changes in SA levels occurred in the epicotyl and the seeds. Radioactivity was detected only in the bound form of SA, the majority of which was localized in the seeds, and only a very low level of radioactivity was detected in the epicotyl. SA pre-treatment increased the expression of the chorismate synthase and isochorismate synthase genes in the epicotyl. Pre-soaking the seeds in SA increased the activities of some antioxidant enzymes, namely ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and the level of ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid, but decreased the level of polyamines. These results suggest that the increased level of free and bound SA detected in plants growing from seeds soaked in SA solution before sowing is the product of de novo synthesis, rather than having been taken up and mobilized by the plants.

  10. Preliminary treatment of bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, with trx-SA1, recombinant endolysin of S. aureus bacteriophage IME-SA1.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jindai; Zeng, Zhiliang; Mai, Kaijie; Yang, Yu; Feng, Jiaqi; Bai, Yang; Sun, Baoli; Xie, Qingmei; Tong, Yigang; Ma, Jingyun

    2016-08-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a great threat to human and animal health and there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial agents to control this pathogen. The objective of this study was to obtain an active recombinant endolysin from the novel bacteriophage (IME-SA1), and conduct an efficacy trial of its effectiveness against bovine mastitis. We isolated a phage that was virulent and specific for S. aureus with an optimal multiplicity of infection of 0.01. Electron microscopy revealed that IME-SA1 was a member of the family Myoviridae, with an isometric head (98nm) and a long contractile tail (200nm). Experimental lysis experiments indicated the phage had an incubation period of 20min with a burst size of 80. When host bacteria were in early exponential growth stages, a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 resulted in a complete bacterial lysis after 9h. The endolysin gene (804bp) was cloned into the pET-32a bacterial expression vector and recombinant endolysin Trx-SA1 was successfully obtained with molecular size of about 47kDa. Preliminary results of therapeutic trials in cow udders showed that Trx-SA1 could effectively control mild clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. The endolysin Trx-SA1 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by S. aureus, including MRSA.

  11. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  12. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  13. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates occurrence of citrus canker in susceptible navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-08-15

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H₂O₂ level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion.

  14. Silicon-mediated resistance of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew involves mechanisms other than the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence pathway.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Labbé, Caroline; Menzies, James G; Bélanger, Richard R

    2015-08-01

    On absorption by plants, silicon (Si) offers protection against many fungal pathogens, including powdery mildews. The mechanisms by which Si exerts its prophylactic role remain enigmatic, although a prevailing hypothesis suggests that Si positively influences priming. Attempts to decipher Si properties have been limited to plants able to absorb Si, which excludes the model plant Arabidopsis because it lacks Si influx transporters. In this work, we were able to engineer Arabidopsis plants with an Si transporter from wheat (TaLsi1) and to exploit mutants (pad4 and sid2) deficient in salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence responses to study their phenotypic response and changes in defence expression against Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) following Si treatment. Our results showed that TaLsi1 plants contained significantly more Si and were significantly more resistant to Gc infection than control plants when treated with Si, the first such demonstration in a plant transformed with a heterologous Si transporter. The resistant plants accumulated higher levels of SA and expressed higher levels of transcripts encoding defence genes, thus suggesting a role for Si in the process. However, TaLsi1 pad4 and TaLsi1 sid2 plants were also more resistant to Gc than were pad4 and sid2 plants following Si treatment. Analysis of the resistant phenotypes revealed a significantly reduced production of SA and expression of defence genes comparable with susceptible controls. These results indicate that Si contributes to Arabidopsis defence priming following pathogen infection, but highlight that Si will confer protection even when priming is altered. We conclude that Si-mediated protection involves mechanisms other than SA-dependent defence responses.

  15. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... This is an amino acid that helps remove ammonia from the blood. Babies with HCY may need ...

  16. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  17. Clinical observation of salvianolic acid B in treatment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-Yang; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Da-Yuan; Xue, Hui-Ming; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Lie- Ming; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Gu, Hong-Tu; Zhang, Zhi-Qing

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of salvianolic acid B (SA-B) on liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: Sixty patients with definite diagnosis of liver fibrosis with hepatitis B were included in the trial. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was used as control drug. The patients took orally SA-B tablets or received muscular injection of IFN-γ in the double blind randomized test. The complete course lasted 6 mo. The histological changes of liver biopsy specimen before and after the treatment were the main evidence in evaluation, in combination with the results of contents of serum HA, LN, IV-C, P-III-P, liver ultrasound imaging, and symptoms and signs. RESULTS: Reverse rate of fibrotic stage was 36.67% in SA-B group and 30.0% in IFN-γ group. Inflammatory alleviating rate was 40.0% in SA-B group and 36.67% in IFN-γ group. The average content of HA and IV-C was significantly lower than that before treatment. The abnormal rate also decreased remarkably. Overall analysis of 4 serological fibrotic markers showed significant improvement in SA-B group as compared with the IFN-γ group. Score of liver ultrasound imaging was lower in SA-B group than in IFN-γ group (HA 36.7% vs 80%, IV-C 3.3% vs 23.2%). Before the treatment, ALT AST activity and total bilirubin content of patients who had regression of fibrosis after oral administration of SA-B, were significantly lower than those of patients who had aggravation of fibrosis after oral administration of SA-B. IFN-γ showed certain side effects (fever and transient decrease of leukocytes, occurrence rates were 50% and 3.23%), but SA-B showed no side effects. CONCLUSION: SA-B could effectively reverse liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B. SA-B was better than IFN-γ in reduction of serum HA content, overall decrease of 4 serum fibrotic markers, and decrease of ultrasound imaging score. Liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B with slight liver injury was more suitable to SA-B in anti-fibrotic treatment. SA-B showed no

  18. Metabolomic profiles of myocardial ischemia under treatment with salvianolic acid B

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) has been used as a principal herb in treating cardiovascular diseases in Chinese medicine. Salvianolic acid B (SA-B), a water-soluble active component of Danshen, was found to have anti-myocardial ischemia (anti-MI) effect. This study aims to investigate mechanisms of SA-B on MI. Methods Five conventional Western medicines (isosorbide dinitrate, verapamil, propranolol, captopril and trimethazine) with different mechanisms for treating cardiovascular diseases were selected as positive references to compare with SA-B in changing of the metabolomic profiles in MI rats under treatment. Potential mechanisms of SA-B were further investigated in H9C2 cell line. Results The metabolomic profiles between SA-B- and propranolol-treated MI rats were similar, since there was a big overlap between the two groups in the PLS-DA score plot. Finally, it was demonstrated that SA-B exhibited a protective effect on MI mainly by decreasing the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca2+ and inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA). Conclusion SA-B and propanolol exhibited similar metabolomic profiles, indicating that the two drugs might have a similar mechanism. PMID:22409910

  19. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  20. Salicylic Acid and Calcium Treatments Improves Wheat Vigor, Lipids and Phenolics Under High Salinity.

    PubMed

    Yücel Candan, Nilgün; Heybet Elif, Haklı

    2016-12-01

    Seed vigor is a complex physiological trait required to ensure the rapid and uniform emergence of plants in the field under different environmental conditions. Therefore, salicylic acid (SA, 0.5 mM) and calcium (Ca2+, 50 mM) priming were used as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Yelken) seed vigor under high salinity. The main aim was to address whether priming of wheat with SA, Ca2+ and SA+Ca (SA, 0.5 mM + Ca2+, 50 mM; their combination) could bring about supplementary agronomic benefits particularly under stressful environments such as salinity. Exogenous application of SA or Ca2+ alone improved plant behavior in the presence of salinity stress. Nevertheless, the best results in terms of growth, seed vigor and total phenolic - flavonoids, chlorophyll - carotenoids contents and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), ascorbic acide oxidase (AAO) activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) were obtained in response to the combined SA+Ca treatment.

  1. Surfactant-modified fatty acid composition of Citrobacter sp. SA01 and its effect on phenanthrene transmembrane transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-07-01

    The effects of the surfactants, Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on a membrane's fatty acid composition and the transmembrane transport of phenanthrene were investigated. The results indicated that both surfactants could modify the composition of fatty acids of Citrobacter sp. Strain SA01 cells, 50 mg L(-1) of both surfactants changed the composition of the fatty acids the most, increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The comparison of fatty acid profiles with diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy, a probe for plasma membrane fluidity, suggested that an increased amount of unsaturated fatty acids corresponded to greater membrane fluidity. In addition, increased unsaturated fatty acids promoted phenanthrene to partition from the extracellular matrix to cell debris, which increased reverse partitioning from the cell debris to the cytochylema. The results of this study were expected in that the addition of a surfactant is a simple and effective method for accelerating the rate-limiting step of transmembrane transport of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in bioremediation.

  2. Sweating treatment enhances citrus fruit disease resistance by inducing the accumulation of amino acids and salicylic acid-induced resistance pathway.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ze; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-04-20

    To clarify the mechanism of fruit disease resistance activated by sweating treatment, 'Guoqing NO.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were treated by sweating, which is a traditional prestorage treatment in China. Subsequently, we performed inoculation and physiological characterization, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomics analysis and metabonomics analysis based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-qTOF-MS). The results showed that sweating treatment significantly inhibited pathogen infection without negatively affecting the fruit commercial quality. In addition, sweating treatment rapidly promoted the accumulation of amino acids (such as proline and serine). Meanwhile, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) were significantly accumulated in the sweating-treated fruit. Thereafter, some stress-response proteins and metabolites [such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), β-1,3-glucanase, vanillic acid and rutin] which can be induced by SA were also significantly increased in the sweating-treated fruit. Taken together, the disease resistance induced by sweating treatment might be attributed to: (1) the induction of the accumulation of amino acids; and (2) the accumulation of SA and subsequent activation of SA-induced resistance pathway, which can induce the stress-response proteins and metabolites that can directly inhibit pathogen development.

  3. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  4. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Andrew S.; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  5. Sa-am Five-element Acupuncture and Hwangyeon- haedoktang Pharmacopuncture Treatment for an Essential Tremor: Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Jin; Sun, Seung-Ho

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the effect of a combination of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (EPP) for the treatment of an essential tremor (ET). This study reviewed the medical records treated at OO Korean medical hospital for ET by using diverse types of acupuncture without herbal medicine, other types of physical therapy, and western medication related ET or Parkinson's disease and was performed after the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). The three cases that were finally selected were then extracted and reviewed. The three cases that were finally selected involved three women in their 70s to 80s. The evaluation of the progress was made by using the numeric rating scale. A combined treatment, the method of liver excess (), from amongSa-am five-element acupuncture, and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP at CV23 and CV17, was applied to all cases. In all three cases, the ET was improved, and recurred ETs improved with the same treatment. The results suggest that the combined treatment of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP may be effective for treating an ET, even though this conclusion is based on only three cases.

  6. Physiological and metabolic changes of Cucurbita pepo leaves in response to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infection and salicylic acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Deya Eldeen Mohammed; Fayez, Khalaf Ali; Mahmoud, Sabry Younis; Hamad, Ahmed; Lu, Guoquan

    2007-01-01

    The changes of some physiological and biochemical parameters in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cv Eskandarani) leaves associated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infection and the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) were studied in this paper. In comparison to the untreated leaves, ZYMV infected leaves showed many symptoms, including severe mosaic, size reduction, stunting and deformation. Results from analysis of physiological parameters indicated that viral infection and SA treatments affected metabolism. Viral infection decreased pigment, protein and carbohydrate levels. But with all SA treatments, the protein and carbohydrate contents are noticeably increased. Moreover, the other biochemical parameters showed variable alterations. The peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activity and proline contents were induced by both viral infection and SA treatments. In addition, protein patterns represent some newly synthesized polypeptides which reflect formation of pathogenesis related proteins in all treatments. SA treatment increases the plant resistance against ZYMV. This can be noticed through reduction of percentage of the infected plants, decrease in disease severity and virus concentration of the plants treated with SA then inoculated with virus. All results show significant changes in metabolism affected by either viral infection or SA treatments and also indicate that exogenous SA plays an important role in induction of defense mechanism against ZYMV infection.

  7. Acid peptic diseases: pharmacological approach to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Alex; Kraft, Walter K

    2011-01-01

    Acid peptic disorders are the result of distinctive, but overlapping pathogenic mechanisms leading to either excessive acid secretion or diminished mucosal defense. They are common entities present in daily clinical practice that, owing to their chronicity, represent a significant cost to healthcare. Key elements in the success of controlling these entities have been the development of potent and safe drugs based on physiological targets. The histamine-2 receptor antagonists revolutionized the treatment of acid peptic disorders owing to their safety and efficacy profile. The proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent a further therapeutic advance due to more potent inhibition of acid secretion. Ample data from clinical trials and observational experience have confirmed the utility of these agents in the treatment of acid peptic diseases, with differential efficacy and safety characteristics between and within drug classes. Paradigms in their speed and duration of action have underscored the need for new chemical entities that, from a single dose, would provide reliable duration of acid control, particularly at night. Moreover, PPIs reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs, reflecting untargeted physiopathologic pathways and a breach in the ability to sustain an intragastric pH of more than 4. This review provides an assessment of the current understanding of the physiology of acid production, a discussion of medications targeting gastric acid production and a review of efficacy in specific acid peptic diseases, as well as current challenges and future directions in the treatment of acid-mediated diseases. PMID:21822447

  8. [Injection treatment with hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the spectrum of indications for the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) based on the recommendations of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI), the International Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) taking the reality of patient care in Europe into account.

  9. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of SA-543 High-Strength Steel in All-Volatile Treatment Boiler Feed Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihan, R.; Basha, M.; Al-Meshari, A.; Bayramov, A.; van Zyl, G.; Dafalla, H.; Mohamed, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility of SA-543 steel, its welds (with and without stress relief treatment), and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was investigated in de-aerated and aerated boiler feed water subjected to the all-volatile treatment (AVT-BFW), and distilled water at 275 °C using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. The SSRT specimens were tested at three extension rates (3.50 × 10-6, 9.00 × 10-6, and 7.50 × 10-5 mm/s) using a novel SCC testing rig capable of testing at high temperatures and pressures. There are no significant differences in the time-to-failure among the four tested specimens. The elongation of the specimens at the time of failure is in the range of 10-23%. The reduction of the cross-sectional area of the failed specimens is large (45-77%) and the absence of any signs of intergranular propagation in fractured specimens, determined by scanning electron microscopy, indicates that the failure is due to mechanical load and not due to SCC. Dissolved oxygen does not affect the susceptibility of the specimens to SCC, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the test solution. SA-543 steel as the base metal, its welds (with and without stress relief treatment), and the HAZ are suitable for use in hot AVT-BFW and distilled water.

  11. Treatment for an Adult Patient With Psoriasis with Traditional Korean Medicine, Especially Sa-Am Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this clinical study, the author tried to prove that meridians, each having its own characteristics, exist in humans through which skin diseases can be treated. Three meridians, the hand tai-yin meridian, the hand tai-yang meridian, and the shao-yang meridian, were used to control lung dryness and heat and liver fire. By using the LU9 and SP3 acupoints to tonify the hand tai-yin meridian and the SI3 acupoint to tonify the hand tai-yang meridian, we could sedate lung dryness and heat, and by using the TW2 acupoint to sedate the hand shao-yang meridian, we could sedate liver fire. As psoriasis is known not to respond well to many clinical treatments, this report presents the case of an adult woman with psoriasis who was effectively treated using traditional Korean medicine (TKM). The patient was diagnosed with psoriasis based on lung dryness and heat and liver fire. Acupuncture and herbal medicine based on the theory of Sa-Am acupuncture were given to the patient. With this treatment, her symptoms completely disappeared in ∼14 months. This study gives a preliminary indication that TKM, especially Sa-Am acupuncture, can be effective for treating psoriasis. Thus, further study is warranted.

  12. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  13. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites.

  14. Inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current (if) of rabbit SA node myocytes by niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Accili, E A; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-03-01

    The effects of the amphiphilic substance niflumic acid (NFA) were examined in myocytes isolated from the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. NFA (50 and 500 microM), for 30-60 s, produced a reversible negative chronotropic effect by reducing the rate of diastolic depolarization, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (if). NFA (from 0.05 to 500 microM) inhibited if by modifying the current kinetics, without alteration of the conductance. This was shown by evidence indicating that: (1) NFA inhibited if during hyperpolarizing pulses to the mid-point of if activation but not at fully activating voltages; (2) the slope and reversal potential of the fully activated current/voltage (I/V) relation were not altered by NFA, indicating no change in slope conductance or ion selectivity; and (3) hyperpolarizing ramp protocols confirmed the lack of action of 50 microM NFA on the fully activated current and a shift of approximately -8 mV. Although similar to inhibition by acetylcholine (ACh), inhibition by NFA was only partly additive with the action of ACh and was not altered by atropine or pertussis toxin, both of which eliminated the action of ACh. The effect of NFA was present after stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and after inhibition of phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In cell-attached patch measurements, NFA applied externally did not affect if measured in the patch. Finally, application of NFA to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches did not alter the current in the absence or presence of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). These results suggest an external, membrane-delimited action of NFA on if.

  15. [Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M; Passi, S; Picardo, M; Breathnach, A S; Zina, G

    1989-04-01

    This review is an update of the literature accumulated over the past 6 years following the original observation that topically applied azelaic acid, a non-toxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, has a beneficial therapeutic effect on acne vulgaris. These studies have shown that azelaic acid has a modulating influence on the process of keratinization, and that it acts as a keratolytic and anti-comedogenic agent. There is evidence that it inhibits mitochondrial and microsomal oxido-reductases, including 5-alpha-reductase, and that it may interfere with the process of sebogenesis. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against aerobic microorganisms and is effective against the anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes. Extensive multi-centre clinical trials have established that topical azelaic acid (a 20% cream) is an effective treatment for all types of acne. It compares well with other agents, such as topical tretinoin or benzoyl-peroxide, or oral tetracycline. It is non-irritant, and does not give rise to allergic or photo-toxic reactions. Its use is not associated with teratogenicity, possible endocrine unbalance, or the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment. It can be applied for long periods, in recurrences, and as maintenance "spot" therapy against individual lesions.

  16. The dye or humic acid water treatment and membrane fouling by polyaluminum chloride composited with sodium alginate in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2013-01-01

    Composite flocculants have been extensively studied and applied in recent years in order to improve the water treatment efficiency. In this study, a new composite flocculant prepared by polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and sodium alginate (SA) was used to treat dye and humic acid water in the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. The subsequent effects of PAC/SA on ultrafiltration membrane fouling were investigated by calculating the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). The results showed that the application of PAC/SA could not only restrict the membrane fouling but also improve the removal efficiency of the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. MFI of PAC/SA was the lowest, followed by PAC and the raw water for coagulated effluents filtered by ultrafiltration membrane. For example, MFI of PAC/SA was 0.40 s mL(-2) for reactive blue KGL (denoted as RB-KGL) treatment, while that of PAC was 2.26 s mL(-2). The removal efficiencies were improved as coagulation was used as pretreatment of ultrafiltration membrane. And PAC/SA could form the higher removal efficiency than PAC, especially for RB-KGL. The color removal efficiency of PAC/SA was 96.36% for RB-KGL treated by coagulation-ultrafiltration process, which was higher than that of PAC (85.62%).

  17. Study on rheo-diecasting process of 7075R alloys by SA-EMS melt homogenized treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihua, G.; Jun, X.; Zhifeng, Z.; Guojun, L.; Mengou, T.

    2016-03-01

    An advanced melt processing technology, spiral annular electromagnetic stirring (SA-EMS) based on the annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) process was developed for manufacturing Al-alloy components with high integrity. The SA-EMS process innovatively combines non-contact electromagnetic stirring and a spiral annular chamber with specially designed profiles to in situ make high quality melt slurry, and intensive forced shearing can be achieved under high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence inside the spiral annular chamber. In this paper, the solidification microstructure and hardness of 7075R alloy die-casting connecting rod conditioned by the SA-EMS melt processing technology were investigated. The results indicate that, the SA-EMS melt processing technology exhibited superior grain refinement and remarkable structure homogeneity. In addition, it can evidently enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the crack tendency.

  18. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  19. Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

    1990-03-01

    During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

  20. [Clinical effectiveness of salvianolic acid B and triamcinolone acetonide in treatment of oral submucous fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Jian, X C; Zheng, L; Zhu, R; Wang, B P; Zhou, T; Du, Y X

    2017-01-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of salvianolic acid B (SA-B) and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) by means of combined intralesional injection in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Methods: According to clinical findings and symptoms, TA combined with SA-B were consecutively applied intralesionally 1 time weekly for 30 times. Mouth opening degree, color change of the buccal mucosae and numeral increase of the capillary vessels were determined by degree Ⅰ-Ⅳ visual analog scale were evaluated at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Results: One hundred and fourteen subjects fulfilled the study without obvious adverse reactions. After treatment for 1 year, the net gain in mouth opening of the early stage group was (5.5 ± 1.5) mm at 12 months, (8.8 ± 1.6) mm at 24 months and (12.0±1.2) mm at 36 months. The net gain in mouth opening of the middle stage group were (5.3±1.7) mm at 12 months, (10.5±1.5) mm at 24 months and (14.5±2.4) mm at 36 months. The net gain in mouth opening of the advanced stage group were (5.7±1.3) mm at 12 months, (13.7±1.3) mm at 24 months and (15.5±1.5) mm at 36 months. The effective rates of color change of the buccal mucosae and numeral increase of the capillary vessels after treatment for 36 months were 100% in early stage group, 93% (51/55) in middle stage group and 90% (36/40) in advanced stage group. Conclusions: TA and SA-B combined intralesional injection in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis is effective.

  1. Hydrolysis of substance P in the presence of the osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2: release of free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Marini, Mario; Roda, L Giorgio; Tarantino, Umberto; Valenti, Angela

    2011-12-01

    The possible hydrolysis of substance P (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met) in presence of the osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2 was measured by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass detection. The results obtained indicate that a very rapid disappearance of the intact undecapeptide was associated to a slower appearance of seven of its eight component amino acids. These results can be interpreted as indicating that an extremely fast hydrolysis of substance P by endopeptidases, which released peptidic by-products, was followed by a noticeably slower secondary degradation which released free amino acids. In decreasing quantitative importance, these phenomena appear to originate by the hydrolysis of the Pro(4)-Gln(5) bond, followed by C-terminal sequential degradation of the Arg(1)-Pro(4) tetrapeptide; by the hydrolysis of or Phe(7)-Phe(8) bond (or, possibly, of Gln(6)-Phe(7)) leading to release of free Phe and Gln; by hydrolysis of the Gly(9)-Leu(10) bond with subsequent release of Met and Leu. Results obtained appear to be compatible with the expression by SaOS-2 cells of enzymes already known to catalyze substance P hydrolysis, together with an apparent low efficiency of aminopeptidases. Because of the activity of C-terminal fragments on NK1 receptors, the delay between primary hydrolysis of substance P and secondary hydrolysis of its peptidic fragments indicated by the data shown implies a possible persistence of substance P physiological effects even after degradation of the intact peptide.

  2. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  3. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  4. Differential efficiency of simvastatin and lipoic acid treatments on Bothrops jararaca envenomation-induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Barone, Juliana Marton; Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2011-01-01

    Snake bite accidents by Bothrops genus is an important public health issue in Brazil and one of its most serious complications is the acute kidney injury (AKI). Here we evaluated the effects of Bothrops jararaca venom (vBj) and the treatments with lipoic acid (LA) and simvastatin (SA) on renal function, aminopeptidase (AP) activities and renal redox status. Primordial events for establishment of AKI by vBj were hyperuricemia, hypercreatinemia, urinary hyperosmolality, renal oxidative stress and reduction of hematocrit and protein content in the membrane of renal cortex and medulla and in the plasma. In the renal cortex and medulla the changes caused by vBj in soluble and membrane-bound AP activities had a similar pattern. The beneficial effects of LA and SA on envenomed mice were similar on the hyperuricemia, renal oxidative stress and reduction of hematocrit. LA mitigated the hypercreatinemia, but exacerbated the urinary urea and creatinine, whereas SA mitigated the decrease of plasma urea, urinary hyperosmolality and hypercreatinuria induced by vBj. The beneficial effects of LA and especially of SA on renal effects of vBj open a new perspective for clinical investigations of these drugs as coadjuvant agents in the serotherapy of Bothrops envenomation.

  5. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  6. Comparison of chloroxylenol 0.5% plus salicylic acid 2% cream and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Boutli, F; Zioga, M; Koussidou, T; Ioannides, D; Mourellou, O

    2003-01-01

    A 12-week double-blind randomized study was performed to compare benzoyl peroxide 5% (BP) gel and chloroxylenol 0.5% plus salicylic acid 2% (PCMX + SA) cream (Nisal cream) for efficacy and adverse reactions. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in the study, 19 in the BP group and 18 in the PCMX + SA group. The patients applied the medication twice daily to the entire face. Clinical evaluation and lesion counts were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. At week 12 both groups showed a marked improvement in both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions (60% and 54% for the BP group and 62% and 56% for and 56% for the PCMX + SA group, respectively). Although PCMX + SA showed a slightly stronger keratolytic effect throughout the study period, there was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of the papulopustules or comedones between the two groups. Adverse effects such as erythema and photosensitivity were significantly fewer in the PCMX + SA group at week 12 (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that PCMX + SA cream is as effective as BP gel in the treatment of papulopustular and comedonal acne and that it is better tolerated.

  7. Development and characterization of a hydrophobic treatment for jute fibres based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and a fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, M. A.; Dolez, P. I.; Dubé, M.; David, É.

    2017-03-01

    This work aims at developing a hydrophobic treatment for jute fibres based on the grafting and growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on the fibre surface. The first step consists in removing impurities from the fibre surface with a scouring treatment. In the second step, the jute fibres are coated with a layer of ZnO nanoseeds. A hydrothermal process is carried out as a third step to ensure a uniform growth of ZnO nanorods on the surface of the jute fibres. Finally, a hydrophobic treatment is performed on the ZnO nanorod-covered jute fibres using stearic acid (SA), i.e., a typical fatty acid. A large improvement in the fibre hydrophobicity was obtained without any negative effect on thermal stability and limited reduction in strength. Complementary measurements by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were also performed and revealed a hexagonal system for the ZnO nanorods.

  8. Salicylic acid treatment via the rooting medium interferes with stomatal response, CO2 fixation rate and carbohydrate metabolism in tomato, and decreases harmful effects of subsequent salt stress.

    PubMed

    Poór, P; Gémes, K; Horváth, F; Szepesi, A; Simon, M L; Tari, I

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) applied at 10(-3) m in hydroponic culture decreased stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximal CO(2) fixation rate (A(max) ) and initial slopes of the CO(2) (A/C(i)) and light response (A/PPFD) curves, carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (CE) and photosynthetic quantum efficiency (Q), resulting in the death of tomato plants. However, plants could acclimate to lower concentrations of SA (10(-7) -10(-4) m) and, after 3 weeks, returned to control levels of g(s), photosynthetic performance and soluble sugar content. In response to high salinity (100 mm NaCl), the pre-treated plants exhibited higher A(max) as a function of internal CO(2) concentration (C(i) ) or photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and higher CE and Q values than salt-treated controls, suggesting more effective photosynthesis after SA treatment. Growth in 10(-7) or 10(-4) m SA-containing solution led to accumulation of soluble sugars in both leaf and root tissues, which remained higher in both plant parts during salt stress at 10(-4) m SA. The activity of hexokinase (HXK) with glucose, but not fructose, as substrate was reduced by SA treatment in leaf and root samples, leading to accumulation of glucose and fructose in leaf tissues. HXK activity decreased further under high salinity in both plant organs. The accumulation of soluble sugars and sucrose in roots of plants growing in the presence of 10(-4) m SA contributed to osmotic adjustment and improved tolerance to subsequent salt stress. Apart from its putative role in delaying senescence, decreased HXK activity may divert hexoses from catabolic reactions to osmotic adaptation.

  9. [The use of essential fatty acids in the treatments of wounds].

    PubMed

    Manhezi, Andreza Cano; Bachion, Maria Márcia; Pereira, Angela Lima

    2008-01-01

    In spite of being widely spread throughout Brazil, the use of essential fatty acids (EFA) for wound healing is controversial. This study aimed at identifying and analyzing the available scientific evidence for EFA to be used in the treatment of wounds. This is a descriptive study, carried out through a systematic literature review, concerning the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Health Online Library) and PubMed data bank, from 1970 to 2006. Initially, we identified 503 references. After the relevance tests I and II, 11 articles were included in the analysis, showing evidence of recommendation- level II and III for EFA to be used in burns, mediastinitis, among others situations. Most studies still refer to its use in animal. Relevant publications are still scarce.

  10. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  11. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  12. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  13. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  14. 15. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. ACID TREATMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. ACID TREATMENT, CUTTING EQUIPMENT, LOCKERS ABANDONED ON SITE. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS VISIBLE HANGING FROM CEILING. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  16. Endogenous salicylic acid protects rice plants from oxidative damage caused by aging as well as biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinong; Qi, Min; Mei, Chuansheng

    2004-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key endogenous signal that mediates defense gene expression and disease resistance in many dicotyledonous species. In contrast to tobacco and Arabidopsis, which contain low basal levels of SA, rice has two orders of magnitude higher levels of SA and appears to be insensitive to exogenous SA treatment. To determine the role of SA in rice plants, we have generated SA-deficient transgenic rice by expressing the bacterial salicylate hydroxylase that degrades SA. Depletion of high levels of endogenous SA in transgenic rice does not measurably affect defense gene expression, but reduces the plant's capacity to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). SA-deficient transgenic rice contains elevated levels of superoxide and H2O2, and exhibits spontaneous lesion formation in an age- and light-dependent manner. Exogenous application of SA analog benzothiadiazole complements SA deficiency and suppresses ROI levels and lesion formation. Although an increase of conjugated catechol was detected in SA-deficient rice, catechol does not appear to significantly affect ROI levels based on the endogenous catechol data and exogenous catechol treatment. When infected with the blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea), SA-deficient rice exhibits increased susceptibility to oxidative bursts elicited by avirulent isolates. Furthermore, SA-deficient rice is hyperresponsive to oxidative damage caused by paraquat treatment. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that SA plays an important role to modulate redox balance and protect rice plants from oxidative stress.

  17. Polysulfone affinity membranes for the treatment of amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodemann, K; Staude, E

    1995-06-20

    Affinity membranes for the treatment of solutions containing amino acids were obtained via lithiating polysulfone that was subsequently converted with glycidylether. From this polymer asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes were cast. The membranes were reacted with iminodiacetic acid yielding membranes fitted out with bidentate chelates. The same reaction path was applied to commercially available symmetric microfiltration membranes. The chelate-bearing membranes were complexed with Cu, Ni, and Zn ions. For the experiments with amino acids only the Cu-complexed membranes were used. The complexation constants for histidine and tryptophan for six different membranes were determined. Because of the affinity of these two amino acids for the complexed Cu ions, they could easily be separated from solutions containing amino acids such as alanine, glycine, and valine. Also, concentrating very dilute amino acid solutions was carried out successfully.

  18. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%.

  19. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  20. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents.

  1. Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Kalaiselvi, Marimuthu Maruthi; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2016-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars ‘IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46’ under greenhouse condition. MeSA seed treatments at 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L significantly increased seedling emergence. Effects were stronger in IR 50, and IR 64 and the effects were dose dependent, although the relationship between dose and effect was not always linear. MeSA seed treated rice plant against bacterial blight were analyzed. Bacterial blight was more effectively controlled by the seed treated with 100 mg/L than others. These results suggest that seed treatment with MeSA alters plant physiology in ways that may be useful for crop production as well as protection. PMID:27725719

  2. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Y; Ohtsuka, Y; Shimizu, T; Nittono, H; Urao, M; Miyano, T; Kawakami, S; Hayasawa, H

    1994-03-01

    To assess whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment has any beneficial effect on essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in patients who have had a Kasai operation for extrahepatic atresia (EBA), responses of serum fatty acids to UDCA administration (15 mg/kg/d) were investigated in eight jaundice-free patients and in eight patients with jaundice (serum total bilirubin > or = 1.0 mg/dL). All patients were also given taurine supplementation (100 mg/kg/d). Serum fatty acid composition was determined before and 6 months after UDCA treatment. Serum total bile acid concentration and serum total bilirubin value, as a part of conventional liver function tests, were measured before and during UDCA therapy. Before UDCA treatment, the concentrations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly lower (P > .05 for the former; P > .01 for the latter) in both the jaundice and jaundice-free groups than in the controls. After 6 months of treatment, the linoleic acid concentration significantly increased (P > .05), to the normal range, in the jaundice-free group, but not in the jaundice group. The arachidonic acid concentration did not increase significantly in either group. The serum total bile acid concentration was lower in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients. The serum total bilirubin value decreased in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients; however, the degree of improvement was not statistically significant in either group. No side effects developed, and there were no changes in blood chemistry values unrelated to liver disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid – treated patients (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects. PMID:27904577

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

  5. Free amino acids: an innovative treatment for ocular surface disease.

    PubMed

    Rusciano, Dario; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; Gagliano, Caterina; Pezzino, Salvatore

    2016-09-15

    Amino acids are the basic constituents of living organisms, and have both a structural and an active dynamic role in tissue and cell physiology. Human tears contain 23 amino acids, the relative proportion of which may change with the different physiological states of the eye surface. In this review, we present a collection of data from the published literature that indicate an active role of amino acids in the maintenance of eye surface homeostasis. Moreover, another series of published clinical data indicate that supplementation of amino acids, either as food supplements or as a topical treatment in enriched eye drops, is beneficial to the eye surface, and may improve its healing in cases of eye surface disease due to different causes.

  6. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  7. Novel interrelationship between salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and PIP2-specific phospholipase C in heat acclimation-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yan-Yan; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Yang, Hao-Ru; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that heat acclimation and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) may lead to the enhancement of thermotolerance in plants. In this study, the roles that free SA, conjugated SA, ABA, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-specific phospholipase C (PLC) play in thermotolerance development induced by heat acclimation (38 degrees C) were investigated. To evaluate their potential functions, three inhibitors of synthesis or activity were infiltrated into pea leaves prior to heat acclimation treatment. The results showed that the burst of free SA in response to heat acclimation could be attributed to the conversion of SA 2-O-D-glucose, the main conjugated form of SA, to free SA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis also resulted in a defect in the free SA peak during heat acclimation. In acquired thermotolerance assessment, the greatest weakness of antioxidant enzyme activity and the most severe heat injury (malondialdehyde content and degree of wilting) were found in pea leaves pre-treated with neomycin, a well-known inhibitor of PIP(2)-PLC activity. PsPLC gene expression was activated by exogenous ABA, SA treatments, and heat acclimation after pre-treatments with a SA biosynthesis inhibitor. From these results, PIP(2)-PLC appears to play a key role in free SA- and ABA-associated reinforcement of thermotolerance resulting from heat acclimation.

  8. The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

  9. Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Geetha; Wilks, Jessica C; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6) or in base (pH 8–9). The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4) which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA), succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD), biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC), and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI) were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA) presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease) showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and

  10. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  11. Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

    1983-03-01

    Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

  12. Acidic and hydrogen peroxide treatment of polyaluminum chloride (PACL) sludge from water treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, J H; Park, K Y; Park, J H; Lee, S H; Ahn, K H

    2004-01-01

    The water treatment sludge including coagulants cannot be easily removed by conventional dewatering methods. The possibility of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation as a pretreatment to enhance the dewaterability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) sludge from water works was investigated. H2O2 treatment alone was not effective but H2O2 treatment under acidic condition significantly reduced both the cake water content and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), indicating the enhancement of dewaterability and filterability. The filterability after acid/H2O2 treatment was comparable to polymer conditioning and even more dewatered cake than polymer conditioning was produced. By H202 combined with sulfuric acid (H2SO4), leached iron caused Fenton's reaction, which showed a potential to significantly reduce the amount of solids mass and to produce more compact cake with higher filterability.

  13. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. PMID:27355080

  14. Electrochemical Sensors for Detection of Acetylsalicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Supalkova, Veronika; Petrek, Jiri; Havel, Ladislav; Krizkova, Sona; Petrlova, Jitka; Adam, Vojtech; Potesil, David; Babula, Petr; Beklova, Miroslava; Horna, Ales; Kizek, Rene

    2006-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (AcSA), or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and has been used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggest electrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wave voltammetry (SWV) using both carbon paste electrode (CPE) and of graphite pencil electrode (GPE) as working ones to indirect determination of AcSA. The principle of indirect determination of AcSA bases in its hydrolysis on salicylic acid (SA), which is consequently detected. Thus, we optimized both determination of SA and conditions for AcSA hydrolysis and found out that the most suitable frequency, amplitude, step potential and the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte for the determination of SA was 260 Hz, 50 mV, 10 mV and Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.81), respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) of the SA was 1.3 ng/ml. After that, we aimed on indirect determination of AcSA by SWV CPE. We tested the influence of pH of Britton-Robinson buffer and temperature on yield of hydrolysis, and found out that 100% hydrolysis of AcSA was reached after 80 minutes at pH 1.81 and 90°C. The method for indirect determination of AcSA has been utilized to analyse pharmaceutical drug. The determined amount of AcSA in the pharmaceutical drug was in good agreement with the declared amounts. Moreover, we used GPE for determination of AcSA in a pharmaceutical drug. Base of the results obtained from stationary electrochemical instrument we used flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection to determine of salicylates (SA, AcSA, thiosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid – SuSA). We found out that we are able to determine all of detected salicylates directly without any pre-treatment, hydrolysis and so on at units of femtomoles per injection (5 μl).

  15. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-yuan; Cao, Hong-yan; Cheng, Gen-hong; Sun, Ming-yu

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions. PMID:24963489

  16. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed.

  17. A comparison of a 5% potassium hydroxide solution with a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid combination in the treatment of patients with anogenital warts: a randomized, open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Işik, Selda; Koca, Rafet; Sarici, Gülben; Altinyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2014-09-01

    Anogenital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), over 30 types of which are infectious for the anogenital tract. Without treatment, warts may regress spontaneously, remain unchanged, or increase in number and size. This study compared the efficacy of a topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with that of a topical 0.5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 10% salicylic acid (SA) combination in the treatment of anogenital warts. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to receive topical KOH or 5-FU + SA. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in numbers of lesions (P < 0.05), but this difference was not significant at week 12 (P > 0.05). The mean number of lesions decreased from baseline to week 12 from 17.03 ± 12.64 to 3.73 ± 7.30 and from 16.13 ± 12.97 to 3.10 ± 4.90 in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Excellent clearance was achieved by 70.0 and 76.7% of patients in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively. Marked improvement was seen in 13.3 and 20.0% of patients in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively. At week 16, relapse was observed in two patients in the KOH group and three in the 5-FU + SA group (P > 0.05). No serious adverse events were reported. Neither treatment was more efficacious. Safety and ease of application are important goals in treatments for anogenital warts. A 5% KOH solution is a promising alternative treatment because it is effective and inexpensive and causes minimal side effects.

  18. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    PubMed

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication.

  19. Cathepsin K in treatment monitoring following intravenous zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    JAHN, OLIVER; WEX, THOMAS; KLOSE, SILKE; KROPF, SIEGFRIED; ADOLF, DANIELA; PIATEK, STEFAN

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is mainly expressed by osteoclasts and plays an important role in bone resorption. As CatK is expressed and secreted by osteoclasts during active bone resorption, it may be a useful and specific biochemical marker of osteoclastic activity. Therefore, CatK serum levels were studied for monitoring the treatment of females with postmenopausal osteoporosis by zoledronic acid. The serum CatK levels were determined in nine postmenopausal females before and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. The levels were significantly reduced after 3 and 6 months (P<0.05), whereas they returned to baseline after 1 year. Taken together, the serum level of CatK may be suitable for monitoring anti-osteoporotic therapy in association with treatment response. PMID:25279169

  20. [Hyaluronic Acid (hyalgan(r)) in the treatment of gonarthritis.].

    PubMed

    Pavelka, K; Vlasáková, V; Vítová, J; Stehlíková, H; Slanský, J

    1995-01-01

    The authors made an open multicentre clinical study with the administration of hyaluronic acid (Hyalgan(R) - Fidia) in patients with gonarthritis. The study comprised 31 patients with gonarthritis grade II-III according to Kellgren, 30 of whom completed the study. Hyalgan was administered to the patients - vials á 2 ml in five injections in weekly intervals by the intraarticular route. The patients were followed up for another three months after completed treatment. A significant decline of pain on the visual analogue scale (VAS) was recorded already two weeks after onset of treatment (p = 0.001) and this decline persisted for another 13 weeks after termination of treatment. The algofunctional indices (Lequesne, Jezek) also declined after the first injection, whereby a statistically significant reduction was recorded still after 12 weeks, as compared with values before the onset of treatment (p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained also in objective evaluations (effusion, temperature above joint, tenderness). Already after the second injection a significantly shorter time was required for a 20 m walk. The mean daily paracetamol consumption declined from a mean value of 1496 +/- 777 mg before administration to 670 6 661 mg at the end of the investigation (p = 0.00006). Undesirable effects (increased intensity of pain after puncture) was recorded in one patient (3.3%). Evidence was provided that Hyalgan(R) belongs as to its profile of effectiveness among so-called SYSADOAs (symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA). Treatment is quite safe. Key words: knee osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, i. a. treatment.

  1. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  2. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  3. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Bassir, Mahshid Mohammadi; Bagheri, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H3PO4-pumice compound (split-mouth design). Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA) and degree of stain removal (DSR), were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H3PO4-pumice. Conclusion: The H3PO4-pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound. PMID:23349575

  4. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression.

  5. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  6. [PREPARATIONS OF PAMIDRONOVIC ACID IN COMPLEX TREATMENT ON OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA].

    PubMed

    Zyma, A M; Guk, Yu M; Magomedov, O M; Gayko, O G; Kincha-Polishchuk, T A

    2015-07-01

    Modern view of drug therapy in the complex treatment of orthopedic manifestations of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was submitted. Developed and tested system of drug correction of structural and functional state of bone tissue (BT) using drugs pamidronovic acid, depending on osteoporosis severity and type of disease. Such therapy is appropriate to apply both independently and in conjunction with surgery to correct deformations of long bones of the lower extremities. Effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods of drug therapy was proved, most patients resume features walking and support.

  7. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Ailloud, Florent; Fochs, Brianna; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses. Interestingly, SA treatment repressed expression of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, suggesting that this pathogen may suppress virulence functions when stressed. A GMI1000 mutant lacking SA degradation activity was much more susceptible to SA toxicity but retained the wild-type colonization ability and virulence on tomato. This may be because SA is less important than gentisic acid in tomato defense signaling. However, another host, tobacco, responds strongly to SA. To test the hypothesis that SA degradation contributes to virulence on tobacco, we measured the effect of adding this pathway to the tobacco-pathogenic R. solanacearum strain K60, which lacks SA degradation genes. Ectopic addition of the GMI1000 SA degradation locus, including adjacent genes encoding two porins and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, significantly increased the virulence of strain K60 on tobacco. Together, these results suggest that R. solanacearum degrades plant SA to protect itself from inhibitory levels of this compound and also to enhance its virulence on plant hosts like tobacco that use SA as a defense signal molecule. PMID:27329752

  8. Salicylic acid alleviates NaCl-induced changes in the metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Backor, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Influence of 100 mM NaCl and 50 microM salicylic acid (SA) and their combination on the metabolism of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during 7 days was studied. NaCl reduced growth and selected physiological parameters and SA in combined treatment (NaCl + SA) reversed majority of these symptoms. Application of SA reduced NaCl-induced increase of Na+ in the rosettes, but not in the roots. Accumulation of total amino acids was stimulated in NaCl-treated roots, especially due to exceptional increase of proline (4.4-fold). Among phenolic acids, accumulation of protocatechuic acid was the most enhanced in NaCl-exposed leaf rosettes (ca. 3-fold) while chlorogenic and caffeic acids in the roots (2.4- and 2.8-fold, respectively). Total soluble phenols increased after NaCl and SA treatments, but root lignin content was not affected. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and shikimate dehydrogenase increased in response to NaCl, but cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase was not affected and polyphenol oxidase decreased. Stress parameters were elevated by NaCl treatment (superoxide radical and malondialdehyde content, activities of catalase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) and substantially prevented by SA, while accumulation of hydrogen peroxide decreased. Overall, SA showed strong beneficial properties against NaCl-induced negative symptoms. Protective effect of SA was the most visible at the level of guaiacol-peroxidase and through amelioration of stress parameters and mineral nutrient contents.

  9. Treatment of vinasse from tequila production using polyglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Bujang, Kopli

    2012-03-01

    Vinasse, the wastewater from ethanol distillation, is characterised by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit process temperature (ca. 90°C) and low pH (3.0-4.5). In this study, the treatment of tequila vinasse was achieved by a flocculation-coagulation process using poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Results showed that the use of PGA (250-300 ppm) combined with sodium hypochlorite and sand filtration managed to remove about 70% of the turbidity and reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79.5% with the extra benefit of colour removal. PGA showed its best flocculating activity at pH 2.5-3.5 and a temperature of 30-55°C. Such a treatment may be a solution for small tequila companies for which other solutions to deal with their vinasse may not be economically affordable.

  10. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling. PMID:24898702

  11. The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-04-15

    Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation.

  12. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Qian, Hanqing; Yang, Mi; Li, Rutian; Hu, Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Lixia; Liu, Baorui; Qian, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm), and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier. PMID:28280328

  13. Isolation and characterization of isochorismate synthase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase during salinity stress, wounding, and salicylic acid treatment in Carthamus tinctorius

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mahnaz; Dehghan, Sara; Fischer, Rainer; Wenzel, Uwe; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kavousi, Hamid Reza; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a prominent signaling molecule during biotic and abiotic stresses in plants biosynthesized via cinnamate and isochorismate pathways. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and isochorismate synthase (ICS) are the main enzymes in phenylpropanoid and isochorismate pathways, respectively. To investigate the actual roles of these genes in resistance mechanism to environmental stresses, here, the coding sequences of these enzymes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), as an oilseed industrial medicinal plant, were partially isolated and their expression profiles during salinity stress, wounding, and salicylic acid treatment were monitored. As a result, safflower ICS (CtICS) and C4H (CtC4H) were induced in early time points after wounding (3–6 h). Upon salinity stress, CtICS and CtC4H were highly expressed for the periods of 6–24 h and 3–6 h after treatment, respectively. It seems evident that ICS expression level is SA concentration dependent as if safflower treatment with 1 mM SA could induce ICS much stronger than that with 0.1 mM, while C4H is less likely to be so. Based on phylogenetic analysis, safflower ICS has maximum similarity to its ortholog in Vitis vinifera up to 69%, while C4H shows the highest similarity to its ortholog in Echinacea angustifolia up to 96%. Overall, the isolated genes of CtICS and CtC4H in safflower could be considered in plant breeding programs for salinity tolerance as well as for pathogen resistance. PMID:24309561

  14. Isolation and characterization of isochorismate synthase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase during salinity stress, wounding, and salicylic acid treatment in Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahnaz; Dehghan, Sara; Fischer, Rainer; Wenzel, Uwe; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kavousi, Hamid Reza; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a prominent signaling molecule during biotic and abiotic stresses in plants biosynthesized via cinnamate and isochorismate pathways. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and isochorismate synthase (ICS) are the main enzymes in phenylpropanoid and isochorismate pathways, respectively. To investigate the actual roles of these genes in resistance mechanism to environmental stresses, here, the coding sequences of these enzymes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), as an oilseed industrial medicinal plant, were partially isolated and their expression profiles during salinity stress, wounding, and salicylic acid treatment were monitored. As a result, safflower ICS (CtICS) and C4H (CtC4H) were induced in early time points after wounding (3-6 h). Upon salinity stress, CtICS and CtC4H were highly expressed for the periods of 6-24 h and 3-6 h after treatment, respectively. It seems evident that ICS expression level is SA concentration dependent as if safflower treatment with 1 mM SA could induce ICS much stronger than that with 0.1 mM, while C4H is less likely to be so. Based on phylogenetic analysis, safflower ICS has maximum similarity to its ortholog in Vitis vinifera up to 69%, while C4H shows the highest similarity to its ortholog in Echinacea angustifolia up to 96%. Overall, the isolated genes of CtICS and CtC4H in safflower could be considered in plant breeding programs for salinity tolerance as well as for pathogen resistance.

  15. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, BS; Ashwini, KR; Vasanth, Vani; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA) combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron's global scarring grading system (GSGS), before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars. PMID:25821727

  16. Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from excess sludge by combined free nitrous acid and rhamnolipid treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Bao, Xian; Zheng, He-Shan; Yin, Ren-Li; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Luo, Hai-Chao; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-01-01

    VFA production from excess sludge (ES) was greatly enhanced by a low-cost and high-efficient treatment: 0.67mg/L free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment combined with 0.04g/g TSS rhamnolipid (RL) addition (FNA+RL), which significantly shortened fermentation time to 3days and increased VFA production to 352.26mgCOD/g VSS (5.42 times higher than raw ES). Propionic and acetic acids were the two leading components (71.86% of the total VFA). Mechanism investigation manifested FNA+RL improved the biodegradability of ES, achieved positive synergetic effect on solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification efficiencies, and inhibited methanation. Microbial community distribution further explained the above phenomena. The bacteria related to polysaccharides/protein utilization and VFA generation, including Clostridium, Megasphaera and Proteiniborus, were mainly observed in FNA+RL, whereas gas-forming bacteria Anaerolineae and acid-consuming bacteria Proteobacteria were assuredly suppressed. Besides, Propionibacterineae associated with propionic acid generation was exclusively enriched in sole RL and FNA+RL.

  17. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Gelinda; Kettle, Christine; Hayes, David; Dennis, Christina; Tucci, Joseph

    2017-01-02

    Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating illness that has become more prevalent over the past 100 years. This report reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of depression, and explores the role of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as a possible treatment. In seeking to understand depression, genetic factors and environmental influences have been extensively investigated. Research has led to several hypotheses for the pathophysiological basis of depression but a definitive pathogenic mechanism, or group thereof, has hitherto remained equivocal. To date, treatment has been based on the monoamine hypothesis and hence, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been the most widely used class of medication. In the last decade, there has been considerable interest in n-3 PUFAs and their role in depression. These fatty acids are critical for development and function of the central nervous system. Increasing evidence from epidemiological, laboratory, and randomized placebo-controlled trials suggests deficiency of dietary n-3 PUFAs may contribute to development of mood disorders, and supplementation with n-3 PUFAs may provide a new treatment option. Conclusions based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of published trials to date vary. Research into the effects of n-3 PUFAs on depressed mood is limited. Furthermore, results from such have led to conflicting conclusions regarding the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in affecting reduction in symptoms of depression. PUFAs are generally well tolerated by adults and children although mild gastrointestinal effects are reported. There is mounting evidence to suggest that n-3 PUFAs play a role in depression and deserve greater research efforts.

  18. Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Neculita, Carmen M; Yue, Xiaodi; Ng, How Yong

    2012-11-30

    Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4±0.1; 500 mg L(-1) Fe(3+)). Briefly, Fe(3+) was reduced to Fe(2+) at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe(2+) re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L(-1) in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5-9. The maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6±2.3 W m(-3), which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

  19. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  20. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment.

    PubMed

    Billi de Catabbi, Silvia C; Faletti, Alicia; Fuentes, Federico; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C; Cochón, Adriana C

    2005-04-15

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porphyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and omega-OH/omega-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2

  1. SalSA status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy; SalSA Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    I review the status of SalSA, a proposed antenna array in a large volume salt formation for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos. We report on measurements taken in 2007 of attenuation lengths in the 125-900 MHz frequency range at the Cote Blanche salt mine near New Iberia, Louisiana, which is the most precise in situ measurement of attenuation lengths in salt to date. We comment on the impact of these measurements on the feasibility of SalSA.

  2. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase.

  3. Sulfidogenic fluidized bed treatment of real acid mine drainage water.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Gunes, Fatih M; Ucar, Deniz; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of real acid mine drainage water (pH 2.7-4.3) containing sulfate (1.5-3.34 g/L) and various metals was studied in an ethanol-fed sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactor at 35°C. The robustness of the process was tested by increasing stepwise sulfate, ethanol and metal loading rates and decreasing feed pH and hydraulic retention time. Highest sulfate reduction rate (4.6g/L day) was obtained with feed sulfate concentration of 2.5 g/L, COD/sulfate ratio of 0.85 and HRT of 12 h. The corresponding sulfate and COD removal efficiencies were about 90% and 80%, respectively. The alkalinity produced in sulfidogenic ethanol oxidation neutralized the acidic mine water. Highest metal precipitation efficiencies were observed at HRT of 24 h, the percent metal removal being over 99.9% for Al (initial concentration 55 mg/L), Co (9.0 mg/L), Cu (49 mg/L), Fe (435 mg/L), Ni (3.8 mg/L), Pb (7.5 mg/L) and Zn (6.6 mg/L), and 94% for Mn (7.21 mg/L).

  4. Influence of salicylic acid on H2O2 production, oxidative stress, and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes. Salicylic acid-mediated oxidative damage requires H2O2.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M V; Paliyath, G; Ormrod, D P; Murr, D P; Watkins, C B

    1997-01-01

    We investigated how salicylic acid (SA) enhances H2O2 and the relative significance of SA-enhanced H2O2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA treatments enhanced H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative damage to proteins, and resulted in the formation of chlorophyll and carotene isomers. SA-enhanced H2O2 levels were related to increased activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and were independent of changes in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Prolonging SA treatments inactivated catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and resulted in phytotoxic symptoms, suggesting that inactivation of H2O2-degrading enzymes serves as an indicator of hypersensitive cell death. Treatment of leaves with H2O2 alone failed to invoke SA-mediated events. Although leaves treated with H2O2 accumulated in vivo H2O2 by 2-fold compared with leaves treated with SA, the damage to membranes and proteins was significantly less, indicating that SA can cause greater damage than H2O2. However, pretreatment of leaves with dimethylthiourea, a trap for H2O2, reduced SA-induced lipid peroxidation, indicating that SA requires H2O2 to initiate oxidative damage. The relative significance of the interaction among SA, H2O2, and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes with oxidative damage and cell death is discussed. PMID:9306697

  5. Cadmium and nickel uptake are differentially modulated by salicylic acid in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Hedbavny, Josef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-10-28

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is a widely used medicinal plant which also accumulates heavy metals in its above-ground organs. We investigated the effect of the important plant signaling molecule, salicylic acid (SA), on the accumulation of Ni or Cd, by exposing plants over 7 days to 60 microM solutions of individual heavy metals with or without 50 microM SA. Special emphasis was focused on phenolic metabolism-related parameters, not only because of their importance for growth and stress tolerance but also because phenolics are potent antioxidants in human diet. In combined treatments, SA stimulated an increase in soluble proteins of roots and reduced their water content. SA reduced total Cd in the shoot and increased Ni. Total and "intraroot" Ni decreased in Ni + SA treatment, while in the case of Cd, only "intraroot" content decreased in Cd + SA treatment, being correlated with cell wall-bound phenolic acids and lignin. SA was strongly accumulated in roots from the Ni + SA treatment, being correlated with an increase in hydrogen peroxide. In both Cd + SA and Ni + SA treatments, SA enhanced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and accumulation of total soluble phenols, particularly in the roots. Here, we report for the first time that soluble phenols may be involved in Cd shoot-to-root translocation. In the case of Ni, it seems that phenols serve as a root barrier in order to prevent Ni from reaching the above-ground organs. The effects of SA on phenolic metabolism, and the signaling role of ROS in the accumulation of phenols, are discussed.

  6. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-16

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  7. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C.; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  8. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  9. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for Treatment of Enlarged Polycystic Liver.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takashi; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Kawada, Masahiro; Imafuku, Aya; Hayami, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and polycystic liver disease (PLD) often have elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat biliary tract diseases, but its effect on PLD remains unclear. UDCA was administered for 1 year at a dose of 300 mg daily to seven PLD patients with elevated ALP or GGT levels who were selected for this treatment by experienced clinicians. Laboratory data and liver volumes were compared among three time points: 1 year before UDCA treatment, at the start of UDCA therapy, and 1 year after the start of therapy. Median GGT did not show a significant change between 1 year before UDCA (180 IU/L) and the start of UDCA therapy (209 IU/L), but it decreased significantly to 98 IU/L after 1 year of UDCA therapy (P = 0.015 vs. the start of therapy). ALP showed a significant increase from 1 year before UDCA (456 IU/L) to the start of UDCA therapy (561 IU/L), and then decreased significantly after 1 year of UDCA therapy (364 IU/L). Median liver volume did not show any significant changes among these three time points of assessment. UDCA may be effective for reducing biliary enzyme levels and inhibiting the growth of liver cysts in patients with PLD.

  10. The Endophytic Bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, Improves the Potential for Zinc Phytoremediation by Its Host, Sedum alfredii

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xincheng; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin. PMID:25198772

  11. Root-fed salicylic acid in grape involves the response caused by aboveground high temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2008-06-01

    In order to investigate the transportation and distribution of salicylic acid (SA) from root to aboveground tissues in response to high temperature, the roots of grape plant were fed with (14)C-SA before high temperature treatment. Radioactivity results showed that progressive increase in SA transportation from root to aboveground as compared with the control varied exactly with the heat treatment time. Radioactivity results of leaves at different stem heights indicated that the increase in SA amount at the top and middle leaves during the early period was most significant in comparison with the bottom leaves. The up-transportation of SA from root to aboveground tissues was dependent on xylem rather than phloem. Auto-radiographs of whole grape plants strongly approved the conclusions drawn above. Root-derived SA was believed to be a fundamental source in response to aboveground high temperature.

  12. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  13. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Shikimic Acid from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara against Staphylococcus aureus through Damage to Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jinrong; Wu, Yanping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yina; Gao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the mode of action of SA is still elusive. In this study, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of SA toward S. aureus by cell membrane damage was investigated. After SA treatment, massive K+ and nucleotide leakage from S. aureus, and a significant change in the membrane potential was observed, suggesting SA may act on the membrane by destroying the cell membrane permeability. Through transmission electron microscopic observations we further confirmed that SA can disrupt the cell membrane and membrane integrity. Meanwhile, SA was found to be capable of reducing the membrane fluidity of the S. aureus cell. Moreover, the fluorescence experiments indicated that SA could quench fluorescence of Phe residues of the membrane proteins, thus demonstrating that SA can bind to S. aureus membrane proteins. Therefore, these results showed the antibacterial activity of SA against S. aureus could be caused by the interactions of SA with S. aureus membrane proteins and lipids, resulting in causing cell membrane dysfunction and bacterial damage or even death. This study reveals the potential use of SA as an antibacterial agent. PMID:26580596

  15. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance.

  16. Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study.

  17. Effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng-Fei; Johnston, Anne; Balcerzak, Margaret; Rocheleau, Hélène; Harris, Linda J; Long, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2012-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the key signal molecules in regulating plant resistance to diverse pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is predominantly associated with resistance against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and triggering systemic acquired resistance. In contrast, the effect of SA on the defence efficiency of wheat against fusarium head blight (FHB) and its causal agent, Fusarium graminearum, is still poorly understood. Here we show that the F. graminearum mycelial growth and conidia germination were significantly inhibited, and eventually halted in the presence of increasing concentration of SA in both liquid and solid media. Addition of SA also significantly reduced the production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). However the inhibitory effect of SA required acidic growth conditions to be observed while basic conditions allowed F. graminearum to use SA as a carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the capacity of F. graminearum to metabolize SA. To better understand the effect of SA on F. graminearum mycelial growth, we have compared the expression profiles of SA-treated and untreated F. graminearum liquid cultures after 8 and 24 h of treatment, using an F. graminearum custom-commercial microarray. The microarray analysis suggested that F. graminearum can metabolize SA through either the catechol or gentisate pathways that are present in some fungal species. Inoculation of F. graminearum conidia in a SA-containing solution has led to reduced FHB symptoms in the very susceptible Triticum aestivum cv. Roblin. In contrast, no inhibition was observed when SA and conidia were inoculated sequentially. The expression patterns for the wheat PR1, NPR1, Pdf1.2, and PR4 genes, a group of indicator genes for the defence response, suggested that SA-induced resistance contributed little to the reduction of symptoms in our assay conditions. Our results demonstrate that, although F. graminearum has the capacity to

  18. Evidence for excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in 4-chlorosalicylic acid from combined experimental and computational studies: Quantum chemical treatment of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2012-07-01

    The photophysical study of a pharmaceutically important chlorine substituted derivative of salicylic acid viz., 4-chlorosalicylic acid (4ClSA) has been carried out by steady-state absorption, emission and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. A large Stokes shifted emission band with negligible solvent polarity dependence marks the spectroscopic signature of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction in 4ClSA. Theoretical calculation by ab initio and Density Functional Theory methods yields results consistent with experimental findings. Theoretical potential energy surfaces predict the occurrence of proton transfer in S1-state. Geometrical and energetic criteria, Atoms-In-Molecule topological parameters, Natural Bond Orbital population analysis have been exploited to evaluate the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction and to explore its directional nature. The inter-correlation between aromaticity and resonance assisted H-bond is also discussed in this context. Our results unveil that the quantum chemical treatment is a more accurate tool to assess hydrogen bonding interaction in comparison to geometrical criteria.

  19. Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid-induced resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in susceptible and resistant rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Nie, Yanfang; Zhang, Lianhui; Wang, Zhenzhong

    2012-08-01

    To probe salicylic acid (SA)-induced sequential events at translational level and factors associated with SA response, we conducted virulence assays and proteomic profiling analysis on rice resistant and susceptible cultivars against Magnaporthe oryzae at various time points after SA treatment. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced rice resistance against M. oryzae. Proteomic analysis of SA-treated leaves unveiled 36 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various functions, including defense, antioxidative enzymes, and signal transduction. Majority of these proteins were induced except three antioxidative enzymes, which were negatively regulated by SA. Consistent with the above findings, SA increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with resistant cultivar C101LAC showing faster response to SA and producing higher level of ROS than susceptible cultivar CO39. Furthermore, we showed that nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, which is implicated in regulation of ROS production, was strongly induced in C101LAC but not in CO39. Taken together, the findings suggest that resistant rice cultivar might possess a more sensitive SA signaling system or effective pathway than susceptible cultivar. In addition, our results indicate that SA also coordinates other cellular activities such as photosynthesis and metabolism to facilitate defense response and recovery, highlighting the complexity of SA-induced resistance mechanisms.

  20. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  1. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  3. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

  4. Proteomics reveals the effects of salicylic acid on growth and tolerance to subsequent drought stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guozhang; Li, Gezi; Xu, Wei; Peng, Xiaoqi; Han, Qiaoxia; Zhu, Yunji; Guo, Tiancai

    2012-12-07

    Pretreatment with 0.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) for 3 days significantly enhanced the growth and tolerance to subsequent drought stress (PEG-6000, 15%) in wheat seedlings, manifesting as increased shoot and root dry weights, and decreased lipid peroxidation. Total proteins from wheat leaves exposed to (i) 0.5 mM SA pretreatment, (ii) drought stress, and (iii) 0.5 mM SA treatment plus drought-stress treatments were analyzed using a proteomics method. Eighty-two stress-responsive protein spots showed significant changes, of which 76 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Analysis of protein expression patterns revealed that proteins associated with signal transduction, stress defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, and energy production could by involved in SA-induced growth and drought tolerance in wheat seedlings. Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 35 key proteins, suggesting that these proteins are critical for SA-induced tolerance.

  5. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Song [Fort Collins, CO; Fallgren, Paul H [Laramie, WY; Morris, Jeffrey M [Laramie, WY

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  6. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  7. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. Systemic and topical omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids have been used as treatment for patients with dry eye disease and showed promising results. Further multicenter randomized controlled trials are required in order to establish a standardized protocol for the treatment of dry eye syndrome with those essential fatty acids. PMID:25278796

  8. Analysis of salicylic acid-dependent pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana following infection with Plasmodiophora brassicae and the influence of salicylic acid on disease.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, David A; Šola, Ivana; Marschollek, Sabine; Donald, Caroline E; Rusak, Gordana; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Cahill, David M

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, the expression of SA-related genes and the effect of SA on the Arabidopsis-Plasmodiophora brassicae interaction were examined. Biochemical analyses revealed that, in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis, the majority of SA is synthesized from chorismate. Real-time monitored expression of a gene for isochorismate synthase was induced on infection. SA can be modified after accumulation, either by methylation, improving its mobility, or by glycosylation, as one possible reaction for inactivation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed the induction of an SA methyltransferase gene, whereas SA glucosyltransferase expression was not changed after infection. Col-0 wild-type (wt) did not provide a visible phenotypic resistance response, whereas the Arabidopsis mutant dnd1, which constitutively activates the immune system, showed reduced gall scores. As dnd1 showed control of the pathogen, exogenous SA was applied to Arabidopsis in order to test whether it could suppress clubroot. In wt, sid2 (SA biosynthesis), NahG (SA-deficient) and npr1 (SA signalling-impaired) mutants, SA treatment did not alter the gall score, but positively affected the shoot weight. This suggests that SA alone is not sufficient for Arabidopsis resistance against P. brassicae. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that wt, cpr1, dnd1 and sid2 showed elevated PR-1 expression on P. brassicae and SA + P. brassicae inoculation at 2 and 3 weeks post-inoculation (wpi), whereas NahG and npr1 showed no expression. This work contributes to the understanding of SA involvement in the Arabidopsis-P. brassicae interaction.

  9. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  10. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  11. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  12. Emergency esophagogastrectomy for treatment of hydrochloric acid injury.

    PubMed

    Horváth, O P; Oláh, T; Zentai, G

    1991-07-01

    Eight patients with severe hydrochloric acid injury of the esophagus and stomach had early esophagogastrectomy. Four patients survived and 6 to 8 weeks later underwent successful substernal colon replacement. The value of early diagnosis and subsequent aggressive surgical management of patients who have ingested hydrochloric acid is stressed.

  13. Salicylic acid interferes with GFP fluorescence in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Hofius, Daniel; Hennig, Lars

    2017-03-29

    Fluorescent proteins have become essential tools for cell biologists. They are routinely used by plant biologists for protein and promoter fusions to infer protein localization, tissue-specific expression and protein abundance. When studying the effects of biotic stress on chromatin, we unexpectedly observed a decrease in GFP signal intensity upon salicylic acid (SA) treatment in Arabidopsis lines expressing histone H1-GFP fusions. This GFP signal decrease was dependent on SA concentration. The effect was not specific to the linker histone H1-GFP fusion but was also observed for the nucleosomal histone H2A-GFP fusion. This result prompted us to investigate a collection of fusion proteins, which included different promoters, subcellular localizations and fluorophores. In all cases, fluorescence signals declined strongly or disappeared after SA application. No changes were detected in GFP-fusion protein abundance when fluorescence signals were lost indicating that SA does not interfere with protein stability but GFP fluorescence. In vitro experiments showed that SA caused GFP fluorescence reduction only in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting that SA requires cellular components to cause fluorescence reduction. Together, we conclude that SA can interfere with the fluorescence of various GFP-derived reporter constructs in vivo. Assays that measure relocation or turnover of GFP-tagged proteins upon SA treatment should therefore be evaluated with caution.

  14. Preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue

    2012-06-20

    Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities, promotion of excisional wound healing, etc. In the present work, degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment was performed for preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The molecular weight of native hyaluronic acid was reduced from 1535 to 87 kDa for 120 min at 40°C. The rate of reduction of molecular weight was 94.33%. The FT-IR, 13C NMR, and UV-vis spectra suggested that there was no obvious modification of chemical structure of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The use of degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment can be a useful alternative for production of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

  15. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haifeng; Shen, Shuping; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Feimin; Chen, Chen; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C) received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0), 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1), and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5), while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7) and 14 days (AC14, CI14). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe. PMID:26301413

  16. Synergistic effect of antioxidant system and osmolyte in hydrogen sulfide and salicylic acid crosstalk-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), is a plant hormone with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development and the acquisition of stress tolerance. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging similar functions, but crosstalk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. Our recent study firstly reported that SA treatment enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, followed by induced endogenous H2S accumulation, which in turn improved the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. (1) In addition, NaHS, a H2S donor, enhanced SA-induced heat tolerance, while its biosynthesis inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and scavenger hydroxylamine (HT) weakened SA-induced heat tolerance. Also, NaHS had no significant effect on SA accumulation and its biosynthesis enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H) activities, as well as significant difference was not observed in NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings by SA biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosph- onic acid (AIP) treatment. (1) Further study displayed that SA induced osmolytes (proline, betaine and trehalose) accumulation and enhancement in activity of antioxidant system in maize seedlings. These results showed that antioxidant system and osmolyte play a synergistic role in SA and H2S crosstalk-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings.

  17. Benzoylsalicylic acid isolated from seed coats of Givotia rottleriformis induces systemic acquired resistance in tobacco and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kamatham, Samuel; Neela, Kishore Babu; Pasupulati, Anil Kumar; Pallu, Reddanna; Singh, Surya Satyanarayana; Gudipalli, Padmaja

    2016-06-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a whole plant defense response to a broad spectrum of pathogens, is characterized by a coordinated expression of a large number of defense genes. Plants synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites to protect themselves from the invading microbial pathogens. Several studies have shown that salicylic acid (SA) is a key endogenous component of local and systemic disease resistance in plants. Although SA is a critical signal for SAR, accumulation of endogenous SA levels alone is insufficient to establish SAR. Here, we have identified a new acyl derivative of SA, the benzoylsalicylic acid (BzSA) also known as 2-(benzoyloxy) benzoic acid from the seed coats of Givotia rottleriformis and investigated its role in inducing SAR in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Interestingly, exogenous BzSA treatment induced the expression of NPR1 (Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene-1) and pathogenesis related (PR) genes. BzSA enhanced the expression of hypersensitivity related (HSR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and WRKY genes in tobacco. Moreover, Arabidopsis NahG plants that were treated with BzSA showed enhanced resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as evidenced by reduced leaf necrosis and TMV-coat protein levels in systemic leaves. We, therefore, conclude that BzSA, hitherto unknown natural plant product, is a new SAR inducer in plants.

  18. Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

    2013-02-01

    The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher

  19. Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-10-01

    • Findings regarding the role of salicylic acid (SA) in seed germination are somewhat variable, depending on the plant genotypes and experimental conditions used, and thus the molecular mechanisms underlying SA regulation of germination are still unclear. Here, we report that physiological concentrations of SA promote germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis. • Germination of SA induction deficient 2 (sid2) seeds was hypersensitive to high salinity. While the inhibitory effect of high salinity was exaggerated in the presence of higher concentrations of SA (> 100 μM), it was significantly reduced in the presence of lower concentrations of SA (< 50 μM). Under high salinity, the endogenous contents of H(2) O(2) were elevated in wild-type and sid2 seeds but reduced to original concentrations after treatment with 1 μM SA. • Germination of NahG transgenic plants was influenced to a lesser degree by high salinity (NahG is a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol). We found that catechol, an SA degradation product accumulated in the transgenic plants, acts as an antioxidant that compromises the inhibitory effects of high salinity. • Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  20. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Results: Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels (P < 0.05) and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Conclusion: Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel. PMID:28299301

  1. Quantitative analysis of changes in the phosphoproteome of maize induced by the plant hormone salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liuji; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Shunxi; Tian, Lei; Pang, Yanjie; Han, Zanping; Wu, Liancheng; Chen, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in regulating various physiological and biochemical processes. Our previous study identified several protein kinases responsive to SA, suggesting that phosphorylation events play an important role in the plant response to SA. In this study, we characterized the phosphoproteome of maize in response to SA using isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology and TiO2 enrichment method. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, we found a total of 858 phosphoproteins among 1495 phosphopeptides. Among them, 291 phosphopeptides corresponding to 244 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly changed after SA treatment. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of biological processes, which indicate that the response to SA encompasses a reformatting of major cellular processes. Furthermore, some of the phosphoproteins which were not previously known to be involved with SA were found to have significantly changed phosphorylation levels. Many of these changes are phosphorylation decreases, indicating that other currently unknown SA signaling pathways that result in decreased phosphorylation of downstream targets must be involved. Our study represents the first attempt at global phosphoproteome profiling in response to SA, and provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulated by SA. PMID:26659305

  2. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Chen, Dan; Yi, Yanchun; Qi, Hui; Gao, Xinxin; Fang, Hua; Gu, Qiong; Wang, Ling; Gu, Lianquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA) extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC) pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC. PMID:23365598

  3. Quantitative analysis of changes in the phosphoproteome of maize induced by the plant hormone salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liuji; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Shunxi; Tian, Lei; Pang, Yanjie; Han, Zanping; Wu, Liancheng; Chen, Yanhui

    2015-12-11

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in regulating various physiological and biochemical processes. Our previous study identified several protein kinases responsive to SA, suggesting that phosphorylation events play an important role in the plant response to SA. In this study, we characterized the phosphoproteome of maize in response to SA using isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology and TiO2 enrichment method. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, we found a total of 858 phosphoproteins among 1495 phosphopeptides. Among them, 291 phosphopeptides corresponding to 244 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly changed after SA treatment. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of biological processes, which indicate that the response to SA encompasses a reformatting of major cellular processes. Furthermore, some of the phosphoproteins which were not previously known to be involved with SA were found to have significantly changed phosphorylation levels. Many of these changes are phosphorylation decreases, indicating that other currently unknown SA signaling pathways that result in decreased phosphorylation of downstream targets must be involved. Our study represents the first attempt at global phosphoproteome profiling in response to SA, and provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulated by SA.

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-12-20

    Hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; high-risk patients with HTG, such as those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes, may benefit from hypolipidaemic therapies. Several lipid-lowering drugs act by reducing triglyceride (TG) levels, including fibrates, nicotinic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dose-dependently reduce plasma TG levels; the effect tends to be greater in patients with higher TG levels at baseline. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that EPA+DHA doses of ≥ 2 g/day are required to achieve significant effects. The optimal TG-lowering doses of EPA+DHA are 3-4 g/day, with little evidence to support lipid-altering efficacy of doses of EPA and DHA <1g/day. Predicted changes in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended dietary intakes of EPA and/or DHA of 200-500 mg/day are -3.1% to -7.2%. Reductions of plasma TG levels at the optimal doses are from 25-35% up to 45% in the presence of severely elevated TG levels (≥ 500 mg/dl; ≥ 5.65 mmol/l), along with a reduction in non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and an increase in HDL-C. This observation has also been confirmed in statin-treated patients.

  5. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  6. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  7. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya K.; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K.; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid. PMID:27733857

  8. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya K; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  9. Differential inductions of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase during wounding, salicylic acid treatment, and salinity stress in safflower, Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Sara; Sadeghi, Mahnaz; Pöppel, Anne; Fischer, Rainer; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Kavousi, Hamid Reza; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2014-06-25

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) serves as a reference dicot for investigation of defence mechanisms in Asteraceae due to abundant secondary metabolites and high resistance/tolerance to environmental stresses. In plants, phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways are considered as two central defence signalling cascades in stress conditions. Here, we describe the isolation of two major genes in these pathways, CtPAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and CtCHS (chalcone synthase) in safflower along with monitoring their expression profiles in different stress circumstances. The aa (amino acid) sequence of isolated region of CtPAL possesses the maximum identity up to 96% to its orthologue in Cynara scolymus, while that of CtCHS retains the highest identity to its orthologue in Callistephus chinensis up to 96%. Experiments for gene expression profiling of CtPAL and CtCHS were performed after the treatment of seedlings with 0.1 and 1 mM SA (salicylic acid), wounding and salinity stress. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that both CtPAL and CtCHS genes are further responsive to higher concentration of SA with dissimilar patterns. Regarding wounding stress, CtPAL gets slightly induced upon injury at 3 hat (hours after treatment) (hat), whereas CtCHS gets greatly induced at 3 hat and levels off gradually afterward. Upon salinity stress, CtPAL displays a similar expression pattern by getting slightly induced at 3 hat, but CtCHS exhibits a biphasic expression profile with two prominent peaks at 3 and 24 hat. These results substantiate the involvement of phenylpropanoid and particularly flavonoid pathways in safflower during wounding and especially salinity stress.

  10. Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.; Braun, R.L.

    1975-10-28

    An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom.

  11. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Palak J; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by progressive nonsuppurative destruction of small bile ducts, resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, fibrosis and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Timely intervention with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent survival, although approximately one-third of all patients fail to achieve biochemical response, signifying a critical need for additional therapeutic strategies. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent ligand of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR inhibits bile acid synthesis and protects against toxic accumulation in models of cholestasis and facilitates hepatic regeneration in preclinical studies. Data from recent Phase II and III controlled trials suggest a therapeutic impact of OCA in PBC biochemical nonresponders, as evidenced by change in proven laboratory surrogates of long-term outcome. Dose-dependent pruritus is a common adverse effect, but may be overcome through dose-titration. Longer term studies are needed with focus on safety and long-term clinical efficacy.

  12. Comparative Study of Oral Isotretinoin Versus Oral Isotretinoin + 20% Salicylic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Active Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sanjita; Panda, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acne is a self limiting condition that often results in scarring and disfigurement disproportionate to its clinical severity. Isotretinoin is considered the gold standard in the medical management of severe form of acne vulgaris. Salicyclic acid (SA) peels, a β- hydroxy acid peel has got sebosuppressive effect and helps in faster resolution of acne with minimal scarring. It also decreases the post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Combining both the modalities is usually not advocated because of expected excessive dryness and irritation Aims: To compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin and oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: 60 consecutive patients with moderate to severe facial acne attending the skin department were randomized in to 2 groups. 1st group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily for 16 weeks and 2nd group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily along with 20% SA peels every two weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons Acne severity index (MASI).Right and left sides of the face were scored separately and total score was taken. Severity score was assessed monthly .Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation every month. Patients were asked to follow up once every 2 weeks or earlier in case of any adverse events. Results: Patients in both the groups revealed a reduction in the number of lesions. The 1st group showed a reduction of approximately 73.4% after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin for 16 weeks. The 2nd group showed a reduction of approximately 92.5 % after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin along with 20% SA peel once every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Conclusion: Both oral isotretinoin and combination of oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels once every 2 weeks are effective in treating moderate to severe acne but the combination showed significantly better clearance of acne than monotherapy with isotretinoin. PMID:24470716

  13. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated

  14. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  15. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: successful treatment with squaric acid dibutylester.

    PubMed

    Kehdy, Jessica; Erickson, Corrine; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Stephen; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2015-08-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare disorder characterized by disseminated cutaneous warts in predisposed patients who are highly susceptible to genus ß-papillomavirus infections. We present the case of a 40-year-old lymphocytopenic woman with a balanced chromosomal translocation and a 25-year history of refractory EV that was successfully treated with squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) contact immunotherapy.

  16. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  17. Could peracetic acid be an alternative treatment in aquaculture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been tested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Saprolegnia parasitica. Free-swimming theronts of I. multifiliis can be eliminated u...

  18. Dynamic peracetic acid (PAA) exposure, a treatment strategy against ectoparasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative therapeutic agents is a difficult and laborious task. The use of peracetic acid (PAA) has recently been evaluated as an alternative compound for disinfection (Gustavino et al., 2005). In addition to having a broad antimicrobial spectrum, PAA does not contribute to the form...

  19. The Promotion of Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidation in Pea Buds by Gibberellic Acid and Treatment 1

    PubMed Central

    Ockerse, Ralph; Waber, Jack

    1970-01-01

    Terminal buds of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings have an indole-3-acetic acid oxidase which does not require Mn2+ and 2,4-dichlorophenol as cofactors. Oxidase activity is at least 50 times higher in buds of tall peas than in dwarf seedlings. Administration of gibberellic acid to dwarf peas stimulates both growth and indoleacetic acid oxidase activity to the same levels as in tall seedlings. By contrast, indoleacetic acid oxidation assayed in the presence of Mn2+ and 2,4-dichlorophenol proceeds at similar rates regardless of gibberellin application. Treatment of tall peas with the growth retardant AMO-1618 reduces growth and oxidase activity. Such treated seedlings are indistinguishably dwarf. The enzyme does not appear to be polyphenol oxidase, nor do the results suggest that reduced activity in dwarf buds is due to higher levels of a dialyzable inhibitor. The peroxidative nature of the oxidase is probable. PMID:5500209

  20. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  1. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  2. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 × 10(-5) and 70 × 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater.

  3. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  4. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-05

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As.

  5. [Injuries caused by acids and bases - emergency treatment].

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Kaiser, Guido; Freudenberg, Matthias; Kerner, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Emergency medical care for injuries caused by acids and bases is challenging for rescue services. They have to deal with operational safety, detection of the toxic agent, emergency medical care of the patient and handling of the rescue mission. Because of the rareness of such situations experience and routine are largely missing. This article highlights some basic points for the therapy and provides support for such rescue missions.

  6. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarski, Maciej; Sawicka-Żukowska, Małgorzata; Bobrus-Chociej, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Some recent studies indicate that unsaturated fatty acids, components of cellular membranes and precursors of immunomodulators, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of some symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Since they cannot be synthesized by the human body, they must be provided with nutrition as the so called exogenous fatty acids: linoleic (a precursor of arachidonic acid) and α-linolenic acid (a precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Their deficiency facilitates the development of some disorders, e.g. of the cardiovascular system or of the nervous system, or becomes the cause of intensification of ailments in their course e.g. pruritus and dryness in atopic dermatitis. Though clinical examinations to date confirm the efficacy of fatty acid supplementation in treatment of atopic dermatitis, their results are not explicit. PMID:24278056

  7. The role of salicylic acid in the prevention of oxidative stress elicited by cadmium in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Guillermo; Caggiano, Ethel; Lecube, Manuel López; Cruz, Diego Santa; Batlle, Alcira; Tomaro, María; Balestrasse, Karina Beatriz

    2012-12-01

    The protective action of salicylic acid (SA) pre-treatment on soybean plants before cadmium (Cd) addition was tested. Oxidative stress parameters, such as TBARS formation, glutathione and chlorophyll content, were altered by Cd, instead no differences were observed in plants only pre-treated with SA. Antioxidant enzymes were affected by Cd treatment, while SA protected against these effects. These findings indicated that SA could act as a protector against oxidative stress induced by Cd. Taking into account the fact that heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been previously described as a novel antioxidant enzyme, experiments were carried out to determine whether it was involved in the protection exerted by SA. As expected, Cd brought about an enhancement of 57 % in HO-1 activity and 150 % in protein content (150 %), SA also increased both the enzyme activity and its protein content (28 and 75 %, respectively). Surprisingly, the observed rise of HO activity and protein content under SA treatment was lower than that produced by Cd alone. These lower values indicated, that HO-1 could not be directly involved in the protection of SA against Cd effects. In order to shed light in the mechanisms involved in SA effects, Cd content was determined in the tissues of Cd treated plants with and without SA pre-treatment. Results indicated that, in the presence of SA, Cd uptake was inhibited, thus avoiding its deleterious effects. Moreover, the observed HO-1 activity enhancement by SA indicates that this phytohormone could be engaged in the signalling pathway of heme degradation.

  8. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application.

  9. Salicylic acid modulates levels of phosphoinositide dependent-phospholipase C substrates and products to remodel the Arabidopsis suspension cell transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Ruelland, Eric; Pokotylo, Igor; Djafi, Nabila; Cantrel, Catherine; Repellin, Anne; Zachowski, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity controls gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. PI-PLC catalyzes the production of phosphorylated inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphoinositides. It is not known how PI-PLC regulates the transcriptome although the action of DAG-kinase (DGK) on DAG immediately downstream from PI-PLC is responsible for some of the regulation. We previously established a list of genes whose expression is affected in the presence of PI-PLC inhibitors. Here this list of genes was used as a signature in similarity searches of curated plant hormone response transcriptome data. The strongest correlations obtained with the inhibited PI-PLC signature were with salicylic acid (SA) treatments. We confirm here that in Arabidopsis suspension cells SA treatment leads to an increase in phosphoinositides, then demonstrate that SA leads to a significant 20% decrease in phosphatidic acid, indicative of a decrease in PI-PLC products. Previous sets of microarray data were re-assessed. The SA response of one set of genes was dependent on phosphoinositides. Alterations in the levels of a second set of genes, mostly SA-repressed genes, could be related to decreases in PI-PLC products that occur in response to SA action. Together, the two groups of genes comprise at least 40% of all SA-responsive genes. Overall these two groups of genes are distinct in the functional categories of the proteins they encode, their promoter cis-elements and their regulation by DGK or phospholipase D. SA-regulated genes dependent on phosphoinositides are typical SA response genes while those with an SA response that is possibly dependent on PI-PLC products are less SA-specific. We propose a model in which SA inhibits PI-PLC activity and alters levels of PI-PLC products and substrates, thereby regulating gene expression divergently. PMID:25426125

  10. Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces.

  11. [Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression].

    PubMed

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities. The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not. There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  12. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  13. Treatment of endometriosis with local acetylsalicylic acid injection: experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Juliana Menezes; Barreto, Adriana Beatriz; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effects of introduction of acetylsalicylic acid solution into peritoneal implants in autologous endometrium as a method for treating endometriosis. Forty adult female rabbits were subdivided into 4 groups of 10 rabbits each, and endometriosis was induced via autotransplantation of endometrial fragments into the peritoneal cavity. At 30 days after induction of endometriosis, all animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 protocols. In protocol 1, animals were evaluated at 24 hours after treatment; group 1 (control) received physiologic solution, and group 2 received acetylsalicylic acid. In protocol 2, animals were evaluated at 10 days after treatment, group 3 (control) and group 4 received acetylsalicylic acid. After measuring the lesion, the endometriotic focus was removed and prepared for mounting on slides for histologic analysis. Imaging software was used for analysis of the total remaining area of endometrial tissue. The affected area in acetylsalicylic acid-treated animals was smaller than that in control animals at 24 hours and 10 days after treatment; a significant difference was found between control and treated groups (p < .001). Statistical analysis comparing protocols 1 and 2 demonstrated no differences between controls groups or acetylsalicylic acid groups (p = .30), and no differences between times (p = .75). Acetylsalicylic acid solution led to less growth (or higher involution) of endometrial implants. Acetylsalicylic acid injected directly into endometriotic foci was effective in their destruction. This presents new perspectives for treatment of endometriosis and for clinical applications based on further clinical studies.

  14. Malonic acid suppresses mucin-type O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Goso, Yukinobu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrazine treatment is frequently used for releasing mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) from glycoproteins because the method provides O-glycans that retain a reducible GalNAc at their reducing end, which is available for fluorescent labeling. However, many O-glycans are degraded by "peeling" during this treatment. In the current study, it was found that malonic acid suppressed O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of bovine fetuin or porcine gastric mucin in both the gas and liquid phases. This is paradoxical because the release of O-glycans from glycoproteins occurs under alkaline conditions. However, malonic acid seems to prevent the degradation through its acidic property given that other weak acids also prevented the degradation. Accordingly, disodium malonate did not suppress O-glycan degradation. Application of this method to rat gastric mucin demonstrated that the majority of the major O-glycans obtained in the presence of malonic acid were intact, whereas those obtained in the absence of malonic acid were degraded. These results suggest that hydrazine treatment in the presence of malonic acid would allow glycomic analysis of native mucin glycoproteins.

  15. Salicylic acid induced cysteine protease activity during programmed cell death in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2016-06-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) during biotic stress is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The aim of this work was to reveal the role of proteolysis and cysteine proteases in the execution of PCD in response of SA. Tomato plants were treated with sublethal (0.1 mM) and lethal (1 mM) SA concentrations through the root system. Treatment with 1 mM SA increased the electrolyte leakage and proteolytic activity and reduced the total protein content of roots after 6 h, while the proteolytic activity did not change in the leaves and in plants exposed to 0.1 mM SA. The expression of the papain-type cysteine protease SlCYP1, the vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE1 and the tomato metacaspase SlMCA1 was induced within the first three hours in the leaves and after 0.5 h in the roots in the presence of 1 mM SA but the transcript levels did not increase significantly at sublethal SA. The Bax inhibitor-1 (SlBI-1), an antiapoptotic gene was over-expressed in the roots after SA treatments and it proved to be transient in the presence of sublethal SA. Protease inhibitors, SlPI2 and SlLTC were upregulated in the roots by sublethal SA but their expression remained low at 1 mM SA concentration. It is concluded that in contrast to leaves the SA-induced PCD is associated with increased proteolytic activity in the root tissues resulting from a fast up-regulation of specific cysteine proteases and down-regulation of protease inhibitors.

  16. Hyperargininemia: clinical course and treatment with sodium benzoate and phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, N; Maehara, M; Hayakawa, C; Kato, T; Watanabe, K; Suzuki, S

    1983-01-01

    In a patient with hyperargininemia, oral administration of sodium benzoate or phenylacetic acid together with an essential amino acid mixture was used to prevent hyperammonemia and to decrease plasma and CSF concentrations of arginine. Sodium benzoate reduced the plasma ammonia levels, which was confirmed by the increase of urinary excretion of hippuric acid. Phenylacetic acid also controlled hyperammonemia, and EEG findings also improved. By these treatments, plasma and CSF concentrations of arginine showed a slight decrease, but were far above the normal range. There was no clinical improvement, and spasticity of the lower and upper extremities was progressive with mental deterioration.

  17. Biophysicochemical characterization of Pyocin SA189 produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SA189

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Sehar Afshan; Jabeen, Nusrat; Sohail, Muhammad; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in spite of being a ubiquitous organism (as it is found in soil, water, and humans), is also an opportunistic pathogen. In order to maintain its diversity in the community, it produces various toxic proteins, known as, bacteriocins. In the present study, pyocin SA189, which is a bacteriocin produced by P. aeruginosa SA189 (isolated from a clinical sample) was characterized. P. aeruginosa SA189, as identified by the conventional and 16S rRNA gene amplification, produced pyocin SA189 of molecular weight of 66 k Da. The pyocin showed antimicrobial activity against several clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and was substantially stable for wide ranges of temperature and pH. Furthermore, the pyocin also retained its biological activity upon treatment with metal ions, organic solvents, and various proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The data from the growth kinetics indicated that the maximum bacteriocin production occurred in the late log phase. Overall, our results signify the potential of pyocin SA189 as a bio-control agent. PMID:26691474

  18. Induction of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase in virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Yalpani, N.; Raskin, I.; Lawton, M.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in the induction of plant resistance to pathogens. An accompanying article shows that SA is synthesized via the decarboxylation of cinnamic acid to benzoic acid (BA), which is, in turn, hydroxylated to SA. Leaf extracts of tobacco catalyze the 2-hydroxylation of Ba to SA. The monooxygenase catalyzing this reaction, benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), required NAD(P)H or reduced methyl viologen as an electron donor. BA2H activity was detected in healthy tobacco leaf extracts (1-2 nmol h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight) and was significantly increased upon inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This increase paralleled the levels of free SA in the leaves. Induction of BA2H activity was restricted to tissue expressing a hypersensitive response at 24[degrees]C. TMV induction of BA2H activity and Sa accumulation were inhibited when inoculated tobacco plants were incubated for 4 d at 32[degrees]C and then transferred to 24[degrees]C, they showed a 15-fold increase in BA2H activity and a 65-fold increase in free SA content compared with healthy plants incubated at 24[degrees]C. Treatment of leaf tissue with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked the induction of BA2H activity by TMV. The effect of TMV inoculation on BA2H could be duplicated by infiltrating leaf discs of healthy plants with BA. This response was observed even when applied levels of BA were much lower than the levels observed in vivo after virus inoculation. Feeding tobacco leaves with phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, or o-coumaric acid (putative precursors of SA) failed to trigger the induction of BA2H activity. BA2H appears to be a pathogen-inducible protein with an important regulatory role in SA accumulation during the development of induced resistance to TMV in tobacco. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Occurrence of several acidic drugs in sewage treatment plants in Switzerland and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tauxe-Wuersch, A; De Alencastro, L F; Grandjean, D; Tarradellas, J

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence and fate of five acidic drugs (Mefenamic acid, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Clofibric acid) were analysed in three sewage treatment plants (STP) over 4-7 consecutive days. The results point out that the five substances were persistent in wastewater effluents after municipal wastewater treatment. At the most, half of Mefenamic acid was eliminated. Ibuprofen was well removed (80%) by one sewage treatment plant. The removal of Ibuprofen is dependent on the residence time of wastewater in the STPs. A long raining period induce an important decrease of removal of Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen. Removal rates showed a great variability according to sewage treatment plants and types of treatments (e.g. biological, physico-chemical). The concentrations of Ibuprofen, Mefenamic acid and Diclofenac were relatively high in the effluents (150-2000 ng/l), showing a potential contamination of surface water. An environmental risk assessment is presented. Mefenamic acid seems to present a risk for the aquatic environment, with a ratio PEC/PNEC higher than one.

  20. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING FISHBONE APATITE IITM

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT. In 2000, a reactive barrier was installed on the East Fork of Ninemile Creek near Wallace, Idaho to treat acid mine discharge. The barrier was filled with fishbone derived Apatite IITM to remove the contaminants of concern (Zn, Pb, and Cd) and raise the pH of the acidic mine discharge. Metal removal has been achieved by a combination of chemical, biological, and physical precipitation. Flow for the water ranges from 5 to 35 gallons per minute. The water is successfully being treated, but the system experienced varying degrees of plugging. In 2002, gravel was mixed with the Apatite IITM to help control plugging. In 2003 the Idaho National Laboratory was ask to provide technical support to the Coeur d’Alene Basin Commission to help identify a remedy to the plugging issue. Air sparging was employed to treat the plugging issues. Plastic packing rings were added in the fall of 2005, which have increased the void space in the media and increased flows during the 10 months of operation since the improvements were made.

  1. Gastric acid inhibition in the treatment of peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Kevin A; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Jensen, Dennis M

    2009-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcer disease is a common clinical event, resulting in considerable patient morbidity and significant health care costs. Inhibiting gastric acid secretion is a key component in improving clinical outcomes, including reducing rebleeding, transfusion requirements, and surgery. Raising intragastric pH promotes clot stability and reduces the influences of gastric acid and pepsin. Patients with high-risk stigmata for ulcer bleeding (arterial bleeding, nonbleeding visible vessels, and adherent clots) benefit significantly from and should receive high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after successful endoscopic hemostasis. For patients with low-risk stigmata (flat spots or clean ulcer base), oral PPI therapy alone is sufficient. For oozing bleeding (an intermediate risk finding), successful endoscopic hemostasis and oral PPI are recommended. Using intravenous PPIs before endoscopy appears to reduce the frequency of finding high-risk stigmata on later endoscopy, but has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes. High-dose oral PPIs may be as effective as intravenous infusion in achieving positive clinical outcomes, but this has not been documented by randomized studies and its cost-effectiveness is unclear.

  2. Nanofiltration and granular activated carbon treatment of perfluoroalkyl acids.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Timothy D; Dickenson, Eric R V; Bellona, Christopher; Higgins, Christopher P

    2013-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are of concern because of their persistence in the environment and the potential toxicological effects on humans exposed to PFAAs through a variety of possible exposure routes, including contaminated drinking water. This study evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration (NF) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in removing a suite of PFAAs from water. Virgin flat-sheet NF membranes (NF270, Dow/Filmtec) were tested at permeate fluxes of 17-75 Lm(-2)h(-1) using deionized (DI) water and artificial groundwater. The effects of membrane fouling by humic acid on PFAA rejection were also tested under constant permeate flux conditions. Both virgin and fouled NF270 membranes demonstrated >93% removal for all PFAAs under all conditions tested. GAC efficacy was tested using rapid small-scale columns packed with Calgon Filtrasorb300 (F300) carbon and DI water with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM effects were also evaluated with F600 and Siemens AquaCarb1240C. The F300 GAC had <20% breakthrough of all PFAAs in DI water for up to 125,000 bed volumes (BVs). When DOM was present, >20% breakthrough of all PFAAs by 10,000 BVs was observed for all carbons.

  3. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  4. Bone-bonding properties of Ti metal subjected to acid and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    The effects of surface treatment on the bone-bonding properties of Ti metal were examined by both mechanical detaching test and histological observation after implantation into rabbit tibiae for various periods ranging from 4 to 26 weeks. The bone-bonding ability of Ti metal, which is extremely low as it is abraded, was hardly increased by simple heat treatment at 600 °C or treatment with H(2)SO(4)/HCl mixed acid alone, but was markedly increased by the heat treatment after the acid treatment. Even Ti metal that had been previously subjected to NaOH treatment showed considerably high bone-bonding ability after acid and heat treatments. Such high bonding abilities were attributed to their high apatite-forming ability in the body environment. Their high apatite-forming abilities were attributed to a high positive surface charge, and not to the type of crystalline phase or specific roughness of their surfaces. The present study has demonstrated that acid and subsequent heat treatments are effective for conferring stable fixation properties on Ti metal implants.

  5. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models

    PubMed Central

    Anekonda, Thimmappa S.; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48–72-hour treatment with phytic acid provided complete protection against amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating levels of increased intracellular calcium, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, beta amyloid oligomers, and moderately up-regulated the expression of autophagy (beclin-1) protein. In a tolerance paradigm, wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid in drinking water for 70 days. Phytic acid was well tolerated. Ceruloplasmin activity, brain copper and iron levels and brain superoxide dismutase and ATP levels were unaffected by the treatment. There was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of APP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD. PMID:20930278

  6. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Anekonda, Thimmappa S; Wadsworth, Teri L; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive, age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunction leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48-72-hour treatment with phytic acid provided complete protection against amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating levels of increased intracellular calcium, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, Aβ oligomers, and moderately upregulated the expression of autophagy (beclin-1) protein. In a tolerance paradigm, wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid in drinking water for 70 days. Phytic acid was well tolerated. Ceruloplasmin activity, brain copper and iron levels, and brain superoxide dismutase and ATP levels were unaffected by the treatment. There was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of AβPP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a downstream signal molecule in salicylic acid-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Xie, Lin-Run; Li, Xiao-Juan

    2015-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, is a small phenolic compound with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance. In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to have similar functions, but cross talk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. In this study, pretreatment of maize seedlings with SA improved the survival percentage of seedlings under heat stress, indicating that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. In addition, treatment with SA enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous H2S. Interestingly, SA-induced heat tolerance was enhanced by addition of NaHS, a H2S donor, but weakened by specific inhibitors of H2S biosynthesis DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and its scavenger hydroxylamine (HT). Furthermore, pretreatment with paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), inhibitors of SA biosynthesis, had no significant effect on NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings. Similarly, significant change in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H), the key enzymes in SA biosynthesis, and the content of endogenous SA, was not observed in maize seedlings by NaHS treatment. All of the above-mentioned results suggest that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings, and H2S might be a novel downstream signal molecule in SA-induced heat tolerance.

  8. Factors Governing the Emergence of Resistance to Nalidixic Acid in Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, David; O'Grady, Francis

    1977-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli were exposed to nalidixic acid in an in vitro model in which the conditions of drug-organism interaction resembled those of bacterial cystitis treatment. Results obtained in this way suggested that emergence of bacterial resistance should not be a major problem in treatment of uncomplicated urinary infection; such cases might indeed respond to a less intensive course of treatment than is usual. More prolonged, high-dosage therapy with nalidixic acid may be required for patients with more complicated infections if the risk of failure from the emergence of bacterial resistance is to be minimized. PMID:337890

  9. A postmarketing surveillance study of dexrabeprazole in the treatment of acid peptic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jain, S C

    2009-02-01

    Dexrabeprazole [R(+) rabeprazole] is a novel proton-pump inhibitor which has recently become available in India for the treatment of acid peptic diseases. Experimental and clinical studies have shown superiority of dexrabeprazole (at half the recommended rabeprazole dose) over rabeprazole in terms of favourable pharmacokinetics, better efficacy and faster and greater healing activity. Results of present study in a large population of 4931 patients of acid peptic disorders, reconfirmed safety and efficacy of dexrabeprazole 10 mg once daily in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and also showed its effectiveness in the treatment of patients with peptic ulcers (gastric/duodenal).

  10. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Beneden, Katrien; Geers, Caroline; Pauwels, Marina; Mannaerts, Inge; Wissing, Karl M.; Van den Branden, Christiane; Grunsven, Leo A. van

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  11. Comprehensive Treatment of Periorbital Region with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Camila Roos Mariano Da; Bastos, Julien Toni De; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves e

    2015-01-01

    The periorbital subunit is one of the first facial regions to show signs of aging, primarily due to volume depletion of the soft tissue and bony resorption. Surgical and office-based nonsurgical procedures form an important basis for periorbital rejuvenation. It is important to make a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient to indicate the most appropriate procedure to be performed. With the objective of showing a nonsurgical procedure for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area, the authors describe a technique of applying fillers in the upper and lower periorbital regions, paying attention to the anatomy of this facial region and the type of product to be used besides the expected results of the procedure and its possible adverse effects and complications. The nonsurgical rejuvenation of the periorbicular region with hyaluronic acid is a new and innovative technique. In the opinion of the authors, it is a great aesthetic impact area and consequently brings high satisfaction to patients. PMID:26155325

  12. Downhole seismic monitoring of an acid treatment in the Beowawe Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, R.; Albright, J.N.; Bradley, C.

    1984-01-01

    During the acid treatment of a subeconomic well at the Beowawe Geothermal Field, numerous seismic events were detected of which 22 could be located. The events occurred following a first stage of the acid treatment and generally define a trend paralleling the surface trace of the Malpais fault. No seismic signals were detected following a second stage of the acid treatment, despite the injection of almost twice as much additional fluid. It is postulated that the cause of seismic events following the first stage was due to shear failure of chemically weakened cemented fracturs or joints in the reservoir. Presumably reservoir strain was sufficiently reduced to preclude further rock failure during the second day of treatment.

  13. Salicylic acid and gentisic acid induce RNA silencing-related genes and plant resistance to RNA pathogens.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Granell, Pablo; Tárraga, Susana; López-Gresa, Pilar; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María; Rodrigo, Ismael; Lisón, Purificación

    2014-04-01

    We have observed that treatments with salicylic acid (SA) or gentisic acid (GA) induced resistance to RNA pathogens such as ToMV and CEVd in tomato and Gynura auriantiaca, respectively. Accumulation of SA and GA has been found to occur in plants infected by these pathogens, thus pointing out a possible defence role of both molecules. To study the molecular basis of the observed induced resistance to RNA pathogens the induction of silencing-related genes by SA and GA was considered. For that purpose, we searched for tomato genes which were orthologous to those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as AtDCL1, AtDCL2, AtDCL4, AtRDR1, AtRDR2 and AtRDR6, and we tracked their induction in tomato along virus and viroid infections. We observed that CEVd significantly induced all these genes in tomato, with the exception of ToRDR6, being the induction of ToDCL4 the most outstanding. Regarding the ToMV asymptomatic infection, with the exception of ToRDR2, we observed a significant induction of all the indicated silencing-related genes, being ToDCL2 the most induced gene. Subsequently, we analyzed their transcriptional activation by SA and at the time when ToMV was inoculated on plants. ToDCL2, ToRDR1 and ToRDR2 were significantly induced by both SA and GA, whereas ToDCL1 was only induced by SA. Such an induction resulted more effective by SA treatment, which is in agreement with the stronger SA-induced resistance observed. Our results suggest that the observed delay in the RNA pathogen accumulation could be due to the pre-induction of RNA silencing-related genes by SA or GA.

  14. Corn starch granules with enhanced load-carrying capacity via citric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2013-01-02

    This research investigated conditions by which maize starch granule porosity and load-carrying capacity (LCC) might be enhanced via treatment with varying citric acid concentrations (0.5-1.5 M), temperatures (40-60 °C), and lengths of treatment (1-8 h). At the lowest temperatures (40 and 50 °C), citric acid treatment induced minimal physicochemical changes to granules. In contrast, both aqueous and oil LCCs of starches treated at 60 °C (0.5 M citric acid, 2 h) were almost doubled (15.69 and 14.48 mL/10 g starch, respectively), recovering 92% of the granular starch after treatment. Such treatment increased starch hydration capacity (0.97-1.91) and reduced gelatinization enthalpy (10.6-7.4 J/g). More severe treatment conditions adversely impacted aqueous LCC (due to excessive granule swelling), but improved oil absorption. The basis for LCC enhancement by citric acid treatment was ascribed to leaching of starch material from granules and partial disruption of the granule crystalline structure, as opposed to starch hydrolysis or chemical substitution.

  15. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Sauvager, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

    2006-11-01

    S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment.

  16. Clinical Value of Teichoic Acid Antibody Titers in the Diagnosis and Management of the Staphylococcemias

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Arnold S.; Tillman, David B.; Concepcion, Nelydia; Guze, Lucien B.

    1980-01-01

    Differentiation of endocarditic from nonendocarditic Staphylococcus aureus (SA) septicemia is prognostically and therapeutically important. A study of 68 cases of either SA or streptococcal sepsis, including 50 cases of SA sepsis of both cardiac and noncardiac origin, was done to determine the presence and titer of serum teichoic acid antibodies (TAA's) by double immunodiffusion. Thirty-seven uninfected controls were also examined. There was no statistical difference in either incidence or peak TAA titers in endocardial versus deepseated, extracardiac SA sepsis. However, in both of these groups, incidence and peak titers were significantly higher than in intravascular catheter-related SA sepsis, streptococcal endocarditis and controls (P<0.05). Peak TAA titers in SA sepsis develop on admission or shortly thereafter (6 to 11 days) and permit early decisions on degree of tissue infection, likelihood of metastatic seeding and necessity for higher-dose, longer-term antibiotic therapy. Cases of catheter-related SA sepsis with no clinical evidence of metastatic SA seeding and with negative or low-titered (1:1) TAA's were classified as superficial sepsis. Treatment consisted of short-term, low-dose antistaphylococcal regimens and catheter removal. In posttherapy follow-up after 6 to 12 weeks, all of the patients were cured and no signs of endocarditis or deepseated SA infection developed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7385834

  17. Therapeutic paracetamol treatment in older persons induces dietary and metabolic modifications related to sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pickering, Gisèle; Lyan, Bernard; Ducheix, Gilles; Brandolini-Bunlon, Marion; Glomot, Françoise; Dardevet, Dominique; Dubray, Claude; Papet, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    Sulfur amino acids are determinant for the detoxification of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) through sulfate and glutathione conjugations. Long-term paracetamol treatment is common in the elderly, despite a potential cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Detoxification could occur at the expense of anti-oxidative defenses and whole body protein stores in elderly. We tested how older persons satisfy the extra demand in sulfur amino acids induced by long-term paracetamol treatment, focusing on metabolic and nutritional aspects. Effects of 3 g/day paracetamol for 14 days on fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids and sulfate, urinary paracetamol metabolites, and urinary metabolomic were studied in independently living older persons (five women, five men, mean (±SEM) age 74 ± 1 years). Dietary intakes were recorded before and at the end of the treatment and ingested sulfur amino acids were evaluated. Fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids, and sulfate were unchanged. Urinary nitrogen excretion supported a preservation of whole body proteins, but large-scale urinary metabolomic analysis revealed an oxidation of some sulfur-containing compounds. Dietary protein intake was 13% higher at the end than before paracetamol treatment. Final sulfur amino acid intake reached 37 mg/kg/day. The increase in sulfur amino acid intake corresponded to half of the sulfur excreted in urinary paracetamol conjugates. In conclusion, older persons accommodated to long-term paracetamol treatment by increasing dietary protein intake without any mobilization of body proteins, but with decreased anti-oxidative defenses. The extra demand in sulfur amino acids led to a consumption far above the corresponding population-safe recommendation.

  18. Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) treatment trial: a study protocol of a pilot, multicentre, single-blind, randomised crossover trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. Ethics and dissemination The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. Trial Registration ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN

  19. Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakova, G. T.; Kharisov, R. Ya; Sharifullin, A. R.; Pestrikov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios.

  20. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  1. Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite by Mixed Acid Treatment of Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J M; Park, W U; Hwang, K H; Lee, J K; Yoon, S Y

    2015-03-01

    A simple chemical method was established for inducing bioactivity of Ti metal. In the present study, two kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coatings successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in the simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid etching was used to increase the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surfaces allow better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrate. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Some specimens were treated with a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution, and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to form an amorphous sodium titanate layer on their surface. This treated titanium metal is believed to form a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This study proved that mixed acid treatment is not only important for surface passivation but is also another bioactive treatment for titanium surfaces, an alternative to alkali treatment. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than alkali treatment.

  2. Influence of nitric acid treatment in different media on X-ray structural parameters of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip Maity; Ashim Choudhury

    2008-11-15

    The treatment of coal with nitric acid in aqueous and non-aqueous media introduces changes in the chemical and spatial structure of the organic mass. Four coals of different rank have been treated with nitric acid in aqueous and glacial acetic acid media for assessing the changes in the structural parameters by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Slow-scan XRD has been performed for the raw and treated coals, and X-ray structural parameters (d002, Lc, and Nc) and aromaticity (fa) have been determined by profile-fitting software. Considerable variation of the structural parameters has been observed with respect to the raw coals. The d002 values have decreased in aqueous medium but increased in acetic acid medium; however, Lc, Nc, and fa values have increased in aqueous medium but decreased in acetic acid medium. It is also observed that considerable oxidation takes place during nitric acid treatment in aqueous medium, but nitration is the predominant phenomenon in acetic acid medium. Disordering of the coal structure increases in acetic acid medium, but a reverse trend is observed in the aqueous medium. As a result, structurally modified coals (SMCs) are derived as new coal-derived substances. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Interaction between the Natural Components in Danhong Injection (DHI) with Serum Albumin (SA) and the Influence of the Coexisting Multi-Components on the SaB-BSA Binding System: Fluorescence and Molecular Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jia; Zhang, Yingyue; Wang, Xingrui; Yan, Huo; Liu, Erwei; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Danhong injection (DHI) is a widely used Chinese Materia Medica standardized product for the clinical treatment of ischemic encephalopathy and coronary heart disease. The bindings of eight natural components in DHI between bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy technology and molecular docking. According to the results, the quenching process of salvianolic acid B and hydroxysafflor yellow A was a static quenching procedure through the analysis of quenching data by the Stern-Volmer equation, the modified Stern-Volmer equation, and the modified Scatchard equation. Meanwhile, syringin (Syr) enhanced the fluorescence of BSA, and the data were analyzed using the Lineweaver-Burk equation. Molecular docking suggested that all of these natural components bind to serum albumin at the site I location. Further competitive experiments of SaB confirmed the result of molecular docking studies duo to the displacement of warfarin by SaB. Base on these studies, we selected SaB as a research target because it presented the strongest binding ability to BSA and investigated the influence of the multi-components coexisting in DHI on the interaction between the components of the SaB-BSA binding system. The participation of these natural components in DHI affected the interaction between the components of the SaB-BSA system. Therefore, when DHI is used in mammals, SaB is released from serum albumin more quickly than it is used alone. This work would provide a new experiment basis for revealing the scientific principle of compatibility for Traditional Chinese Medicine. PMID:26035712

  4. Interaction between the Natural Components in Danhong Injection (DHI) with Serum Albumin (SA) and the Influence of the Coexisting Multi-Components on the SaB-BSA Binding System: Fluorescence and Molecular Docking Studies.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jia; Zhang, Yingyue; Wang, Xingrui; Yan, Huo; Liu, Erwei; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Danhong injection (DHI) is a widely used Chinese Materia Medica standardized product for the clinical treatment of ischemic encephalopathy and coronary heart disease. The bindings of eight natural components in DHI between bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy technology and molecular docking. According to the results, the quenching process of salvianolic acid B and hydroxysafflor yellow A was a static quenching procedure through the analysis of quenching data by the Stern-Volmer equation, the modified Stern-Volmer equation, and the modified Scatchard equation. Meanwhile, syringin (Syr) enhanced the fluorescence of BSA, and the data were analyzed using the Lineweaver-Burk equation. Molecular docking suggested that all of these natural components bind to serum albumin at the site I location. Further competitive experiments of SaB confirmed the result of molecular docking studies duo to the displacement of warfarin by SaB. Base on these studies, we selected SaB as a research target because it presented the strongest binding ability to BSA and investigated the influence of the multi-components coexisting in DHI on the interaction between the components of the SaB-BSA binding system. The participation of these natural components in DHI affected the interaction between the components of the SaB-BSA system. Therefore, when DHI is used in mammals, SaB is released from serum albumin more quickly than it is used alone. This work would provide a new experiment basis for revealing the scientific principle of compatibility for Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  5. Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit.

  6. Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio; Eguaras, Martin; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Melis, Marinella

    2005-04-01

    Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and their residues in honey in a Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Italy). Both treatments were efficient in the apiary control of the varroosis, with values of percentage of mite mortality ranging between 93.6 and 100%, without statistical differences between them. The more gradual release of formic acid from the gel application allowed a longer action (2 wk for each treatment) compared with the Liebig-Dispenser (approximately 3d for each treatment). The rate of daily evaporation ranged between approximately 5 and 9 g/d from BeeVar and approximately 26 and 35 g/d from the Liebig-Dispenser, in the first and second treatment, respectively. The total amount of formic acid administered per hive during all the treatment period was approximately 200 g for either treatment. A significantly higher adult bee mortality was recorded in the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives compared with the BeeVar-treated group. On the contrary, BeeVar treatment produced an interruption of brood reared, whereas the extension of the sealed brood area of the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives was not significantly different from that of the control hives. Neither queen mortality nor robbing activity was observed due to the treatments. Formic acid residues in honey collected in the nest were 3,855 +/- 2,061 and 3,030 +/- 1,624 mg/kg for the BeeVar- and the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives, respectively. After 21 d from the end of the treatment, the residues fell to 1,261 +/- 1,054 and 794 +/- 518 mg/kg for the honey sampled from the BeeVar and Liebig-Dispenser groups, respectively.

  7. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  9. Platelet-derived Factor Concentrates with Hyaluronic Acid Scaffolds for Treatment of Deep Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Minabe, Toshiharu; Yamakawa, Tomomi; Araki, Jun; Sano, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A deep burn wound is a critical condition that generally necessitates vascularized tissue coverage. We performed the injection of platelet-derived factor concentrates combined with non–cross-linked hyaluronic acid scaffolds for 2 patients with critical burn wounds with bone and tendon exposure and achieved successful healing. Hyaluronic acid was considered to have served as a controlled-release carrier of platelet-derived factors, being clinically effective for the treatment of deep burn wounds. PMID:27826482

  10. Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Kesba, Hosny H; El-Beltagi, Hossam S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of humic acid on nematode infected, resistant and susceptible grapes in relation to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant mechanisms on selected biochemical parameters known as proactive substances. Methods The grape rootstocks, superior, superior/freedom and freedom were reacted differently to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis according to rootstock progenitor. Two weeks after inoculation, two commercial products of humic acid were applied at the rate of (2, 4 mL or grams/plant) as soil drench. After 4 months, nematode soil populations were extracted and counted. A subsample of roots from each plant was stained and gall numbers, embedded stages per root were calculated, final population, nematode build up (Pf/Pi), average of eggs/eggmass were estimated. Subsamples of fresh root of each treatment were chemically analyzed. Results Freedom reduced significantly the nematode criteria and build up. Humic acid granules appeared to be more suppressive to nematode build up on superior and the higher dose on superior/freedom than liquid treatments. On freedom, all treatments reduced significantly the nematode build up regardless to the material nature. The higher dose was more effective than the lower one. As a result of humic acid applications, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were significantly reduced after humic acid treatments while the antioxidant compounds glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (ASA) and total phenol contents were significantly increased when compared with check. Antioxidant defense enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)showed significant increase in their specific activities in treated plants compared with nematode treated check. Conclusions Humic acid treatments improve the yield of grape by increasing the contents of antioxidant compounds and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23569915

  11. Using 80% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of ingrown toenails*

    PubMed Central

    Barreiros, Hugo; Matos, Diogo; Goulão, João; Serrano, Pedro; João, Alexandre; Brandão, Francisco Menezes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ingrown nails are a very common problem. There are different stages of disease and diverse therapeutic options. Phenol and sodium hydroxide are commonly used agents for chemical matricectomy but both frequently entail excessive healing times. OBJECTIVE This prospective study aimed mainly to evaluate the efficacy of partial nail avulsion and selective chemical cauterization of the matrix using 80% TCA in the treatment of the ingrowing nail. METHODS One-hundred-and-thirty-three patients with 197 ingrown toenails were included in this study. Preoperatively, we tried to find predisposing factors to the disease. In the postoperative period, patients were evaluated for potential complications at days 3, 30, 180, 270 and 360. Pain was measured before surgery, as well as 24 hours and 72 hours after surgery. RESULTS There were only 3 cases (out of 197) of ingrown nail recurrence. Preoperatively, we found the presence of drainage in 82% of patients, which, following the first visit after surgery, was reduced to 19%. Persistent granulation tissue was found in 3% of the patients (versus 75% prior to surgery). The most frequent predisposing factors for the ingrown nail were excessive trimming of the lateral nail plate (63%), plantar hyperhidrosis (58%) and heavy nail folds (39%). Pain was substantially reduced after surgery. CONCLUSION It is assumed that chemical procedures for the ingrown toenail are associated with delayed healing times but our results demonstrated quick recovery. Using 80% TCA for selective matricectomy in the ingrown toenail is an effective, quick and easy method. PMID:24474095

  12. A systematic simulation of the effect of salicylic acid on sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chao; Yin, Jian; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Qi; Ren, Jian; Yao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects plant development and defense responses. Recent studies revealed that SA also participates in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism, but the details of this regulation remain to beexplored. Here, we use in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) with published microarray data to construct a whole-cell simulation model, including 23 pathways, 259 reactions, and 172 metabolites, to predict the alterations in flux of major sphingolipid species after treatment with exogenous SA. This model predicts significant changes in fluxes of certain sphingolipid species after SA treatment, changes that likely trigger downstream physiological and phenotypic effects. To validate the simulation, we used 15N-labeled metabolic turnover analysis to measure sphingolipid contents and turnover rate in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with SA or the SA analog benzothiadiazole (BTH). The results show that both SA and BTH affect sphingolipid metabolism, altering the concentrations of certain species and also changing the optimal flux distribution and turnover rate of sphingolipids. Our strategy allows us to estimate sphingolipid fluxes on a short time scale and gives us a systemic view of the effect of SA on sphingolipid homeostasis. PMID:25859253

  13. Enhanced degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon in wheat rhizosphere by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Meng Tian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined the microbial population (e.g., biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure, and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase, and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.

  14. Recent advances in delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu; Oupický, David

    2013-12-10

    Cancer treatment that uses a combination of approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways has been proven highly effective in the treatment of many cancers. Combination therapy can include multiple chemotherapeutics or combinations of chemotherapeutics with other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation. However, despite the widespread clinical use of combination therapies, relatively little attention has been given to the potential of modern nanocarrier delivery methods, like liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles, to enhance the efficacy of combination treatments. This lack of knowledge is particularly notable in the limited success of vectors for the delivery of combinations of nucleic acids with traditional small molecule drugs. The delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations is particularly challenging due to differences in the physicochemical properties of the two types of agents. This review discusses recent advances in the development of delivery methods using combinations of small molecule drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics to treat cancer. This review primarily focuses on the rationale used for selecting appropriate drug-nucleic acid combinations as well as progress in the development of nanocarriers suitable for simultaneous delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations.

  15. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  16. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  17. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P < 0.05) and the treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  18. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  19. An enhanced drought-tolerant method using SA-loaded PAMPS polymer materials applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yajing; Cui, Huawei; Ma, Wenguang; Zheng, Yunye; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA). The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) and N, N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR) of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110 °C; even at 25 °C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds.

  20. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yajing; Cui, Huawei; Ma, Wenguang; Zheng, Yunye; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA). The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR) of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds. PMID:25250387

  1. Modeling of free fatty acid dynamics: insulin and nicotinic acid resistance under acute and chronic treatments.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robert; Kroon, Tobias; Almquist, Joachim; Jirstrand, Mats; Oakes, Nicholas D; Evans, Neil D; Chappel, Michael J; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2017-02-21

    Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis. Acute administration results in a rapid reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Sustained NiAc exposure is associated with tolerance development (drug resistance) and complete adaptation (FFA returning to pretreatment levels). We conducted a meta-analysis on a rich pre-clinical data set of the NiAc-FFA interaction to establish the acute and chronic exposure-response relations from a macro perspective. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects framework. We also developed a new turnover model that describes the adaptation seen in plasma FFA concentrations in lean Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats following acute and chronic NiAc exposure. The adaptive mechanisms within the system were described using integral control systems and dynamic efficacies in the traditional [Formula: see text] model. Insulin was incorporated in parallel with NiAc as the main endogenous co-variate of FFA dynamics. The model captured profound insulin resistance and complete drug resistance in obese rats. The efficacy of NiAc as an inhibitor of FFA release went from 1 to approximately 0 during sustained exposure in obese rats. The potency of NiAc as an inhibitor of insulin and of FFA release was estimated to be 0.338 and 0.436 [Formula: see text], respectively, in obese rats. A range of dosing regimens was analyzed and predictions made for optimizing NiAc delivery to minimize FFA exposure. Given the exposure levels of the experiments, the importance of washout periods in-between NiAc infusions was illustrated. The washout periods should be [Formula: see text]2 h longer than the infusions in order to optimize 24 h lowering of FFA in rats. However, the predicted concentration-response relationships suggests that higher AUC reductions might be attained at lower NiAc exposures.

  2. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  3. The impact of chronic imipramine treatment on amino acid concentrations in the hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between antidepressants and monoamine concentrations in the brain has been well investigated, but few studies have investigated the relationship between antidepressants and amino acid concentrations in the brain. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of the chronic antidepressant imipramine on amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the mouse brain and plasma. Chronic imipramine treatment decreased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleaceticacid/5-hydroxytryptamine in the cerebral cortex and increased that of norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus. Since these changes were conspicuous effects of the antidepressant, we concluded that imipramine acts on the central nervous system. No change in amino acid concentrations in plasma was induced by chronic imipramine treatment, but several changes were confirmed in the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus and the hippocampus. Chronic imipramine treatment caused increases in L-methionine, L-tyrosine, and L-lysine in the cerebral cortex, and an increase in L-aspartate in the hypothalamus. Contrary to this, the concentrations of L-aspartate, L-serine, L-asparagine, glycine, L-glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, L-threonine, L-arginine, L-proline, L-valine, and L-methionine in the hippocampus were decreased by chronic imipramine treatment. The present results demonstrate that the metabolism of several amino acids in the brain, but not of those in plasma, was altered by chronic imipramine treatment. The findings in the present study may help to further elucidate the relationship between amino acids and the effects and side effects of antidepressants.

  4. Modulating protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite particles using different amino acid treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Van, Kim Linh; Zavgorodniy, Alexander V.; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material of choice for bone grafts owing to its chemical and structural similarities to the mineral phase of hard tissues. The combination of osteogenic proteins with HA materials that carry and deliver the proteins to the bone-defective areas will accelerate bone regeneration. The study investigated the treatment of HA particles with different amino acids such as serine (Ser), asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and arginine (Arg) to enhance the adsorption ability of HA carrier for delivering therapeutic proteins to the body. The crystallinity of HA reduced when amino acids were added during HA preparation. Depending on the types of amino acid, the specific surface area of the amino acid-functionalized HA particles varied from 105 to 149 m2 g–1. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme were used as model proteins for adsorption study. The protein adsorption onto the surface of amino acid-functionalized HA depended on the polarities of HA particles, whereby, compared with lysozyme, BSA demonstrated higher affinity towards positively charged Arg-HA. Alternatively, the binding affinity of lysozyme onto the negatively charged Asp-HA was higher when compared with BSA. The BSA and lysozyme adsorptions onto the amino acid-functionalized HA fitted better into the Freundlich than Langmuir model. The amino acid-functionalized HA particles that had higher protein adsorption demonstrated a lower protein-release rate. PMID:21957116

  5. Citric acid treatment of chronic nonhealing ulcerated tophaceous gout with bursitis.

    PubMed

    Nagoba, Basavaraj S; Punpale, Ajay; Poddar, Ashok; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Swami, Ganesh A; Selkar, Sohan P

    2013-12-01

    The ulceration associated with gout tophi is very difficult to treat because of impaired and halted local inflammatory response resulting from the gout treatment regimen. We report chronic nonhealing tophaceous gout with bursitis in an 80-year-old male, not responding to conventional treatment modality for months together. This nonhealing ulcer was treated successfully with local application of 3% citric acid ointment for 22 days.

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-90) - Naches River Water Treatment Plant Intake Screening Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2002-09-26

    BPA is proposing to fund the upgrade of the intake structure for the City of Yakima’s Water Treatment Plant. The existing traveling water screen at the intake does not achieve the current fish screening criteria as defined by Washington State Law and as provided in guidance from the National Marine Fisheries Service. Permanent modifications to the intake system including installation of a fish screen and bypass system are necessary to eliminate mortality and take of ESA listed and non-listed salmonids, as well as resident fish at this location. This project will include: modifications to bypass the existing intake system; the construction of a new intake structure with approved fish screens; installation of a 48-inch diameter pipeline connecting the new intake to the existing intake structure; a reduced intake channel separating PacifiCorp Powerhouse return water/ Naches River water from the irrigation and Wapatox waste ditch return water; modifications to the auxiliary headgates; increased height on the upstream end of the channel wall; and a new outfall structure with plunge pool and upstream migrant barriers.

  7. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  8. Treatment of infectious skin defects or ulcers with electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K; Harii, K

    1997-01-01

    A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.

  9. The impact of acid treatment on soilwater chemistry at the Humex site

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.D.; Ranneklev, S.B.; Mykkelbost, T.C. )

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment on soil water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic chemistry are being monitored at the Humic Lake Acidification Experiment (HUMEX) in western Norway. The HUMEX project involves artificial acidification of half of a dystrophic lake and the corresponding drainage basin. Soil water chemistry data were collected from 30 monitoring lysimeters and 130 grid lysimeters. The samples from the monitoring lysimeters were collected before and, for a period of two years, after the onset of acid treatment. Operationally-defined functional fractions of DOC showed that hydrophilic (HPI) and hydrophobic (HPO) acids account for 60% to 90% of the DOC. In soils rich in DOC, the HPO acids were dominant, whereas in mineral soil horizons low in DOC, the HPI acid fractions were highest. The amount of DOC relative to labile aluminum and iron may determine the HPO/HPI acid ratio. The sulphate concentration has increased more in the treated than in the reference side. Coincident decreases in DOC and organically complexes aluminum (Al[sub 0]) concentrations were observed for surface histosol locations. The temporal and spatial variations in c(Al[sub 0]) were mainly explained by variation in c(DOC). 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Treatment of actinic cheilitis by photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin; Clement, Annabelle

    2011-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC), a common disorder of the lower lip, should be treated early to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) activated by blue light for the treatment of AC. Fifteen patients with clinically evident or biopsy-proven AC received two treatments with ALA PDT with blue light activation. Treatments were spaced three to five weeks apart. Most patients achieved 65% to 75% clearance three to five weeks after the first treatment and all achieved more than 75% clearance one month after the second treatment. Three patients achieved complete clearance. Pain and burning during irradiation were absent or mild. All patients said they would repeat the procedure. ALA PDT with 417 nm blue light is a promising option for the treatment of AC of the lower lip.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of hepatic steatosis: a (13)C NMR metabolic study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patrícia M; Jones, John G; Rolo, Anabela P; Palmeira, Carlos M M; Carvalho, Rui A

    2011-11-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is commonly used for the treatment of hepatobiliary disorders. In this study, we tested whether a 4-week treatment with this bile acid (12-15 mg/kg/day) could improve hepatic fatty acid oxidation in obese Zucker rats - a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatosis. After 24 h of fasting, livers were perfused with physiological concentrations of [U-(13) C]nonesterified fatty acids and [3-(13) C]lactate/[3-(13) C]pyruvate. Steatosis was associated with abundant intracellular glucose, lactate, alanine and methionine, and low concentrations of choline and betaine. Steatotic livers also showed the highest output of glucose and lactate. Glucose and glycolytic products were mostly unlabeled, indicating active glycogenolysis and glycolysis after 24 h of fasting. UDCA treatment resulted in a general amelioration of liver metabolic abnormalities with a decrease in intracellular glucose and lactate, as well as their output. Hepatic betaine and methionine were also normalized after UDCA treatment, suggesting the amelioration of anti-oxidative defenses. Choline levels were not affected by the bile acid, which may indicate a deficient synthesis of very-low-density lipoproteins. The percentage contribution of [U-(13) C]nonesterified fatty acids to acetyl-coenzyme A entering the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was significantly lower in livers from Zucker obese rats relative to control rats: 23.1 ± 4.9% versus 44.1 ± 2.7% (p < 0.01). UDCA treatment did not alter significantly fatty acid oxidation in control rats, but improved significantly oxidation in Zucker obese rats to 46.0 ± 6.1% (p > 0.05), comparable with control group values. The TCA cycle activity subsequent to fatty acid oxidation was reduced in steatotic livers and improved when UDCA was administered (0.24 ± 0.04 versus 0.37 ± 0.05, p = 0.05). We further suggest that the mechanism of action of UDCA is either related to the activity of the

  12. Cadmium Toxicity and Alleviating Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid in Iris hexagona.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxictity and possible role of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Cd-induced toxicity were investigated on ornamental hydrophyte Iris hexagona. Compared to the control, treatments with 100 and 500 µM Cd for 7 days significantly decreased dry weight, the contents of chlorophyll, photosynthetic parameters, and increased the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Pretreatment of the roots of I. hexagona seedlings with 1 µM SA before Cd exposure may increase dry weight, photosynthetic rate, activities of antioxidant enzymes, improve the cell ultrastructure and protect plants from Cd-induced oxidative stress damage. However, SA pretreatment had no significant effect on Cd concentrations in the leaves and roots. It is suggested that SA-induced Cd tolerances in I. hexagona are likely associated with increases in antioxidant enzyme activities and vacuolar compartmentation, rather than Cd uptake.

  13. Factors affecting production of the group A streptococcus bacteriocin SA-FF22.

    PubMed

    Jack, R W; Tagg, J R

    1992-02-01

    Factors influencing the production of streptococcin A-FF22 (SA-FF22) in liquid media were examined. Despite good growth of the producer strain, no SA-FF22 was detected during incubation at 40 degrees C, at pH 7, in Brain Heart Infusion Broth or in Mg(2+)-supplemented media. Optimal SA-FF22 production occurred at 32 degrees C, at pH 6.7, in cultures in Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with glucose 2.25% and yeast extract 1%. Under these conditions SA-FF22 remained cell-associated but could be extracted with acid.

  14. Sanitizing with peracetic acid (PAA)- An alternative treatment to use in aquaculture ...?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the lack of approved treatments for fish disease, disinfectants were tested to treat fish pathogens. One of these substances is peracetic acid (PAA). PAA is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful ...

  15. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess impact of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between VFA and VFA pool size (VFAmol), possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg), suggest issues...

  16. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM TWO MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are someof the most environmentally damaging land uses i the US. Acid Mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exceed regulatory standards for safe disc...

  17. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  18. COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  19. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  20. Combined metoprolol and ascorbic acid treatment prevents intrinsic damage to the heart during diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Saran, Varun; Sharma, Vijay; Wambolt, Richard; Yuen, Violet G; Allard, Michael; McNeill, John Hugh

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress have been highlighted as potential causative factors for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The β-blocker metoprolol is known to improve function in the diabetic rat heart and ameliorates the sequelae associated with oxidative stress, without lowering oxidative stress. The antioxidant ascorbic acid is known to improve function in the diabetic rat heart. We tested whether a combination of ascorbic acid and metoprolol treatment would improve function further than each drug individually. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats were treated with metoprolol (15 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), via an osmotic pump) and (or) ascorbic acid (1000 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), via their drinking water). To study the effect of treatment on the development of dysfunction, we examined time points before (5 weeks diabetic) and after (7 weeks diabetic) development of overt systolic dysfunction. Echocardiography and working-heart-perfusion were used to assess cardiac function. Blood and tissue samples were collected to assess the severity of disease and oxidative stress. While both drugs improved function, only ascorbic acid had effects on oxidative damage. Combination treatment had a more pronounced improvement in function. Our β-blocker + antioxidant treatment strategy focused on oxidative stress, not diabetes specifically; therefore, it may prove useful in other diseases where oxidative stress contributes to the pathology.

  1. Evaluation of continuous 4 day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. The most effective treatment, malachite green, has been banned in Europe and North America for use in food-fish production. Peracetic acid (PAA) was foun...

  2. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  3. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral.

  4. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants. PMID:25730495

  5. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated.

  7. Chloroethene dechlorination in acidic groundwater: Implications for combining fenton's treatment with natural attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Singletary , Michael A.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    A sulfuric acid leak in 1988 at a chloroethene-contaminated groundwater site at the Naval Air Station Pensacola has resulted in a long-term record of the behavior of chloroethene contaminants at low pH and a unique opportunity to assess the potential impact of source area treatment technologies, which involve acidification of the groundwater environment (e.g., Fenton's-based in situ chemical oxidation), on downgradient natural attenuation processes. The greater than 75 percent decrease in trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations and the shift in contaminant composition toward predominantly reduced daughter products (dichloroethene [DCE] and vinyl chloride [VC]) that were observed along a 30-m groundwater flow path characterized by highly acidic conditions (pH = 3.5 ± 0.4) demonstrated that chloroethene reductive dechlorination can continue to be efficient under persistent acidic conditions. The detection of Dehalococcoides-type bacteria within the sulfuric acid/chloroethene co-contaminant plume was consistent with biotic chloroethene reductive dechlorination. Microcosm studies conducted with 14C-TCE and 14C-VC confirmed biotic reductive dechlorination in sediment collected from within the sulfuric acid/chloroethene co-contaminant plume. Microcosms prepared with sediment from two other locations within the acid plume, however, demonstrated only a limited mineralization to 14CO2 and 14CO, which was attributed to abiotic degradation because no significant differences were observed between experimental and autoclaved control treatments. These results indicated that biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to chloroethene attenuation in the acid plume at NAS Pensacola and that remediation techniques involving acidification of the groundwater environment (e.g., Fenton's-based source area treatment) do not necessarily preclude efficient chloroethene degradation.

  8. Short communication: rearrangement of rumenic Acid in ruminant fats: a marker of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Destaillats, F; Japiot, C; Chouinard, P Y; Arul, J; Angers, P

    2005-05-01

    Rumenic (cis-9,trans-11 18:2) acid is the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer in milk and other ruminant fats. Anhydrous regular and high-CLA butterfats were heated at 200 degrees C for 2, 4, and 6 h under atmospheric conditions. [1,5] Sigmatropic isomerization of rumenic acid occurred, resulting in the formation of trans-8,cis-10 18:2 acid, as determined by mass spectrometry of its 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivative. Rate of isomerization was monitored by gas-liquid chromatography, using a 120-m capillary column coated with 70% equivalent cyanoalkylpolysiloxane polymer, and reaction was of first order. Furthermore, [1,5] sigmatropic rearrangement product analysis can be used as an indicator of heat treatment of natural fats and oils containing CLA.

  9. Mechanism of chlorogenic acid treatment on femoral head necrosis and its protection of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjuan; Hu, Xianda

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of chlorogenic acid on hormonal femoral head necrosis and its protection of osteoblasts. The study established a femoral head necrosis model in Wistar rats using Escherichia coli endotoxin and prednisolone acetate. The rats were divided into five groups and were treated with different concentrations of chlorogenic acid (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). The main detected indicators were the blood rheology, bone mineral density, and the hydroxyproline and hexosamine (HOM) contents. At a cellular level, osteoblasts were cultured and treated by drug-containing serum. Subsequently, cell proliferation and the osteoblast cycle were measured using flow cytometry, and the protein expression levels of Bax and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected using western blotting. Chlorogenic acid at a concentration of 20 mg/kg (high-dose) enhanced the bone mineral density of the femoral head and femoral neck following ischemia. Simultaneously, blood flow following the injection of prednisolone acetate was significantly improved, and the HOM contents of the high-dose chlorogenic acid group were significantly different. The results from the flow cytometry analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid can efficiently ameliorate hormone-induced necrosis. The osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. The MTT colorimetric assay showed that chlorogenic acid at different densities can increase the proliferation capabilities of osteoblasts and accelerate the transition process of G0/G1 phase to S phase, as well as enhance mitosis and the regeneration of osteoblasts. Western blotting detection indicated that chlorogenic acid may prohibit the decrease of Bcl-2 and the increase of Bax during apoptosis, thereby inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis and preventing the deterioration of femoral head necrosis. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid at the density of 20 mg/kg is effective in the treatment of hormonal femoral head necrosis, which may be

  10. Branched-chain amino acids vs lactulose in the treatment of hepatic coma: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fanelli, F; Riggio, O; Cangiano, C; Cascino, A; De Conciliis, D; Merli, M; Stortoni, M; Giunchi, G

    1982-10-01

    A controlled study was carried out in two groups of 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver and deep coma in order to compare the efficacy of intravenous branched-chain amino acid solutions in 20% glucose (group A) vs lactulose plus glucose in isocaloric amount (group B). There were 3 drop-outs from each group. Plasma amino acids and ammonia were assayed at fixed intervals throughout the 10-day observation period. Routine tests were assayed daily. Complete mental recovery was obtained in 70% of patients in group A and in 47% in group B. The difference was not significant, likely due to the lack of placebo group. With the exception of free tryptophan/all competing amino acids ratio, the modifications in plasma amino acid levels showed no correlation with the clinical course under either treatment. Ammonia, like free tryptophan, decreased significantly upon mental recovery, paralleling the clinical course throughout the study. In conclusion, branched-chain amino acids are at least as effective as lactulose in deep hepatic coma. It is suggested that branched-chain amino acids may reverse coma either by competing with brain entry of the aromatic amino acid or by metabolically decreasing free tryptophan and ammonia.

  11. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  12. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  13. UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamad, Farizan; Agam, Mohd Arif; Nur, Hadi

    2011-05-25

    The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

  14. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae.

  15. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schultz, N; Capion, N

    2013-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P<0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use.

  16. Taenia crassiceps: host treatment alters glycolisis and tricarboxilic acid cycle in cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2012-02-01

    Human cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps is rare although it is considered of zoonotic risk, especially to immunocompromised individuals. Albendazole and praziquantel are widely used and effective in its treatment. Their active forms inhibit the glucose uptake by the parasite and induce muscle contractions that alter its glycogen levels interfering in the energetic metabolism of the parasite and leading to its death. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose concentrations caused by low dosage treatments of the hosts with albendazole and praziquantel. Therefore, T. crassiceps intraperitoneally infected mice were treated by gavage feeding with 5.75 or 11.5 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 or 7.67 mg/kg of praziquantel. The treated mice were euthanized after 24 h and the cysticerci collected were morphologically classified into initial, larval or final phases. Concentrations of the organic acid produced and glucose were evaluated to detect alterations into the glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways through chromatography and spectrophotometry. The low dosage treatment caused a partial blockage of the glucose uptake by the cysticerci in spite of the non significant difference between its concentrations. An activation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was noted in the cysticerci that received the treatment due to an increase in the production of citrate, malate and α-ketoglutarate and the consumption of oxaloacetate, succinate and fumarate. The detection of α-ketoglutarate indicates that the cysticerci which were exposed to the drugs after host treatment present different metabolic pathways than the ones previously described after in vitro treatment.

  17. Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Beerendonk, Erwin; Scholte-Veenendaal, Petra; De Voogt, Pim

    2012-02-07

    The behavior of polyfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) from intake (raw source water) to finished drinking water was assessed by taking samples from influent and effluent of the several treatment steps used in a drinking water production chain. These consisted of intake, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, dune passage, aeration, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, pellet softening, granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, slow sand filtration, and finished drinking water. In the intake water taken from the Lek canal (a tributary of the river Rhine), the most abundant PFAA were PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), PFBS (perfluorobutane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). During treatment, longer chain PFAA such as PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOS were readily removed by the GAC treatment step and their GAC effluent concentrations were reduced to levels below the limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.23 and 0.24 ng/L for PFOS and PFNA, respectively). However, more hydrophilic shorter chain PFAA (especially PFBA and PFBS) were not removed by GAC and their concentrations remained constant through treatment. A decreasing removal capacity of the GAC was observed with increasing carbon loading and with decreasing carbon chain length of the PFAAs. This study shows that none of the treatment steps, including softening processes, are effective for PFAA removal, except for GAC filtration. GAC can effectively remove certain PFAA from the drinking water cycle.The enrichment of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers relative to non branched isomers during GAC filtration was observed during treatment. The finished water contained 26 and 19 ng/L of PFBA and PFBS. Other PFAAs were present in concentrations below 4.2 ng/L The concentrations of PFAA observed in finished waters are no reason for concern for human health as margins to existing guidelines are sufficiently large.

  18. Role of omega-3 Fatty acids for prevention or treatment of perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Borja-Hart, Nancy L; Marino, Jehan

    2010-02-01

    Perinatal depression is a complex mental health disorder that can manifest during pregnancy or after childbirth. Women with perinatal depression may not receive proper medical treatment because of concerns over teratogenic effects related to drug therapy. Evidence suggests that low levels of omega-3 fatty acids are correlated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after delivery. Omega-3 fatty acids may produce antidepressant effects due to their role in serotonin functioning. A literature search identified seven clinical trials of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention or treatment of perinatal depression. Depression rating scale scores used in the studies improved, but results were statistically significant in only three trials. Four studies were randomized and placebo controlled, and three were open label. One study evaluating the prevention of postpartum depression in women with a history of depression was discontinued early due to relapse of depressive symptoms. In the trials we evaluated, the most common adverse effects were foul breath and/or unpleasant taste, and gastrointestinal complaints; no serious adverse events were reported. The seven studies were limited by small sample sizes and variable dosing and study durations. In the studies that demonstrated statistical significance, improvement in depression rating scale scores for omega-3 fatty acids was comparable to placebo. Overall, results have been inconclusive, but further investigation of omega-3 fatty acids is warranted because they did improve depression scores and appeared to be safe during pregnancy.

  19. Effect of boric acid treatment on the secondary cycle at ANO-2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Siegwarth, D.P.; McNea, D.A.; Sawochka, S.G.

    1985-11-01

    Because of the rapid progression of denting at the steam generator upper support plates at Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 2 (ANO-2), Arkansas Power and Light (AP and L) implemented boric acid treatment during the third fuel cycle. Minimal effects of boric acid on secondary cycle ionic transport were observed; however, indications of accelerated corrosion of copper alloys in portions of the cycle were noted. Since the primary-to-secondary hydrogen diffusion rate data did not conform to the relation expected based on laboratory studies with Alloy 600, hydrogen transport data could not be employed to conclusively demonstrate the effect of boric acid on steam generator corrosion. Assuming that the basic form of the diffusion relation remained the same during operation with and without boric acid, a net increase in corrosion-generated hydrogen transport appeared to result from the adoption of boric acid treatment. This increase may be attributable to an increase in secondary cycle copper alloy corrosion rates, although additional measurements would be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Preferential lectin binding of cancer cells upon sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Badr, Haitham A; Elsayed, Abdelaleim I; Ahmed, Hafiz; Dwek, Miriam V; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B

    2013-10-01

    The terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates on a eukaryotic cell surface is typically a sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased sialylation usually indicates progression and poor prognosis of most carcinomas. Here, we utilize two human mammary epithelial cell lines, HB4A (breast normal cells) and T47D (breast cancer cells), as a model system to demonstrate differential surface glycans when treated with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation. Under a starved condition, sialic acid treatment of both cells resulted in increased activities of α2→3/6 sialyltransferases as demonstrated by solid phase assay using lectin binding. However, a very strong Maackia amurensis agglutinin I (MAL-I) staining on the membrane of sialic acid-treated T47D cells was observed, indicating an increase of Neu5Acα2→3Gal on the cell surface. To our knowledge, this is a first report showing the utility of lectins, particularly MAL-I, as a means to discriminate between normal and cancer cells after sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation. This method is sensitive and allows selective detection of glycan sialylation on a cancer cell surface.

  1. Fatty acid microemulsion for the treatment of neonatal conjunctivitis: quantification, characterisation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Butt, Ummara; ElShaer, Amr; Snyder, Lori A S; Chaidemenou, Athina; Alany, Raid G

    2016-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach. Derivatisation was confirmed using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR) and 1H NMR spectrum. A gas chromatographic method (GC-FID) was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines for the identification and quantification of fatty acids. The results were found to be linear over the concentration range studied with coefficient of variation greater than 0.99 and high recovery values and low intra-day and inter-day variation values for all FAs. Then, different α-linolenic acid-based microemulsions (MEs) were prepared using Tween 80 as surfactant, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as co surfactant and water as aqueous phase. The developed GC method was used to quantify the FA content in ME formulations. The results indicated that the developed GC method is very effective to quantify the FA content in the ME formulations. The antimicrobial efficacy of FA-based MEs were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. It was concluded that the FA-based MEs have strong antimicrobial effect against S. aureus.

  2. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Kenneth R.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for free fatty acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long-chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycemic control and reduced HbA1c levels in T2D patients, with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia. However, this ligand was removed from clinical trials due to potential liver toxicity and determining if this is a target or a ligand-specific feature is now of major importance. Pre-clinical studies also show that FFA4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces weight loss, and reduces inflammation and the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with FFA2 and FFA3 activation. In this review, we therefore show that FFA receptor agonism is a potential clinical target for T2D treatment and discuss ongoing drug development programs within industry and academia aimed at improving the safety and effectiveness of these potential treatments. PMID:25221541

  3. Amino Acid PET – An Imaging Option to Identify Treatment Response, Posttherapeutic Effects, and Tumor Recurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Galldiks, Norbert; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Routine diagnostics and treatment monitoring in patients with primary and secondary brain tumors is usually based on contrast-enhanced standard MRI. However, the capacity of standard MRI to differentiate neoplastic tissue from non-specific posttreatment effects may be limited particularly after therapeutic interventions such as radio- and/or chemotherapy or newer treatment options, e.g., immune therapy. Metabolic imaging using PET may provide relevant additional information on tumor metabolism, which allows a more accurate diagnosis especially in clinically equivocal situations, particularly when radiolabeled amino acids are used. Amino acid PET allows a sensitive monitoring of a response to various treatment options, the early detection of tumor recurrence, and an improved differentiation of tumor recurrence from posttherapeutic effects. In the past, this method had only limited availability due to the use of PET tracers with a short half-life, e.g., C-11. In recent years, however, novel amino acid PET tracers labeled with positron emitters with a longer half-life (F-18) have been developed and clinically validated, which allow a more efficient and cost-effective application. These developments and the well-documented diagnostic performance of PET using radiolabeled amino acids suggest that its application continues to spread and that this technique may be available as a routine diagnostic tool for several indications in the field of neuro-oncology. PMID:27516754

  4. Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

    2015-04-15

    Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM).

  5. Stream ecosystem response to limestone treatment in acid impacted watersheds of the allegheny plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClurg, S.E.; Petty, J.T.; Mazik, P.M.; Clayton, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration programs are expanding worldwide, but assessments of restoration effectiveness are rare. The objectives of our study were to assess current acid-precipitation remediation programs in streams of the Allegheny Plateau ecoregion of West Virginia (USA), identify specific attributes that could and could not be fully restored, and quantify temporal trends in ecosystem recovery. We sampled water chemistry, physical habitat, periphyton biomass, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish community structure in three stream types: acidic (four streams), naturally circumneutral (eight streams), and acidic streams treated with limestone sand (eight streams). We observed no temporal trends in ecosystem recovery in treated streams despite sampling streams that ranged from 2 to 20 years since initial treatment. Our results indicated that the application of limestone sand to acidic streams was effective in fully recovering some characteristics, such as pH, alkalinity, Ca2+, Ca:H ratios, trout biomass and density, and trout reproductive success. However, recovery of many other characteristics was strongly dependent upon spatial proximity to treatment, and still others were never fully recovered. For example, limestone treatment did not restore dissolved aluminum concentrations, macroinvertebrate taxon richness, and total fish biomass to circumneutral reference conditions. Full recovery may not be occurring because treated streams continue to drain acidic watersheds and remain isolated in a network of acidic streams. We propose a revised stream restoration plan for the Allegheny Plateau that includes restoring stream ecosystems as connected networks rather than isolated reaches and recognizes that full recovery of acidified watersheds may not be possible. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Detection and treatment of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in psychiatric practice: Rationale and implementation.

    PubMed

    Messamore, Erik; McNamara, Robert K

    2016-02-10

    A body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and potentially etiology of different psychiatric disorders. Case-control studies have consistently observed low erythrocyte (red blood cell) EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA biostatus can be treated with fish oil-based formulations containing preformed EPA + DHA, and extant evidence suggests that fish oil supplementation is safe and well-tolerated and may have therapeutic benefits. These and other data provide a rationale for screening for and treating LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency in patients with psychiatric illness. To this end, we have implemented a pilot program that routinely measures blood fatty acid levels in psychiatric patients entering a residential inpatient clinic. To date over 130 blood samples, primarily from patients with treatment-refractory mood or anxiety disorders, have been collected and analyzed. Our initial results indicate that the majority (75 %) of patients exhibit whole blood EPA + DHA levels at ≤ 4 percent of total fatty acid composition, a rate that is significantly higher than general population norms (25 %). In a sub-set of cases, corrective treatment with fish oil-based products has resulted in improvements in psychiatric symptoms without notable side effects. In view of the urgent need for improvements in conventional treatment algorithms, these preliminary findings provide important support for expanding this approach in routine psychiatric practice.

  7. Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis and the Expression of Key Genes in the Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway in the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Wu, Chen-Gao; Dang, Zhi-Hao; Shi, Liang; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229.03 μg/100 mg, which was improved 66.38% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA, the transcription levels of key genes in the GA biosynthesis pathway-squalene (SQ) synthase (sqs), lanosterol (Lano; osc), and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (hmgr)-were improved 119.6-, 3.2-, and 4.2-fold, respectively. In addition, following treatment with 100 μmol/L SA, the levels of Lano and SQ, which are intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, were increased 2.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively. These results indicate that SA can regulate the expression of genes related to GA biosynthesis and increases the metabolic levels of Lano and SQ, thereby resulting in the accumulation of GA.

  8. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  9. Effect of acid and alkali treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Waltz, D M; Loerch, S C

    1986-09-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) was treated with acid or alkali to determine effects on N solubility, in vitro NH3-N accumulation, in situ N degradability, and N digestion and retention in growing lambs. The following SBM treatments resulted in decreased (P less than .05) N solubility and in vitro NH3-N accumulation compared with control SBM: spraying with 2.5 or 5% acetic or propionic acid, soaking in .5 N HCl, .5 N NaOH or .5 N propionic acid followed by air drying, and soaking in H2O, .5 N HCl or .5 N propionic acid followed by drying at 100 C. In situ residual N was determined for SBM subjected to the above treatments. Soybean meal sprayed with 2.5 or 5% acetic or propionic acid had greater (P less than .05) in situ residual N after 4, 8 and 12 h of incubation than control SBM. Soybean meal soaked in .5 N HCl or .5 N NaOH and air-dried, and soaked in H2O, .5 N propionic acid or .5 N HCl and dried at 100 C had greater (P less than .05) in situ residual N after 4, 8, 12 and 24 h of incubation than control SBM. In a lamb N balance trial, SBM treated by spraying with 5% acetic or propionic acid or by soaking in .5 N NaOH did not result in reduced N digestion compared to control SBM. Feeding SBM soaked in .5 N NaOH resulted in a 39% increase (P less than .05) in N retention compared with control SBM (5.21 vs 3.74 g/d, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Bile Acids in Polycystic Liver Diseases: Triggers of Disease Progression and Potential Solution for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Perugorria, Maria J; Labiano, Ibone; Esparza-Baquer, Aitor; Marzioni, Marco; Marin, Jose J G; Bujanda, Luis; Banales, Jesús M

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are a group of genetic hereditary cholangiopathies characterized by the development and progressive growth of cysts in the liver, which are the main cause of morbidity. Current therapies are based on surgical procedures and pharmacological strategies, which show short-term and modest beneficial effects. Therefore, the determination of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis appears to be crucial in order to find new potential targets for pharmacological therapy. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and abnormal cystic cholangiocyte growth and secretion are some of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PLDs. However, the discovery of the presence of bile acids in the fluid collected from human cysts and the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids in an animal model of PLD (i.e. polycystic kidney (PCK) rat) suggest a potential role of impaired bile acid homeostasis in the pathogenesis of these diseases. On the other hand, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has emerged as a new potential therapeutic tool for PLDs by promoting the inhibition of cystic cholangiocyte growth in both PCK rats and highly symptomatic patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD: most common type of PLD), and improving symptoms. Chronic treatment with UDCA normalizes the decreased intracellular calcium levels in ADPKD human cholangiocytes in vitro, which results in the reduction of their baseline-stimulated proliferation. Moreover, UDCA decreases the liver concentration of cytotoxic bile acids in PCK rats and the bile acid-dependent enhanced proliferation of cystic cholangiocytes. Here, the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of PLDs and the potential therapeutic value of UDCA for the treatment of these diseases are reviewed and future lines of investigation in this field are proposed.

  11. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  12. Influence of Fluorine on the Conductivity and Oxidation of Silicon Nanomembranes after Hydrofluoric Acid Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang-Fu; Han, Ping; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2011-08-01

    After immersion in hydrofluoric acid, the sheet resistance of a 220-nm-thick silicon nanomembrane, measured in dry air by van der Pauw method, drops around two orders of magnitude initially, then increases and reaches the level of a sample with a native oxide surface in about one month. The surface component and oxidation rate are also characterized by x-ray photo electronic spectroscopy measurement. Fluorine is found to play a significant role in improving conductivity and has no apparent influence on the oxidation rate after hydrofluoric acid treatment.

  13. The effects of acid treatment and calcium ions on the solubility of concanavalin A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment (which removes Mn and Ca ions) and Ca(2+) ions on the solubility of jack-bean-meal concanavalin A were investigated using two techniques: the sitting drop technique and the microcolumn technique. It was found that the solubility of concanavalin A varied with the protein preparation procedures and with measurement techniques. Addition of Ca(2+) resulted in greatly lowered solubilities compared with the acid treated protein. The sitting drop solubilities for the recalcified protein agreed better with those reported by Mikol and Giege (1989) than with solubilities determined from column data.

  14. New approach in the treatment of refractory vitiligo: CO2 laser combined with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Scabine Pessotti, Nabila; Bonati Mattos, Camila; Salai, Ana Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser (CO2 ) with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution in the treatment of patients with refractory vitiligo in hands. Each hand of the patient was randomly assigned to one of two groups: lesion treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser associated with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution administration or lesion treated only with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution. We conclude that combined treatment with fractional carbon dioxide laser and betamethasone associated with salicylic acid solution could effectively and safely be used in the treatment of refractory vitiligo.

  15. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production.

  16. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  17. Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Naglaa; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Hassanen, Ahmed M; Moustafa, Mahmoud F M; Sakuma, Yoh; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) controls growth and stress responses in plants. It also induces drought tolerance in plants. In this paper, four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different drought responses were treated with SA in three levels of drain (90, 60, 30% of maximum field capacity) to examine its interactive effects on drought responses and contents of osmotic solutes that may be involved in growth and osmotic adjustment. Under drought condition, the cultivars Geza 164 and Sakha 69 had the plant biomass and leaf relative water content (LRWC) greater than the cultivars Gemaza 1 and Gemaza 3. In all cultivars, drought stress decreased the biomass, LRWC, and the contents of inorganic solutes (Ca, K, Mg) and largely increased the contents of organic solutes (soluble sugars and proline). By contrast, SA increased the biomass, LRWC and the inorganic and organic solute contents, except proline. Correlation analysis revealed that the LRWC correlated positively with the inorganic solute contents but negatively with proline in all cultivars. SA caused maximum accumulations of soluble sugars in roots under drought. These results indicated that SA-enhanced tolerance might involve solute accumulations but independently of proline biosynthesis. Drought-sensitive cultivars had a trait lowering Ca and K levels especially in shoots. Possible functions of the ions and different traits of cultivars were discussed.

  18. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection.

  19. Lipid metabolism is differentially modulated by salicylic acid and heptanoyl salicylic acid during the induction of resistance in wheat against powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Christine; Randoux, Béatrice; Bourdon, Natacha; Reignault, Philippe

    2013-12-15

    Heptanoyl salicylic acid (HSA) is a salicylic acid (SA) derivative obtained by esterification of 2-OH benzoic acid with heptanoic acid. In wheat, the protection levels obtained against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) increased from 50% with SA to 95% with HSA. Using molecular, biochemical and cytological approaches, we investigated here how wheat lipid metabolism is differentially activated by SA and HSA in both infectious and non-infectious conditions, and how Bgt infectious process is altered by both inducers. First, in the absence of Bgt, continuous lipoxygenase (LOX)-encoding gene expression and corresponding activity were specifically induced by HSA. Moreover, compared to SA, HSA treatment resulted in earlier up-regulations of the phospholipase C2-encoding gene expression and it specifically affected the expression of a lipid transfer protein-encoding gene. In infectious context, both HSA and SA sprayings impaired penetration events and therefore haustorium formation, leading to less frequent fungal colonies. While this alteration only slowed down the evolution of Bgt infectious process in SA-sprayed leaves, it completely impaired the establishment of successful infectious events in HSA-sprayed leaves. In addition, HSA induced continuous increases of a LOX-encoding gene expression and of the corresponding LOX activity when compared to SA-sprayed leaves. Lipid metabolism is therefore overall highly responsive to HSA spraying and could represent effective defence mechanism triggered during the induction of resistance in wheat toward Bgt. The concepts of priming and energy costs of the defences induced by SA and HSA are also discussed.

  20. Substantial deficiency of free sialic acid in muscles of patients with GNE myopathy and in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yiumo Michael; Lee, Paul; Jungles, Steve; Morris, Gabrielle; Cadaoas, Jaclyn; Skrinar, Alison; Vellard, Michel; Kakkis, Emil

    2017-01-01

    GNE myopathy (GNEM), also known as hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM), is a late- onset, progressive myopathy caused by mutations in the GNE gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the first regulated step in the biosynthesis of sialic acid (SA). The disease is characterized by distal muscle weakness in both the lower and upper extremities, with the quadriceps muscle relatively spared until the late stages of disease. To explore the role of SA synthesis in the disease, we conducted a comprehensive and systematic analysis of both free and total SA levels in a large cohort of GNEM patients and a mouse model. A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay was developed to quantify SA in serum and muscle homogenates. Mean serum free SA level was 0.166 μg/mL in patients and 18% lower (p<0.001) than that of age-matched control samples (0.203 μg/mL). In biopsies obtained from patients, mean free SA levels of different muscles ranged from 0.046–0.075 μg/μmol Cr and were markedly lower by 72–85% (p<0.001) than free SA from normal controls. Free SA was shown to constitute a small fraction (3–7%) of the total SA pool in muscle tissue. Differences in mean total SA levels in muscle from patients compared with normal controls were less distinct and more variable between different muscles, suggesting a small subset of sialylation targets could be responsible for the pathogenesis of GNEM. Normal quadriceps had significantly lower levels of free SA (reduced by 39%) and total SA (reduced by 53%) compared to normal gastrocnemius. A lower SA requirement for quadriceps may be linked to the reported quadriceps sparing in GNEM. Analysis of SA levels in GneM743T/M743T mutant mice corroborated the human study results. These results show that serum and muscle free SA is severely reduced in GNEM, which is consistent with the biochemical defect in SA synthesis associated with GNE mutations. These results therefore support the approach of reversing SA depletion as a potential treatment for GNEM

  1. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  2. Effect of Acinetobacter glutaminase-asparaginase treatment on free amino acids in mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Holcenberg, J S; Tang, E; Dolowy, W C

    1975-05-01

    Acinetobacter glutaminase-asparaginase (AGA) and Escherichia coli asparaginase were compared for their effects on plasma and tissue levels of amino acids, ammonia, and glutamyl transferase activity in the mouse. Free asparagine was depleted similarly in plasma and tissues by both enzymes. AGA treatment produced partial depletion of glutamine concentrations in muscle, spleen, small intestine, and liver. Brain and kidney glutamine concentrations actually rose with treatment. Despite over 100-fold increase in plasma glutamate, only the kidney showed a substantial increase in free glutamate levels during AGA treatment. Glutamine biosynthesis measured by glutamyl transferase activity showed an appreciable increase only in the kidney. Ammonia levels in tissues and plasma rose 1.3- to 4.3-fold. In general, E. coli asparaginase treatment had much less effect on these measurements than did AGA. The changes in these levels are discussed in relation to sites of possible toxicity and antitumor effects.

  3. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD.

  4. Analysis of Vaginal Acetic Acid in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudry, Amjad N.; Travers, Paul J.; Yuenger, Jeffrey; Colletta, Lorraine; Evans, Phillip; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Tummon, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A “gold standard” method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking. The clinical criteria described by the Amsel technique are subjective and difficult to quantify. Alternatively, the reading of Gram-stained vaginal smears by scoring techniques such as those that use the Nugent or Hay-Ison scoring systems is again subjective, requires expert personnel to perform the reading, and is infrequently used clinically. Recently, a new diagnostic device, the Osmetech Microbial Analyzer—Bacterial Vaginosis (OMA-BV), which determines a patient's BV status on the basis of measurement of the amount of acetic acid present in a vaginal swab specimen, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The present study uses the conducting polymer gas-sensing technology of OMA-BV to measure the concentration of acetic acid in the headspace above vaginal swab specimens from patients undergoing treatment for BV with metronidazole. In 97.8% of the cases the level of acetic acid detected fell sharply during the treatment period, crossing from above to below the diagnostic threshold of 900 ppm. The diagnosis obtained on the basis of the level of vaginal acetic acid was compared with the diagnoses obtained by use of the Amsel criteria and the Nugent scoring system both at the time of initial entry into the study and at the repeat samplings on days 7 and 14. The results obtained with OMA-BV showed overall agreements compared with the results of the Amsel and Nugent tests of 98 and 94%, respectively, for the 34 patients monitored through the treatment process. This provides further evidence that the measurement of vaginal acetic acid by headspace analysis with conducting polymer sensors is a valid alternative to present tests for the diagnosis of BV. PMID:15528711

  5. Effective treatment of acne scars using pneumatic injection of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tapan; Tevet, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Acne scars remain a challenging condition to treat despite multiple currently available technologies. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of pneumatic injections of Hyaluronic Acid in the treatment of acne scars. Two patients (Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V) with acne scars received two sessions of pneumatic, needleless injections of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) at 4-week intervals. The treatment response was assessed by comparing pre- and 3-month posttreatment clinical photography. The patients' acne scar grade improved from 2 to 1 in the first case, and 3 to 2 in the second case, based on independent physician assessment. Patient degree of satisfaction was similar to the physicians' assessment. No significant adverse events were noted. We conclude that pneumatic injection technology to deliver HA to the tissue is an effective and safe method for improving acne scars, even in patients with dark complexion.

  6. Structure elucidation of new compounds from acidic treatment of the progestins gestodene and drospirenone.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Diego; Bombieri, Gabriella; Lenna, Roberto; Marchini, Nicoletta; Modica, Emilia; Scala, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    Gestodene acidic treatment afforded a single rearrangement product, namely 13-beta-ethyl-18,19-dinorpregna-4,14,16-trien-3,20-dione 3, which was originated through HCl-catalyzed Rupe rearrangement. Drospirenone acidic treatment yielded two epimeric lactones by addition of HCl to the 6beta,7beta-cyclopropane ring, namely 7beta-(chloromethyl)-15beta,16beta-methylene-3-oxo-17beta-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactone 4 and 7beta-(chloromethyl)-15beta,16beta-methylene-3-oxo-17alpha-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactone 5. The structure of the compounds was assessed by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods.

  7. Efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid in the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Tandogdu, Zafer

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential in treating many disorders and they are widely used in spite of their negative impact on the skeletal system. As bisphosphonates reduce bone resorption through their action on osteoclasts, they play an important role in management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Unlike other bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid is given by intravenous infusion and it has a potential advantage of increasing the compliance and adherence of patients when it is given 5 mg once a year. However, this treatment modality seems to be associated with more adverse events than oral administrations, and further studies with longer follow-up periods must be conducted to determine the safety and cost-effectiveness of long-term treatment with zoledronic acid. PMID:20526439

  8. Review of immediate-release omeprazole for the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Castell, Donald

    2005-11-01

    Immediate-release omeprazole (Zegerid, Santarus) is the first immediate-release oral proton pump inhibitor to reach the market. As a powder formulation for oral suspension, it is indicated for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive oesophagitis, duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer, and is the only proton pump inhibitor approved for the reduction of risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. Administration of immediate-release omeprazole at bedtime results in a rapid and sustained elevation of gastric pH, and seems to provide better night time control of gastric acidity than that observed with conventional morning dosing of delayed-release proton pump inhibitors. The immediate-release formulation may provide a good treatment option for patients who require flexible dosing, quick onset of action and nocturnal gastric acid control.

  9. Topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns. Further assessment of efficacy using an experimental piq model.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B J; MacKinnon, M A; Knowlden, N F; Billmaier, D J; Derelanko, M J; Rusch, G M; Naas, D J; Dahlgren, R R

    1996-05-01

    Several topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns (Zephiran, calcium acetate and magnesium hydroxide antacid soaks, and calcium gluconate gel) were assessed for efficacy in a pig model. Gross appearance and histopathology of treated and untreated burn sites were evaluated. For superficial burns, Zephiran was most effective; calcium acetate, magnesium hydroxide antacid, and calcium gluconate gel were less effective. For deep burns, gross observations showed that calcium acetate and Zephiran were most efficacious, whereas histopathology indicated comparable efficacy of Zephiran, calcium acetate, and calcium gluconate gel for all skin layers. Magnesium hydroxide antacid demonstrated efficacy only for the subdermis. The clinically beneficial effects of both Zephiran and calcium gluconate gel were affirmed. Although results suggest that calcium acetate and magnesium-containing antacids may be beneficial for human hydrofluoric acid dermal burns, these are not established clinical treatments.

  10. Parallel electrochemical treatment system and application for identifying acid-stable oxygen evolution electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan J R; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; Xiang, Chengxiang; Haber, Joel A; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-09

    Many energy technologies require electrochemical stability or preactivation of functional materials. Due to the long experiment duration required for either electrochemical preactivation or evaluation of operational stability, parallel screening is required to enable high throughput experimentation. Imposing operational electrochemical conditions to a library of materials in parallel creates several opportunities for experimental artifacts. We discuss the electrochemical engineering principles and operational parameters that mitigate artifacts in the parallel electrochemical treatment system. We also demonstrate the effects of resistive losses within the planar working electrode through a combination of finite element modeling and illustrative experiments. Operation of the parallel-plate, membrane-separated electrochemical treatment system is demonstrated by exposing a composition library of mixed-metal oxides to oxygen evolution conditions in 1 M sulfuric acid for 2 h. This application is particularly important because the electrolysis and photoelectrolysis of water are promising future energy technologies inhibited by the lack of highly active, acid-stable catalysts containing only earth abundant elements.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film reinforced with nanocrystalline cellulose and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Rubentheren, V; Ward, Thomas A; Chee, Ching Yern; Nair, Praveena; Salami, Erfan; Fearday, Christopher

    2016-04-20

    This article presents an analysis of the influence of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film. A series of samples comprising: pure chitosan film, chitosan film embedded with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), chitosan film crosslinked with tannic acid and chitosan film with a blend of NCC and tannic acid were heat treated using a convection oven. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction test (XRD) shows the changes in chemical interaction of the heat treated films. The heat treated films show significant improvements in moisture absorption. Tensile strength and Young's Modulus were increased up to 7MPa and 259MPa, respectively when the samples were subjected to heat treatment. For the NCC particles, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to inspect the structural properties of cellulose particle in suspension form.

  12. α-Lipoic acid treatment prevents cystine urolithiasis in a mouse model of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Zee, Tiffany; Bose, Neelanjan; Zee, Jarcy; Beck, Jennifer N; Yang, See; Parihar, Jaspreet; Yang, Min; Damodar, Sruthi; Hall, David; O'Leary, Monique N; Ramanathan, Arvind; Gerona, Roy R; Killilea, David W; Chi, Thomas; Tischfield, Jay; Sahota, Amrik; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2017-03-01

    Cystinuria is an incompletely dominant disorder characterized by defective urinary cystine reabsorption that results in the formation of cystine-based urinary stones. Current treatment options are limited in their effectiveness at preventing stone recurrence and are often poorly tolerated. We report that the nutritional supplement α-lipoic acid inhibits cystine stone formation in the Slc3a1(-/-) mouse model of cystinuria by increasing the solubility of urinary cystine. These findings identify a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of cystinuria.

  13. Lipogenesis and lipid peroxidation in rat testes after long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K

    2016-06-30

    We studied the influence of long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water on the fatty acid profile and lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Male Wistar rats were supplemented with sucrose (30% w/v) or with sucrose and tannic acid (sucrose 30% w/v, tannic acid 0.1% w/v) in drinking water. The treatment with sucrose elevated blood glucose levels in the plasma (p < .05) and decreased the testis weight (p < .05) and testis index (p < .05) of the rats. Sucrose treatment increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and C22:6n3, and decreased n6 fatty acids in testis tissue. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased after sucrose administration in plasma (p < .05) and testis tissue (p < .01). The addition of tannic acid led to the decrease in lipid peroxidation in the plasma (p < .05) and testis (p < .05), a further increase in MUFA and decrease in n6 fatty acids. In conclusion, sucrose significantly altered the testis fatty acid profile with an increase in MUFA and C22:6n3, and a decrease in n6 fatty acids. Tannic acid attenuated oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia, but it did not improve pathological changes in the fatty acid composition of the testis.

  14. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  15. Influence of Fenofibrate Treatment on Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides and Fatty Acids in Fructose Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation. PMID:25198467

  16. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  17. Immediate early transcription activation by salicylic acid via the cauliflower mosaic virus as-1 element.

    PubMed Central

    Qin, X F; Holuigue, L; Horvath, D M; Chua, N H

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a number of regulatory sequences derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were tested for their response to treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous signal involved in plant defense responses. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions with the full-length (-343 to +8) 35S promoter or the -90 truncation were found to be induced by SA. Time course experiments revealed that, in the continuous presence of SA, the -90 promoter construct (-90 35S-GUS) displayed rapid and transient induction kinetics, with maximum RNA levels at 1 to 4 hr, which declined to low levels by 24 hr. Induction was still apparent in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX). Moreover, mRNA levels continued to accumulate over 24 hr rather than to decline. By contrast, mRNA from the endogenous pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a) gene began to accumulate at later times during SA treatment and steadily increased through 24 hr; transcription of this gene was almost completely blocked by the presence of CHX. Further dissection of the region from -90 and -46 of the 35S promoter revealed that the SA-responsive element corresponds to the previously characterized activation sequence-1 (as-1). These results represent a definitive analysis of immediate early responses to SA, relative to the late induction of PR genes, and potentially elucidate the early events of SA signal transduction during the plant defense response. PMID:8061520

  18. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  19. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  20. Application of alkaline treatment for sludge decrement and humic acid recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Jin, Yiying; Nie, Yongfeng

    2009-12-01

    A new method was introduced to reduce waste activated sludge and extract humic acid for liquid fertilizer. Sludge was disintegrated with NaOH (0.4 g/g dry solid, 8 h) and then centrifuged to obtain the supernatant. The residual sludge was then dewatered, while the supernatant was used to extract humic acid with an ultrafiltration membrane. The results showed that the alkaline treatment dissolved more than half of the sludge organic matter, which was composed of 24% humic acid by mass. After the supernatant was concentrated 20 times using a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 1000, the retentate contained 94.5% of the dissolved organics and could be used to produce humic acid fertilizer. Additionally, only 26% of the NaOH was consumed and the residual NaOH in the permeate flux could be reused. Due to the removal of water and organics, the dewatered sludge could be reduced by 60% when compared to samples that did not receive the alkaline treatment.

  1. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  2. The influence of acid treatments over vermiculite based material as adsorbent for cationic textile dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Freitas, Olga; Chmielarz, Lucjan; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Komędera, Kamila; Błachowski, Artur; Figueiredo, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    The influence of different acid treatments over vermiculite was evaluated. Equilibrium, kinetic and column studies have been conducted. The results showed that vermiculite first treated with nitric acid and then with citric acid has higher adsorption capacity, presenting maximum adsorption capacities in column experiments: for Astrazon Red (AR), 100.8 ± 0.8 mg g(-1) and 54 ± 1 mg g(-1) for modified and raw material, respectively; for Methylene Blue (MB) 150 ± 4 mg g(-1) and 55 ± 2 mg g(-1) for modified and raw material, respectively. Materials characterization by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, N2 adsorption and CEC determination, has been performed. The results suggest the existence of exchange of interlayer cations, leaching of metals from vermiculite's sheets and formation of an amorphous phase in the material. Adsorption follows pseudo 2(nd) order model kinetics for both dyestuffs and equilibrium occurs accordingly to Langmuir's model for AR and Freundlich's model for MB. In column systems Yan's model is the best fit. The enhanced properties of acid treated vermiculite offer new perspectives for the use of this adsorbent in wastewater treatment.

  3. Citric acid treatment of post operative wound infections in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Nagoba, Basavraj; Patil Dawale, Chandrakala; Raju, Reena; Wadher, Bharat; Chidrawar, Shruti; Selkar, Sohan; Suryawanshi, Namdev

    2014-02-01

    The normal cellular immunity is required for normal wound healing. The HIV infection affects wound healing adversely. Wound infections in HIV/AIDS patients are difficult to manage because of compromised immunity. The result is delayed wound healing and increased susceptibility to wound infection. Here we report two cases of HIV positive patients who had developed the post operative wound gape, not responding to the conventional treatment, treated simply by local application of three percent citric acid ointment.

  4. Symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection in the setting of severe nitroimidazole allergy: successful treatment with boric acid.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina; Barnes, Arti; Mena, Leandro

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a patient with symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection who was unable to tolerate nitroimidazole drugs because of severe hypersensitivity, for which desensitisation was not possible. Use of intravaginal clotrimazole, intravaginal paromomycin, intravaginal furazolidone, povidone-iodine douches, and oral nitazoxanide were unsuccessful in eradicating the patient's T. vaginalis infection. A 2-month course of intravaginal topical boric acid subsequently achieved a complete symptomatic cure and the patient remained T. vaginalis wet prep- and culture-negative 60 days after treatment.

  5. SU-E-T-309: Dosimetric Comparison of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Treatment Plan Between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies (IMRTs), Dual Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (DA-VMAT) and Single Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (SA-VMAT) for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar, R; Janardhan, N; Bhavani, P; Surendran, J; Saranganathan, B; Ibrahim, S; Jhonson, B; Madhuri, B; Anuradha, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the plan quality and performance of Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) Treatment plan between Seven field (7F) and Nine field(9F) Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies and Single Arc (SA) and Dual Arc (DA) Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy( VMAT). Methods: Retrospective planning study of 16 patients treated in Elekta Synergy Platform (mlci2) by 9F-IMRT were replanned with 7F-IMRT, Single Arc VMAT and Dual Arc VMAT using CMS, Monaco Treatment Planning System (TPS) with Monte Carlo simulation. Target delineation done as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Protocols (RTOG 0225&0615). Dose Prescribed as 70Gy to Planning Target Volumes (PTV70) and 61Gy to PTV61 in 33 fraction as a SIB technique. Conformity Index(CI), Homogeneity Index(HI) were used as analysis parameter for Target Volumes as well as Mean dose and Max dose for Organ at Risk(OAR,s).Treatment Delivery Time(min), Monitor unit per fraction (MU/fraction), Patient specific quality assurance were also analysed. Results: A Poor dose coverage and Conformity index (CI) was observed in PTV70 by 7F-IMRT among other techniques. SA-VMAT achieved poor dose coverage in PTV61. No statistical significance difference observed in OAR,s except Spinal cord (P= 0.03) and Right optic nerve (P=0.03). DA-VMAT achieved superior target coverage, higher CI (P =0.02) and Better HI (P=0.03) for PTV70 other techniques (7F-IMRT/9F-IMRT/SA-VMAT). A better dose spare for Parotid glands and spinal cord were seen in DA-VMAT. The average treatment delivery time were 5.82mins, 6.72mins, 3.24mins, 4.3mins for 7F-IMRT, 9F-IMRT, SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT respectively. Significance difference Observed in MU/fr (P <0.001) and Patient quality assurance pass rate were >95% (Gamma analysis (Γ3mm, 3%). Conclusion: DA-VAMT showed better target dose coverage and achieved better or equal performance in sparing OARs among other techniques. SA-VMAT offered least Treatment Time than other techniques but achieved poor target coverage. DA-VMAT offered

  6. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  7. Effect of acoustically assisted treatments on vitamins, antioxidant activity, organic acids and drying kinetics of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Gomes, Wesley; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the application of an acoustically assisted treatment on the vitamins (C, B1, B2, B3, and B5), the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP), the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, the organic acid contents (citric and malic) and drying kinetics of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Perola) have been studied. Treatments were carried out using two different soaking media: distilled water and pineapple juice at 30°C during 10, 20 and 30min without and with acoustic assistance (23.2W/L). After treatment, samples were dried at 60°C and 0.5m/s during 8h. The quality parameters were determined in untreated, treated, and treated-dried samples. The acoustic assistance promoted an increment of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5, total flavonoid and malic acid contents, and a reduction of vitamin C, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and citric acid content in treated samples. However, in all treated-dried samples the final content of those quality parameters was higher than the observed in the untreated dried sample.

  8. Efficacy of iopanoic acid for treatment of spontaneous hyperthyroidism in cats.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Alexander E; Panciera, David L

    2011-06-01

    Iopanoic acid is an iodine containing oral cholecystographic agent that has been used to treat hyperthyroidism in humans and has recently been evaluated in an experimental model of feline hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of iopanoic acid in cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Eleven cats were included in the study. Eight were treated initially with 50mg orally q 12h and three were treated with 100mg orally q 12h. Prior to treatment (baseline) and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks of treatment, owner questionnaires, physical exams, complete blood count, biochemistry analyses, and T(3) and T(4) concentrations were evaluated. The mean serum T(3) concentration decreased with treatment at all time periods compared to baseline. Mean T(4) concentrations were increased at weeks 4 and 12 compared to baseline. Five cats had a partial response during the initial 4 weeks of therapy, but the effects were transient and no significant improvements in clinical signs or physical exam findings were noted at any time period. Results suggest that iopanoic acid may be beneficial for acute management of thyrotoxicosis in some cats, but is not suitable for long-term management.

  9. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  10. Number of SA Astronomy Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    The SA professional astronomical community has grown enormously in recent years with the advent of SALT, SKA/MeerKAT/KAT and HESS (Namibia). In this article I have made an attempt to list the people involved, namely those with doctorates working in fields of astronomy and related technologies, cosmic rays, cosmology and space science.

  11. Resistance to valproic acid as predictor of treatment resistance in genetic generalized epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Gesche, Joanna; Khanevski, Marina; Solberg, Carl; Beier, Christoph Patrick

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition. Psychiatric comorbidities, age at first diagnosis, and absences were associated with worse seizure control, whereas focal changes in EEG remained without prognostic impact. Resistance to valproic acid was the most important prognostic factor for refractory seizures. Resistance to valproic acid had a specificity of 100% to identify patients with drug resistance and correlated strongly with bad social outcome and seizure burden. Conversely, 21.2% of all patients with refractory seizures according to the ILAE definition later became seizure free (mainly with valproic acid). Our data suggest that "drug resistant GGE" must not be declared unless patients were adequately treated with valproic acid, and advocate resistance to valproic acid as a new clinical biomarker for drug-resistant GGE. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  12. Effect of Acid Treatment of Plant Cuticles on Sorption of Selected Auxins 1

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Warren E.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    Sorption characteristics of 2-(1-naphthyl)acetic acid (NAA), 2-(1-naphthyl)acetamide (NAAm), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were determined for cuticles enzymically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Sprinter) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. Sorption equilibrium for NAA and 2,4-D by tomato cuticular membranes (CM) and dewaxed cuticular membranes (DCM) was achieved within 24 hours at 25°C. The average K (partition coefficient) values for NAA in tomato CM and DCM were 166 and 204, respectively, whereas the corresponding K values for 2,4-D were 292 and 383, respectively. Sorption equilibrium for 2,4-D and NAA in pepper cuticles was not achieved after 18 and 63 days, respectively. Sorption equilibrium for NAAm in tomato and pepper CM and DCM was attained within 48 hours. Acid pretreatment (2.0 n HCl, 10 minutes) had no effect on NAA, 2,4-D, or NAAm sorption by tomato CM and DCM, or on NAAm sorption by pepper CM and DCM. Acid pretreatment of pepper CM and DCM led to slightly lower KpH (apparent partition coefficient) values for both NAA and 2,4-D. More significantly, sorption equilibrium for NAA and 2,4-D in pepper CM and DCM was achieved within 24 hours after acid treatment. PMID:16665302

  13. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  14. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack.

  16. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  17. Salicylic Acid induces cyanide-resistant respiration in tobacco cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kapulnik, Y; Yalpani, N; Raskin, I

    1992-12-01

    Cyanide-resistant, alternative respiration in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc was analyzed in liquid suspension cultures using O(2) uptake and calorimetric measurements. In young cultures (4-8 d after transfer), cyanide inhibited O(2) uptake by up to 40% as compared to controls. Application of 20 mum salicylic acid (SA) to young cells increased cyanide-resistant O(2) uptake within 2 h. Development of KCN resistance did not affect total O(2) uptake, but was accompanied by a 60% increase in the rate of heat evolution from cells as measured by calorimetry. This stimulation of heat evolution by SA was not significantly affected by 1 mm cyanide, but was reduced by 10 mm salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of cyanide-resistant respiration. Treatment of SA-induced or uninduced cells with a combination of cyanide and SHAM blocked most of the O(2) consumption and heat evolution. Fifty percent of the applied SA was taken up within 10 min, with most of the intracellular SA metabolized in 2 h. 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids also induced cyanide-resistant respiration. These data indicate that in tobacco cell-suspension culture, SA induces the activity and the capacity of cyanide-resistant respiration without affecting the capacity of the cytochrome c respiration pathway.

  18. Mobilization of Cr(VI) from chromite ore processing residue through acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Tinjum, James M; Benson, Craig H; Edil, Tuncer B

    2008-02-25

    Batch leaching studies on chromite ore processing residue (COPR) were performed using acids to investigate leaching of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), with respect to particle size, reaction time, and type of acid (HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4)). Aqueous Cr(VI) is maximized at approximately 0.04 mol Cr(VI) per kg of dry COPR at pH 7.6-8.1. Cr(VI) mobilized more slowly for larger particles, and the pH increased with time and increased more rapidly for smaller particles, suggesting that rate limitations occur in the solid phase. With H(2)SO(4), the pH stabilized at a higher value (8.8 for H(2)SO(4) vs. 8.0 for HNO(3)) and more rapidly (16 h vs. 30 h), and the differences in pH for different particle sizes were smaller. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of COPR is very large (8 mol HNO(3) per kg of dry COPR for a stable eluate pH of 7.5). Changes to the elemental and mineralogical composition and distribution in COPR particles after mixing with acid indicate that Cr(VI)-bearing solids dissolved. However, concentrations of Cr(VI) >2800 mg kg(-1) (>50% of the pre-treatment concentration) were still found after mixing with acid, regardless of the particle size, reaction time, or type of acid used. The residual Cr(VI) appears to be partially associated with poorly-ordered Fe and Al oxyhydroxides that precipitated in the interstitial areas of COPR particles. Remediation strategies that use HNO(3) or H(2)SO(4) to neutralize COPR or to maximize Cr(VI) in solution are likely to require extensive amounts of acid, may not mobilize all of the Cr(VI), and may require extended contact time, even under well-mixed conditions.

  19. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  20. Effects of acid pre-treatment on bio-hydrogen production and microbial communities during dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Joo; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Optimal conditions for acid pre-treatment were investigated for the enrichment of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) in a mixed culture using three strong acids: HCl, HNO(3), and H2SO4 x HCl was selected as a suitable acid for the enrichment of HPB in the fermentation process. The volume of bio-hydrogen produced when the mixed culture was pre-treated using HCl at pH 2 was 3.2 times higher than that obtained without acid pre-treatment. Changes in the microbial community during acid pre-treatment were monitored using images obtained by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method and the Live/Dead cell viability test. The tests clearly indicated that the Clostridium species of cluster I were the predominant strains involved in bio-H(2) fermentation, and could be selectively enriched by HCl pre-treatment.

  1. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll.

  2. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  3. Tranexamic Acid in the Treatment of Melasma: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel Eva; Fayne, Rachel; Verne, Sebastian Hugo; Magno, Robert James; Cervantes, Jessica; ALharbi, Mana; ALOmair, Ibrahim; Alfuraih, Abdulkarem; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-03-10

    Melasma is a common acquired pigmentary disorder marked by irregular hyperpigmented macules or patches and most commonly occurs in women of darker skin color. It is a chronic often-relapsing condition that causes negative psychosocial effects in those affected. Current treatments such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, and retinoids, among others, demonstrate variable efficacy and side-effect profiles. We conducted a comprehensive literature review examining the use of tranexamic acid (TA), a well-known anti-fibrinolytic agent, in the treatment of melasma. TA delivered orally, topically, and through physical methods works via the inhibition of ultraviolet (UV)-induced plasmin activity in keratinocytes. Predefined search terms were entered into PubMed. Articles were then independently screened by two authors to include only those written in the English language and relating to human subjects with at least mild melasma. The search identified 28 articles, 15 of which met the criteria for full review. The review revealed that TA treatment for melasma is equally effective or more effective than other standard therapies and may induce fewer side effects. Our comprehensive review suggests that TA may be a promising treatment option for melasma because of its demonstrated effectiveness alone and in combination with other modalities as well as its limited side-effect profile.

  4. Treatment with the hyaluronic acid synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone suppresses SEB-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    McKallip, Robert J; Hagele, Harriet F; Uchakina, Olga N

    2013-10-17

    Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB.

  5. Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McKallip, Robert J.; Hagele, Harriet F.; Uchakina, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB. PMID:24141285

  6. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis ‘Hongyang’). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate–glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  7. Treatment with the hyaluronic Acid synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone suppresses LPS-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    McKallip, Robert J; Ban, Hao; Uchakina, Olga N

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To date, there are no known effective treatments for LPS-induced inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing LPS-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production, and an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from LPS-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in LPS-induced hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduction in proinflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target HA production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to LPS.

  8. The effects of endophytic bacterium SaMR12 on Sedum alfredii Hance metal ion uptake and the expression of three transporter family genes after cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Wang, Qiong; Ye, Jiayuan; Meng, Qian; Wu, Yingjie; Chen, Bao; Cao, Xuerui; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-02-23

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of an endophytic bacterium SaMR12 on Sedum alfredii Hance metal ion accumulation, chlorophyll concentration, and the expression of three metal transporter families, zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP); natural resistance-associated macrophage protein; and heavy metal ATPase (HMA) at different Cd treatment levels. The results showed that at relatively low Cd conditions (≤25 μM), SaMR12 demonstrated a 19.5-27.5% increase in Fe, a 46.7-90.7% increase in Zn, and a 7.9-43.7% increase in Cu content in the shoot and elevated expression of SaIRT1, SaZIP3, SaHMA2, and SaNramp3 in the shoot and SaZIP1, SaHMA2, SaNramp1, and SaNramp3 in the root. At high Cd conditions (100 and 400 μM), SaMR12 demonstrated a 16.4-18.5% increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, a 18.9-23.2% increase in Fe, and a 15.4-17.5% increase in Mg content in the shoot and elevated expression of SaZIP3, SaNramp6, SaHMA2, and SaHMA3 in the shoot and SaZIP3, SaNarmp1, SaNarmp3, and SaNarmp6 in the root. These results indicated that SaMR12 can elevate essential metal ion uptake and regulate the expression of transport genes to promote plant growth and enhance Cd tolerance and uptake to improve Cd accumulation up to 118-130%.

  9. [α-Lipoic acid as the main pharmacological drug for in- and outpatient treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Strokov, I A; Phokina, A S

    2017-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid, or thioctic acid, (ALA) is the most applicable pharmacological drug for treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. The article explores the results of experimental studies on the α-lipoic acid effect on mechanisms of peripheral nerves affection in hyperglycemia as well as the data of numerous randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses on studying ALA efficacy in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. It has been shown that amelioration of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy is observed both for ALA infusions and tableted form of the drug. The authors conclude that α-lipoic acid is a drug for treatment of pathogenetic development mechanisms of diabetic polyneuropathy with the best proven efficacy.

  10. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  11. [Characteristics of acid red 3R wastewater treatment by ozone microbubbles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Du, Ya-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Wen; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The application of microbubble technology for ozonation wastewater treatment could enhance ozone mass transfer, improve ozonation performance and increase ozone utilization efficiency. The ozone microbubbles were used to treat synthetic acid red 3R wastewater in the present study, and compared to ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone mass transfer and ozonation characteristics of acid red 3R were investigated when ozone microbubbles and ozone conventional bubbles were applied. The results confirmed the enhanced ozone mass transfer using microbubbles. The ozone mass transfer coefficient using microbubbles was 3.6 times higher than that using conventional bubbles under the same conditions. Simultaneously, the ozone decomposition coefficient using microbubbles was 6.2 times higher than that using conventional bubbles, which would be favorable for *OH generation. The ozonation rate and mineralization efficiency of acid red 3R could be improved significantly using ozone microbubbles. A TOC removal efficiency of 78.0% was achieved using ozone microbubbles, which was about 2 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone utilization efficiency using microbubbles was much higher that using conventional bubbles during ozonation treatment of acid red 3R. The average ozone utilization efficiencies were 97.8% and 69.3% when microbubbles and conventional bubbles were used, respectively. The oxidative ability of ozone microbubbles could be increased by enhancing *OH generation, and as a result, the oxidative reaction of degradation intermediates was accelerated by ozone microbubbles. Especially, the mineralization ability of small organic acid intermediates using ozone microbubbles was about 1.6 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles.

  12. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, Allen J.; Conner, Cliff; Quigley, Kevin; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  13. Characterisation of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis responding to long term ursodeoxycholic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Leuschner, M; Dietrich, C; You, T; Seidl, C; Raedle, J; Herrmann, G; Ackermann, H; Leuschner, U

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In some patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, ursodeoxycholic acid causes full biochemical normalisation of laboratory data; in others, indexes improve but do not become normal.
AIMS—To characterise complete and incomplete responders.
METHODS—Seventy patients with primary biliary cirrhosis were treated with ursodeoxycholic acid 10-15 mg/kg/day and followed up for 6-13 years.
RESULTS—In 23 patients (33%) with mainly stage I or II disease, cholestasis indexes and aminotransferases normalised within 1-5 years, except for antimitochondrial antibodies. Histological findings improved. Indexes were not normalised in 47 patients (67%) although the improvement of their biochemical functions parallelled the trend in the first group. In these incomplete responders histological findings improved to a lesser extent. The only difference between the two groups before treatment was higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and γ glutamyl transpeptidase in the incomplete responders. At onset of treatment the discriminant value separating responders from incomplete responders was 660 U/l for alkaline phosphatase and 131 U/l for γ glutamyl transpeptidase. One year later it was 239 and 27 U/l (overall predictive value for responders 92%, for incomplete responders 81%). There were no differences between the two groups concerning immune status, antimitochondrial antibody subtypes, liver histology, or any other data. HLA-B39, DRB1*08, DQB1*04 dominated in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with mainly early stages of primary biliary cirrhosis, higher values of alkaline phosphatase and γ glutamyl transpeptidase are the only biochemical indexes which allow discrimination between patients who will completely or incompletely respond to ursodeoxycholic acid treatment.


Keywords: primary biliary cirrhosis; prognostic indexes; full response to ursodeoxycholic acid; incomplete responders; anti-p53 autoantibodies; HLA typing PMID:10601067

  14. Combinational Treatment with Retinoic Acid Derivatives in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jung; Whang, Young Mi; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2007-01-01

    The growth inhibitory effects of four retinoic acid (RA) derivatives, 9-cis RA, 13-cis RA, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) were compared. In addition, the effects of various combinations of these four agents were examined on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell-lines, and on the expressions of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) on these cells. At the clinically achievable concentration of 1 µM, only 4-HPR inhibited the growths of H1299 and H460 cells-lines. However, retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) expression was up-regulated on H460 and H1299 cells treated with 1 µM of ATRA, 13-cis RA, or 9-cis RA. All NSCLC cell lines showed growth inhibition when exposed sequentially to 1 µM ATRA and 0.1 µM 4-HPR. In particular, sequential treatment with 1 µM ATRA or 13-cis RA and 4-HPR markedly inhibited H1703 cell growth; these cells exhibited no basal RARβ expression and were refractory to 4-HPR. However, in NSCLC cell lines that expressed RARβ, the expressional levels of RARβ were up-regulated by ATRA alone and by sequential treatment with ATRA and 4-HPR. 4-HPR was found to be the most active of the four agents in terms of NSCLC growth-inhibition. Moreover, sequential treatments with ATRA or 13-cis RA followed by 4-HPR were found to have synergistic growth-inhibitory effects and to regulate RAR expression. PMID:17923756

  15. [Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) dependence and the GHB withdrawal syndrome: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    van Noorden, Martijn S; Kamal, Rama; de Jong, Cor A J; Vergouwen, A C M Ton; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a neurotransmitter that occurs naturally in the brain and is increasingly being used as a 'party drug' because of its relaxing and euphoria-inducing effects. GHB has a limited medical use in the treatment of narcolepsy. GHB-intoxications occur often in non-medical use, and generally result in a coma of short duration. GHB use several times a day can lead to tolerance and dependence. After sudden cessation or reduction of intensive GHB use, a severe withdrawal syndrome may occur with symptoms varying from tremor, anxiety and agitation to autonomic instability, hallucinations and delirium. Treatment of the GHB withdrawal syndrome consists of supportive care and benzodiazepines, often in high doses. The controlled detoxification of GHB using pharmaceutical GHB in an adjusted dose is currently being investigated in the Netherlands. There is no literature concerning the treatment of patients following GHB intoxication or after detoxification.

  16. Optical spectroscopy by 5-aminolevulinic acid hexylester induced photodynamic treatment in rat bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Krokan, Hans E.; Hjelme, Dag R.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality which has been shown to be effective for both malignant and non-malignant diseases. New photosensitizers such as 5-aminolevulinic acid hexylester (hALA) may increase the efficiency of PDT. Monitoring of the tissue response provides important information for optimizing factors such as drug and light dose for this treatment modality. Optical spectroscopy may be suited for this task. To test the efficacy of hALA induced PDT, a study on rats with a superficial bladder cancer model, in which a bladder cancer cell line (AY-27) is instilled, will be performed. Preliminary studies have included a PDT feasibility study on rats, fluorescence spectroscopy on AY-27 cell suspensions, and optical reflection and fluorescence spectroscopy in rat bladders in vivo. The results from the preliminary studies are promising, and the study on hALA induced PDT treatment of bladder cancer will be continued.

  17. Effect of free nitrous acid pre-treatment on primary sludge at low exposure times.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Icaran, P; Yuan, Z; Pijuan, M

    2017-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different free nitrous acid (FNA) concentrations at low pre-treatment times (PTs) (1, 2 and 5h) and without pH control with mild agitation on primary sludge (PS) biodegradability and methane production (MP). Increasing PTs resulted in an increase in the solubility of the organic matter (around 25%), but not on cell-mortality (>75% in all the cases with FNA) and neither on methane generation. FNA pre-treatment at low PTs improve MP (around 16% at PT of 1h and 650mg N-NO2(-)/L). However, a similar improvement was found with mild agitation of PS without FNA at 2 and 5h. Taking into account the potential costs associated with the FNA pre-treatment, a mild agitation without FNA would be preferred to enhance MP in PS.

  18. Treatment of Myositis Ossificans with acetic acid phonophoresis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bagnulo, Angela; Gringmuth, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create awareness of myositis ossificans (MO) as a potential complication of muscle contusion by presenting its clinical presentation and diagnostic features. An effective method of treatment is offered for those patients who develop traumatic MO. Management: Patients in this case series developed traumatic MO, confirmed on diagnostic ultrasound. Patients participated in a treatment regimen consisting of phonophoresis of acetic acid with ultrasound. Outcome: In all cases, a trial of phonophoresis therapy significantly decreased patient signs, symptoms and the size of the calcification on diagnostic ultrasound in most at a 4-week post diagnosis mark. Discussion: Due to the potential damage to the muscle and its function, that surgical excision carries; safe effective methods of conservative treatment for MO are crucial. MO deserves more attention in the literature due to its common presentation in athletes. PMID:25550659

  19. Large surface photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid: treatment of actinic keratoses and beyond.

    PubMed

    Bissonette, Robert; Bergeron, Annie; Liu, Younan

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is currently approved in the US and Canada for the spot treatment of non-hypertrophic actinic keratoses of the face and scalp. Dermatologists are currently using ALA-PDT on larger skin surfaces for the treatment of extensive actinic keratoses, sun damage P and acne. This article reviews the safety and efficacy of large surface ALA-PDT for the treatment of actinic keratoses and photodamage. New data on the carcinogenic potential of weekly topical ALA-PDT in mice is also presented. Groups of hairless mice were treated weekly with either ALA alone, blue light alone or ALA-PDT using blue light for a total of 10 months followed by an additional 2 months or observation. Mice were examined weekly for the presence of skin tumors. Skin tumors were not observed in mice treated weekly with blue light alone, with topical application of ALA alone or with ALA-PDT.

  20. Treatment of oral leukoplakia by topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Kübler, A; Haase, T; Rheinwald, M; Barth, T; Mühling, J

    1998-12-01

    A new therapy for the treatment of oral leukoplakia by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is presented. ALA, a precursor in the biosynthesis of haeme, induces the production of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX which can be used for PDT. Twelve patients, who had been suffering from leukoplakia of the oral mucosa for several years, were treated by ALA-mediated PDT. ALA was used as a topical photosensitizer and 20% ALA cream was applied to the leukoplakia lesion of the oral mucosa for two hours and then light activated at 630 nm, 100 mW/cm2 and 100 J/cm2. Five patients showed complete response to the treatment, four patients showed a partial response and in three patients treatment was unsuccessful. One patient with partial response was retreated, after which the lesion disappeared.

  1. Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Theresa A; Gray, Nicholas F

    2013-11-01

    Co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process is a novel treatment technology offering potential savings over alternative systems in materials, proprietary chemicals and energy inputs. The impacts of AMD on laboratory-scale activated sludge units (plug-flow and sequencing batch reactors) treating synthetic MWW were investigated. Synthetic AMD containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and SO4 at a range of concentrations and pH values was formulated to simulate three possible co-treatment processes, i.e., (1) adding raw AMD to the activated sludge aeration tank, (2) pre-treating AMD prior to adding to the aeration tank by mixing with digested sludge and (3) pre-treating AMD by mixing with screened MWW. Continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal; average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations<2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86% and 100%, respectively, in both systems. Manganese and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity; removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Pre-mixing with screened MWW was the best process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal. However, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting an alkali supplement may be necessary.

  2. Safety and effectiveness of cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts.

    PubMed

    López López, Daniel; Vilar Fernández, Juan Manuel; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Álvarez Castro, Carlos; Romero Morales, Carlos; García Sánchez, María Matilde; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid (CPS) treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts (RPW). This study was carried out in a health center in the city of A Coruña (Spain) between January and December 2013. A total of 75 patients completed all the stages of the research process. Information related to treatment with CPS and adverse effects was abstracted from medical records. Of 93 potential patients identified, 75 had at least one follow-up visit or telephone call after treatment and were included in this study. Patients experienced an average of 5.4 visits until complete resolution of their plantar wart occurred, although CPS was not applied at every visit. Fifty-four patients required one application to eliminate the wart and 21 patients required two applications/patient. Seventy-seven percent of patients experienced blistering - an expected therapeutic side effect. All patients experienced some form of an adverse event, the most common being pain (81.3%) and significant blistering (15%). Other side effects were rare (18.7%) and included pruritus, possible mild infection, significant irritation, and bleeding. All patients reported treatment, supporting our results that CPS is a safe and efficacious treatment modality for RPW and should be considered when symptomatic infection necessitates treatment.

  3. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  4. Rotenone and oxalic acid as alternative acaricidal treatments for Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    Gregorc, Ales; Poklukar, Janez

    2003-02-27

    This experiment assessed the efficacy of rotenone and oxalic acid (OA) in an aqueous sugar solution in controlling the honeybee mite Varroa destructor. Colonies were populated with mite-infested brood combs and worker bees. Three rotenone or OA treatments administered during the period with capped brood on 31 July, 14 and 18 August resulted in an average efficacy of 24.10%. In untreated colonies mite mortality averaged 5.40%. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between the rotenone and OA treatments. Three OA treatments administered on 9, 12 and 18 September resulted in a 77.93% mite mortality. An increase in mite drop (P<0.05) was observed at 2 and 4 days after each treatment. OA applications in broodless colonies resulted in significantly (P<0.001) higher mite mortality rates (98.65% average) than the three treatments of rotenone or OA in colonies with capped brood. The dynamics of mite mortality after each rotenone or OA treatment are discussed in this study.

  5. Effective treatment of PAH contaminated Superfund site soil with the peroxy-acid process.

    PubMed

    Scott Alderman, N; N'Guessan, Adeola L; Nyman, Marianne C

    2007-07-31

    Peroxy-organic acids are formed by the chemical reaction between organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy-acid process was applied to two Superfund site soils provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Initial small-scale experiments applied ratios of 3:5:7 (v/v/v) or 3:3:9 (v/v/v) hydrogen peroxide:acetic acid:deionized (DI) water solution to 5g of Superfund site soil. The experiment using 3:5:7 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in an almost complete degradation of the 14 EPA regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bedford LT soil during a 24-h reaction period, while the 3:3:9 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in no applicable degradation in Bedford LT lot 10 soil over the same reaction period. Specific Superfund site soil characteristics (e.g., pH, total organic carbon content and particle size distribution) were found to play an important role in the availability of the PAHs and the efficiency of the transformation during the peroxy-acid process. A scaled-up experiment followed treating 150g of Bedford LT lot 10 soil with and without mixing. The scaled-up processes applied a 3:3:9 (v/v/v) solution resulting in significant decrease in PAH contamination. These findings demonstrate the peroxy-acid process as a viable option for the treatment of PAH contaminated soils. Further work is necessary in order to elucidate the mechanisms of this process.

  6. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment.

  7. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro digestibility of potato and cassava starches under organic acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh

    2017-02-01

    A combination of acid (citric acid or lactic acid) and heat-moisture treatment was used to modify cassava and potato starches in this study. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of the treated starches were investigated. The cassava starch contained 17.0% amylose and possessed A-type crystallinity, whereas the potato starch had 27.4% amylose and possessed B-type crystallinity. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, the crystalline structure of the cassava starch remained unchanged (A type), while the crystalline structure of the potato starch changed from B type to the C (B+A) type. The acid and heat-moisture treatment increased gelatinization temperature, peak and final viscosities of cassava starch but reduced peak and breakdown viscosities of the potato starch. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, rapid digestible starch contents of the treated cassava and potato starches were significantly reduced. However, resistant starch (RS) contents of the treated starches significantly increased as compared to the native starches. Citric acid was found to have high impact on formation of RS in starches. The RS contents of cassava and potato starches obtained under the citric acid and heat-moisture treatment were 40.2% and 39.0%, respectively, two times higher than those of the native starches.

  8. Evaluation of Oxalic Acid Treatments against the Mite Varroa destructor and Secondary Effects on Honey Bees Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Adjlane, Noureddine; Tarek, El-Ounass; Haddad, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Varroa destructor varroasis is a very serious parasite of honeybee Apis mellifera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Varroa treatment using organic acid (oxalic acid) in Algeria identifying its side effects on bee colonies. Methods: Treatment was conducted in one apiary consisting 30 colonies kept in Langstroth hives kind. Oxalic acid dripped directly on bees 5ml of this solution of oxalic acid per lane occupied by a syringe. Three doses were tested: 4.2, 3.2 and 2.1% oxalic acid is 100, 75 and 50 g of oxalic acid dehydrate in one litter of sugar syrup (1water to1 surge) concentration. Results: The percentage of average efficiency obtained for the first dose was 81%, 72.19% for the second dose, and 65% for third one, while the dose of 100 g oxalic acid causes a weakening of honey bee colonies. Conclusion: The experiments revealed that clear variation in the treatment efficiency among colonies that this might be related to brood presence therefore in order to assure the treatment efficiency oxalic acid should be part of a bigger strategy of Varroa treatment. PMID:28032102

  9. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment.

  10. Novel passive co-treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, William H J; Winfrey, Brandon K; Nairn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous-flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. Synthetic AMD of pH 2.6 and acidity of 1870 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 equivalent containing a mean 46, 0.25, 2.0, 290, 55, 1.2, and 390 mg L(-1) of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn, respectively, was added at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, OK, to the system which had a total residence time of 6.6 d. During the 135-d experiment, dissolved Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were consistently decreased by 99.8, 87.8, 97.7, 99.8, 13.9, 87.9, and 73.4%, respectively, pH increased to 6.79, and net acidic influent was converted to net alkaline effluent. At a wasting rate of 0.69% of total influent flow, the system produced sludge with total Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations at least an order of magnitude greater than the influent mix, which presents a metal reclamation opportunity. Results indicate that AMD and MWW passive co-treatment is a viable approach to use wastes as resources to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  11. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  12. Heat-moisture treatment under mildly acidic conditions alters potato starch physicochemical properties and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2013-11-06

    Potato starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT; 120 °C, 3 h) under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5, 6, or 6.5 [control]) at moisture levels of 15, 20 or 25%. HMT starches exhibited significantly delayed pasting times and reduced overall paste viscosities, amylose leaching, and granular swelling characteristics relative to native starch, as well as enhanced levels of thermo-stable resistant starch (≈24%). HMT appeared to alter/enhance short-range chain associations (FT-IR) within amorphous and/or crystalline regions of starch granules. However, the extent of physicochemical change and RS enhancement during HMT was most facilitated by a mildly acidic condition (pH 6) at higher treatment moisture levels (20 or 25%). These conditions promoted limited hydrolysis of amylopectin molecules, primarily at α-(1→6) branch points, likely enhancing mobility and interaction of starch chains during HMT. Thus, a slightly acidic pH might reduce conditions and/or timeframe needed to impart physicochemical changes and reduced digestibility to potato starch.

  13. Jaw osteonecrosis management around a dental implant inserted 2 years before starting treatment with zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Fernández, Ana-Belén; García Medina, Blas; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Jiménez-Burkhardt, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are a type of drug known to inhibit bone resorption through complex interventions. Their primary mechanism of action is aimed at the cellular level, inhibiting osteoclast activity and so bone resorption. BPs are widely used, with many patients receiving continuous treatment for years. But it is well known that these drugs can produce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an intravenous BP used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bone disease in patients with malignant tumors with bone implication. ZA is the most potent BP in clinical development. This report describes the case of a 62-year-old woman with breast cancer antecedents which relapsed, who had received a maxillary dental implant two years before the start of therapy with zoledronic acid. She later developed osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which began in the peri-implant area, and was treated for stage 3 ONJ by sub-total maxillectomy. Key words:Bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid, osteonecrosis of the jaw, peri-implantitis, maxillectomy. PMID:26330946

  14. Enhanced charge transport in highly conducting PEDOT-PSS films after acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, V. Akshaya; Bhatia, Ravi; Menon, Reghu

    The high electrical conductivity, good stability, high strength, flexibility and good transparency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), make it useful for many applications including polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, flexible electrodes, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, field-effect transistors and antistatic-coatings. However, the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS has to be increased significantly for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. The as prepared (pristine) PEDOT-PSS film prepared from the PEDOT-PSS aqueous solution usually has conductivity below 1Scm-1, remarkably lower than ITO. Significant conductivity enhancement has been observed on transparent and conductive PEDOT-PSS films after a treatment with inorganic acids. Our study investigates the charge transport in pristine and H2SO4, HNO3, HCl treated PEDOT-PSS films. We have treated the films with various concentrations of acids to probe the effect of the acid treatment on the conduction mechanism. The study includes the measurement of dc and electric field dependent conductivity of films in the temperature range of 4.2K-300K. We have also performed magneto-resistance measurements in the range of 0-5T. An enhancement by a factor of~103 has been observed in the room temperature conductivity. The detailed magneto-transport studies explain the various mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement observed.

  15. Treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis bone lesions with zoledronic acid: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Harvey, Harold; Lipton, Allan; Drabick, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease caused by a clonal proliferation of specialized dendritic (Langerhans) cells. Although uncommon, it is potentially fatal and carries significant morbidity. Bone involvement is particularly destructive and to date, no standard of care exists for management of both the disease and the significant bone pain as many of these patients experience. In the literature, 12 patients who had previously been heavily pretreated for their disease had their bone pain treated with a bisphosphonate as extrapolated from the cancer literature. Interestingly, these patients had a complete or near complete resolution of their pain, return of functional status and in 75% of cases radiographic evidence of reduction or regression of disease. Only 6 of these patients were treated with a newer generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid. In this paper, we report a case series of 2 patients with LCH bone involvement who received 4 mg of intravenous zoledronic acid monthly for 1 year with complete resolution in their bone pain. In addition, both patients demonstrated reduction in tumor burden after bisphosphonate treatment. Uniquely, our first case is the only reported case in the literature using a bisphosphonate as first line therapy in the treatment of LCH. This case demonstrates the potential role of zoledronic acid therapy in the first line setting for disease stabilization and symptomatic control in patients unable to receive conventional therapy.

  16. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  17. Heavy metal extraction from PCB wastewater treatment sludge by sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Chung; Lee, I-Hsien; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2010-05-15

    Heavy metals contaminated wastewater sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and needs to be properly treated to prevent releasing heavy metals to the environment. In this study, the wastewater treatment sludge from a printed circuit board manufacturing plant was treated in a batch reactor by sulfuric acid to remove the contained heavy metals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration and solid to liquid ratio on the heavy metal removal efficiencies were investigated. The experimental results showed that the total and individual heavy metal removal efficiencies increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration, but decreased with increasing solid to liquid ratio. A mathematical model was developed to predict the residual sludge weights at varying sulfuric concentrations and solid to liquid ratios. The trivalent heavy metal ions, iron and chromium were more difficult to be removed than the divalent ions, copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium. For 5 g/L solid to liquid ratio, more than 99.9% of heavy metals can be removed from the sludge by treating with 0.5M sulfuric acid in 2h.

  18. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption--a review of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and response to treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A J; Merrick, M V; Eastwood, M A

    1991-01-01

    Between 1982 and 1989, the seven day retention of 75SeHCAT was measured in 181 patients with chronic diarrhoea that remained unexplained after full investigation. Altogether 121 of the 181 had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 15% and thus had no evidence of abnormal bile acid turnover. Twenty one had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 10% but less than 15%. Their clinical features were typical of the irritable bowel syndrome, and none of eight treated with cholestyramine showed symptomatic improvement. Sixteen patients had a seven day retention greater than or equal to 5% and less than 10%, six of whom had improved symptoms after treatment with bile acid chelating agents. The remaining 23 patients had a 75SeHCAT retention of less than 5% at seven days and responded to bile acid chelators. This group had a characteristic illness with intermittent watery diarrhoea, but no constitutional upset. It was not possible to distinguish the patients with bile acid malabsorption exclusively on the basis of the clinical symptoms and investigations, other than 75SeHCAT retention. We conclude that the measurement of 75SeHCAT retention is useful, appropriate, and necessary in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea. PMID:1916479

  19. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  20. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L(-1)), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  1. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  2. Neuralization of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate hydrogels under retinoic acid and SAG treatment.

    PubMed

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Peto, Heather

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the differentiation of a mouse embryonic stem cell line (CGR8) into neurons, under retinoic acid (RA) and smoothened agonist (SAG) treatment. When stem cells underwent through an embryoid body (EB) formation stage, dissociation and seeding on glass coverslips, immunofluorescent labelling for neuronal markers (Nestin, b-Tubulin III, MAP2) revealed the presence of both immature neural progenitors and mature neurons. Undifferentiated CGR8 were also encapsulated in tubular, alginate-gelatin hydrogels and incubated in differentiation media containing retinoic acid (RA) and smoothened agonist (SAG). Cryo-sections of the hydrogel tubes were positive for Nestin, Pax6 and b-Tubulin III, verifying the presence of neurons and neural progenitors. Provided neural induction can be more precisely directed in the tubular hydrogels, these scaffolds will become a powerful model of neural tube development in embryos and will highlight potential strategies for spinal cord regeneration.

  3. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients’ blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as “ADHD” and “ω-3/6 PUFA” and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication. PMID:27555775

  4. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication.

  5. Treatment with clozapine and its effect on plasma homovanillic acid and norepinephrine concentrations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M; Kahn, R S; Stern, R G; Hirschowitz, J; Apter, S; Knott, P; Davis, K L

    1993-02-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA), is an indirect tool to assess changes in dopamine turnover. Levels of pHVA have been reported to decrease during treatment with conventional antidopaminergic, neuroleptics, with the decrement correlating with symptomatic improvement in schizophrenic symptoms. Clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, is the only drug proved to be effective in treatment-refractory patients. However, the mechanism mediating this unique efficacy has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the effect of clozapine on pHVA concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Since clozapine potently binds to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, plasma norepinephrine (pNE) concentrations were also measured. Twenty-eight treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients (24 men, 4 women) were treated with clozapine (up to 600 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after a minimum 1-week drug-free period. Symptomatology and pHVA and pNE concentrations were measured at the last drug-free day and weekly for 5 weeks. Fourteen patients responded to clozapine treatment, while an equal number did not. Mean pHVA concentrations did not significantly change during treatment with clozapine. Although clozapine tended to lower pHVA concentrations in treatment responders, the effect was small and not significant. Clozapine treatment significantly raised pNE concentrations, but this did not differentiate responders from nonresponders to clozapine. These findings suggest that clozapine's effect on DA turnover is small and that clozapine may be effective in treatment-refractory schizophrenia by mechanisms other than, or in addition to, dopamine receptor blockade. However, since about one-third of NE is metabolized into HVA, the clozapine-induced increase in pNE may have overshadowed a possible lowering effect of clozapine on pHVA.

  6. Triheptanoin - a medium chain triglyceride with odd chain fatty acids: a new anaplerotic anticonvulsant treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Karin; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The triglyceride of heptanoate (C7 fatty acid), triheptanoin, is a tasteless oil used to treat rare metabolic disorders in USA and France. Heptanoate is metabolized by β-oxidation to provide propionyl-CoA, which after carboxylation can produce succinyl-CoA, resulting in anaplerosis – the refilling of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Heptanoate is also metabolized by the liver to the “C5 ketones”, β-ketopentanoate and/or β-hydroxypentanoate, which are released into the blood and thought to enter the brain via monocarboxylate transporters. Oral triheptanoin has recently been discovered to be reproducibly anticonvulsant in acute and chronic mouse seizures models. However, current knowledge on alterations of brain metabolism after triheptanoin administration and anaplerosis via propionyl-CoA carboxylation in the brain is limited. This review outlines triheptanoin’s unique anticonvulsant profile and its clinical potential for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Anaplerosis as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of epilepsy is discussed. More research is needed to elucidate the anticonvulsant mechanism of triheptanoin and to reveal its clinical potential for the treatment of epilepsy and other disorders of the brain. PMID:21855298

  7. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery.

  8. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  9. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  10. Treatment of phosphoric acid plant wastewater using Fenton's reagent and coagulants.

    PubMed

    Nawghare, P; Rao, N N; Bejankiwar, R; Szyprkowicz, L; Kaul, S N

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatability studies viz., Fenton reaction and physico-chemical (coagulation) treatment using lime, alum, Fe salts and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) performed on wastewater generated from a unit manufacturing technical grade phosphoric acid are reported. Due to low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio and very low pH, this wastewater is not amenable for biological treatment. The treatability studies indicated that it is possible to remove 75-80% COD using Fenton's reagent at optimum doses of 1.0 g/L FeSO4 and 2 ml of 30% H2O2. Simultaneously, significant quantities of suspended solids, phosphate and fluoride are also removed. Polyaluminium chloride is found to be more effective towards suspended solids (SS), COD, phosphate and fluoride removal, when compared to other coagulants used in the present study. Addition of an anionic polyelectrolyte (Magnafloc 156) to PAC improved the performance further. A treatment scheme that consists of neutralization (pH 4) + Fenton's reagent + neutralization (pH 7.5) + PAC/Magnafloc 156 is found to be effective in treating phosphoric acid plant wastewater to meet marine discharge standards.

  11. Effectiveness of coagulation and acid precipitation processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, S

    2010-08-15

    The effectiveness of coagulation (using aluminium-based chemicals and ferrous sulfate) and acid precipitation (using H(2)SO(4)) processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor obtained from a pulp and paper mill is reported. Commercial alum was found to be the most economical among all the aluminium and ferrous salts used as a coagulant. A maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (ca. 63%) and colour reduction (ca. 90%) from the wastewater (COD = 7000 mg l(-1)) at pH 5.0 was obtained with alum. During the acid precipitation process, at pH < 5.0, significant COD reductions (up to 64%) were observed. Solid residue obtained from the alum treatment at a temperature of 95 degrees C showed much better (3 times) settling rate than that for the residue obtained after treatment with the same coagulant at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The settling curves had three parts, namely, hindered, transition and compression zones. Tory plots were used to determine the critical height of suspension-supernatant interface that is used in the design of a clarifier-thickener unit. High heating values and large biomass fraction of the solid residues can encourage the fuel users to use this waste derived sludge as a potential renewable energy source.

  12. Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, Giana da Silveira; da SILVA, Gabriela Ferrari; GOMES, Ana Paula Neutzling; de ARAÚJO, Lenita Maria Aver; SALUM, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Objective Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lesion of the lip vermillion caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. Methods Thirty-four patients with chronic AC were treated twice a day with topical diclofenac during a period of 30 to 180 days. The individuals were followed up every 15 days by means of clinical examination and digital photographic documentation. Results Of the 27 patients that completed the study, 12 (44%) showed complete remission of the whitish plaques and exfoliative areas, and 15 (56%) had partial remission of the clinical picture of cheilitis. The latter group was submitted to excision of the leukoplakic areas which diagnosis varied from mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia. Conclusion The results suggest a promising role for diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. This treatment has the advantages of not being invasive and showing few side effects. PMID:21085813

  13. Elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids predicts depression development following interferon-alpha treatment: relationship with interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Lotrich, Francis E; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K

    2013-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that an elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acid is associated with depression, and controlled intervention studies have found that decreasing this ratio through administration of omega-3 fatty acids can alleviate depressive symptoms. Additionally, arachidonic acid and omega-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on inflammatory signaling. Exogenous administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) can trigger a depressive episode in a subset of vulnerable people, though associated risk factors remain poorly understood. Using a within-subject prospective design of 138 subjects, we examined whether baseline long-chain omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid - DHA; eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA) and omega-6 (arachidonic acid - AA; di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid - DGLA) fatty acid status was associated with depression vulnerability in hepatitis C patients treated with IFN-α. Based on the literature, we had specific a priori interest in the AA/EPA+DHA ratio. Lower baseline DHA predicted depression incidence (p=0.04), as did elevated DGLA (p=0.02) and an elevated AA/EPA+DHA ratio (p=0.007). The AA/EPA+DHA ratio predicted depression even when controlling for other critical variables such as sleep quality and race. A higher AA/EPA+DHA ratio was positively associated with both increasing Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scores over time (F=4.0; p<0.05) as well as interleukin-6 levels (F=107.4; p<0.05) but not C-reactive protein. Importantly, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid status was not associated with sustained viral response to IFN-α treatment. These prospective data support the role of fatty acid status in depression vulnerability and indicate a potential role for omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of inflammation-induced depression.

  14. Drug-induced Fanconi syndrome associated with fumaric acid esters treatment for psoriasis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Balak, Deepak M.W.; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; de Vries, Aiko P.J.; Hartman, Jenny; Neumann, Hendrik A. Martino; Zietse, Robert; Thio, Hok Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid esters (FAEs), an oral immunomodulating treatment for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, have been anecdotally associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction due to a drug-induced Fanconi syndrome. Few data are available on clinical outcomes of FAE-induced Fanconi syndrome. Methods Descriptive case series with two cases of Fanconi syndrome associated with FAE treatment diagnosed at two Dutch university nephrology departments, three cases reported at the Dutch and German national pharmacovigilance databases and six previously reported cases. Results All 11 cases involved female patients with psoriasis. The median age at the time of onset was 38 years [interquartile range (IQR) 37–46]. Patients received long-term FAEs treatment with a median treatment duration of 60 months (IQR 28–111). Laboratory tests were typically significant for low serum levels of phosphate and uric acid, while urinalysis showed glycosuria and proteinuria. Eight (73%) patients had developed a hypophosphataemic osteomalacia and three (27%) had pathological bone fractures. All patients discontinued FAEs, while four (36%) patients were treated with supplementation of phosphate and/or vitamin D. Five (45%) patients had persisting symptoms despite FAEs discontinuation. Conclusions FAEs treatment can cause drug-induced Fanconi syndrome, but the association has been reported infrequently. Female patients with psoriasis treated long term with FAEs seem to be particularly at risk. Physicians treating patients with FAEs should be vigilant and monitor for the potential occurrence of Fanconi syndrome. Measurement of the urinary albumin:total protein ratio is a suggested screening tool for tubular proteinuria in Fanconi syndrome. PMID:26798466

  15. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition and Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Treatment Improve Vascularization of Engineered Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Jennifer M.; McFarland, Kevin L.; Combs, Kelly A.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Inceoglu, Bora; Wan, Debin; Boyce, Steven T.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autologous engineered skin substitutes comprised of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and biopolymers can serve as an adjunctive treatment for excised burns. However, engineered skin lacks a vascular plexus at the time of grafting, leading to slower vascularization and reduced rates of engraftment compared with autograft. Hypothetically, vascularization of engineered skin grafts can be improved by treatment with proangiogenic agents at the time of grafting. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid that are inactivated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). EETs have multiple biological activities and have been shown to promote angiogenesis. Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) represent attractive therapeutic agents because they increase endogenous EET levels. We investigated sEHI administration, alone or combined with EET treatment, for improved vascularization of engineered skin after grafting to mice. Methods: Engineered skin substitutes, prepared using primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes, were grafted to full-thickness surgical wounds in immunodeficient mice. Mice were treated with the sEHI 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), which was administered in drinking water throughout the study period, with or without topical EET treatment, and were compared with vehicle-treated controls. Vascularization was quantified by image analysis of CD31-positive areas in tissue sections. Results: At 2 weeks after grafting, significantly increased vascularization was observed in the TPPU and TPPU + EET groups compared with controls, with no evidence of toxicity. Conclusions: The results suggest that sEH inhibition can increase vascularization of engineered skin grafts after transplantation, which may contribute to enhanced engraftment and improved treatment of full-thickness wounds. PMID:28293507

  16. Dietary hyperoxaluria is not reduced by treatment with lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperoxaluria either based on increased intestinal absorption of oxalate (enteric), or high oxalate intake (dietary), is a major risk factor of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Oxalate-degrading bacteria might have beneficial effects on urinary oxalate excretion resulting from decreased intestinal oxalate concentration and absorption. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were studied initially while consuming a diet normal in oxalate. Study participants were then placed on a controlled oxalate-rich diet for a period of 6 weeks. Starting with week 2 of the oxalate-rich diet, participants received 2.6 g/day of a lactic acid bacteria preparation for 5 weeks. Finally, subjects were examined 4 weeks after treatment while consuming again a normal-oxalate diet. Participants provided weekly 24-hour urine specimens. Analyses of blood samples were performed before and at the end of treatment. Results Urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly from 0.354 ± 0.097 at baseline to 0.542 ± 0.163 mmol/24 h under the oxalate-rich diet and remained elevated until the end of treatment, as did relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Plasma oxalate concentration was significantly higher after 5 weeks of treatment compared to baseline. Four weeks after treatment, urinary oxalate excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate fell to reach initial values. Conclusions Persistent dietary hyperoxaluria and increased plasma oxalate concentration can already be induced in healthy subjects without disorders of oxalate metabolism. The study preparation neither reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor plasma oxalate concentration. The preparation may be altered to select for lactic acid bacteria strains with the highest oxalate-degrading activity. PMID:24330782

  17. Two-stage combined treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongyang; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the combined treatment of field-collected acid mine drainages (AMD, pH = 4.2 ± 0.9, iron = 112 ± 118 mg/L, sulfate = 1,846 ± 594 mg/L) and municipal wastewater (MWW, avg. chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 234-333 mg/L) using a two-stage process. The process consisted of batch mixing of the two wastes to condition the mixture solutions, followed by anaerobic biological treatment. The mixings performed under a range of AMD/MWW ratios resulted in phosphate removal of 9 to ∼100%, the mixture pH of 6.2-7.9, and COD/sulfate concentration ratio of 0.05-5.4. The biological treatment consistently removed COD and sulfate by >80% from the mixture solutions for COD/sulfate ratios of 0.6-5.4. Alkalinity was produced in the biological treatment causing increased pH and further removal of metals from the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy of produced sludge with energy dispersion analysis suggested chemical precipitation and associated adsorption and co-precipitation as the mechanisms for metal removal (Fe: >99%, Al: ∼100%, Mn: 75 to ∼100%, Ca: 52-81%, Mg: 13-76%, and Na: 56-76%). The study showed promising results for the treatment method and denoted the potential of developing innovative technologies for combined management of the two wastes in mining regions.

  18. Microbiological monitoring of acid mine drainage treatment systems and aquatic surroundings using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    In general, acid mine drainage (AMD) causes low pH and high metal concentrations in mining areas and surroundings. The aim of this research was to achieve microbiological monitoring for AMD and to assess whether mine water outflows have any ecological effects on the aqueous ecosystem receiving effluents from different types of treatment system. The water quality of aquatic sample was analyzed and the molecular biological diversity of the samples was assessed using 16S rRNA methods, which were implemented to determine which bacteria existed throughout various unit processes for different AMD treatment systems and their receiving water environments. Acidiphilium cryptum, a heterotrophic acidophile, was found at the AMD sites, and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, which can reduce iron using insoluble Fe(III) as an electron acceptor, was detected at many AMD treatment facilities and downstream of the treatment processes. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on specific genes of selected bacteria. Surprisingly, obvious trends were observed in the relative abundance of the various bacteria that corresponded to the water quality analytical results. The copy number of Desulfosporosinus orientus, a sulfate reducing bacteria, was also observed to decrease in response to decreases in metals according to the downstream flow of the AMD treatment system.

  19. Examining the efficacy and safety of squaric acid therapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts in children.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shaily; Wilmer, Erin N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of squaric acid dibutyl ester (SADBE) therapy on the treatment of recalcitrant warts in children. This retrospective chart review examined 72 patients treated using SADBE from July 2002 to December 2012. Patients were followed for 6 months to 11 years. Patients were treated at a pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Seventy-two children with verrucae who failed initial treatment for warts were selected for the study. Full long-term follow-up was obtained in 48 patients. Four patients discontinued the use of SADBE because of adverse effects. The primary study outcome was efficacy of SADBE treatment. Adverse effects, dosages administered, type of wart, other cutaneous disease present, and level of immunosuppression were measured. Forty of 48 (83%) patients in whom treatment outcomes could be obtained reported complete resolution of their warts. Seventy percent of patients used a maximum concentration of 0.4% SADBE and 60% of patients reported no adverse effects. The majority of patients treated with SADBE reported complete resolution of warts. Most patients reported no adverse effects even while receiving doses as high as 2% daily. This study shows that SADBE is a safe and effective treatment for recalcitrant warts in children.

  20. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) gene expression after postharvest jasmonic acid treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to wate...

  1. [HYALURONIC ACID: STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS, THE POSSIBILITES OF APPLYING IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISEASES. A REWIEW].

    PubMed

    Volovar, O S; Malanchuk, V A; Kryzhanivska, O A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the use of hyaluronic acid has become increasingly important in treatment of degenerative disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Urgency is caused by numerous studies in biology and pharmacology on structure and function of hyaluronic acid and its influence on the processes of repair damaged bone and articular cartilage restoration, as well as the positive long-term results of treatment in this group of patients.

  2. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O.; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  3. Treatment of solar keratoses with a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid varnish.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, J C

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to avoid the side-effects of treating solar keratoses with 5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ointment, a new pharmacological varnish containing 5% 5-FU and 5-10% salicylic acid to collodium was tried. Twenty patients with such lesions were treated. A drop of the varnish was applied on each lesion every 3 weeks. Only one to five applications on facial lesions were necessary to obtain apparent cure in all patients. Lesions reappeared in four patients, but were cured after a second and similar treatment. The keratoses of the hands were more resistant and needed seven applications in one patient and nine in the other.

  4. Treatment of acid mine drainage by sulfate reducing bacteria with iron in bench scale runs.

    PubMed

    Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In order to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) effectively using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals, Fe(0) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. When AMD was treated by SRB and Fe(0) at 25 °C, more than 61% of sulfate was removed and the effluent pH was improved from 2.75 to 6.20 during the operation. Cu(2+) was removed effectively with the removal efficiency at 99%, while only 86% of Fe(2+) was removed during the AMD treatment, without conspicuous change of Mn(2+) in the effluent in the process.

  5. Modification and improvement of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells via treatment using peracetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Zhigang; Kaufman, Arthur

    Electrodes and catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) were treated using peracetic acid. After such a treatment, the properties and performance of these electrodes and CCMs were changed in several aspects. First, their catalytic activity was increased compared to the untreated counterparts. Second, their ability to hold water within the catalyst layers was increased so that the cathode did not need to be humidified. Third, if the cathode was humidified together with the anode, some of the electrodes were more readily to be flooded than the untreated counterparts.

  6. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  7. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-10

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  8. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies. PMID:27721398

  9. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg(-1)) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL(-1) of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg(-1)) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL(-1) of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants.

  10. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia; McCrone, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study develops an economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA) as an adjunct treatment of bipolar I disorder. Methods: A 1-year Markov model is used incorporating three health states: euthymic, manic and depressive. The model was populated using outcomes from a clinical trial on clinical efficacy and other published literature. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of ethyl-EPA in comparison with placebo was estimated to be -£2,782 in 2008/09 prices, the negative ICER indicating ethyl-EPA to be a more effective and less costly treatment option than placebo in terms of cost savings of other resource use. Conclusions: The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust. Future research covering a longer time period using broader costs of the disease will be required to consolidate these findings. PMID:24167678

  12. Nucleic acids in human glioma treatment: innovative approaches and recent results.

    PubMed

    Catuogno, S; Esposito, C L; Quintavalle, C; Condorelli, G; de Franciscis, V; Cerchia, L

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors with a dismal prognosis. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have a modest survival benefit. A crucial challenge is to deliver drugs effectively to invasive glioma cells residing in a sanctuary within the central nervous system. New therapies are essential, and oligonucleotide-based approaches, including antisense, microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and nucleic acid aptamers, may provide a viable strategy. Thanks to their unique characteristics (low size, good affinity for the target, no immunogenicity, chemical structures that can be easily modified to improve their in vivo applications), these molecules may represent a valid alternative to antibodies particularly to overcome challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier. Here we will discuss recent results on the use of oligonucleotides that will hopefully provide new effective treatment for gliomas.

  13. Comparison of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy and Clobetasol Propionate in Treatment of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Miao, Fei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Long; Wang, Pei-Ru; Ji, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) and compare its effectiveness with that of clobetasol propionate. Four sessions of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) were administered at 2-week intervals (n = 20). Clobetasol propionate (0.05%) was used daily for 8 weeks (n = 20). The rate of complete response in the PDT group (14/20) was double that of the clobetasol propionate group (7/20) (p < 0.05, 2 = 4.912). Horizontal visual analogue scores indicated that PDT was more effective than clobetasol propionate. Pain intensity numeric rating scale values for PDT were between 3.05 and 4.45. One month after the final session of PDT, only one patient relapsed and all 7 patients in clobetasol propionate group relapsed. ALA-PDT is a well-tolerated and effective option for the treatment of VLS.

  14. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  15. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-02-15

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites.

  16. Effect of Combined Treatment with Ursolic Acid and Resveratrol on Skin Tumor Promotion by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jiyoon; Rho, Okkyung; Junco, Jacob; Carbajal, Steve; Siegel, Dionicio; Slaga, Thomas J; DiGiovanni, John

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the effects of combining ursolic acid + resveratrol, for possible combined inhibitory effects on skin tumor promotion, were evaluated. Ursolic acid, resveratrol, and the combination of ursolic acid + resveratrol were applied topically prior to 12-O-tetracanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment on mouse skin to examine their effect on TPA-induced signaling pathways, epidermal hyperproliferation, skin inflammation, inflammatory gene expression, and skin tumor promotion. The combination of ursolic acid + resveratrol produced a greater inhibition of TPA-induced epidermal hyperproliferation. The combination of ursolic acid + resveratrol inhibited TPA-induced signaling pathways, including EGFR, STAT3, Src, Akt, Cox-2, Fas, NF-κB, p38 MAPK, c-Jun, and JNK1/2 while increasing levels of tumor suppressors, such as p21 and PDCD4, to a greater extent compared with the groups treated with the individual compounds. Ursolic acid + resveratrol also induced a dramatic increase of p-AMPK-α(Thr172). Combined treatment with ursolic acid + resveratrol resulted in a greater inhibition of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including Il1a, Il1b, and Il22. Furthermore, NF-κB, Egr-1, and AP-1 DNA binding activities after TPA treatment were dramatically decreased by the combination of ursolic acid + resveratrol. Treatment with ursolic acid + resveratrol during skin tumor promotion with TPA produced greater inhibition of tumor multiplicity and tumor size than with either agent alone. Collectively, the greater ability of the combination of ursolic acid + resveratrol to inhibit skin tumor promotion was due to the greater inhibitory effects on growth factor and inflammatory signaling, skin inflammation, and epidermal hyperproliferation induced by TPA treatment.

  17. Short course acid suppressive treatment for patients with functional dyspepsia: results depend on Helicobacter pylori status

    PubMed Central

    Blum, A; Arnold, R; Stolte, M; Fischer, M; Koelz, H; the, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Treatment of functional dyspepsia with acid inhibitors is controversial and it is not known if the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection influences the response.
METHODS—After a complete diagnostic workup, 792 patients with functional dyspepsia unresponsive to one week of low dose antacid treatment were randomised to two weeks of treatment with placebo, ranitidine 150 mg, omeprazole 10 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg daily. Individual dyspeptic and other abdominal symptoms were evaluated before and after treatment according to H pylori status.
RESULTS—The proportions of patients considered to be in remission (intention to treat) at the end of treatment with placebo, ranitidine 150 mg, omeprazole 10 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg were, respectively, 42%, 50%, 48%, and 59% in the H pylori positive group and 66%, 73%, 64%, and 71% in the H pylori negative group. In H pylori positive patients, the therapeutic gain over placebo was significant for omeprazole 20 mg (17.6%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.2-31.0; p<0.014 using the Bonferroni-adjusted p level of 0.017) but not for omeprazole 10 mg (6.8%, 95% CI −6.7-20.4) or ranitidine 150 mg (8.9%, 95% CI −4.2-21.9). There was no significant therapeutic gain from active treatment over placebo in H pylori negative patients. Complete disappearance of symptoms and improvement in quality of life also occurred most frequently with omeprazole 20 mg and was significant in both H pylori positive and H pylori negative groups. The six month relapse rate of symptoms requiring treatment was low (<20%) in all groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Omeprazole 20 mg per day had a small but significant favourable effect on outcome in H pylori positive patients. The differential response in these patients may be explained by an enhanced antisecretory response in the presence of H pylori. The effect of weaker acid inhibition was unsatisfactory.


Keywords: functional dyspepsia; omeprazole; ranitidine

  18. Combined anticalcification treatment of bovine pericardium with decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deyi; Jin, Liqiang; Wang, Xuemei; Xu, Li; Liu, Tianqi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative on the improvement of anticalcification of glutaraldehyde fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) using a rat subcutaneous implantation model A cell extraction process was employed to remove the cells and cellular components from bovine pericardium (BP), leaving a framework of largely insoluble collagen. Then acellular BP was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde solution and treated with hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-ADH) which was obtained by coupling adipic dihydrazide (ADH) on-COOH of hyaluronic acid (HA). The results of in vivo calcification tests showed that the calcium content was decreased dramatically by decellularization alone (from 28.07 ± 18.87 to 2.44 ± 0.55 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation), and even less concentration was shown by the combination of HA derivative treatment and decellularization (GFaBP-HA group) (0.25 ± 0.08 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation). In addition, GFaBP-HA group not only presented a lower degree of calcification, but also showed lower ratios of Ca/P molar, which corresponded to amorphous calcium phosphates. The obtained results indicated that GFaBP-HA was a potential candidate for the manufacture of anticalcification bioprostheses.

  19. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles in treatment of acid mine water from in situ uranium leaching.

    PubMed

    Klimkova, Stepanka; Cernik, Miroslav; Lacinova, Lenka; Filip, Jan; Jancik, Dalibor; Zboril, Radek

    2011-02-01

    Acid mine water from in situ chemical leaching of uranium (Straz pod Ralskem, Czech Republic) was treated in laboratory scale experiments by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). For the first time, nZVI were applied for the treatment of the real acid water system containing the miscellaneous mixture of pollutants, where the various removal mechanisms occur simultaneously. Toxicity of the treated saline acid water is caused by major contaminants represented by aluminum and sulphates in a high concentration, as well as by microcontaminants like As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, U, V, and Zn. Laboratory batch experiments proved a significant decrease in concentrations of all the monitored pollutants due to an increase in pH and a decrease in oxidation-reduction potential related to an application of nZVI. The assumed mechanisms of contaminants removal include precipitation of cations in a lower oxidation state, precipitation caused by a simple pH increase and co-precipitation with the formed iron oxyhydroxides. The possibility to control the reaction kinetics through the nature of the surface stabilizing shell (polymer vs. FeO nanolayer) is discussed as an important practical aspect.

  20. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  1. Radiological changes following second-line zoledronic acid treatment in breast cancer patients with bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Amir, E; Whyne, C; Freedman, O C; Fralick, M; Kumar, R; Hardisty, M; Clemons, M

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of bisphosphonate therapy in bisphosphonate-naïve patients is known to be associated with radiological changes such as increased bone density in both osteolytic and osteoblastic metastases. It is not known, however, whether switching from a second-generation bisphosphonate to a more potent agent is associated with similar changes. This study aimed to prospectively explore radiological changes, as assessed by thoracolumbar CT scanning, in patients switching from an early generation bisphosphonate (i.e., oral clodronate or intravenous pamidronate) to intravenous zoledronic acid. Patients with progressive bone metastases despite use of an earlier generation bisphosphonate were switched to zoledronic acid as part of a study to evaluate the palliative benefit of this intervention. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scanning of the thoracolumbar spine was carried out at baseline, and repeated 4 months after commencing zoledronic acid. The effect of this change of therapy was explored in terms of bone density, as well as volume of osteolytic and osteoblastic disease. Fifteen patients were assessed. Switching of bisphosphonate therapy was associated with a significant increase in bone density, and an increase in osteoblastic volume. There was an insignificant trend towards reduced osteolytic volume. In conclusion, switching from early generation bisphosphonates to a more potent agent is associated with radiological changes similar to those seen when commencing a bisphosphonate in treatment-naïve patients. This is consistent with the observed palliative benefit. The use of QCT may be of benefit in the monitoring of bone metastases.

  2. Effect of dietary Lorenzo's oil and docosahexaenoic acid treatment for Zellweger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Yohei; Hayashi, Masaharu; Oshida, Kyoichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of decreasing plasma levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26:0) with a synthetic oil containing trioleate and trielucate (Lorenzo's oil) as well as increasing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in red blood cells (RBC) with DHA ethyl ester in four patients with Zellweger syndrome. We investigated serial changes of plasma C26:0 levels and DHA levels in RBC membranes by gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). After death, the fatty acid composition of each patient's cerebrum and liver was studied. Dietary administration of Lorenzo's oil diminished plasma C26:0 levels. Earlier administration of Lorenzo's oil was more effective and the response did not depend on the duration of administration. DHA was incorporated into RBC membrane lipids when administrated orally, and its level increased for several months. The final DHA level was correlated with the duration of administration and was not related to the timing of initiation of treatment. DHA levels in the brains and livers of treated patients were higher than in untreated patients. Early initiation of Lorenzo's oil and the long-term administration of DHA may be useful for patients with Zellweger syndrome.

  3. Enzyme-entrapped mesoporous silica for treatment of uric acid disorders.

    PubMed

    Muthukoori, Shanthini; Narayanan, Naagarajan; Chandra, Manuguri Sesha Sarath; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2013-05-01

    Gout is an abnormality in the body resulting in the accumulation of uric acid mainly in joints. Dissolution of uric acid crystals into soluble allantoin by the enzyme uricase might provide a better alternative for the treatment of gout. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of a transdermal patch loaded with uricase for better patient compliance. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was chosen as the matrix for immobilisation of uricase. Highly oriented mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized, characterized and uricase was physisorbed in the mesoporous material. The percentage adsorption and release of enzyme in borate buffer was monitored. The release followed linear kinetics and greater than 80% enzyme activity was retained indicating the potential of this system as an effective enzyme immobilization matrix. The enzyme permeability was studied with Wistar rat skin and human cadaver skin. It was found that in case of untreated rat skin 10% of enzyme permeated through skin in 100 h. The permeation increased by adding permeation enhancer (combination of oleic acid in propylene glycol (OA in PG)). The permeation enhancement was studied under two concentrations of OA in PG (1%, 5%) in both rat and human cadaver skin and it was found that 1% OA in PG showed better result in rat skin and 5% OA in PG showed good results in human cadaver skin.

  4. Effects of heat treatment and moisture contents on interactions between lauric acid and starch granules.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengdan; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Jane, Jay-lin

    2014-08-06

    This study aimed to understand the effects of the moisture content of granular normal cornstarch (NC), heat treatment at 80 °C, and order of adding lauric acid (LA) to starch before or after the heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of the starch. LA was added to NC priority heated with different moisture contents (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) or added to dried NC and then heated with different moisture contents. The hydrothermal/LA treatments increased the pasting temperature but decreased the peak viscosity of the NC. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the addition of LA retarded gelatinization. The hydrothermal/LA treatments changed the X-ray pattern of the NC to a mixture of A- and V-type patterns. The thermal property and digestibility analysis showed that 40% was the optimum moisture content for the formation of the amylose-LA complex and adding LA prior to heating the NC favored the formation of slowly digestible starch.

  5. Update on lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: Diagnosis, treatment and patient management.

    PubMed

    Camarena, Carmen; Aldamiz-Echevarria, Luis J; Polo, Begoña; Barba Romero, Miguel A; García, Inmaculada; Cebolla, Jorge J; Ros, Emilio

    2017-03-09

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is an ultra-rare disease caused by a congenital disorder of the lipid metabolism, characterized by the deposition of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in the organism. In patients with no enzyme function, the disease develops during the perinatal period and is invariably associated with death during the first year of life. In all other cases, the phenotype is heterogeneous, although most patients develop chronic liver diseases and may also develop an early cardiovascular disease. Treatment for LALD has classically included the use of supportive measures that do not prevent the progression of the disease. In 2015, regulatory agencies approved the use of a human recombinant LAL for the treatment of LALD. This long-term enzyme replacement therapy has been associated with significant improvements in the hepatic and lipid profiles of patients with LALD, increasing survival rates in infants with a rapidly progressive disease. Both the severity of LALD and the availability of a specific treatment highlight the need to identify these patients in clinical settings, although its low prevalence and the existing clinical overlap with other more frequent pathologies limit its diagnosis. In this paper we set out practical recommendations to identify and monitor patients with LALD, including a diagnostic algorithm, along with an updated treatment.

  6. Effect of chronic valproic Acid treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in wfs1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Punapart, Marite; Eltermaa, Mall; Oflijan, Julia; Sütt, Silva; Must, Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero; Soomets, Ursel; Terasmaa, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype.

  7. Limited Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment in a Mouse Model of Machado-Joseph Disease

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sofia; Duarte-Silva, Sara; Naia, Luana; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Maciel, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the coding region of ATXN3 gene, and which currently lacks effective treatment. In this work we tested the therapeutic efficacy of chronic treatment with valproic acid (VPA) (200mg/kg), a compound with known neuroprotection activity, and previously shown to be effective in cell, fly and nematode models of MJD. We show that chronic VPA treatment in the CMVMJD135 mouse model had limited effects in the motor deficits of these mice, seen mostly at late stages in the motor swimming, beam walk, rotarod and spontaneous locomotor activity tests, and did not modify the ATXN3 inclusion load and astrogliosis in affected brain regions. However, VPA chronic treatment was able to increase GRP78 protein levels at 30 weeks of age, one of its known neuroprotective effects, confirming target engagement. In spite of limited results, the use of another dosage of VPA or of VPA in a combined therapy with molecules targeting other pathways, cannot be excluded as potential strategies for MJD therapeutics. PMID:26505994

  8. Sequential lignin depolymerization by combination of biocatalytic and formic acid/formate treatment steps.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Christoph A; Čvančarová, Monika; Ammann, Erik M; Schäffer, Andreas; Shahgaldian, Patrick; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2017-03-01

    Lignin, a complex three-dimensional amorphous polymer, is considered to be a potential natural renewable resource for the production of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds. In the present study, a novel sequential lignin treatment method consisting of a biocatalytic oxidation step followed by a formic acid-induced lignin depolymerization step was developed and optimized using response surface methodology. The biocatalytic step employed a laccase mediator system using the redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Laccases were immobilized on superparamagnetic nanoparticles using a sorption-assisted surface conjugation method allowing easy separation and reuse of the biocatalysts after treatment. Under optimized conditions, as much as 45 wt% of lignin could be solubilized either in aqueous solution after the first treatment or in ethyl acetate after the second (chemical) treatment. The solubilized products were found to be mainly low-molecular-weight aromatic monomers and oligomers. The process might be used for the production of low-molecular-weight soluble aromatic products that can be purified and/or upgraded applying further downstream processes.

  9. Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage By A Semipassive Barrier System, The Kristineberg Mine Site, Northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, T. A.; Herbert, R.; Hallberg, R.

    The production of acidic mine waters containing high concentrations of sulphate and metals are of great environmental concern. One method for removing metals from leachate waters is by stimulating sulphate reduction in a treatment system, thereby producing alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide. Dissolved metals and hydrogen sulphide may then precipitate as metal sulphides. Laboratory and field studies have been con- ducted for the evaluation of the removal processes in a groundwater treatment system, in which both inorganic and organic materials have been used to neutralize acidity and to promote the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Dissolution of olivine and dolomite was found to be successful in neutralizing acidity, since a continuous pH buffering was obtained from pH 2-3 to pH 5-6. Column studies with olivine indi- cate higher dissolution rates obtained with higher flow rates, where Mg is released at a higher rate than Si. The rate of dolomite dissolution also shows a correlation with acid- ity flux at lower fluxes. At higher acidity fluxes, the Ca release rate appears to reach a constant level, suggesting that there are factors limiting the removal of Ca from the dolomite surface. Electron microscopy studies suggest that gypsum has formed in the columns. Field sampling during two years and laboratory results indicate that at most a limited development of sulphate reducing bacteria is obtained in the organic leaf com- post. The SRB are probably present at near neutral pH that is measured in the system, but they are not very active. One main reason for this may be the complexity of the organic substrate used. In the column studies using unamended compost, sulphate and iron removal is obtained in the organic matter at a range of flow rates, initially due to adsorption and precipitation. After the addition of an easily degradable organic carbon source, a full development of SRB was obtained with an effective removal of both iron and sulphate. Iron sulphide

  10. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits.

  11. Parallel Electrochemical Treatment System and Application for Identifying Acid-Stable Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Ryan J. R.; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; ...

    2015-01-05

    There are many energy technologies require electrochemical stability or preactivation of functional materials. Due to the long experiment duration required for either electrochemical preactivation or evaluation of operational stability, parallel screening is required to enable high throughput experimentation. We found that imposing operational electrochemical conditions to a library of materials in parallel creates several opportunities for experimental artifacts. We discuss the electrochemical engineering principles and operational parameters that mitigate artifacts int he parallel electrochemical treatment system. We also demonstrate the effects of resistive losses within the planar working electrode through a combination of finite element modeling and illustrative experiments. Operationmore » of the parallel-plate, membrane-separated electrochemical treatment system is demonstrated by exposing a composition library of mixed metal oxides to oxygen evolution conditions in 1M sulfuric acid for 2h. This application is particularly important because the electrolysis and photoelectrolysis of water are promising future energy technologies inhibited by the lack of highly active, acid-stable catalysts containing only earth abundant elements.« less

  12. Parallel Electrochemical Treatment System and Application for Identifying Acid-Stable Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ryan J. R.; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; Xiang, Chengxiang; Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-01-05

    There are many energy technologies require electrochemical stability or preactivation of functional materials. Due to the long experiment duration required for either electrochemical preactivation or evaluation of operational stability, parallel screening is required to enable high throughput experimentation. We found that imposing operational electrochemical conditions to a library of materials in parallel creates several opportunities for experimental artifacts. We discuss the electrochemical engineering principles and operational parameters that mitigate artifacts int he parallel electrochemical treatment system. We also demonstrate the effects of resistive losses within the planar working electrode through a combination of finite element modeling and illustrative experiments. Operation of the parallel-plate, membrane-separated electrochemical treatment system is demonstrated by exposing a composition library of mixed metal oxides to oxygen evolution conditions in 1M sulfuric acid for 2h. This application is particularly important because the electrolysis and photoelectrolysis of water are promising future energy technologies inhibited by the lack of highly active, acid-stable catalysts containing only earth abundant elements.

  13. Long-term treatment of phenylketonuria with a new medical food containing large neutral amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Concolino, D; Mascaro, I; Moricca, M T; Bonapace, G; Matalon, K; Trapasso, J; Radhakrishnan, G; Ferrara, C; Matalon, R; Strisciuglio, P

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. A low phenylalanine (Phe) diet is used to treat PKU. The diet is very restrictive, and dietary adherence tends to decrease as patients get older. Methods to improve dietary adherence and blood Phe control are continuously under investigation. Subjects/Methods: A new formula Phe-neutral amino acid (PheLNAA) has been tested in this study with the purpose of improving the compliance and lowering blood phenylalanine. The formula has been tested for nitrogen balance, and it is nutritionally complete. It is fortified with more nutritional additives that can be deficient in the PKU diet, such as B12, Biotin, DHA, Lutein and increased levels of large neutral amino acids to help lower blood Phe. The new formula has been tested on 12 patients with a loading test of 4 weeks. Results: Fifty-eight percent of patients had a significant decline in blood Phe concentration from baseline throughout the study. The PheLNAA was well tolerated with excellent compliance and without illnesses during the study. Conclusions: In conclusion, the new formula is suitable for life-long treatment of PKU, and it offers the PKU clinic a new choice for treatment. PMID:27623981

  14. Intra-Arterial Calcium Gluconate Treatment After Hydrofluoric Acid Burn of the Hand

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. Jaeger, U.; Sagoschen, I.; Lamberti, C.; Wilhelm, K.

    2009-01-15

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless corrosive acid used in different industrial branches. Exposure to HF typically results from spills, and most often the hand or fingers are involved. Tissue damage through cutaneous HF exposure occurs through corrosive burns due to the free hydrogen ions and through skin penetration of the fluoride ions, causing a depletion of calcium in the deep tissue layers, ultimately leading to cell death and tissue necrosis. Treatment of HF burns consists of thoroughly flushing the exposed area with water and applying calcium gluconate gel to the skin. If topical treatment does not suffice, subcutaneous injections, as well as intravascular-both intravenous and intra-arterial-calcium gluconate therapy, have been advocated. We report for the first time a case of HF burn of the hand and digits associated with vasospasm. Pain and vasospasm were successfully treated by repeated intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection. We conclude that intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection is a successful and well-tolerated therapy for HF burn associated with Raynaud's syndrome. Intra-arterial injection allows for well-controlled delivery of therapy as well as assessment of the vascular status.

  15. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lara, M A; Pagnanelli, F; Mainelli, S; Calero, M; Toro, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP>HPOP>OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na(+) in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  16. Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne in adult females: case reports.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y

    2014-01-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne.

  17. A combined CaO/electrochemical treatment of the acid mine drainage from the "Robule" Lake.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was development and application of the purification system suitable for the treatment of the acid mine drainage (AMD) accumulated in the "Robule" Lake, which represents the part of the Bor copper mining and smelting complex, Serbia. The study was undertaken in order to minimize adverse effect on the environment caused by the discharge of untreated AMD, which was characterized with low pH value (2.63) and high concentration of heavy metals (up to 610 mg/L) and sulfates (up to 12,000 mg/L). The treatment of the effluent included pretreatment/pH adjustment with CaO followed by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrode sets. Following the final treatment, the decrease in the concentration of heavy metals ranged from 40 up to 61000 times depending on the metal and its initial concentration. The parameters, color and turbidity were removed completely in the pretreatment step, while the removal efficiencies for other considered parameters were as follows: EC = 55.48%, SO(4) (2-) = 70.83%, Hg = 98.36%, Pb = 97.50%, V = 98.43%, Cr = 99.86%, Mn = 97.96%, Fe = 100.00%, Co = 99.96%, Ni = 99.78%, Cu = 99.99% and Zn = 99.94%. Because the concentrations of heavy metals in the electrochemically treated AMD (ranging from 0.001 to 0.336 mg/L) are very low, the negative impact of this effluent on the aquatic life and humans is not expected. The sludge generated during the treatment of AMD is suitable for reuse for at least two purposes (pretreatment of AMD and covering of the flotation waste heap). From the presented results, it could be concluded that electrochemical treatment is a suitable approach for the treatment of AMD.

  18. The effects of chronic imidazoline drug treatment on glial fibrillary acidic protein concentrations in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, G.; Alemany, R.; Escriba, P. V.; García-Sevilla, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The concentration of the astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was quantitated by immunoblotting (western blotting) in the rat brain after treatment with various imidazoline drugs and other agents. 2. Chronic (7 days) but not acute (1 day) treatment with the imidazoline drugs, cirazoline (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) and idazoxan (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), but not with the structurally related alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, RX821002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and efaroxan (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), markedly increased (45%) GFAP immunoreactivity in the rat cerebral cortex. Chronic treatment (7 days) with yohimbine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), a non-imidazoline alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, did not significantly modify GFAP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex. 3. Chronic treatment (7 days) with cirazoline and idazoxan did not alter the density of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B sites labelled by [3H]-Ro 19-6327 (lazabemide), another relevant astroglial marker. Moreover, these imidazoline drug treatments did not modify the levels of alpha-tubulin in the cerebral cortex. These negative results reinforced the specificity of the effects of imidazoline drugs on GFAP. 4. Irreversible inactivation of brain alpha 2-adrenoceptors (and other neurotransmitters receptors) after treatment with an optimal dose of the peptide-coupling agent EEDQ (1.6 mg kg-1, i.p., for 6-24 h) did not alter GFAP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex. These results further disproved the involvement of these receptors on astroglial cells in the tonic control of GFAP levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 4 PMID:8032628

  19. Acetic acid treatments to keep postharvest quality of "Regina" and "Taloppo" table grapes.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Fiori, P; Angiolino, C; Agabbio, M

    2008-01-01

    The most important postharvest pathogen for table grape is Botrytis cinerea (gray mold), which cause a rapid deterioration of fruit. An effective control of the disease during storage is difficult and remains an unsolved problem since no pesticide treatments are allowed by European legislation. GRAS compounds, employed with no restriction as preservatives in Europe and North America, are possible candidates to fulfil this gap. The aim of this work is to study the efficacy of Acetic Acid (AAC), used as postharvest treatment to control Botrytis cinerea on "Regina" and "Taloppo" table grapes, by Laboratory and storage tests. The activity of this compound was first assessed with laboratory tests, treating at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75 and 100 microl/L) of AAC vapors, for 15 minutes, single berries inoculated with B. cinerea. After treatments fruit was incubated at 20 degrees C for one week. The in vivo experiment took place by using the most promising AAC concentrations (50, 75 and 100 microl/L) followed by eight weeks of storage at 5 degrees C and 95% of relative humidity (RH) and four days at 20 degrees C and 85% RH (simulated shelf-life conditions). At the end of the in vivo experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. Almost all treatments, after eight weeks of storage, reduced the incidence of gray mould. The best results were achieved by using 50 ppm of AAC, gaining a reduction of decay, compared to untreated "Taloppo" and "Regina" grapes of 61.0% and 41.4%, respectively. Following the simulated shelf-life period differences between treated and untreated (control) became no significant for "Taloppo" grape, while the lowest decay percentage was reached with 50 microl/L of AAC for "Regina" grape (52% of reduction if compared to control). Regarding fruit weight loss all treatments did not affect significantly this parameter that ranged between 8.2% and 11.5% after eight weeks of storage and 13.5% and 18.2% after shelf

  20. Heat-treatment method for producing fatty acid-bound alpha-lactalbumin that induces tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Kamijima, Tatsuro; Ohmura, Ayaka; Sato, Toshiya; Akimoto, Kaoru; Itabashi, Miki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Kikukawa, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kawano, Keiichi; Demura, Makoto

    2008-11-07

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells), which was identified in human breast milk as an alpha-lactalbumin (LA)-oleic acid complex, kills tumor cells, selectively. Although it may have potential as a therapeutic agent against various tumor cells, only low-volume methods for its production exist. In this study, heat treatment was used to produce complexes from LAs and oleic acid using a simple method. In the case of human LA and oleic acid, heat-treated samples apparently showed much stronger activities than those treated at room temperature, with cytotoxicities equal to that of HAMLET. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that heat-treated samples lost their tertiary structure, suggesting a molten globule as oleic acid-bound LA. BLA samples also showed strong activities by heat treatment. Batch production with heat treatment can efficiently convert LAs into tumoricidal complexes.

  1. Nanocarrier-based hydrogel of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid for treatment of psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Sanjula; Alam, Md Sarfaraz; Sharma, Shrestha; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Kumar, Anil; Ali, Javed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current work was to test the hypothesis that the addition of corticosteroid such as BD and a keratolytic agent such as salicylic acid in nanocarrier based microemulsions formulation would result in enhancement and sustaining of corticosteroid delivery rate leading to better anti-psoriatic activity. Clinical use of BD is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. So to increase its permeation across the skin, microemulsion-based gel formulations were prepared and characterised. Materials and Methods: Microemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using oleic acid:sefsol (1.5:1), Tween 20, isopropyl alcohol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, cosurfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. Surface studies of optimized formulation were done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was done by carageenan-induced raw paw edema method. Results: The droplet size of microemulsions ranged from 60 to 190 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 28.55 ± 2.03 mP, refractive index 1.409, pH 6.4, and conductivity 10-4 scm-1. The optimized microemulsion was converted into hydrogel using carbopol 934, and salicylic acid was incorporated into it. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 29.73 μg/mg. Assessment of skin permeation was done by histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 72.11% and 43.96% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed microemulsion gel and marketed gel, respectively. Conclusions: The developed microemulsion gel containing BD and salicylic acid provided sustained and good anti-inflammatory activity for the

  2. Effects of Fungicide Treatment on Free Amino Acid Concentration and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-12-28

    Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during frying, baking, roasting, or high-temperature processing, and cereal products are major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Free asparagine concentration is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, and this study investigated the effect of fungicide application on free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain. Free amino acid concentrations were measured in flour from 47 varieties of wheat grown in a field trial in 2011-2012. The wheat had been supplied with nitrogen and sulfur and treated with growth regulators and fungicides. Acrylamide formation was measured after the flour had been heated at 180 °C for 20 min. Flour was also analyzed from 24 (of the 47) varieties grown in adjacent plots that were treated in identical fashion except that no fungicide was applied, resulting in visible infection by Septoria tritici, yellow rust, and brown rust. Free asparagine concentration in the fungicide-treated wheat ranged from 1.596 to 3.987 mmol kg(-1), with a significant (p < 0.001 to p = 0.006, F test) effect of variety for not only free asparagine but all of the free amino acids apart from cysteine and ornithine. There was also a significant (p < 0.001, F test) effect of variety on acrylamide formation, which ranged from 134 to 992 μg kg(-1). There was a significant (p < 0.001, F test) correlation between free asparagine concentration and acrylamide formation. Both free asparagine concentration and acrylamide formation increased in response to a lack of fungicide treatment, the increases in acrylamide ranging from 2.7 to 370%. Free aspartic acid concentration also increased, whereas free glutamic acid concentration increased in some varieties but decreased in others, and free proline concentration decreased. The study showed disease control by fungicide application to be an important crop management measure for mitigating the problem of acrylamide formation in wheat

  3. Geochemical modelling of EGS fracture stimulation applying weak and strong acid treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Sif Pind Aradottir, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Engineered Geothermal systems (EGS) provide geothermal power by tapping into the Earth's deep geothermal resources that are otherwise not exploitable due to lack of water and fractures, location or rock type. EGS technologies have the potential to cost effectively produce large amounts of electricity almost anywhere in the world. The EGS technology creates permeability in the rock by hydro-fracturing the reservoir with cold water pumped into the first well (the injection well) at a high pressure. The second well (the production well) intersects the stimulated fracture system and returns the hot water to the surface where electricity can be generated. A significant technological hurdle is ensuring effective connection between the wells and the fracture system and to control the deep-rooted fractures (can exceed 5 000 m depth). A large area for heat transfer and sufficient mass flow needs to be ensured between wells without creating fast flowing paths in the fracture network. Maintaining flow through the fracture system can cause considerable energy penalty to the overall process. Therefore, chemical methods to maintain fractures and prevent scaling can be necessary to prevent excessive pressure build up in the re-injection wells of EGS systems. The effect of different acid treatments on the porosity development of selected rock types was simulated with the aid of the Petrasim interface to the Toughreact simulation code. The thermodynamic and kinetic database of Aradottir et al. (2014) was expanded to include new minerals and the most important fluoride bearing species involved in mineral reactions during acid stimulation of geothermal systems. A series of simulations with injection waters containing fluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and CO2 or mixtures thereof were then carried out and porosity development in the fracture system monitored. The periodic injection of weak acid mixtures into EGS systems may be cost effective in some isolated cases to prevent pressure

  4. In-situ Thermal Treatment of Trichloroethene at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jason; McElroy, William J.; Glasgow, Jason; Heron, Gorm; Galligan, Jim; Parker, Ken; Davis, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the in-situ thermal treatment of trichloroethene at Marshall space Flight Center. The contents include: 1) Background 1 and 2; 2) Source Area-13; 3) In-situ Thermal Treatment; 4) SA-13 Lithology; 5) SA-13 In-Situ Thermal TS; 6) SA-13 ISTD System Components; 7) ISTD Overview; 8) Heaters; 9) SA-13 ISTD Wellfield Layout; 10) SA-13 Well Field; 11) ISTD Process and Instrumentation; 12) Treatment Zone Temperature; 13) SA-13 System Removals; 14) SA-13 DNAPL (typical photos); 15) Treatment Results 1-5; and 16) SA-13 TCE Removal Summary.

  5. Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2008-11-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages.

  6. Hyper-thermal acid hydrolysis and adsorption treatment of red seaweed, Gelidium amansii for butyric acid production with pH control.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2017-03-01

    Optimal hyper-thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis conditions for Gelidium amansii were determined to be 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content and 144 mM H2SO4 at 150 °C for 10 min. HT acid hydrolysis-treated G. amansii hydrolysates produced low concentrations of inhibitory compounds and adsorption treatment using 3% activated carbon. An adsorption time of 5 min was subsequently used to remove the inhibitory 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the medium. A final maximum monosaccharide concentration of 44.6 g/L and 79.1% conversion from 56.4 g/L total fermentable monosaccharides with 120 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained from HT acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification, and adsorption treatment. This study demonstrates the potential for butyric acid production from G. amansii hydrolysates under non-pH-controlled as well as pH-controlled fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum KCTC 1790. The activated carbon treatment and pH-controlled fermentation showed synergistic effects and produced butyric acid at a concentration of 11.2 g/L after 9 days of fermentation.

  7. Occurrence of carboxylic acids in different steps of two drinking-water treatment plants using different disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2014-03-15

    The occurrence of 35 aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids within two full scale drinking-water treatment plants was evaluated for the first time in this research. At the intake of each plant (raw water), the occurrence of carboxylic acids varied according to the quality of the water source although in both cases 13 acids were detected at average concentrations of 6.9 and 4.7 μg/L (in winter). In the following steps in each treatment plant, the concentration patterns of these compounds differed depending on the type of disinfectant applied. Thus, after disinfection by chloramination, the levels of the acids remained almost constant (average concentration, 6.3 μg/L) and four new acids were formed (butyric, 2-methylbutyric, 3-hydroxybenzoic and 2-nitrobenzoic) at low levels (1.1-5 μg/L). When ozonation/chlorination was used, the total concentration of the carboxylic acids in the raw water sample (4.7 μg/L) increased up to 6 times (average concentration, 26.3 μg/L) after disinfection and 6 new acids (mainly aromatic) were produced at high levels (3.5-100 μg/L). Seasonal variations of the carboxylic acids under study showed that in both plants, maximum levels of all the analytes were reached in the coldest months (autumn and winter), aromatic acids only being found in those seasons.

  8. Treatment with Salvianolic Acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-04-07

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25 mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11 days to Ang II (1.2 mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10 weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1 - 10 nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11 days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound.

  9. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

  10. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-09-03

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence.

  11. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  12. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  13. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves.

  14. p38 MAPK Is Activated but Does Not Play a Key Role during Apoptosis Induction by Saturated Fatty Acid in Human Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Balušíková, Kamila; Daniel, Petr; Jelínek, Michael; James, Roger F.; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Saturated stearic acid (SA) induces apoptosis in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We showed that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in these cells. Therefore, we tested the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway activation in apoptosis induction by SA in NES2Y cells. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and accompanying ERK pathway inhibition after SA application was also tested. The inhibition of p38 MAPK expression by siRNA silencing resulted in a decrease in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA application, but it had no significant effect on cell viability or the level of phosphorylated ERK pathway members. The inhibition of p38 MAPK activity by the specific inhibitor SB202190 resulted in inhibition of MAPKAPK-2 activation and noticeable activation of ERK pathway members after SA treatment but in no significant effect on cell viability. p38 MAPK overexpression by plasmid transfection produced an increase in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA exposure but no significant influence on cell viability or ERK pathway activation. The activation of p38 MAPK by the specific activator anisomycin resulted in significant activation of MAPKAPK-2. Concerning the effect on cell viability, application of the activator led to apoptosis induction similar to application of SA (PARP cleavage and caspase-7, -8, and -9 activation) and in inhibition of ERK pathway members. We demonstrated that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and that this activation could be involved in apoptosis induction by SA in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, this involvement does not seem to play a key role. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and ERK pathway inhibition in NES2Y cells seems likely. Thus, the ERK pathway inhibition by p38 MAPK activation does not also seem to be essential for SA-induced apoptosis. PMID:26861294

  15. Involvement of endogenous salicylic acid in iron-deficiency responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun; Liu, Kaidong; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong; Sun, Tao; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-07-01

    Several phytohormones have been demonstrated to be involved in iron (Fe) homeostasis. We took advantage of a salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis defective mutant phytoalexin deficient 4 (pad4: T-DNA Salk_089936) to explore the possible effects of endogenous SA on the morphological and physiological responses to Fe deprivation. The morphological and physiological analysis was carried out between Col-0 and the pad4 mutant. Under an Fe-deficiency treatment, Col-0 showed more severe leaf chlorosis and root growth inhibition compared with the pad4 mutant. The soluble Fe concentrations were significantly higher in pad4 than in Col-0 under the Fe-deficiency treatment. Fe deficiency significantly induced SA accumulation in Col-0 and the loss-of-function of PAD4 blocked this process. The requirement of endogenous SA accumulation for Fe-deficiency responses was confirmed using a series of SA biosynthetic mutants and transgenic lines. Furthermore, a comparative RNA sequencing analysis of the whole seedling transcriptomes between Col-0 and the pad4 mutant was also performed. Based on the transcriptome data, the expression levels of many auxin- and ethylene-response genes were altered in pad4 compared with Col-0. Fe deficiency increases SA contents which elevates auxin and ethylene signalling, thereby activating Fe translocation via the bHLH38/39-mediated transcriptional regulation of downstream Fe genes.

  16. A novel monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor as a potential treatment strategy for γ-hydroxybutyric acid overdose

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Nisha; Morse, Bridget L.; Morris, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) overdose by blocking its renal reabsorption in the kidney. This study further evaluated the effects of a novel, highly potent MCT inhibitor, AR-C155858, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD). Methods Rats were administered GHB (200, 600 or 1500 mg/kg i.v. or 1500 mg/kg po) with and without AR-C155858. Breathing frequency was continuously monitored using whole-body plethysmography. Plasma and urine samples were collected up to 8 hours. The effect of AR-C155858 on GHB brain/plasma partitioning was also assessed. Results AR-C155858 treatment significantly increased GHB renal and total clearance after intravenous GHB administration at all the GHB doses used in this study. GHB-induced respiratory depression was significantly improved by AR-C155858 as demonstrated by an improvement in the respiratory rate. AR-C155858 treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in brain/plasma partitioning of GHB (0.1 ± 0.03) when compared to GHB alone (0.25 ± 0.02). GHB CLR and CLoral (CL/F) following oral administration were also significantly increased following AR-C155858 treatment (from 1.82 ± 0.63 to 5.74 ± 0.86 and 6.52 ± 0.88 to 10.2 ± 0.75 ml/min/kg, respectively). Conclusion The novel and highly potent MCT inhibitor represents a potential treatment option for GHB overdose. PMID:25480120

  17. Fucosylated Glycans in α1-Acid Glycoprotein for Monitoring Treatment Outcomes and Prognosis of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shin; Takahashi, Ryo; Yokobori, Takehiko; Sano, Rie; Mogi, Akira; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Asao, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    One standard treatment option for advanced-stage cancer is surgical resection of malignant tumors following by adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Additionally, neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be applied if required. During the time course of treatments, patients are generally followed by computed tomography (CT) surveillance, and by tumor marker diagnosis. However, currently, early evidence of recurrence and/or metastasis of tumors with a clinically relevant biomarker remains a major therapeutic challenge. In particular, there has been no validated biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes in therapeutic settings. Recently, we have looked at glycoforms of serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) by using a crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis with two lectins and an anti-AGP antibody. The primary glycan structures of AGP were also analyzed by a mass spectrometer and a novel software in a large number of patients with various cancers. Accordingly, the relative abundance of α1,3fucosylated glycans in AGP (FUCAGP) was found to be significantly high in cancer patients as compared with the healthy controls. Further, strikingly elevated levels of FUCAGP were found in patients with poor prognosis but not in patients with good prognosis. In the current study, levels of FUCAGP in serum samples from various cancer patients were analyzed and 17 patients including 13 who had undergone chemotherapy were followed for several years post operation. FUCAGP level determined diligently by using a mass spectrometer was found to change along with disease prognosis as well as with responses to treatments, in particular, to various chemotherapies. Therefore, FUCAGP levels measured during following-up of the patients after operation appeared to be clinically relevant biomarker of treatment intervention. PMID:27295180

  18. THE USE OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett

    2004-09-30

    In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

  19. Effect of acetic acid repeated treatments on post-harvest quality of "Taloppo" table grape.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    The most important pathogen for table grapes is Botrytis cinerea which causes a rapid deterioration of fruit. Postharvest losses are controlled with SO2 fumigations carried out every 7 or 10 days, but the use of this gas is becoming more difficult to justify because of undesirable effects on the fruit and the increasing concern for human health. Acetic acid, classified as a GRAS compound, can be employed with no restriction as preservative and represents a possible substitute to sulphur dioxide. The aims of the present work were: (1) to evaluate if repeated treatments with AAC during storage preserve table grapes fruit quality; (2) to verify the effectiveness of 3 different concentrations and time intervals between each treatment and compare the effects with SO2 treatment; The amounts of AAC used in each fumigation, performed for 15 minutes, were 30, 50 and 75 microL/L, and treatments were carried out 5, 3 and 2 times respectively during storage, in order to have the same final concentration (150 microL/L). Table grapes were also fumigated with SO2. Fruit was stored for 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 95% of RH, followed by 4 days of a simulated shelf-life (SSL) at 20 degrees C and 85% RH. At the end of experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. After eight weeks of storage the incidence of grey mould, with respect to untreated fruit, was reduced in all treatments. The comparison among the different treatments did not show significant differences between the fumigations performed 3 and 2 times, with 24.9% and 27.2% of rots respectively. A better decay control was achieved with 5 fumigations carried out every 2 weeks, (18.1% of rots), while decay in fruit treated with SO2 was 26.2%. During the SSL period no particular differences were observed among all treatments. None of the treatments affected weight loss, as well as no differences were found in the score attributed for the external quality (rachis browning and berries appearance). The results

  20. Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10−4 mM SA, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM NaCl, 150 mM NaCl, SA + 50 mM NaCl, SA + 100 mM NaCl and SA + 150 mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5 weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50 mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50 mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

  1. Pregnancy-induced hypertension caused by all-trans retinoic acid treatment in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    SONG, KUI; LI, MIN

    2015-01-01

    A 23-year-old pregnant female presented with fever and diarrhea during the sixth month of gestation. The patient was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) at 26 weeks gestation and was treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at an initial dose of 45 mg/m2/day, which was reduced to 25 mg/m2/day 14 days later. The patient experienced chest distress, polypnea, hypertension, general dropsy and dysfunction of the kidneys and heart on day 3 of the treatment, which suggested pregnancy-induced hypertension. Intrauterine fetal demise was apparent on day 8. A cesarean delivery was performed, however, intrauterine fetal mortality had occurred. A favorable outcome was achieved for the patient following treatment, although hematological complete remission was slow. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe an APL patient with pregnancy-induced hypertension following treatment with ATRA, and thus ATRA remains a suitable for therapy for APL during pregnancy. PMID:26171031

  2. [The blood glutathione system in cerebral vascular diseases and its treatment with alpha-lipoic acid].

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinskiĭ, V I; Shprakh, V V; Bardymov, V V; Verlan, N V; Gubina, L P; Pensionerova, G A; Sergeeva, M P; Stanevich, L M; Filippova, G T

    2008-01-01

    The changes of glutathione metabolism are rare in dyscirculatory encephalopathy and ischemic stroke (IS) of mild severity. The frequent and considerable changes have been revealed in IS of moderate and high severity as well as in hemorrhagic stroke. An increase of activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase is the most typical. The increase of enzyme activity was not observed at the beginning of treatment after 3 days and in patients with severe degree of disease who died later. A standard therapy decreased the quantity and/or expression of changes of the glutathione metabolism in patients with IS of moderate and high severity while the addition of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) led to the complete normalization in IS of moderate severity and normalization of most parameters in IS of high severity. The increase of functional activity of the glutathione system at the early stage of treatment of IS and the favorable changes during the treatment, in particular after the addition of alpha-LA, were correlated with the improvement of neurological status assessed with the NIHSS. It has been confirmed that the glutathione system plays an important role in the tolerance to brain ischemia.

  3. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  4. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Allergy is one of the most important and very common health problems worldwide. To reduce the proportion of people suffering from allergy, alternative methods of prevention and treatment are sought. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics are live microorganisms belonging mainly to the lactic acid bacteria. They modify the microflora of the human digestive system, especially the intestinal microflora. Prophylactic administration of probiotics in the early stages of life (naturally in breast milk or milk substitute synthetic compounds) is very important because intestinal microflora plays a huge role in the development of the immune system. Prevention of allergies as early as in the prenatal and postnatal periods provides huge opportunities for inhibiting the growing problem of allergy in emerging and highly developed societies. Effects of probiotic therapy depend on many factors such as the species of the microorganism used, the dose size and characteristics of the bacteria such as viability and capacity of adhesion to the intestinal walls. Authors of several studies showed beneficial effects of probiotics in the perinatal period, infancy, and also in adults in the prevention of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. Probiotics, due to their immunomodulatory properties and safety of use are a good, natural alternative for the prevention and treatment of many diseases including allergies. It is therefore important to explore the knowledge about their use and to carry out further clinical trials. PMID:26155109

  5. Lipoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Maczurek, Annette; Hager, Klaus; Kenklies, Marlene; Sharman, Matt; Martins, Ralph; Engel, Jürgen; Carlson, David A; Münch, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that destroys patient memory and cognition, communication ability with the social environment and the ability to carry out daily activities. Despite extensive research into the pathogenesis of AD, a neuroprotective treatment - particularly for the early stages of disease - remains unavailable for clinical use. In this review, we advance the suggestion that lipoic acid (LA) may fulfil this therapeutic need. A naturally occurring cofactor for the mitochondrial enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, LA has been shown to have a variety of properties which can interfere with the pathogenesis or progression of AD. For example, LA increases acetylcholine (ACh) production by activation of choline acetyltransferase and increases glucose uptake, thus supplying more acetyl-CoA for the production of ACh. LA chelates redox-active transition metals, thus inhibiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and also scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing the levels of reduced glutathione. In addition, LA down-regulates the expression of redox-sensitive pro-inflammatory proteins including TNF and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, LA can scavenge lipid peroxidation products such as hydroxynonenal and acrolein. In human plasma, LA exists in an equilibrium of free and plasma protein bound form. Up to 150 muM, it is bound completely, most likely binding to high affinity fatty acid sites on human serum albumin, suggesting that one large dose rather than continuous low doses (as provided by "slow release" LA) will be beneficial for delivery of LA to the brain. Evidence for a clinical benefit for LA in dementia is yet limited. There are only two published studies, in which 600 mg LA was given daily to 43 patients with AD (receiving a standard treatment with choline-esterase inhibitors) in an open-label study over an observation period of up to 48 months. Whereas

  6. Targeting hyaluronic acid production for the treatment of leukemia: treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone leads to induction of MAPK-mediated apoptosis in K562 leukemia.

    PubMed

    Uchakina, Olga N; Ban, Hao; McKallip, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined the effect of modulation of hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis on leukemia cell survival using the hyaluronic acid synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). Treatment of CML cells with 4-MU led to caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by decreased HA production, PARP cleavage, and increased phosphorylation of p38. Addition of exogenous HA, the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or the p38 inhibitor SB203580 to 4-MU treated cells was able to protect cells from apoptosis. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with 4-MU led to a significant reduction in tumor load which was mediated through the induction of apoptosis.

  7. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (P<0.05). Moreover, SAEW treatment could increase the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and thus result in the GABA and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  8. [EXPERIENCE OF USE OF BLEMAREN® IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS IN URIC ACID AND CALCIUM OXALATE UROLITHIASIS].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, O V; Yanenko, E K

    2015-01-01

    154 patients with urolithiasis were under outpatient observation for 2-8 years. Among them there were 76 women and 78 men aged 21-66 years, of which 46 patients with uric acid urolithiasis, and 88--with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Treatment of patients was carried out systematically, depending on their condition. Indications for the application of Blemaren® included the presence of uric acid stones, uric acid and/or oxalate crystalluria. The duration of treatment was 6.1 months. The dosage of the drug varied from 6 to 18 g per day and was selected individually, depending on the purpose of the appointment of Blemaren®. Reduction of the urine pH to 6.2- 6.8-7.2 was the criterion for properly selected dose. To dissolve uric acid stones in the presence of hyperuricemia and/or hyperuricuria, Blemaren® was administered in combination with allopurinol at a dose of 0.1 g 3-4 times a day. Besides pharmacotherapy, treatment included diet therapy. It was found that the morning urine pH in urate urolithiasis is sustainable and has a range of 5.0-6.0, in 80.4% of cases--range of 5.0-5.5. In calcium oxalate urolithiasis this parameter is also stable and has a range of 5.0-6.7, in 82.9% of cases--range of 5.5-6.0. Optimal urine pH to eliminate uric acid and oxalate crystalluria in patients with uric acid and calcium oxalate urolithiasis is the interval of 6.2-6.4. It was shown that Blemaren® is a highly effective agent for treatment and prevention of uric acid and calcium oxalate crystalluria in calcium oxalate and uric acid urolithiasis. Further, its effectiveness in dissolving of uric acid stones in the absence of an infectious inflammatory process is 82.3%.

  9. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit P; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (As(V)) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by As(V) and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (As(III)). SA also overcame As(V) induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity.

  10. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

    PubMed

    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production.

  11. Ultrasound-potentiated salicylic acid-induced physiological effects and production of taxol in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cell culture.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Ayatollah; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe

    2011-11-01

    Effects of ultrasound (US), salicylic acid (SA) and their combined use on the growth and secondary metabolite production of suspension-cultured Corylus avellana cells were investigated. The cultures were treated with US (40 kHz) for short periods of time (2, 3, 5 and 10 min) and SA (25 and 50 mg L(-1)). Results showed that although phenolic content of the cells was significantly increased under exposure to treatments, flavonoids content significantly decreased. Taxol biosynthesis was improved by all treatments. US exposure increased the extracellular, cell-associated and total taxol yield three-, 1.6-, and two-fold compared with that of the control, respectively. SA at all levels was more effective than US in stimulating cell-associated and total taxol production. Combined treatment of US and SA at 50 mg L(-1) resulted in the most improvement in total taxol production, which was about seven times higher than that of the US, three times higher than that of the SA and 14 times higher than that of the control. The results suggest a synergism between US and SA in enhancing taxol production by hazelnut cells.

  12. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg

    2010-12-01

    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions.

  13. Tranexamic acid in treatment of melasma: A comprehensive review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Taraz, Mohammad; Niknam, Somayeh; Ehsani, Amir Houshang

    2017-01-30

    Melasma is a human melanogenesis dysfunction that results in localized, chronic acquired hyperpigmentation of the skin. It has a significant impact on appearance, causing psychosocial and emotional distress, and reducing the quality of life of the affected patients. Tranexamic acid (TA) is a plasmin inhibitor used to prevent abnormal fibrinolysis to reduce blood loss and exerts its effect by reversibly blocking lysine binding sites on plasminogen molecules, thus inhibiting plasminogen activator (PA) from converting plasminogen to plasmin. As plasminogen also exists in human epidermal basal cells and cultured human keratinocyte are known to produce PA, there is basic rationale that TA will affect keratinocyte function and interaction. A thorough literature review indicates that while TA is used through various route of administration including oral, topical, and intradermal injection and as adjutant therapy with laser to treat melasma, its efficacy is not established adequately. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of TA in treatment of melasma.

  14. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid for the treatment of soft tissue infections in children.

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, G R; Wilmott, C M; Campos, J M

    1983-01-01

    We compared responses to amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid (ACA) with a cefaclor regimen in children with skin and soft tissue infections (impetigo and cellulitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus species. All isolates from the 41 patients we were able to evaluate were susceptible to ACA by disk susceptibility testing at the onset of treatment. The 21 children receiving ACA and 18 (90%) of 20 taking cefaclor responded to therapy. Clinical cure was achieved in 18 (86%) of 21 and 18 (90%) of 20 in the two groups, respectively. Bacteriological failure occurred in 2 (10%) patients in the cefaclor group and none in the group receiving ACA; however, there were 2 (9%) relapses and 1 (5%) reinfection among the 21 children taking ACA. Adverse effects, although mild, occurred more commonly (9 of 21 versus 1 of 20; P = 0.005) with ACA than with cefaclor. PMID:6660847

  15. Acid-sensing ion channels 3: a potential therapeutic target for pain treatment in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Chen, Fei-Hu; Lu, Wei-Guo; Li, Xia

    2010-10-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels 3 (ASIC3) is the most sensitive to such a pH change, predominantly distributed in the sensory peripheral nervous system, and strongly correlated with pain. Recently, there is increasing evidence that ASIC3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory pain diseases due to it is predominantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons making it a good candidate for a pain sensor. Elevated expression of ASIC3 was found in DRG of rodents with inflamed hind paws. In addition, it has been shown that ASIC3 gene knock-out mice (ASIC3-/-) exhibited no enhanced hyperalgesia in inflamed joint. All theses findings suggest that ASIC3 have important biological effects in inflammation that might be a promising therapeutic target for arthritis pain. In this review, we will briefly discuss the biological features of ASIC3 and summarize recent advances on the role of ASIC3 in the pathogenesis and treatment of arthritis pain.

  16. Successful treatment of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid.

    PubMed

    Dresse, M F; David, M; Hume, H; Blanchard, H; Russo, P; Van Doesberg, N; Rivard, G E

    1991-01-01

    The Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is characterized by thrombocytopenia and localized coagulopathy associated with a hemangioma. Most techniques applied to eradicate the tumor or accelerate its involution (surgery, radiation therapy, embolization) are invasive and require transfusion of large amounts of blood products. In some cases, medical treatment is the only alternative. Efficacy of steroids and antifibronolytic agents has already been described, but even this approach is associated with the administration of blood products. We report two cases of infants with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with card