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Sample records for acid sa-mediated defense

  1. Low oleic acid-derived repression of jasmonic acid-inducible defense responses requires the WRKY50 and WRKY51 proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Signaling induced upon a reduction in oleic acid (18:1) levels simultaneously up-regulates salicylic acid (SA)-mediated responses and inhibits jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance to biotrophs but increased susceptibility to necrotrophs. SA and the signaling compon...

  2. Salicylic acid-mediated and RNA-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Saénz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. However, PPV produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HC-Pro from tobacco etch virus (TEV). In this work we show that PPV is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) that degrades salicylic acid (SA). Replication and accumulation of PPV is higher in the locally infected leaves of plants deficient in SA or expressing TEV P1/HC-Pro silencing suppressor. Accumulation of viral derived small RNAs was reduced in the NahG transgenic plants, suggesting that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco. Besides, expression of SA-mediated defense transcripts, such as those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins PR-1 and PR-2 or alternative oxidase-1, as well as that of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NtRDR1, is induced in response to PPV infection, and the expression patterns of these defense transcripts are altered in the TEV P1/HC-Pro transgenic plants. Long-distance movement of PPV is highly enhanced in NahG x P1/HC-Pro double-transgenic plants and systemic symptoms in these plants reveal that the expression of an RNA-silencing suppressor and the lack of SA produce additive but distinct effects. Our results suggest that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco, and that silencing suppressors, such as P1/HC-Pro, also alter the SA-mediated defense. Both an RNA-silencing and an SA-mediated defense mechanism could act together to limit PPV infection.

  3. Temporal accumulation of salicylic acid activates the defense response against Colletotrichum in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martinez-Zamora, Martín G; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Many authors have reported interactions between strawberry cultivars and pathogenic microorganisms, yet little is known about the mechanisms triggered in the plant. In this paper we examine the participation of the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway involved in the response of Fragaria x ananassa cv. Pájaro plants to pathogens. Strawberry plants were challenged with the virulent strain M11 of Colletotrichum acutatum, or with the avirulent strain M23 of Colletotrichum fragariae which confers resistance to the former. Our study showed that the isolate M23 induced a temporal SA accumulation that was accompanied with the induction of PR-1 gene expression in strawberry plants. Such events occured after the oxidative burst, evaluated as the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, and many hours before the protection could be detected. Similar results were obtained with exogenously applied SA. Results obtained supports the hypothesis that strawberry plants activate a SA mediated defense mechanisms that is effective against a causal agent of anthracnose. In contrast, plants inoculated with M11 did not show oxidative burst, SA accumulation or PR1 gene induction. This is the first report about a defense response signaling pathway studied in strawberry plants. PMID:22366637

  4. Apoplastic peroxidases are required for salicylic acid-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicole D; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus.

  5. Some things get better with age: differences in salicylic acid accumulation and defense signaling in young and mature Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Carella, Philip; Wilson, Daniel C.; Cameron, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, much of what we know about the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and its role in plant defense comes from experiments using young plants. We are interested in understanding why young plants are susceptible to virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, while mature plants exhibit a robust defense response known as age-related resistance (ARR). SA-mediated signaling is important for defense in young plants, however, ARR occurs independently of the defense regulators NPR1 and WHY1. Furthermore, intercellular SA accumulation is an important component of ARR, and intercellular washing fluids from ARR-competent plants exhibit antibacterial activity, suggesting that SA acts as an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space. Young plants accumulate both intracellular and intercellular SA during PAMP- and effector-triggered immunity, however, virulent P. syringae promotes susceptibility by suppressing SA accumulation using the phytotoxin coronatine. Here we outline the hypothesis that mature, ARR-competent Arabidopsis alleviates coronatine-mediated suppression of SA accumulation. We also explore the role of SA in other mature-plant processes such as flowering and senescence, and discuss their potential impact on ARR. PMID:25620972

  6. Recruitment of PLANT U-BOX13 and the PI4Kβ1/β2 Phosphatidylinositol-4 Kinases by the Small GTPase RabA4B Plays Important Roles during Salicylic Acid-Mediated Plant Defense Signaling in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Antignani, Vincenzo; Klocko, Amy L.; Bak, Gwangbae; Chandrasekaran, Suma D.; Dunivin, Taylor; Nielsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Protection against microbial pathogens involves the activation of cellular immune responses in eukaryotes, and this cellular immunity likely involves changes in subcellular membrane trafficking. In eukaryotes, members of the Rab GTPase family of small monomeric regulatory GTPases play prominent roles in the regulation of membrane trafficking. We previously showed that RabA4B is recruited to vesicles that emerge from trans-Golgi network (TGN) compartments and regulates polarized membrane trafficking in plant cells. As part of this regulation, RabA4B recruits the closely related phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) PI4Kβ1 and PI4Kβ2 lipid kinases. Here, we identify a second Arabidopsis thaliana RabA4B-interacting protein, PLANT U-BOX13 (PUB13), which has recently been identified to play important roles in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense signaling. We show that PUB13 interacts with RabA4B through N-terminal domains and with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) through a C-terminal armadillo domain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a functional fluorescent PUB13 fusion protein (YFP-PUB13) localizes to TGN and Golgi compartments and that PUB13, PI4Kβ1, and PI4Kβ2 are negative regulators of SA-mediated induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression. Taken together, these results highlight a role for RabA4B and PI-4P in SA-dependent defense responses. PMID:25634989

  7. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  8. Defensive use of an acquired substance (carminic acid) by predaceous insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Ziegler, R; McCormick, J L; Eisner, M; Hoebeke, E R; Meinwald, J

    1994-06-15

    Larvae of two insects, a coccinellid beetle (Hyperaspis trifurcata) and a chamaemyiid fly (Leucopis sp.), feed on cochineal insects and appropriate their prey's defensive chemical, carminic acid, for protective purposes of their own. H. trifurcata discharges the chemical with droplets of blood (hemolymph) that it emits when disturbed; Leucopis sp. ejects the compound with rectal fluid. Ants are thwarted by these defenses, which are compared with the previously-described defense of a pyralid caterpillar (Laetilia coccidivora) that disgorges carminic acid-laden crop fluid. The defensive fluid of all three larvae contains carminic acid at concentrations spanning a range (0.2-6.2%) proven deterrent to ants. Many insects are known to appropriate defensive substances from plants. Insects that acquire defensive chemicals from animal sources may be relatively rare. PMID:8020623

  9. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  10. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  11. Lipids in salicylic acid-mediated defense in plants: focusing on the roles of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective defense strategies to protect themselves from various pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates pathogen-triggered signals perceived by different immune receptors to induce downstream defense responses. While many proteins play essential roles in regulating SA signaling, increasing evidence also supports important roles for signaling phospholipids in this process. In this review, we collate the experimental evidence in support of the regulatory roles of two phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), and their metabolizing enzymes in plant defense, and examine the possible mechanistic interaction between phospholipid signaling and SA-dependent immunity with a particular focus on the immunity-stimulated biphasic PA production that is reminiscent of and perhaps mechanistically connected to the biphasic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and SA accumulation during defense activation. PMID:26074946

  12. Defense signaling among interconnected ramets of a rhizomatous clonal plant, induced by jasmonic-acid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Song; Lei, Ning-Fei; Liu, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Resource sharing between ramets of clonal plants is a well-known phenomenon that allows stoloniferous and rhizomatous species to internally transport water, mineral nutrients and carbohydrates from sites of high supply to sites of high demand. Moreover, vascular ramet connections are likely to provide an excellent means to share substances other than resources, such as defense signals. In a greenhouse experiment, the rhizomatous sedge Carex alrofusca, consisting of integrated ramets of different ages, was used to study the transmission of defense signals through belowground rhizome connections in response to local spray with jasmonic-acid. A feeding preference test with the caterpillar Gynaephora rnenyuanensis was employed to assess benefits of rhizome connections on defense signaling. Young ramets were more responsive to jasmonic-acid treatment than middle-aged or old ramets. Condensed tannin content in the foliage of young ramets showed a significant increase and soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen content showed marginally significant decreases in the 1 mM jasmonic-acid treatment but not in control and/or 0.0001 mM jasmonic-acid treatments. The caterpillar G. rnenyuanensis preferentially grazed young ramets. After a localized spray of 1 mM jasmonic-acid, the leaf area of young ramets consumed by herbivores was greatly reduced. We propose that defense signals may be transmitted through physical connections (stolon or rhizome) among interconnected ramets of clonal plants. Induced resistance to herbivory may selectively enhance the protection of more vulnerable and valuable plant tissues and confer a significant benefit to clonal plants by a modular risk-spreading strategy, equalizing ontogenetic differences of unevenly-aged ramets in chemical defense compounds and nutritional properties of tissue.

  13. Role for Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2012-01-01

    Objective The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to gastric contents. The second objective was to determine whether ion transport in response to gastric contents is associated with the secretion of bicarbonate. Study Design Prospective design in excised porcine larynges. Setting Laboratory. Subjects and Methods Porcine vocal folds (N = 56) were exposed on the luminal surface to acid, pepsin, or sham challenges. Ion transport at baseline and following challenge exposure was measured using electrophysiological techniques. To examine specific ion transport mechanisms, vocal folds were pretreated with either a sodium channel blocker or bicarbonate channel blocker. Results Within 60 seconds of acid but not pepsin exposure, there was a significant increase in ion transport. This rapid increase in ion transport was transient and related to bicarbonate secretion. Conclusion The current data suggest that porcine vocal folds immediately increase bicarbonate secretion following exposure to acid. Bicarbonate secretion may act to neutralize acid. These findings contribute to the identification of the mechanisms underlying vocal fold defense to reflux and offer implications for the development of treatments for reflux-induced vocal fold injury. PMID:22086905

  14. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process.

  15. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts.

  16. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  17. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Dussourd, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  18. Glutamate Utilization Couples Oxidative Stress Defense and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Francisella Phagosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    Ramond, Elodie; Gesbert, Gael; Rigard, Mélanie; Dairou, Julien; Dupuis, Marion; Dubail, Iharilalao; Meibom, Karin; Henry, Thomas; Barel, Monique; Charbit, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have developed a variety of strategies to avoid degradation by the host innate immune defense mechanisms triggered upon phagocytocis. Upon infection of mammalian host cells, the intracellular pathogen Francisella replicates exclusively in the cytosolic compartment. Hence, its ability to escape rapidly from the phagosomal compartment is critical for its pathogenicity. Here, we show for the first time that a glutamate transporter of Francisella (here designated GadC) is critical for oxidative stress defense in the phagosome, thus impairing intra-macrophage multiplication and virulence in the mouse model. The gadC mutant failed to efficiently neutralize the production of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, virulence of the gadC mutant was partially restored in mice defective in NADPH oxidase activity. The data presented highlight links between glutamate uptake, oxidative stress defense, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and phagosomal escape. This is the first report establishing the role of an amino acid transporter in the early stage of the Francisella intracellular lifecycle. PMID:24453979

  19. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  20. [Bile acids and endotoxins: physico-chemical defense of the body].

    PubMed

    Bertók, L

    1999-01-01

    The toxic effects of endotoxin--the cell wall component of Gram negative intestinal bacteria--under experimental conditions can be induced only when they are administered parenterally. However, in naturally occurring enteroendotoxemic diseases (e.g. septic and various shocks, etc.), the endotoxin absorbs from the intestinal tract. The cause and mode of translocation was unknown. The generally used experimental shock models differ from natural diseases only in the mode by which endotoxin enters the blood circulation. If the common bile ducts of rats were chronically cannulated (bile deprived animals) perorally administered endotoxin was absorbed from the intestinal canal into blood circulation and provoked endotoxin shock. The translocation of endotoxins and consequent shock can be prevented by sodium deoxycholate or natural biles. The bile acids can split the endotoxin macromolecule (atoxic fragments). A similar destructive detergent action might will be a significant factor against potential infectious agents with lipoprotein outer structure (e.g. so-called "big" viruses). This defense mechanism of macrooganisms based on the detergent activity of bile acids is called as physico-chemical defense system. On the basis of this knowledge the bile acids might be used in the prevention and therapy of some clinical processes (e.g. hepatorenal syndrome; psoriasis).

  1. PAD4 functions upstream from salicylic acid to control defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, N; Tootle, T L; Tsui, F; Klessig, D F; Glazebrook, J

    1998-01-01

    The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene was previously shown to be required for synthesis of camalexin in response to infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 but not in response to challenge by the non-host fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum. In this study, we show that pad4 mutants exhibit defects in defense responses, including camalexin synthesis and pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene expression, when infected by P. s. maculicola ES4 326. No such defects were observed in response to infection by an isogenic avirulent strain carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2. In P. s. maculicola ES4 326-infected pad4 plants, synthesis of salicylic acid (SA) was found to be reduced and delayed when compared with SA synthesis in wild-type plants. Moreover, treatment of pad4 plants with SA partially reversed the camalexin deficiency and PR-1 gene expression phenotypes of P. s. maculicola ES4 326-infected pad4 plants. These findings support the hypothesis that PAD4 acts upstream from SA accumulation in regulating defense response expression in plants infected with P. s. maculicola ES4 326. A working model of the role of PAD4 in governing expression of defense responses is presented. PMID:9634589

  2. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  3. GSH-dependent antioxidant defense contributes to the acclimation of colon cancer cells to acidic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minnan; Liu, Qiao; Gong, Yanchao; Xu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Caibo; Guo, Haiyang; Zhang, Xiyu; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to increased glycolysis and poor local perfusion, solid tumors are usually immersed in an acidic microenvironment. While extracellular acidosis is cytotoxic, cancer cells eventually become acclimated to it. While previous studies have addressed the acute effect of acidosis on cancer cells, little is known about how cancer cells survive chronic acidosis. In this study we exposed colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT15, HCT116 and LoVo) to acidic pH (pH 6.5) continuously for over three months and obtained CRC cells that become acclimated to acidic pH, designated as CRC-acidosis-acclimated or CRC-AA. We unexpectedly found that while acute exposure to low pH resulted in an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), CRC-AA cells exhibited a significantly reduced level of ROS when compared to ancestor cells. CRC-AA cells were found to maintain a higher level of reduced glutathione, via the upregulation of CD44 and glutathione reductase (GSR), among others, than their ancestor cells. Importantly, CRC-AA cells were more sensitive to agents that deplete GSH. Moreover, downregulation of GSR by RNA interference was more deleterious to CRC-AA cells than to control cells. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense in acclimation of CRC cells to acidic extracellular pH. PMID:26950675

  4. Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense.

  5. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E. S.; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs. PMID:27376281

  6. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E S; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs. PMID:27376281

  7. The U-Box/ARM E3 ligase PUB13 regulates cell death, defense, and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ahn, Il-Pyung; Ning, Yuese; Park, Chan-Ho; Zeng, Lirong; Whitehill, Justin G A; Lu, Haibin; Zhao, Qingzhen; Ding, Bo; Xie, Qi; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-05-01

    The components in plant signal transduction pathways are intertwined and affect each other to coordinate plant growth, development, and defenses to stresses. The role of ubiquitination in connecting these pathways, particularly plant innate immunity and flowering, is largely unknown. Here, we report the dual roles for the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Plant U-box protein13 (PUB13) in defense and flowering time control. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicated that PUB13 is an active E3 ubiquitin ligase and that the intact U-box domain is required for the E3 ligase activity. Disruption of the PUB13 gene by T-DNA insertion results in spontaneous cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA), and elevated resistance to biotrophic pathogens but increased susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens. The cell death, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens in pub13 are enhanced when plants are pretreated with high humidity. Importantly, pub13 also shows early flowering under middle- and long-day conditions, in which the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 and FLOWERING LOCUS T is induced while FLOWERING LOCUS C expression is suppressed. Finally, we found that two components involved in the SA-mediated signaling pathway, SID2 and PAD4, are required for the defense and flowering-time phenotypes caused by the loss of function of PUB13. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PUB13 acts as an important node connecting SA-dependent defense signaling and flowering time regulation in Arabidopsis.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus subverts cutaneous defense by D-alanylation of teichoic acids.

    PubMed

    Simanski, Maren; Gläser, Regine; Köten, Bente; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Wanner, Stefanie; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Peschel, Andreas; Harder, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent skin colonizer that often causes severe skin infections. It has been reported that neutralizing the negatively charged bacterial surface through the incorporation of d-alanine in its teichoic acids confers reduced susceptibility of S. aureus towards cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Using a S. aureus strain deficient in d-alanylated teichoic acids (dltA mutant), we demonstrate that d-alanylation of its surface reduces the susceptibility of S. aureus to skin-derived AMPs such as RNase 7 and human beta-defensins. This is accompanied by a higher killing activity of skin extracts towards the S. aureus dltA mutant as well as towards clinical isolates expressing lower levels of dltA. We conclude that modulation of cell envelope d-alanylation may help S. aureus to persist on human skin through evasion of cutaneous innate defense provided by cationic skin-derived AMPs.

  9. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  10. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  11. No evidence for the induction of brown algal chemical defense by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wiesemeier, Theresa; Jahn, Karsten; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Induced chemical defense reactions are widespread in marine brown algae. Despite the evidence that the biosynthesis of defense metabolites can be up-regulated upon herbivory, we do not know how this regulation of biosynthetic pathways to secondary metabolites is achieved in brown algae. In higher plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is crucial for the mediation of induced chemical defenses, and several findings of this metabolite from marine sources have been reported. We tested the hypothesis that JA or related metabolites play a role in induced brown algal defense. Quantification of oxylipins with a detection limit around 20 ng g(-1) algal tissue did not reveal the presence of JA in the seven examined brown algal species Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia peregrina, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata, Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina), and Sargassum muticum. Moreover, treatment with ecologically relevant concentrations of JA and methyl jasmonate did not lead to a significant change in the profile of medium- and non-polar metabolites of the tested algae. Only when high concentrations of > or =500 microg ml(-1) medium of the phytohormones were applied that a metabolic response which could be attributed to unspecific stress was observed. Bioassays with D. dichotoma that focused on medium- and non-polar compounds confirmed the lack of a biological role of JA and methyl jasmonate in the induction of algal induced chemical defenses. The phytohormone-treated samples did not exhibit any increased defense potential towards the amphipod Ampithoe longimana and the isopod Paracerceis caudata. JA and related phytohormones, known to be active in higher plants, thus appear to play no role in brown algae for induction of the defense chemicals studied here. PMID:19020937

  12. No evidence for the induction of brown algal chemical defense by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wiesemeier, Theresa; Jahn, Karsten; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Induced chemical defense reactions are widespread in marine brown algae. Despite the evidence that the biosynthesis of defense metabolites can be up-regulated upon herbivory, we do not know how this regulation of biosynthetic pathways to secondary metabolites is achieved in brown algae. In higher plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is crucial for the mediation of induced chemical defenses, and several findings of this metabolite from marine sources have been reported. We tested the hypothesis that JA or related metabolites play a role in induced brown algal defense. Quantification of oxylipins with a detection limit around 20 ng g(-1) algal tissue did not reveal the presence of JA in the seven examined brown algal species Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia peregrina, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata, Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina), and Sargassum muticum. Moreover, treatment with ecologically relevant concentrations of JA and methyl jasmonate did not lead to a significant change in the profile of medium- and non-polar metabolites of the tested algae. Only when high concentrations of > or =500 microg ml(-1) medium of the phytohormones were applied that a metabolic response which could be attributed to unspecific stress was observed. Bioassays with D. dichotoma that focused on medium- and non-polar compounds confirmed the lack of a biological role of JA and methyl jasmonate in the induction of algal induced chemical defenses. The phytohormone-treated samples did not exhibit any increased defense potential towards the amphipod Ampithoe longimana and the isopod Paracerceis caudata. JA and related phytohormones, known to be active in higher plants, thus appear to play no role in brown algae for induction of the defense chemicals studied here.

  13. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  14. Jasmonic Acid and Its Precursor 12-Oxophytodienoic Acid Control Different Aspects of Constitutive and Induced Herbivore Defenses in Tomato1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marko; Wright, Louwrance P.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina; Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine (Ile) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. To assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile -dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and was much delayed compared with development on the jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of the ubiquitin ligase CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for defense, whereas the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. PMID:25073705

  15. The Arabidopsis Glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 Conjugates Isoleucic Acid and Modulates Plant Defense and Senescence[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    von Saint Paul, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Kanawati, Basem; Geist, Birgit; Faus-Keßler, Theresa; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schäffner, Anton R.

    2011-01-01

    Plants coordinate and tightly regulate pathogen defense by the mostly antagonistic salicylate (SA)- and jasmonate (JA)-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 is a novel player in this SA-JA signaling crosstalk. UGT76B1 was selected as the top stress-induced isoform among all 122 members of the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT family. Loss of UGT76B1 function leads to enhanced resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and accelerated senescence but increased susceptibility toward necrotrophic Alternaria brassicicola. This is accompanied by constitutively elevated SA levels and SA-related marker gene expression, whereas JA-dependent markers are repressed. Conversely, UGT76B1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Thus, UGT76B1 attenuates SA-dependent plant defense in the absence of infection, promotes the JA response, and delays senescence. The ugt76b1 phenotypes were SA dependent, whereas UGT76B1 overexpression indicated that this gene possibly also has a direct effect on the JA pathway. Nontargeted metabolomic analysis of UGT76B1 knockout and overexpression lines using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and activity assays with the recombinant enzyme led to the ab initio identification of isoleucic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid) as a substrate of UGT76B1. Exogenously applied isoleucic acid increased resistance against P. syringae infection. These findings indicate a novel link between amino acid–related molecules and plant defense that is mediated by small-molecule glucosylation. PMID:22080599

  16. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Ailloud, Florent; Fochs, Brianna; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses. Interestingly, SA treatment repressed expression of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, suggesting that this pathogen may suppress virulence functions when stressed. A GMI1000 mutant lacking SA degradation activity was much more susceptible to SA toxicity but retained the wild-type colonization ability and virulence on tomato. This may be because SA is less important than gentisic acid in tomato defense signaling. However, another host, tobacco, responds strongly to SA. To test the hypothesis that SA degradation contributes to virulence on tobacco, we measured the effect of adding this pathway to the tobacco-pathogenic R. solanacearum strain K60, which lacks SA degradation genes. Ectopic addition of the GMI1000 SA degradation locus, including adjacent genes encoding two porins and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, significantly increased the virulence of strain K60 on tobacco. Together, these results suggest that R. solanacearum degrades plant SA to protect itself from inhibitory levels of this compound and also to enhance its virulence on plant hosts like tobacco that use SA as a defense signal molecule. PMID:27329752

  17. EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Vorwerk, Sonja; Schiff, Celine; Santamaria, Marjorie; Koh, Serry; Nishimura, Marc; Vogel, John; Somerville, Chris; Somerville, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    Background The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or about its regulation in response to pathogen attack. Results We isolated the edr2-6 mutant, an allele of the previously described edr2 mutants. We found that edr2-6 exhibited an exaggerated chlorosis and necrosis response to attack by three pathogens, two powdery mildew and one downy mildew species, but not in response to abiotic stresses or attack by the bacterial leaf speck pathogen. The chlorosis and necrosis did not spread beyond inoculated sites suggesting that EDR2 limits the initiation of cell death rather than its spread. The pathogen-induced chlorosis and necrosis of edr2-6 was correlated with a stimulation of the salicylic acid defense pathway and was suppressed in mutants deficient in salicylic acid signaling. EDR2 encodes a novel protein with a pleckstrin homology and a StAR transfer (START) domain as well as a plant-specific domain of unknown function, DUF1336. The pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in vitro and an EDR2:HA:GFP protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and endosomes. Conclusion EDR2 acts as a negative regulator of cell death, specifically the cell death elicited by pathogen attack and mediated by the salicylic acid defense pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate may have a role in limiting cell death via its effect on EDR2. This role in cell death may be indirect, by helping to target EDR2 to the appropriate membrane, or it may play a more direct role. PMID:17612410

  18. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2013-11-01

    A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory.

  19. The maize death acids, 10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid and derivatives, demonstrate specificity in jasmonate-related signaling and defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cellular damage promotes the interaction of lipoxygenases (LOX) with free fatty acids to yield 9- and 13-hydroperoxides which are further metabolized into diverse oxylipins. The enzymatic action of 13-LOX on linolenic acid enables production of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and its downst...

  20. Quantitative structure-property relationship studies on amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid as defense signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Zu-Guang; Chen, Ke-Xian; Xie, Hai-Ying; Gao, Jian-Rong

    2009-06-01

    Jasmonates and related compounds, including amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid, have regulatory functions in the signaling pathway for plant developmental processes and responses to the complex equilibrium of biotic and abiotic stress. But the molecular details of the signaling mechanism are still poorly understood. Statistically significant quantitative structure-property relationship models (r(2) > 0.990) constructed by genetic function approximation and molecular field analysis were generated for the purpose of deriving structural requirements for lipophilicity of amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid. The best models derived in the present study provide some valuable academic information in terms of the 2/3D-descriptors influencing the lipophilicity, which may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of exogenous application of jasmonates in their signaling pathway and designing novel analogs of jasmonic acid as ecological pesticides.

  1. The relationship between stress protein induction and the oxidative defense system in the rat hippocampus following kainic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Gilberti, E A; Trombetta, L D

    2000-07-27

    The time and dose-dependent effects of kainic acid (KA) induced excitotoxicity on the oxidative defense system and the relationship to the induction of stress proteins were investigated in the rat hippocampus. Male Long-Evans rats were injected subcutaneously with 5.0, 7.5, or 10 mg KA/kg. Rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus removed and processed for biochemical and electrophoretic analysis. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased significantly at the 5 mg KA/kg dose, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased at 7.5 mg KA/kg when measured at 24 h. A dose of 10 mg KA/kg depleted significantly hippocampal glutathione (GSH) levels at 8, 16 and 24 h post-treatment while GPx activity was increased significantly at 2, 4, 8 and 16 hr post-treatment. The 10 mg KA/kg increased significantly hippocampal MDA levels at 2 h post-treatment and decreased significantly thereafter. The induction of stress proteins increased in a dose and time dependent manner. The expression of Hp72 and Hsp32 increased significantly at 16 h with a maximum induction observed at 24 h post-treatment. The data suggests that KA toxicity is mediated through the formation of reactive oxygen species resulting in alterations in the oxidative defense system. The expression of stress proteins following KA administration may reflect a concomitant but alternate response to excitotoxic events.

  2. Proteomic investigation of the effect of salicylic acid on Arabidopsis seed germination and establishment of early defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Belghazi, Maya; Huguet, Romain; Robin, Caroline; Moreau, Adrien; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on elicitation of defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds and seedlings was assessed by physiological measurements combined with global expression profiling (proteomics). Parallel experiments were carried out using the NahG transgenic plants expressing the bacterial gene encoding SA hydroxylase, which cannot accumulate the active form of this plant defense elicitor. SA markedly improved germination under salt stress. Proteomic analyses disclosed a specific accumulation of protein spots regulated by SA as inferred by silver-nitrate staining of two-dimensional gels, detection of carbonylated (oxidized) proteins, and neosynthesized proteins with [35S]-methionine. The combined results revealed several processes potentially affected by SA. This molecule enhanced the reinduction of the late maturation program during early stages of germination, thereby allowing the germinating seeds to reinforce their capacity to mount adaptive responses in environmental water stress. Other processes affected by SA concerned the quality of protein translation, the priming of seed metabolism, the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, and the mobilization of seed storage proteins. All the observed effects are likely to improve seed vigor. Another aspect revealed by this study concerned the oxidative stress entailed by SA in germinating seeds, as inferred from a characterization of the carbonylated (oxidized) proteome. Finally, the proteomic data revealed a close interplay between abscisic signaling and SA elicitation of seed vigor.

  3. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties.

  4. Sebum Free Fatty Acids Enhance the Innate Immune Defense of Human Sebocytes by Upregulating β-Defensin-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced their expression of human β-defensin (hBD)-2, one of the predominant AMPs found in the skin, whereas remarkable increases in hBD-1, hBD-3, and human cathelicidin LL-37 were not observed. Secreted hBD-2 was detectable by western blotting in the supernatant of sebocyte culture incubated with each FFA, but not with a vehicle control. The supernatant of FFA-incubated sebocyte culture showed antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, whereas the enhanced antimicrobial activity of human sebocytes was neutralized by anti-hBD-2 IgG. In addition, the FFA-induced hBD-2 expression was suppressed by blocking the cluster of differentiation (CD)36 fatty acid translocase on the surface of sebocytes with anti-human CD36 IgG or blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway with BMS-345541, a highly selective inhibitor of inhibitory κB kinase. These data suggest that sebum FFAs upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in human sebocytes, which may enhance the disinfecting activity of the human sebaceous gland. The FFA-induced upregulation of hBD-2 is facilitated by CD36-mediated FFA uptake and NF-κB-mediated transactivation. The upregulation of mouse β-defensin 4, a mouse ortholog for hBD-2, was also observed in the hair follicle sebaceous glands of mouse ear skin after an epicutaneous application of OA, the most hBD-2-inducible FFA tested. This report highlights the potential of using FFAs as a multifunctional antimicrobial therapy agent for acne vulgaris treatment; FFAs may provide direct

  5. Regulation of antibacterial defense in the small intestine by the nuclear bile acid receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Moschetta, Antonio; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Peng, Li; Zhao, Guixiang; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth T.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Repa, Joyce J.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2006-03-01

    Obstruction of bile flow results in bacterial proliferation and mucosal injury in the small intestine that can lead to the translocation of bacteria across the epithelial barrier and systemic infection. These adverse effects of biliary obstruction can be inhibited by administration of bile acids. Here we show that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, induces genes involved in enteroprotection and inhibits bacterial overgrowth and mucosal injury in ileum caused by bile duct ligation. Mice lacking FXR have increased ileal levels of bacteria and a compromised epithelial barrier. These findings reveal a central role for FXR in protecting the distal small intestine from bacterial invasion and suggest that FXR agonists may prevent epithelial deterioration and bacterial translocation in patients with impaired bile flow. bacteria | biliary obstruction | epithelial barrier | ileum

  6. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 reveals the versatile functions of jasmonic acid in maize development and defense.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R J Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V

    2012-04-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  7. Ascorbic acid accumulates as a defense response to Turnip mosaic virus in resistant Brassica rapa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ayaka; Togawa, Satoko; Hikawa, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Masuta, Chikara; Inukai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We initially observed that Brassica rapa cultivars containing the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance gene, Rnt1-1, accumulated a high level of endogenous ascorbic acid (AS) and dehydroascobic acid (DHA) when infected with TuMV. We here hypothesized a possible contribution of an elevated level of AS+DHA (TAA) to the Rnt1-1-mediated resistance, and conducted a series of experiments using B. rapa and Arabidopsis plants. The application of l-galactose (the key substrate in AS synthesis) to a susceptible cultivar could increase the TAA level ~2-fold, and simultaneously lead to some degree of enhanced viral resistance. To confirm some positive correlation between TAA levels and viral resistance, we analyzed two Arabidopsis knockout mutants (ao and vtc1) in the AS pathways; the TAA levels were significantly increased and decreased in ao and vtc1 plants, respectively. While the ao plants showed enhanced resistance to TuMV, vtc1 plants were more susceptible than the control, supporting our hypothesis. When we analyzed the expression profiles of the genes involved in the AS pathways upon TuMV infection, we found that the observed TAA increase was mainly brought about by the reduction of AS oxidation and activation of AS recycling. We then investigated the secondary signals that regulate endogenous TAA levels in response to viral infection, and found that jasmonic acid (JA) might play an important role in TAA accumulation. In conclusion, we reason that the elevated TAA accumulation in B. rapa plants would be at least partly mediated by the JA-dependent signaling pathway and may significantly contribute to viral resistance. PMID:27255930

  8. Ascorbic acid accumulates as a defense response to Turnip mosaic virus in resistant Brassica rapa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ayaka; Togawa, Satoko; Hikawa, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Masuta, Chikara; Inukai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We initially observed that Brassica rapa cultivars containing the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance gene, Rnt1-1, accumulated a high level of endogenous ascorbic acid (AS) and dehydroascobic acid (DHA) when infected with TuMV. We here hypothesized a possible contribution of an elevated level of AS+DHA (TAA) to the Rnt1-1-mediated resistance, and conducted a series of experiments using B. rapa and Arabidopsis plants. The application of l-galactose (the key substrate in AS synthesis) to a susceptible cultivar could increase the TAA level ~2-fold, and simultaneously lead to some degree of enhanced viral resistance. To confirm some positive correlation between TAA levels and viral resistance, we analyzed two Arabidopsis knockout mutants (ao and vtc1) in the AS pathways; the TAA levels were significantly increased and decreased in ao and vtc1 plants, respectively. While the ao plants showed enhanced resistance to TuMV, vtc1 plants were more susceptible than the control, supporting our hypothesis. When we analyzed the expression profiles of the genes involved in the AS pathways upon TuMV infection, we found that the observed TAA increase was mainly brought about by the reduction of AS oxidation and activation of AS recycling. We then investigated the secondary signals that regulate endogenous TAA levels in response to viral infection, and found that jasmonic acid (JA) might play an important role in TAA accumulation. In conclusion, we reason that the elevated TAA accumulation in B. rapa plants would be at least partly mediated by the JA-dependent signaling pathway and may significantly contribute to viral resistance.

  9. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Chu, Xitong; Sun, Yongfang; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans. PMID:26151364

  10. Onset of herbivore-induced resistance in systemic tissue primed for jasmonate-dependent defenses is activated by abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Irene A.; Verhage, Adriaan; Schuurink, Robert C.; Watt, Lewis G.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the MYC2 transcription factor on the one hand and the AP2/ERF transcription factors ORA59 and ERF1 on the other hand regulate distinct branches of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in an antagonistic fashion, co-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, respectively. Feeding by larvae of the specialist herbivorous insect Pieris rapae (small cabbage white butterfly) results in activation of the MYC-branch and concomitant suppression of the ERF-branch in insect-damaged leaves. Here we investigated differential JA signaling activation in undamaged systemic leaves of P. rapae-infested plants. We found that the MYC2 transcription factor gene was induced both in the local insect-damaged leaves and the systemic undamaged leaves of P. rapae-infested Arabidopsis plants. However, in contrast to the insect-damaged leaves, the undamaged tissue did not show activation of the MYC-branch marker gene VSP1. Comparison of the hormone signal signature revealed that the levels of JA and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine raised to similar extents in locally damaged and systemically undamaged leaves, but the production of ABA and the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid was enhanced only in the local herbivore-damaged leaves, and not in the distal undamaged leaves. Challenge of undamaged leaves of pre-infested plants with either P. rapae larvae or exogenously applied ABA led to potentiated expression levels of MYC2 and VSP1, with the latter reaching extremely high expression levels. Moreover, P. rapae-induced resistance, as measured by reduction of caterpillar growth on pre-infested plants, was blocked in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba2-1, that was also impaired in P. rapae-induced expression of VSP1. Together, these results suggest that ABA is a crucial regulator of herbivore-induced resistance by activating primed JA-regulated defense responses upon secondary herbivore attack in Arabidopsis. PMID:24416038

  11. Induction of porcine host defense peptide gene expression by short-chain fatty acids and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Jiang, Weiyu; Bible, Megan; Carter, Scott; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan; Zhang, Guolong

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2), pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C), and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3-8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs. PMID:24023657

  12. Plastidial fatty acid levels regulate resistance gene-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Shekara, A C; Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Barman, Subhankar Roy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2007-04-24

    In Arabidopsis, resistance to Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV) depends on the resistance (R) gene, HRT, and the recessive locus rrt. Resistance also depends on salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, and PAD4. Exogenous application of SA confers resistance in RRT-containing plants by increasing HRT transcript levels in a PAD4-dependent manner. Here we report that reduction of oleic acid (18:1) can also induce HRT gene expression and confer resistance to TCV. However, the 18:1-regulated pathway is independent of SA, rrt, EDS1, and PAD4. Reducing the levels of 18:1, via a mutation in the SSI2-encoded stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase, or by exogenous application of glycerol, increased transcript levels of HRT as well as several other R genes. Second-site mutations in the ACT1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase or GLY1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase restored 18:1 levels in HRT ssi2 plants and reestablished a dependence on rrt. Resistance to TCV and HRT gene expression in HRT act1 plants was inducible by SA but not by glycerol, whereas that in HRT pad4 plants was inducible by glycerol but not by SA. The low 18:1-mediated induction of R gene expression was also dependent on ACT1 but independent of EDS1, PAD4, and RAR1. Intriguingly, TCV inoculation did not activate this 18:1-regulated pathway in HRT plants, but instead resulted in the induction of several genes that encode 18:1-synthesizing isozymes. These results suggest that the 18:1-regulated pathway may be specifically targeted during pathogen infection and that altering 18:1 levels may serve as a unique strategy for promoting disease resistance.

  13. The HERBIVORE ELICITOR-REGULATED1 Gene Enhances Abscisic Acid Levels and Defenses against Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata Plants1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata plants can distinguish the damage caused by herbivore feeding from other types of damage by perceiving herbivore-associated elicitors, such as the fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in oral secretions (OS) of Manduca sexta larvae, which are introduced into wounds during feeding. However, the transduction of FAC signals into downstream plant defense responses is still not well established. We identified a novel FAC-regulated protein in N. attenuata (NaHER1; for herbivore elicitor regulated) and show that it is an indispensable part of the OS signal transduction pathway. N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaHER1 by RNA interference (irHER1) were unable to amplify their defenses beyond basal, wound-induced levels in response to OS elicitation. M. sexta larvae performed 2-fold better when reared on irHER1 plants, which released less volatile organic compounds (indirect defense) and had strongly reduced levels of several direct defense metabolites, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors, 17-hydroxygeranyllinallool diterpene glycosides, and caffeoylputrescine, after real and/or simulated herbivore attack. In parallel to impaired jasmonate signaling and metabolism, irHER1 plants were more drought sensitive and showed reduced levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaves, suggesting that silencing of NaHER1 interfered with ABA metabolism. Because treatment of irHER1 plants with ABA results in both the accumulation of significantly more ABA catabolites and the complete restoration of normal wild-type levels of OS-induced defense metabolites, we conclude that NaHER1 acts as a natural suppressor of ABA catabolism after herbivore attack, which, in turn, activates the full defense profile and resistance against herbivores. PMID:23784463

  14. Nitrate reductase is required for the transcriptional modulation and bactericidal activity of nitric oxide during the defense response of Arabidopsis thaliana against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Vitor, Simone C; Duarte, Gustavo T; Saviani, Elzira E; Vincentz, Michel G A; Oliveira, Halley C; Salgado, Ione

    2013-09-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) has emerged as a potential NO source in plants. Indeed, the Arabidopsis thaliana NR double-deficient mutant (nia1 nia2) produces low NO and develops abnormal susceptibility to bacterial infection. We have employed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions to analyze the effects of NO gas on the expression of defense-related genes in wild-type and nia1 nia2 A. thaliana plants that were inoculated with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR1) was up-regulated by bacterial infection, and its expression was higher in the wild type than in nia1 nia2. Fumigation with NO attenuated the expression of PR1 and other salicylic acid-related genes in plants that had been inoculated with P. syringae. Nevertheless, NO inhibited the most intense bacterial growth and disease symptoms in nia1 nia2 leaves. The NO fumigation also directly modulated lignin biosynthesis-related gene expression (CAD1) and parts of the auxin (TIR1, ILL1, GH3) and ethylene (ACCS7) pathways, among other defense-related genes, and their modulation was more intense in the NR-deficient mutant. Pathogen inoculation induced delayed but intense H2O2 production in mutant leaves in comparison with the wild type. Hydrogen peroxide potentiated the microbicidal effects of NO against bacterial cultures. These results suggest that NO has a direct microbicidal effect in combination with H2O2 to allow for the attenuation of the SA-mediated defense response, thereby reducing the energy expenditure associated with defense-related gene transcription. Overall, these results highlight the importance of NR-dependent NO production in the establishment of disease resistance. PMID:23748675

  15. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. Results This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses. PMID:25084837

  16. Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Mediated Defense by Viral-Inducible MicroRNA319 Facilitates Virus Infection in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Ding, Zuomei; Wu, Kangcheng; Yang, Liang; Li, Yang; Yang, Zhen; Shi, Shan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Zhirui; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Luping; Wei, Juan; Du, Zhenguo; Zhang, Aihong; Miao, Hongqin; Li, Yi; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal modulators of plant development and host-virus interactions. However, the roles and action modes of specific miRNAs involved in viral infection and host susceptibility remain largely unclear. In this study, we show that Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) infection caused increased accumulation of miR319 but decreased expression of miR319-regulated TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF) genes, especially TCP21, in rice plants. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR319 or downregulating TCP21 exhibited disease-like phenotypes and showed significantly higher susceptibility to RRSV in comparison with the wild-type plants. In contrast, only mild disease symptoms were observed in RRSV-infected lines overexpressing TCP21 and especially in the transgenic plants overexpressing miR319-resistant TCP21. Both RRSV infection and overexpression of miR319 caused the decreased endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) levels along with downregulated expression of JA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes in rice. However, treatment of rice plants with methyl jasmonate alleviated disease symptoms caused by RRSV and reduced virus accumulation. Taken together, our results suggest that the induction of miR319 by RRSV infection in rice suppresses JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection and symptom development. PMID:27381440

  17. Integration of Ethylene and Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathways in the Expression of Novel Maize Defense Protein Mir1-CP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, ethylene (ET) and jasmonate (JA) control the defense responses to multiple stressors, including insect predation. Among the defense proteins known to be regulated by ET, is maize insect resistance 1-cysteine protease (Mir1-CP). This protein is constitutively expressed in the insect resi...

  18. TGA Transcription Factors Activate the Salicylic Acid-Suppressible Branch of the Ethylene-Induced Defense Program by Regulating ORA59 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zander, Mark; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2014-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a hormone essential for defense against biotrophic pathogens, triggers increased susceptibility of plants against necrotrophic attackers by suppressing the jasmonic acid-ethylene (ET) defense response. Here, we show that this disease-promoting SA effect is abolished in plants lacking the three related TGACG sequence-specific binding proteins TGA2, TGA5, and TGA6 (class II TGAs). After treatment of plants with the ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), activation of all those genes that are suppressed by SA depended on class II TGAs. Rather than TGA binding sites, GCC-box motifs were significantly enriched in the corresponding promoters. GCC-box motifs are recognized by members of the superfamily of APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs). Of 11 activating ACC-induced APETALA2/ERFs, only ORA59 (for OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR domain protein59) and ERF96 were strongly suppressed by SA. ORA59 is the master regulator of the jasmonic acid-ET-induced defense program. ORA59 transcript levels do not reach maximal levels in the tga2 tga5 tga6 triple mutant, and this residual activity cannot be suppressed by SA. The ORA59 promoter contains an essential TGA binding site and is a direct target of class II TGAs as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. We suggest that class II TGAs at the ORA59 promoter constitute an important regulatory hub for the activation and SA suppression of ACC-induced genes.

  19. TGA Transcription Factors Activate the Salicylic Acid-Suppressible Branch of the Ethylene-Induced Defense Program by Regulating ORA59 Expression1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Mark; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a hormone essential for defense against biotrophic pathogens, triggers increased susceptibility of plants against necrotrophic attackers by suppressing the jasmonic acid-ethylene (ET) defense response. Here, we show that this disease-promoting SA effect is abolished in plants lacking the three related TGACG sequence-specific binding proteins TGA2, TGA5, and TGA6 (class II TGAs). After treatment of plants with the ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), activation of all those genes that are suppressed by SA depended on class II TGAs. Rather than TGA binding sites, GCC-box motifs were significantly enriched in the corresponding promoters. GCC-box motifs are recognized by members of the superfamily of APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs). Of 11 activating ACC-induced APETALA2/ERFs, only ORA59 (for OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR domain protein59) and ERF96 were strongly suppressed by SA. ORA59 is the master regulator of the jasmonic acid-ET-induced defense program. ORA59 transcript levels do not reach maximal levels in the tga2 tga5 tga6 triple mutant, and this residual activity cannot be suppressed by SA. The ORA59 promoter contains an essential TGA binding site and is a direct target of class II TGAs as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. We suggest that class II TGAs at the ORA59 promoter constitute an important regulatory hub for the activation and SA suppression of ACC-induced genes. PMID:24989234

  20. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles.

  1. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles. PMID:27448955

  2. An Amino Acid Substitution Inhibits Specialist Herbivore Production of an Antagonist Effector and Recovers Insect-Induced Plant Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Eric A.; Huffaker, Alisa; Carroll, Mark J.; Alborn, Hans T.; Ali, Jared G.; Teal, Peter E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. While attack by closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses, precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for differing responses remain largely unknown. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) responds to Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory through the detection of fragments of chloroplastic ATP synthase γ-subunit proteins, termed inceptin-related peptides, present in larval oral secretions (OS). In contrast to generalists like Fall armyworm, OS of the legume-specializing velvetbean caterpillar (VBC; Anticarsia gemmatalis) do not elicit ethylene production and demonstrate significantly lower induced volatile emission in direct herbivory comparisons. Unlike all other Lepidoptera OS examined, which preferentially contain inceptin (Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA−), VBC OS contain predominantly a C-terminal truncated peptide, Vu-In−A (+ICDINGVCVD−). Vu-In−A is both inactive and functions as a potent naturally occurring antagonist of Vu-In-induced responses. To block antagonist production, amino acid substitutions at the C terminus were screened for differences in VBC gut proteolysis. A valine-substituted peptide (Vu-InΔV; +ICDINGVCVDV−) retaining full elicitor activity was found to accumulate in VBC OS. Compared with the native polypeptide, VBC that previously ingested 500 pmol of the valine-modified chloroplastic ATP synthase γ-subunit precursor elicited significantly stronger plant responses in herbivory assays. We demonstrate that a specialist herbivore minimizes the activation of defenses by converting an elicitor into an antagonist effector and identify an amino acid substitution that recovers these induced plant defenses to a level observed with generalist herbivores. PMID:23008466

  3. Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengshan; Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Dafei; Guo, Anping

    2015-01-01

    Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer’s defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087. PMID:26560755

  4. Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengshan; Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Dafei; Guo, Anping

    2015-01-01

    Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer's defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087.

  5. Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengshan; Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Dafei; Guo, Anping

    2015-01-01

    Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer's defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087. PMID:26560755

  6. Salvaging effect of triacontanol on plant growth, thermotolerance, macro-nutrient content, amino acid concentration and modulation of defense hormonal levels under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Bilal, Saqib; Hamayun, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-02-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that application of triacontanol, a ubiquitous saturated primary alcohol, at different times-before (TBHS), mid (TMHS), and after (TAHS) heat stress-will extend heat stress (HS) protection in mungbean. The effect of triacontanol on the levels of defense hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was investigated along with the plant growth promotion, nutrient and amino acid content with and without heat stress. Heat stress caused a prominent reduction in plant growth attributes, nutrient and amino acid content, which were attributed to the decreased level of ABA and JA. However, application of triacontanol, particularly in the TBHS and TMHS treatments, reversed the deleterious effects of HS by showing increased ABA and JA levels that favored the significant increase in plant growth attributes, enhanced nutrient content, and high amount of amino acid. TAHS, a short-term application of triacontanol, also significantly increased ABA and JA levels and thus revealed important information of its association with hormonal modulation. The growth-promoting effect of triacontanol was also confirmed under normal growth conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the beneficial effects of triacontanol, with or without heat stress, on mungbean and its interaction with or regulation of the levels of defense hormones.

  7. Phosphorylation of a NAC Transcription Factor by a Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulates Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Yan, Jingwei; Liu, Weijuan; Liu, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Sun, Yue; Li, Yanyun; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Jiang, Mingyi; Hou, Xilin; Ni, Lan; Zhang, Aying

    2016-07-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) has been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense and enhance the tolerance of plants to drought stress. However, its downstream molecular events are poorly understood. Here, we identify a NAC transcription factor, ZmNAC84, in maize (Zea mays), which physically interacts with ZmCCaMK in vitro and in vivo. ZmNAC84 displays a partially overlapping expression pattern with ZmCCaMK after ABA treatment, and H2O2 is required for ABA-induced ZmNAC84 expression. Functional analysis reveals that ZmNAC84 is essential for ABA-induced antioxidant defense in a ZmCCaMK-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmCCaMK directly phosphorylates Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 in vitro, and Ser-113 is essential for the ABA-induced stimulation of antioxidant defense by ZmCCaMK. Moreover, overexpression of ZmNAC84 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) can improve drought tolerance and alleviate drought-induced oxidative damage of transgenic plants. These results define a mechanism for ZmCCaMK function in ABA-induced antioxidant defense, where ABA-produced H2O2 first induces expression of ZmCCaMK and ZmNAC84 and activates ZmCCaMK. Subsequently, the activated ZmCCaMK phosphorylates ZmNAC84 at Ser-113, thereby inducing antioxidant defense by activating downstream genes. PMID:27208250

  8. Phosphorylation of a NAC Transcription Factor by a Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulates Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan; Yan, Jingwei; Liu, Weijuan; Liu, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Sun, Yue; Li, Yanyun; Hou, Xilin; Ni, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) has been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense and enhance the tolerance of plants to drought stress. However, its downstream molecular events are poorly understood. Here, we identify a NAC transcription factor, ZmNAC84, in maize (Zea mays), which physically interacts with ZmCCaMK in vitro and in vivo. ZmNAC84 displays a partially overlapping expression pattern with ZmCCaMK after ABA treatment, and H2O2 is required for ABA-induced ZmNAC84 expression. Functional analysis reveals that ZmNAC84 is essential for ABA-induced antioxidant defense in a ZmCCaMK-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmCCaMK directly phosphorylates Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 in vitro, and Ser-113 is essential for the ABA-induced stimulation of antioxidant defense by ZmCCaMK. Moreover, overexpression of ZmNAC84 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) can improve drought tolerance and alleviate drought-induced oxidative damage of transgenic plants. These results define a mechanism for ZmCCaMK function in ABA-induced antioxidant defense, where ABA-produced H2O2 first induces expression of ZmCCaMK and ZmNAC84 and activates ZmCCaMK. Subsequently, the activated ZmCCaMK phosphorylates ZmNAC84 at Ser-113, thereby inducing antioxidant defense by activating downstream genes. PMID:27208250

  9. A Comprehensive Mutational Analysis of the Arabidopsis Resistance Protein RPW8.2 Reveals Key Amino Acids for Defense Activation and Protein Targeting[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Yingqiang; Berkey, Robert; Ma, Xianfeng; Pan, Zhiyong; Bendigeri, Dipti; King, Harlan; Zhang, Qiong; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.2 (RPW8.2) protein is specifically targeted to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) encasing the haustorium, or fungal feeding structure, where RPW8.2 activates broad-spectrum resistance against powdery mildew pathogens. How RPW8.2 activates defenses at a precise subcellular locale is not known. Here, we report a comprehensive mutational analysis in which more than 100 RPW8.2 mutants were functionally evaluated for their defense and trafficking properties. We show that three amino acid residues (i.e., threonine-64, valine-68, and aspartic acid-116) are critical for RPW8.2-mediated cell death and resistance to powdery mildew (Golovinomyces cichoracearum UCSC1). Also, we reveal that two arginine (R)– or lysine (K)–enriched short motifs (i.e., R/K-R/K-x-R/K) make up the likely core EHM-targeting signals, which, together with the N-terminal transmembrane domain, define a minimal sequence of 60 amino acids that is necessary and sufficient for EHM localization. In addition, some RPW8.2 mutants localize to the nucleus and/or to a potentially novel membrane that wraps around plastids or plastid-derived stromules. Results from this study not only reveal critical amino acid elements in RPW8.2 that enable haustorium-targeted trafficking and defense, but also provide evidence for the existence of a specific, EHM-oriented membrane trafficking pathway in leaf epidermal cells invaded by powdery mildew. PMID:24151293

  10. The pepper E3 ubiquitin ligase RING1 gene, CaRING1, is required for cell death and the salicylic acid-dependent defense response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-08-01

    Ubiquitination is essential for ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation in plant development and defense. Here, we identified a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase RING1 gene, CaRING1, from pepper (Capsicum annuum). In pepper, CaRING1 expression is induced by avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria infection. CaRING1 contains an amino-terminal transmembrane domain and a carboxyl-terminal RING domain. In addition, it displays in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and the RING domain is essential for E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in CaRING1. CaRING1 also localizes to the plasma membrane. In pepper plants, virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 confers enhanced susceptibility to avirulent X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, which is accompanied by compromised hypersensitive cell death, reduced expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1, and lowered salicylic acid levels in leaves. Transient expression of CaRING1 in pepper leaves induces cell death and the defense response that requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CaRING1. By contrast, overexpression of CaRING1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) confers enhanced resistance to hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato and biotrophic Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infections. Taken together, these results suggest that CaRING1 is involved in the induction of cell death and the regulation of ubiquitination during the defense response to microbial pathogens.

  11. Arabidopsis Triphosphate Tunnel Metalloenzyme2 Is a Negative Regulator of the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Feedback Amplification Loop for Defense Responses1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Huoi; Moeder, Wolfgang; Yoshioka, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    The triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily represents a group of enzymes that is characterized by their ability to hydrolyze a range of tripolyphosphate substrates. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes three TTM genes, AtTTM1, AtTTM2, and AtTTM3. Although AtTTM3 has previously been reported to have tripolyphosphatase activity, recombinantly expressed AtTTM2 unexpectedly exhibited pyrophosphatase activity. AtTTM2 knockout mutant plants exhibit an enhanced hypersensitive response, elevated pathogen resistance against both virulent and avirulent pathogens, and elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) upon infection. In addition, stronger systemic acquired resistance compared with wild-type plants was observed. These enhanced defense responses are dependent on SA, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4, and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1. Despite their enhanced pathogen resistance, ttm2 plants did not display constitutively active defense responses, suggesting that AtTTM2 is not a conventional negative regulator but a negative regulator of the amplification of defense responses. The transcriptional suppression of AtTTM2 by pathogen infection or treatment with SA or the systemic acquired resistance activator benzothiadiazole further supports this notion. Such transcriptional regulation is conserved among TTM2 orthologs in the crop plants soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus), suggesting that TTM2 is involved in immunity in a wide variety of plant species. This indicates the possible usage of TTM2 knockout mutants for agricultural applications to generate pathogen-resistant crop plants. PMID:25185123

  12. Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid induced resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus in Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Subrata; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Pal, Amita

    2011-03-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing resistance to MYMIV infection in Vigna mungo has been elucidated by proteomics. Twenty-nine proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, predicted to be involved in stress responses, metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction, showed increased abundance upon SA treatment. Susceptible plants showed characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms upon MYMIV infection. A concentration dependent decrease in physiological symptoms associated with MYMIV was observed upon exogenous SA treatment prior to viral inoculation; and no visible symptom was observed at 100 μM SA. SA treatment stimulated SOD and GPX activity and inhibited CAT activity thus preventing ROS mediated damage. Significant increase in chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, phenolic content and H(2)O(2) were observed. Involvement of calmodulin for transmission of defense signal by SA is suggested. A metabolic reprogramming leading to enhanced synthesis of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolisms is necessary for SA mediated resistance to MYMIV. Identification of proteins showing increased abundance, involved in photosynthetic process is a significant finding which restores virus-induced degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus and provides enhanced metabolites required for repartition of resources towards defense.

  13. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  14. Integration of ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling pathways in the expression of maize defense protein Mir1-CP.

    PubMed

    Ankala, A; Luthe, D S; Williams, W P; Wilkinson, J R

    2009-12-01

    In plants, ethylene and jasmonate control the defense responses to multiple stressors, including insect predation. Among the defense proteins known to be regulated by ethylene is maize insect resistance 1-cysteine protease (Mir1-CP). This protein is constitutively expressed in the insect-resistant maize (Zea mays) genotype Mp708; however, its abundance significantly increases during fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory. Within 1 h of herbivory by fall armyworm, Mir1-CP accumulates at the feeding site and continues to increase in abundance until 24 h without any increase in its transcript (mir1) levels. To resolve this discrepancy and elucidate the role of ethylene and jasmonate in the signaling of Mir1-CP expression, the effects of phytohormone biosynthesis and perception inhibitors on Mir1-CP expression were tested. Immunoblot analysis of Mir1-CP accumulation and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction examination of mir1 levels in these treated plants demonstrate that Mir1-CP accumulation is regulated by both transcript abundance and protein expression levels. The results also suggest that jasmonate functions upstream of ethylene in the Mir1-CP expression pathway, allowing for both low-level constitutive expression and a two-stage defensive response, an immediate response involving Mir1-CP accumulation and a delayed response inducing mir1 transcript expression.

  15. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  16. Failure of tannic acid to inhibit digestion or reduce digestibility of plant protein in gut fluids of insect herbivores : Implications for theories of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Martin, J S; Martin, M M; Bernays, E A

    1987-03-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of the abundant foliar protein, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC), in enzymatically active gut fluid ofManduca sexta larvae is very rapid and is unaffected by the presence of tannic acid, even when tannic acid is present in the incubation mixture in amounts in excess of the amount of RuBPC. When this protein is dissolved in the denatured gut fluids ofM. sexta larvae orSchistocerca gregaria nymphs, large amounts of tannic acid must be added to bring about the precipitation of significant quantities of protein. The ability of insect gut fluid to prevent the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes is due to the presence of surfactants. On the basis of our results and a review of the findings of other investigators, we argue that there is no evidence that tannins reduce the nutritional value of an insect's food by inhibiting digestive enzymes or by reducing the digestibility of ingested proteins and, further, that the failure of tannins to interfere with digestion is readily explained on the basis of well-documented characteristics of the digestive systems of herbivorous insects. In challenging the currently popular notion that tannins are digestibility-reducing substances, we do not challenge the general utility of either the apparency theory or resource availability theory of plant defense. In debating the merits of these two analyses of plant-herbivore interactions, however, the demise of tannins as all-purpose, dose-dependent, digestibility-reducing defensive substances must be taken into account.

  17. Plant hormones in defense response of Brassica napus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - reassessing the role of salicylic acid in the interaction with a necrotroph.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Sašek, Vladimír; Dobrev, Petre I; Valentová, Olga; Burketová, Lenka

    2014-07-01

    According to general model, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are induced in Arabidopsis after an attack of necrotroph, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) also seem to play a role. While signaling events in Arabidopsis have been intensively studied recently, information for the natural host Brassica napus is limited. In this study, multiple plant hormone quantification and expression analysis of marker genes of the signaling pathways was used to gain a complete view of the interaction of B. napus with S. sclerotiorum. Strong response of ET biosynthetic gene ACS2 was observed, accompanied by increases of SA and JA levels that correspond to the elevated expression of marker genes PR1 and LOX3. Interestingly, the level of ABA and the expression of its marker gene RD26 were also elevated. Furthermore, induction of the SA-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms. In addition, SA signaling is suggested as a possible target for manipulation by S. sclerotiorum. A gene for putative chorismate mutase SS1G_14320 was identified that is highly expressed during infection but not in vitro. Our results bring the evidence of SA involvement in the interaction of plant with the necrotroph that conflict with the current model.

  18. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  19. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-08

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA.

  20. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  1. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  2. Evolution of Diterpene Metabolism: Sitka Spruce CYP720B4 Catalyzes Multiple Oxidations in Resin Acid Biosynthesis of Conifer Defense against Insects1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hamberger, Björn; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Hamberger, Britta; Séguin, Armand; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites of the oleoresin defense of conifers produced by diterpene synthases and cytochrome P450s of the CYP720B family. The evolution of DRA metabolism shares common origins with the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid, which is highly conserved in general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin biosynthesis. Transcriptome mining in species of spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) revealed CYP720Bs of four distinct clades. We cloned a comprehensive set of 12 different Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) CYP720Bs as full-length cDNAs. Spatial expression profiles, methyl jasmonate induction, and transcript enrichment in terpenoid-producing resin ducts suggested a role of CYP720B4 in DRA biosynthesis. CYP720B4 was characterized as a multisubstrate, multifunctional enzyme by the formation of oxygenated diterpenoids in metabolically engineered yeast, yeast in vivo transformation of diterpene substrates, in vitro assays with CYP720B4 protein produced in Escherichia coli, and alteration of DRA profiles in RNA interference-suppressed spruce seedlings. CYP720B4 was active with 24 different diterpenoid substrates, catalyzing consecutive C-18 oxidations in the biosynthesis of an array of diterpene alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. CYP720B4 was most active in the formation of dehydroabietic acid, a compound associated with insect resistance of Sitka spruce. We identified patterns of convergent evolution of CYP720B4 in DRA metabolism and ent-kaurene oxidase CYP701 in gibberellin metabolism and revealed differences in the evolution of specialized and general diterpene metabolism in a gymnosperm. The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism. PMID:21994349

  3. Evolution of diterpene metabolism: Sitka spruce CYP720B4 catalyzes multiple oxidations in resin acid biosynthesis of conifer defense against insects.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, Björn; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Hamberger, Britta; Séguin, Armand; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites of the oleoresin defense of conifers produced by diterpene synthases and cytochrome P450s of the CYP720B family. The evolution of DRA metabolism shares common origins with the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid, which is highly conserved in general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin biosynthesis. Transcriptome mining in species of spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) revealed CYP720Bs of four distinct clades. We cloned a comprehensive set of 12 different Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) CYP720Bs as full-length cDNAs. Spatial expression profiles, methyl jasmonate induction, and transcript enrichment in terpenoid-producing resin ducts suggested a role of CYP720B4 in DRA biosynthesis. CYP720B4 was characterized as a multisubstrate, multifunctional enzyme by the formation of oxygenated diterpenoids in metabolically engineered yeast, yeast in vivo transformation of diterpene substrates, in vitro assays with CYP720B4 protein produced in Escherichia coli, and alteration of DRA profiles in RNA interference-suppressed spruce seedlings. CYP720B4 was active with 24 different diterpenoid substrates, catalyzing consecutive C-18 oxidations in the biosynthesis of an array of diterpene alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. CYP720B4 was most active in the formation of dehydroabietic acid, a compound associated with insect resistance of Sitka spruce. We identified patterns of convergent evolution of CYP720B4 in DRA metabolism and ent-kaurene oxidase CYP701 in gibberellin metabolism and revealed differences in the evolution of specialized and general diterpene metabolism in a gymnosperm. The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism. PMID:21994349

  4. Evolution of diterpene metabolism: Sitka spruce CYP720B4 catalyzes multiple oxidations in resin acid biosynthesis of conifer defense against insects.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, Björn; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Hamberger, Britta; Séguin, Armand; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites of the oleoresin defense of conifers produced by diterpene synthases and cytochrome P450s of the CYP720B family. The evolution of DRA metabolism shares common origins with the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid, which is highly conserved in general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin biosynthesis. Transcriptome mining in species of spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) revealed CYP720Bs of four distinct clades. We cloned a comprehensive set of 12 different Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) CYP720Bs as full-length cDNAs. Spatial expression profiles, methyl jasmonate induction, and transcript enrichment in terpenoid-producing resin ducts suggested a role of CYP720B4 in DRA biosynthesis. CYP720B4 was characterized as a multisubstrate, multifunctional enzyme by the formation of oxygenated diterpenoids in metabolically engineered yeast, yeast in vivo transformation of diterpene substrates, in vitro assays with CYP720B4 protein produced in Escherichia coli, and alteration of DRA profiles in RNA interference-suppressed spruce seedlings. CYP720B4 was active with 24 different diterpenoid substrates, catalyzing consecutive C-18 oxidations in the biosynthesis of an array of diterpene alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. CYP720B4 was most active in the formation of dehydroabietic acid, a compound associated with insect resistance of Sitka spruce. We identified patterns of convergent evolution of CYP720B4 in DRA metabolism and ent-kaurene oxidase CYP701 in gibberellin metabolism and revealed differences in the evolution of specialized and general diterpene metabolism in a gymnosperm. The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism.

  5. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

  6. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 Reveals the Versatile Functions of Jasmonic Acid in Maize Development and Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R.J. Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  7. Proteomics and functional analyses of pepper abscisic acid-responsive 1 (ABR1), which is involved in cell death and defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator of plant growth and development, as well as plant defense responses. A high-throughput in planta proteome screen identified the pepper (Capsicum annuum) GRAM (for glucosyltransferases, Rab-like GTPase activators, and myotubularins) domain-containing ABA-RESPONSIVE1 (ABR1), which is highly induced by infection with avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and also by treatment with ABA. The GRAM domain is essential for the cell death response and for the nuclear localization of ABR1. ABR1 is required for priming cell death and reactive oxygen species production, as well as ABA-salicylic acid (SA) antagonism. Silencing of ABR1 significantly compromised the hypersensitive response but enhanced bacterial pathogen growth and ABA levels in pepper. High levels of ABA in ABR1-silenced plants antagonized the SA levels induced by pathogen infection. Heterologous transgenic expression of ABR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. The susceptibility of the Arabidopsis ABR1 putative ortholog mutant, abr1, to these pathogens also supports the involvement of ABR1 in disease resistance. Together, these results reveal ABR1 as a novel negative regulator of ABA signaling and suggest that the nuclear ABR1 pool is essential for the cell death induction associated with ABA-SA antagonism.

  8. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  9. ERF5 and ERF6 play redundant roles as positive regulators of JA/Et-mediated defense against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Caroline S; Ingle, Robert A; Wathugala, Deepthi L; Saunders, Nigel J; Knight, Heather; Knight, Marc R

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene response factor (ERF) family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises 122 members in 12 groups, yet the biological functions of the majority remain unknown. Of the group IX ERFs, the IXc subgroup has been studied the most, and includes ERF1, ERF14 and ORA59, which play roles in plant innate immunity. Here we investigate the biological functions of two members of the less studied IXb subgroup: ERF5 and ERF6. In order to identify potential targets of these transcription factors, microarray analyses were performed on plants constitutively expressing either ERF5 or ERF6. Expression of defense genes, JA/Et-responsive genes and genes containing the GCC box promoter motif were significantly upregulated in both ERF5 and ERF6 transgenic plants, suggesting that ERF5 and ERF6 may act as positive regulators of JA-mediated defense and potentially overlap in their function. Since defense against necrotrophic pathogens is generally mediated through JA/Et-signalling, resistance against the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea was examined. Constitutive expression of ERF5 or ERF6 resulted in significantly increased resistance. Although no significant difference in susceptibility to B. cinerea was observed in either erf5 or erf6 mutants, the erf5 erf6 double mutant showed a significant increase in susceptibility, which was likely due to compromised JA-mediated gene expression, since JA-induced gene expression was reduced in the double mutant. Taken together these data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 play positive but redundant roles in defense against B. cinerea. Since mutual antagonism between JA/Et and salicylic acid (SA) signalling is well known, the UV-C inducibility of an SA-inducible gene, PR-1, was examined. Reduced inducibilty in both ERF5 and ERF6 constitutive overexepressors was consistent with suppression of SA-mediated signalling, as was an increased susceptibility to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. These data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 may also play a role in the

  10. A Novel Antifouling Defense Strategy from Red Seaweed: Exocytosis and Deposition of Fatty Acid Derivatives at the Cell Wall Surface.

    PubMed

    Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Tavares Salgado, Leonardo; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Hellio, Claire; Atella, Georgia Correa; de Lima Moreira, Davyson; do Carmo, Ana Paula Barbosa; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Menezes Amado-Filho, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the organelles involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acid (FA) derivatives in the cortical cells of Laurencia translucida (Rhodophyta) and the effect of these compounds as antifouling (AF) agents. A bluish autofluorescence (with emission at 500 nm) within L. translucida cortical cells was observed above the thallus surface via laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). A hexanic extract (HE) from L. translucida was split into two isolated fractions called hydrocarbon (HC) and lipid (LI), which were subjected to HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector, and the same autofluorescence pattern as observed by LSCM analyses (emission at 500 nm) was revealed in the LI fraction. These fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which revealed that docosane is the primary constituent of HC, and hexadecanoic acid and cholesterol trimethylsilyl ether are the primary components of LI. Nile red (NR) labeling (lipid fluorochrome) presented a similar cellular localization to that of the autofluorescent molecules. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) revealed vesicle transport processes involving small electron-lucent vesicles, from vacuoles to the inner cell wall. Both fractions (HC and LI) inhibited micro-fouling [HC, lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.1 µg ml(-1); LI, lower MIC value of 10 µg ml(-1)]. The results suggested that L. translucida cortical cells can produce FA derivatives (e.g. HCs and FAs) and secrete them to the thallus surface, providing a unique and novel protective mechanism against microfouling colonization in red algae.

  11. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of

  12. Amino Acid Homeostasis Modulates Salicylic Acid–Associated Redox Status and Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosheng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Bhuiyan, Nazmul H.; Pilot, Guillaume; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Zou, Jitao; Wei, Yangdou

    2010-01-01

    The tight association between nitrogen status and pathogenesis has been broadly documented in plant–pathogen interactions. However, the interface between primary metabolism and disease responses remains largely unclear. Here, we show that knockout of a single amino acid transporter, LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 (LHT1), is sufficient for Arabidopsis thaliana plants to confer a broad spectrum of disease resistance in a salicylic acid–dependent manner. We found that redox fine-tuning in photosynthetic cells was causally linked to the lht1 mutant-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, the enhanced resistance in lht1 could be attributed to a specific deficiency of its main physiological substrate, Gln, and not to a general nitrogen deficiency. Thus, by enabling nitrogen metabolism to moderate the cellular redox status, a plant primary metabolite, Gln, plays a crucial role in plant disease resistance. PMID:21097712

  13. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antioxidant defense and sperm quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions.

    PubMed

    Köprücü, Kenan; Yonar, Muhammet Enis; Özcan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; semen and liver fatty acid compositions; and spermatological values (semen volume and pH, sperm density, percentage and duration of sperm motility) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions. For this purpose, one control and two experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The control diet did not contain n-3 PUFA. However, the D1 and D2 diets were supplemented with n-3 PUFA concentrated anchovy oil at a 1% and 2% level, respectively. The n-3 PUFA content in the semen and liver, semen volume, initial sperm motility, duration of 50% sperm motility, total duration of sperm motility and sperm density values of the control fish fed the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet were decreased and were accompanied by a reduction of the antioxidant defense (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH) and an elevation of MDA in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney at all of the sampling periods (P<0.01 for each case). However, the effects of the sampling period on the MDA and antioxidant defense values in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney of the control diet fish (with the exception of the GSH and GSH-Px activities) and the D1 and D2 diet fish were not significant (P>0.01). However, supplementation with n-3 PUFA protected the fish from these adverse effects. The modulations were clearly observed in the fish fed the D2 diet because they were under lower oxidative stress, as indicated by MDA. The increased enzyme activity corresponds with the physiological mechanisms combating the elevation of free radicals under oxidative stress. The highest n-3 PUFA levels in the semen and liver and spermatological values were obtained from the fish fed the D2 diet at all of the sampling periods. On the other hand, the effects of the sampling stage on the

  14. Curcumin protects against gallic acid-induced oxidative stress, suppression of glutathione antioxidant defenses, hepatic and renal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, Sunny O; Durojaiye, Mojisola; Alabi, Adenike; Asonye, Bede; Akiri, Oghenetega

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) and gallic acid (Gal) are major food additives. Cur has well-known antioxidant properties, whereas Gal has both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of Gal with or without Cur on antioxidant enzymes activities, glutathione (GSH) and the enzymes in its metabolism in rat liver in vivo and markers of tissue damage in the serum. Results showed that the increase in serum creatinine level, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities by Gal treatment were inhibited by combined administration of Gal and Cur. The decrease in GSH-peroxidase, GSH-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and GSH-reductase activities by Gal treatment were inhibited when both Gal and Cur were administered together. The malondialdehyde concentration and catalase activity were significantly increased following administration of Gal but not when the administration of Gal was combined with Cur. Finally, the increase in GSH level was seen following administration of Cur alone or in combination with Gal but not with Gal alone. These results suggest that Gal might induce oxidative stress in the rat liver and affect renal function that can be inhibited by the combined administration of Gal and Cur. PMID:26707166

  15. Nuclear-localized AtHSPR links abscisic acid-dependent salt tolerance and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Hao, Hongyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Haowei; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2015-12-01

    Salt stress from soil or irrigation water limits plant growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant in C24, named athspr (Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related), showed several phenotypes, including reduced organ size and enhanced sensitivity to environmental cues. The athspr mutant is severely impaired under salinity levels at which wild-type (WT) plants grow normally. AtHSPR encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, and its expression was enhanced by high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression (OE) of AtHSPR significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress by increasing the activities of the antioxidant system and by maintaining K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that OE of AtHSPR increased the expression of ABA/stress-responsive, salt overly sensitive (SOS)-related and antioxidant-related genes. In addition, ABA content was reduced in athspr plants with or without salt stress, and exogenous ABA restored WT-like salt tolerance to athspr plants. athspr exhibited increased leaf stomatal density and stomatal index, slower ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduced drought tolerance relative to the WT. AtHSPR OE enhanced drought tolerance by reducing leaf water loss and stomatal aperture. Transcript profiling in athspr showed a differential salt-stress response for genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ABA signaling, cell death, stress response and photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggested that AtHSPR is involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis through modulation of ROS levels, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, photosynthesis and K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. PMID:26603028

  16. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a Δfcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  17. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation, a Broadly Conserved Trait, Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Chemical Plant Defenses and Contributes to Root Colonization and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) defense compounds to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a feruloyl-CoA synthetase (Δfcs) mutant that cannot degrade HCA was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen i) grow, as a carbon source; ii) spread, by reducing HCA-derived physical barriers; and iii) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCA in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCA are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCA, namely, caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCA contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity.

  18. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism.

  19. Salicylic Acid Inhibits the Replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus by Directly Targeting a Host Component in the Replication Complex.

    PubMed

    Tian, Miaoying; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Gonzalez, Paulina Alatriste; Friso, Giulia; Rowland, Elden; Liu, Xiao-Min; van Wijk, Klaas J; Nagy, Peter D; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-04-01

    Although the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in signaling resistance to viral infection, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. Identification and characterization of SA's direct targets have been shown to be an effective strategy for dissecting the complex SA-mediated defense signaling network. In search of additional SA targets, we previously developed two sensitive approaches that utilize SA analogs in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology to identify and evaluate candidate SA-binding proteins (SABPs) from Arabidopsis. Using these approaches, we have now identified several members of the Arabidopsis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein family, including two chloroplast-localized and two cytosolic isoforms, as SABPs. Cytosolic GAPDH is a well-known glycolytic enzyme; it also is an important host factor involved in the replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a single-stranded RNA virus. Using a yeast cell-free extract, an in vivo yeast replication system, and plant protoplasts, we demonstrate that SA inhibits TBSV replication. SA does so by inhibiting the binding of cytosolic GAPDH to the negative (-)RNA strand of TBSV. Thus, this study reveals a novel molecular mechanism through which SA regulates virus replication. PMID:25584724

  20. Repression of the Arabidopsis thaliana jasmonic acid/ethylene-induced defense pathway by TGA-interacting glutaredoxins depends on their C-terminal ALWL motif.

    PubMed

    Zander, Mark; Chen, Shuxia; Imkampe, Julia; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2012-07-01

    Glutaredoxins are small heat-stable oxidoreductases that transfer electrons from glutathione (GSH) to oxidized cysteine residues, thereby contributing to protein integrity and regulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, floral glutaredoxins ROXY1 and ROXY2 and pathogen-induced ROXY19/GRX480 interact with bZIP transcription factors of the TGACG (TGA) motif-binding family. ROXY1, ROXY2, and TGA factors PERIANTHIA, TGA9, and TGA10 play essential roles in floral development. In contrast, ectopically expressed ROXY19/GRX480 negatively regulates expression of jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-induced defense genes through an unknown mechanism that requires clade II transcription factors TGA2, TGA5, and/or TGA6. Here, we report that at least 17 of the 21 land plant-specific glutaredoxins encoded in the Arabidopsis genome interact with TGA2 in a yeast-two-hybrid system. To investigate their capacity to interfere with the expression of JA/ET-induced genes, we developed a transient expression system. Activation of the ORA59 (OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF-domain protein 59) promoter by transcription factor EIN3 (ETHYLENE INSENSITVE 3) was suppressed by co-expressed ROXY19/GRX480. Suppression depended on the L**LL motif in the C-terminus of ROXY19/GRX480. This putative protein interaction domain was recently described as being essential for the TGA/ROXY interaction. Ten of the 17 tested ROXY proteins suppressed ORA59 promoter activity, which correlated with the presence of the C-terminal ALWL motif, which is essential for ROXY1 function in flower development. ROXY19/GRX480-mediated repression depended on the GSH binding site, suggesting that redox modification of either TGA factors or as yet unknown target proteins is important for the suppression of ORA59 promoter activity.

  1. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced inhibition of growth and photosynthesis through upregulating antioxidant defense system in two melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongping; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Shaojun; Chen, Youyuan

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread toxic heavy metal that usually causes deleterious effects on plant growth and development. Salicylic acid (SA), a naturally existing phenolic compound, is involved in specific responses to various environmental stresses. To explore the role of SA in the tolerance of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to Cd stress, the influence of SA application on the growth and physiological processes was compared in the two melon cultivars Hamilv (Cd-tolerant) and Xiulv (Cd-sensitive) under Cd stress. Under 400-μM Cd treatment, Hamilv showed a higher biomass accumulation, more chlorophyll (Chl), greater photosynthesis, and less oxidative damage compared to Xiulv. Foliar spraying of 0.1 mM SA dramatically alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition in the two melon genotypes. Simultaneously, SA pretreatment attenuated the decrease in Chl content, photosynthetic capacity, and PSII photochemistry efficiency in Cd-stressed plants. Furthermore, exogenous SA significantly reduced superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation, followed by increase in the activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and content of soluble protein and free proline in both the genotypes under Cd stress. The effect of SA was more conspicuous in Xiulv than Hamilv, reflected in the biomass, photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that exogenous spray of SA can alleviate the adverse effects of Cd on the growth and photosynthesis of both the melon cultivars, mostly through promoting antioxidant defense capacity. It also indicates that SA-included protection against Cd damage is to a greater extent more pronounced in Cd-sensitive genotype than Cd-tolerant genotype.

  2. Defense use and defense understanding in children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Brilliant, M A

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relation between children's use of defense mechanisms and their understanding of those defenses. We hypothesized that, once a child understands how a particular defense functions, the use of that defense will no longer be successful and will be replaced by another defense mechanism that is not yet understood. Defense use was assessed from the Thematic Appreception Test (TAT) stories told by 122 children; defense understanding was determined from the children's understanding of stories portraying defenses. The results indicated that younger children (mean age = 7-8) used the defense of denial more than the older children (mean age = 9-11). Older children understood the functioning of denial and projection better than the younger children. A comparison of children who did and did not understand a defense showed that younger children who understood the functioning of denial were less likely to themselves use denial. Likewise, older children who understood the functioning of projection were less likely to use this defense.

  3. The Combined Action of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1, PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4, and SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED101 Promotes Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses to Limit Fusarium graminearum Infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi J; Chowdhury, Zulkarnain; Sarowar, Sujon; Klossner, Guy; Lee, Hyeonju; Burdan, Dehlia; Trick, Harold N; Gobbato, Enrico; Parker, Jane E; Shah, Jyoti

    2015-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in wheat and other cereals. F. graminearum also causes disease in Arabidopsis thaliana. In both Arabidopsis and wheat, F. graminearum infection is limited by salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Here, we show that, in Arabidopsis, the defense regulator EDS1 (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1) and its interacting partners, PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) and SAG101 (SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101), promote SA accumulation to curtail F. graminearum infection. Characterization of plants expressing the PAD4 noninteracting eds1(L262P) indicated that interaction between EDS1 and PAD4 is critical for limiting F. graminearum infection. A conserved serine in the predicted acyl hydrolase catalytic triad of PAD4, which is not required for defense against bacterial and oomycete pathogens, is necessary for limiting F. graminearum infection. These results suggest a molecular configuration of PAD4 in Arabidopsis defense against F. graminearum that is different from its defense contribution against other pathogens. We further show that constitutive expression of Arabidopsis PAD4 can enhance FHB resistance in Arabidopsis and wheat. Taken together with previous studies of wheat and Arabidopsis expressing salicylate hydroxylase or the SA-response regulator NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSER OF PR GENES1), our results show that exploring fundamental processes in a model plant provides important leads to manipulating crops for improved disease resistance.

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r-Induced Systemic Resistance in Rice against Magnaporthe oryzae Is Based on Pseudobactin-Mediated Priming for a Salicylic Acid-Repressible Multifaceted Defense Response1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Bakker, Peter A.H.M.; Höfte, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can reduce disease in foliar tissues through the induction of a defense state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Compared with the large body of information on ISR in dicotyledonous plants, little is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in cereal crops. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r to trigger ISR in rice (Oryza sativa) against the leaf blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Using salicylic acid (SA)-nonaccumulating NahG rice, an ethylene-insensitive OsEIN2 antisense line, and the jasmonate-deficient mutant hebiba, we show that this WCS374r-induced resistance is regulated by an SA-independent but jasmonic acid/ethylene-modulated signal transduction pathway. Bacterial mutant analysis uncovered a pseudobactin-type siderophore as the crucial determinant responsible for ISR elicitation. Root application of WCS374r-derived pseudobactin (Psb374) primed naive leaves for accelerated expression of a pronounced multifaceted defense response, consisting of rapid recruitment of phenolic compounds at sites of pathogen entry, concerted expression of a diverse set of structural defenses, and a timely hyperinduction of hydrogen peroxide formation putatively driving cell wall fortification. Exogenous SA application alleviated this Psb374-modulated defense priming, while Psb374 pretreatment antagonized infection-induced transcription of SA-responsive PR genes, suggesting that the Psb374- and SA-modulated signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. Interestingly, in sharp contrast to WCS374r-mediated ISR, chemical induction of blast resistance by the SA analog benzothiadiazole was independent of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling and involved the potentiation of SA-responsive gene expression. Together, these results offer novel insights into the signaling circuitry governing induced resistance against M. oryzae and suggest that rice is endowed with multiple

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r-induced systemic resistance in rice against Magnaporthe oryzae is based on pseudobactin-mediated priming for a salicylic acid-repressible multifaceted defense response.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Bakker, Peter A H M; Höfte, Monica

    2008-12-01

    Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can reduce disease in foliar tissues through the induction of a defense state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Compared with the large body of information on ISR in dicotyledonous plants, little is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in cereal crops. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r to trigger ISR in rice (Oryza sativa) against the leaf blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Using salicylic acid (SA)-nonaccumulating NahG rice, an ethylene-insensitive OsEIN2 antisense line, and the jasmonate-deficient mutant hebiba, we show that this WCS374r-induced resistance is regulated by an SA-independent but jasmonic acid/ethylene-modulated signal transduction pathway. Bacterial mutant analysis uncovered a pseudobactin-type siderophore as the crucial determinant responsible for ISR elicitation. Root application of WCS374r-derived pseudobactin (Psb374) primed naive leaves for accelerated expression of a pronounced multifaceted defense response, consisting of rapid recruitment of phenolic compounds at sites of pathogen entry, concerted expression of a diverse set of structural defenses, and a timely hyperinduction of hydrogen peroxide formation putatively driving cell wall fortification. Exogenous SA application alleviated this Psb374-modulated defense priming, while Psb374 pretreatment antagonized infection-induced transcription of SA-responsive PR genes, suggesting that the Psb374- and SA-modulated signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. Interestingly, in sharp contrast to WCS374r-mediated ISR, chemical induction of blast resistance by the SA analog benzothiadiazole was independent of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling and involved the potentiation of SA-responsive gene expression. Together, these results offer novel insights into the signaling circuitry governing induced resistance against M. oryzae and suggest that rice is endowed with multiple

  6. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense.

  7. NITRIC OXIDE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (AtNOA1) is essential for salicylic acid-induced root waving in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Xi-Li; Zhao, Qing-Ping; Kong, Pei-Tao; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Root waving responses have been attributed to both environmental and genetics factors, but the potential inducers and transducers of root waving remain elusive. Thus, the identification of novel signal elements related to root waving is an intriguing field of research. Genetic, physiological, cytological, live cell imaging, and pharmacological approaches provide strong evidence for the involvement of Arabidopsis thaliana NITRIC OXIDE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (AtNOA1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced root waving. SA specially induced root waving, with an overall decrease in root elongation in A. thaliana, and this SA-induced response was disrupted in the Atnoa1 mutant, as well as in nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (npr1), which is defective in SA-mediated plant defense signal transduction, but not in npr3/4 single and double mutants. The expression assays revealed that the abundance of AtNOA1 was significantly increased by application of SA. Genetic and pharmacological analyses showed that SA-induced root waving involved an AtNOA1-dependent Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway, and PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) -based polar auxin transport possibly plays a crucial role in this process. Our work suggests that SA signaling through NPR1 and AtNOA1 is involved in the control of root waving, which provides new insights into the mechanisms that control root growth behavior on a hard agar surface.

  8. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  9. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  10. Rhamnolipids elicit defense responses and induce disease resistance against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens that require different signaling pathways in Arabidopsis and highlight a central role for salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2012-11-01

    Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens. PMID:22968829

  11. Chemical defense secretions of the termite soldiers ofAcorhinotermes andRhinotermes (Isoptera, Rhinotermitinae) : Ketones, vinyl ketones, and β-ketoaldehydes derived from fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Collins, M S

    1982-01-01

    The defense secretions of advanced "nasutoid" rhinotermitine soldiers from the New World contain enolic β-ketoaldehydes as the major components. The secretions of minor soldiers ofRhinotermes hispidus (Emerson) andR. marginalis (Emerson) consist primarily of 3-keto-13-tetradecenal and 3-ketotetradecanal, but possess in addition C13, C14, C15, and C17 saturated and unsaturated ketones. Major soldiers lacked these compounds and in fact had virtually no frontal gland secretion. The defense secretion of the monomorphic soldiers ofAcorhinotermes subfusciceps (Emerson) contains mostly 3-keto-(Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-8-pentadecen-2-one. Biosynthetic origins and interrelationships are postulated for these compounds, and the concomitant evolution of chemical weaponry and the modified labral brush is discussed. PMID:24414591

  12. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  13. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatially restricted alterations in jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses.

  14. The Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK28 Regulates Development by Inducing Growth Phase-Specific, Spatially Restricted Alterations in Jasmonic Acid Levels Independent of Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  15. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique.

  16. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  17. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  18. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  19. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  20. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  1. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  2. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  3. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  4. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  5. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  6. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  7. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  8. Defense Workforce Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; And Others

    This report discusses the amount and kinds of Department of Defense (DoD) interactive courseware (ICW) programs that are candidates for transfer to the private sector. Candidates for transfer were identified through an analysis of the Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS). Out of 4,644 ICW programs that have been reported to…

  9. Duodenal Chemosensing and Mucosal Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    The duodenal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose a mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed via mucosal acid sensors and G-protein-coupled receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 sensing consists of ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases, epithelial ion transporters, and acid sensors expressed on the afferent nerves in the duodenum. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. Recent studies also show the involvement of enteroendocrine G-protein-coupled receptors in bile acid and fatty acid sensing in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in or- der to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:21389725

  10. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  11. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  12. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host.

  13. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 μM), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (∙-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (∙-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants.

  14. Oleic acid-dependent modulation of Nitric oxide associated 1 protein levels regulates nitric oxide-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conserved cellular metabolites nitric oxide (NO) and oleic acid (18:1) are well-known regulators of disease physiologies in diverse organism. We show that NO production in plants is regulated via 18:1. Reduction in 18:1 levels, via a genetic mutation in the 18:1-synthesizing gene SUPPRESSOR OF S...

  15. Ethylene: Traffic Controller on Hormonal Crossroads to Defense.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Caarls, Lotte; Vos, Irene A; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (ET) is an important hormone in plant responses to microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects, and in the interaction of plants with beneficial microbes and insects. Early ET signaling events during these biotic interactions involve activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors. Rather than being the principal regulator, ET often modulates defense signaling pathways, including those regulated by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Hormonal signal integrations with ET steer the defense signaling network to activate specific defenses that can have direct effects on attackers, or systemically prime distant plant parts for enhanced defense against future attack. ET also regulates volatile signals that attract carnivorous enemies of herbivores or warn neighboring plants. Conversely, ET signaling can also be exploited by attackers to hijack the defense signaling network to suppress effective defenses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the significant role of ET in the plants' battle against their enemies. PMID:26482888

  16. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  17. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  18. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  19. Neuroprotection by acetyl-11-keto-β-Boswellic acid, in ischemic brain injury involves the Nrf2/HO-1 defense pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Chen, MinChun; Wang, Min; Wang, MingMing; Zhang, Tiejun; Park, Jongsun; Zhu, YanRong; Guo, Chao; Jia, YanYan; Li, YuWen; Wen, AiDong

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a complex disease involved oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection in stroke. Acetyl-11-Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (AKBA) is an active triterpenoid compound from the extract of Boswellia serrate. The present study was to determine whether AKBA, a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect against cerebral ischemic injury. The stroke model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats via middle cerebral artery occlusion. To model ischemia-like conditions in vitro, primary cultured cortical neurons were exposed to transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Treatment of AKBA significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells, and also increased neurologic scores by elevating the Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in brain tissues in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats at 48 hours post reperfusion. In primary cultured neurons, AKBA increased the Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, which provided protection against OGD-induced oxidative insult. Additionally, AKBA treatment increased Nrf2 binding activity to antioxidant-response elements (ARE). The protective effect of AKBA was attenuated by knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that AKBA protects neurons against ischemic injury, and this neuroprotective effect involves the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:25384416

  20. Effects of lipoic acid on immune function, the antioxidant defense system, and inflammation-related genes expression of broiler chickens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  1. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage.

  2. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  3. Ethanol and dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/linoleic acid enriched) cause intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier defense in mice chronically fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Falkner, K Cameron; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat both play an important role in alcohol-mediated multi-organ pathology, including gut and liver. In the present study we hypothesized that the combination of alcohol and dietary unsaturated fat (USF) would result in intestinal inflammatory stress and mucus layer alterations, thus contributing to disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. C57BL/6N mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing EtOH and enriched in USF (corn oil/linoleic acid) or SF (medium chain triglycerides: beef tallow) for 8 weeks. Intestinal histology, morphometry, markers of inflammation, as well as levels of mucus protective factors were evaluated. Alcohol and dietary USF triggered an intestinal pro-inflammatory response, characterized by increase in Tnf-α, MCP1, and MPO activity. Further, alcohol and dietary USF, but not SF, resulted in alterations of the intestinal mucus layer, characterized by decreased expression of Muc2 in the ileum. A strong correlation was observed between down-regulation of the antimicrobial factor Cramp and increased Tnf-α mRNA. Therefore, dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/LA enriched) is a significant contributing factor to EtOH-mediated intestinal inflammatory response and mucus layer alterations in rodents.

  4. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    SciTech Connect

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  5. Ascorbic acid mitigation of water stress-inhibition of root growth in association with oxidative defense in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Qian; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Root growth inhibition by water stress may be related to oxidative damages. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exogenous application of ascorbic acid (ASA) could mitigate root growth decline due to water stress and whether ASA effects on root growth could be regulated through activating non-enzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant systems in perennial grass species. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. “K-31”) plants were grown in nutrient solution, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 was added into the solution to induce water stress. For exogenous ASA treatment, ASA (5 mM) was added into the solution with or without PEG-8000. Plants treated with ASA under water stress showed significantly increased root growth rate, and those roots had significantly lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2− content) than those without ASA treatment. Malondialdehyde content in root tips treated with ASA under water stress was also significantly reduced compared with those under water stress alone. In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. Transcripts of genes for expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases showed increased abundances in ASA-treated root maturation zone under water stress, indicating that ASA could accelerated cell wall loosening and cell expansion. The results suggested that exogenous treatment of roots with ASA enhanced root elongation under water

  6. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  7. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  8. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  9. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  10. In Defense of Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandel, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her views in defense of writing rubrics. She explains that when rubrics are thoughtfully crafted and used with discretion and understanding, they can be among the most useful instructional tools that teachers have. A rubric captures the essence of performance at various levels. Because rubric demands…

  11. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  12. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  13. Stability of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 modulates salicylic acid signalling and SUMO1/2 conjugation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Mark; Srivastava, Anjil; Conti, Lucio; Nelis, Stuart; Zhang, Cunjin; Florance, Hannah; Love, Andrew; Milner, Joel; Napier, Richard; Grant, Murray; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 and 2 (SUMO1/2) have been linked to the regulation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to define the role of the SUMO proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 (OTS1/2) in defence and to provide insight into SUMO1/2-mediated regulation of SA signalling, we examined the status of SA-mediated defences in ots1/2 mutants. The ots1 ots2 double mutant displayed enhanced resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae and higher levels of SA compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, ots1 ots2 mutants exhibited upregulated expression of the SA biosynthesis gene ICS1 in addition to enhanced SA-responsive ICS1 expression beyond that of WT. SA stimulated OTS1/2 degradation and promoted accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates. These results indicate that OTS1 and -2 act in a feedback loop in SA signalling and that de novo OTS1/2 synthesis works antagonistically to SA-promoted degradation, adjusting the abundance of OTS1/2 to moderate SA signalling. Accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates coincides with SA-promoted OTS degradation and may play a positive role in SA-mediated signalling in addition to its repressive roles reported elsewhere. PMID:26494731

  14. Stability of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 modulates salicylic acid signalling and SUMO1/2 conjugation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark; Srivastava, Anjil; Conti, Lucio; Nelis, Stuart; Zhang, Cunjin; Florance, Hannah; Love, Andrew; Milner, Joel; Napier, Richard; Grant, Murray; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 and 2 (SUMO1/2) have been linked to the regulation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to define the role of the SUMO proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 (OTS1/2) in defence and to provide insight into SUMO1/2-mediated regulation of SA signalling, we examined the status of SA-mediated defences in ots1/2 mutants. The ots1 ots2 double mutant displayed enhanced resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae and higher levels of SA compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, ots1 ots2 mutants exhibited upregulated expression of the SA biosynthesis gene ICS1 in addition to enhanced SA-responsive ICS1 expression beyond that of WT. SA stimulated OTS1/2 degradation and promoted accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates. These results indicate that OTS1 and -2 act in a feedback loop in SA signalling and that de novo OTS1/2 synthesis works antagonistically to SA-promoted degradation, adjusting the abundance of OTS1/2 to moderate SA signalling. Accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates coincides with SA-promoted OTS degradation and may play a positive role in SA-mediated signalling in addition to its repressive roles reported elsewhere.

  15. Costs and benefits of priming for defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    van Hulten, Marieke; Pelser, Maaike; van Loon, L C; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2006-04-01

    Induced resistance protects plants against a wide spectrum of diseases; however, it can also entail costs due to the allocation of resources or toxicity of defensive products. The cellular defense responses involved in induced resistance are either activated directly or primed for augmented expression upon pathogen attack. Priming for defense may combine the advantages of enhanced disease protection and low costs. In this study, we have compared the costs and benefits of priming to those of induced direct defense in Arabidopsis. In the absence of pathogen infection, chemical priming by low doses of beta-aminobutyric acid caused minor reductions in relative growth rate and had no effect on seed production, whereas induction of direct defense by high doses of beta-aminobutyric acid or benzothiadiazole strongly affected both fitness parameters. These costs were defense-related, because the salicylic acid-insensitive defense mutant npr1-1 remained unaffected by these treatments. Furthermore, the constitutive priming mutant edr1-1 displayed only slightly lower levels of fitness than wild-type plants and performed considerably better than the constitutively activated defense mutant cpr1-1. Hence, priming involves less fitness costs than induced direct defense. Upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae or Hyaloperonospora parasitica, priming conferred levels of disease protection that almost equaled the protection in benzothiadiazole-treated wild-type plants and cpr1 plants. Under these conditions, primed plants displayed significantly higher levels of fitness than noninduced plants and plants expressing chemically or cpr1-induced direct defense. Collectively, our results indicate that the benefits of priming-mediated resistance outweigh the costs in environments in which disease occurs.

  16. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  17. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  18. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  19. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  20. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  1. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  2. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  3. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are “primed” and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault. PMID:21270535

  4. Thermoregulatory defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-07-01

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated by an effective thermoregulatory system. Thermoregulatory control is sometimes impaired by serious illness, but more typically remains intact. The primary autonomic defenses against heat are sweating and active precapillary vasodilation; the primary autonomic defenses against cold are arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. Temperatures between the sweating and vasoconstriction thresholds define the inter-threshold range. The shivering threshold is usually a full 1 degrees C below the vasoconstriction threshold and is therefore a "last resort" response. Both vasoconstriction and shivering are associated with autonomic and hemodynamic activation; and each response is effective, thus impeding induction of therapeutic hypothermia. It is thus helpful to accompany core cooling with drugs that pharmacologically induce a degree of thermal tolerance. No perfect drug or drug combination has been identified. Anesthetics, for example, induce considerable tolerance, but are rarely suitable. Meperidine-especially in combination with buspirone-is especially effective while provoking only modest toxicity. The combination of buspirone and dexmedetomidine is comparably effective while avoiding the respiratory depression association with opioid administration.

  5. Oxylipins in moss development and defense

    PubMed Central

    de León, Inés Ponce; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense. PMID:26191067

  6. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  7. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  8. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  9. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  10. Adolescent Suicide and Defensive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego defense mechanisms, diagnoses, and suicidality among 200 adolescent psychiatric patients classified as suicide attempters, suicidal ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. Using Defense Mechanisms Inventory, found the suicidal adolescents score higher on turning-against-self and lower on reversal, as compared to…

  11. A high-throughput method for isolation of salicylic acid metabolic mutants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic pathogens in plants. Quantification of SA levels in plants is critical for dissecting the SA-mediated immune response. Although HPLC and GC/MS are routinely used to determine SA concentrations, they are expensive and time-consuming. We recently described a rapid method for a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification, which enables high-throughput analysis. In this study we describe an improved method for fast sample preparation, and present a high-throughput strategy for isolation of SA metabolic mutants. Results On the basis of the previously described biosensor-based method, we simplified the tissue collection and the SA extraction procedure. Leaf discs were collected and boiled in Luria-Bertani (LB), and then the released SA was measured with the biosensor. The time-consuming steps of weighing samples, grinding tissues and centrifugation were avoided. The direct boiling protocol detected similar differences in SA levels among pathogen-infected wild-type, npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes), and sid2 (SA induction-deficient) plants as did the previously described biosensor-based method and an HPLC-based approach, demonstrating the efficacy of the protocol presented here. We adapted this protocol to a high-throughput format and identified six npr1 suppressors that accumulated lower levels of SA than npr1 upon pathogen infection. Two of the suppressors were found to be allelic to the previously identified eds5 mutant. The other four are more susceptible than npr1 to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 and their identity merits further investigation. Conclusions The rapid SA extraction method by direct boiling of leaf discs further reduced the cost and time required for the biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA estimation, and allowed the screening for npr1 suppressors that accumulated less SA than npr1

  12. Analysis of temperature modulation of plant defense against biotrophic microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Bao, Zhilong; Zhu, Ying; Hua, Jian

    2009-05-01

    Plant-pathogen interactions are known to be affected by environmental factors including temperature; however, the temperature effects have not been systematically studied in plant disease resistance. Here, we characterized the effects of a moderate increase in temperature on resistance to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and two viral elicitors in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Both the basal and the resistance (R) gene-mediated defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae are found to be inhibited by a moderately high temperature, and hypersensitive responses induced by R genes against two viruses are also reduced by an increase of temperature. These indicate that temperature modulation of defense responses to biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens might be a general phenomenon. We further investigated the roles of two small signaling molecules, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, as well as two defense regulators, EDS1 and PAD4, in this temperature modulation. These components, though modulated by temperature or involved in temperature regulation or both, are not themselves determinants of temperature sensitivity in the defense responses analyzed. The inhibition of plant defense response by a moderately high temperature may thus be mediated by other defense signaling components or a combination of multiple factors.

  13. Directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka

    2013-09-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. Numerous risk mitigation strategies have been described, most involving dedicated missions to a threatening object. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, test, and initial deployment, lowering cost, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological co-development, leading eventually to an orbiting structure that would be developed in stages with both technological and target milestones. The main objective of DE-STAR is to use the focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ~3,000K, allowing direct vaporization of all known substances. In the process of heating the surface ejecting evaporated material a large reaction force would alter the asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1-10km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows for asteroid engagement starting beyond 1AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in one year. Small asteroids and comets can be diverted/evaporated with a DESTAR 2 (100m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10m).

  14. Insanity defenses: contested or conceded?

    PubMed

    Rogers, J L; Bloom, J D; Manson, S M

    1984-07-01

    The authors examined 316 Oregon criminal cases in which the accused successfully pleaded the insanity defense. Prosecutors agreed to the insanity verdict in more than four out of five cases. In most cases all examining experts diagnosed the defendant as psychotic. The smaller number of defendants who were diagnosed by the state hospital staff as displaying only personality disorders accounted for a disproportionately large percentage of the contested trials. Observing that Oregon's insanity defense system is run by consensus, the authors suggest a reorientation of the insanity defense debate.

  15. Arabidopsis leaf necrosis caused by simulated acid rain is related to the salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Park, Jongbum; Im, Kyunghoan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Kyungyeoll; Park, Jung-An; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Dae-Sup; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sukchan

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis leaves treated with simulated acid rain (SiAR) showed phenotypes similar to necrotic lesions caused by biotic stresses like Pseudomonad infiltration. Exposure of Arabidopsis to SiAR resulted in the up-regulation of genes known to be induced by the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogen resistance response. The expression of enhanced disease susceptibility (EDS), nonexpressor of PR (NPR) and pathogen-related 1 (PR1), all of which are involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, were increased after SiAR exposure. However, vegetative storage protein (VSP), a member of the jasmonic acid pathway did not show a significant change in transcript level. SiAR treatment of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase (Nah-G), which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, underwent more extensive necrosis than wild-type plants, indicating that the signaling pathway activated by SiAR may overlap with the SA-dependent, systemic acquired resistance pathway. Both Col-0 and Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to SiAR and sulfuric SiAR (S-SiAR) by developing necrotic lesions. Neither Col-0 plants nor Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to nitric SiAR (N-SiAR). These results suggest that SiAR activates at least the salicylic acid pathway and activation of this pathway is sensitive to sulfuric acid.

  16. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  17. Defenseive Structuring and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J.

    1970-01-01

    This essay explores a kind of adaptation, referred to as defenseive structuring, that recurs with great regularity among groups that perceive themselves as exposed to environmental stress of long duration with which they cannot cope directly and aggressively." (Author)

  18. The insanity defense on trial.

    PubMed

    Stone, A A

    1982-08-01

    What was once a great romance between law and psychiatry has ended in disenchantment on both sides. Legal rulings during the 1950s intended to increase the psychiatric presence in the courtroom have been repudiated, and there is now a mood to abolish the traditional insanity defense. Abolitionists charge that the insanity defense has been successfully employed by large numbers of dangerous criminals to avoid punishment, that psychiatrists are dishonest because they serve as expert witnesses for both sides, and that the existence of the defense is evidence of a permissive society that coddles violent criminals. Each of these charges is rebutted by the author, who contends that until recently the insanity defense was a profound hypocrisy: the courts found the defendants not guilty by reason of insanity and then relied on psychiatry to confine them for the rest of their lives. But legal reforms and changes in psychiatric practice during the past 20 years have made it more difficult to confine such persons, and thus the insanity defense has real meaning for the first time. The author believes that despite the loss of protection to society, there are important legal and moral barriers to abolishing the insanity defense.

  19. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  20. Plant defense activators: applications and prospects in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review addresses the current understanding of the plant immune response and the molecular mechanisms responsible for systemic acquired resistance as well as the phenomenon of "priming" in plant defense. A detailed discussion of the role of salicylic acid in activating the plant transcription c...

  1. Palatability of macroalgae that use different types of chemical defenses.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Amy A; Paul, Valerie J; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Kwiatkowski, Lisa M

    2006-09-01

    This study compared algal palatability and chemical defenses from subtropical green algae that may use different types of defense systems that deter feeding by the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. The potential defense systems present include (1) the terpenoid caulerpenyne and its activated products from Caulerpa spp., and (2) dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)-related defenses in Ulva spp. Secondary metabolites from these chemical groups have been shown to deter feeding by various marine herbivores, including tropical and temperate sea urchins. Live algal multiple-choice feeding assays and assays incorporating algal extracts or isolated metabolites into an artificial diet were conducted. Several green algae, including Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa prolifera, and Cladophora sp., were unpalatable. Nonpolar extracts from U. lactuca deterred feeding, whereas nonpolar extracts from C. prolifera had no effect on feeding. Polar extracts from both species stimulated feeding. Caulerpenyne deterred feeding at approximately 4% dry mass; however, dimethyl sulfide and acrylic acid had no effect at natural and elevated concentrations. E. lucunter is more tolerant than other sea urchins to DMSP-related defenses and less tolerant to caulerpenyne than many reef fish. Understanding the chemical defenses of the algae tested in this study is important because they, and related species, frequently are invasive or form blooms, and can significantly modify marine ecosystems. PMID:16906362

  2. The neuroecology of chemical defenses.

    PubMed

    Derby, Charles D; Aggio, Juan F

    2011-11-01

    Chemicals are a frequent means whereby organisms defend themselves against predators, competitors, parasites, microbes, and other potentially harmful organisms. Much progress has been made in understanding how a phylogenetic diversity of organisms living in a variety of environments uses chemical defenses. Chief among these advances is determining the molecular identity of defensive chemicals and the roles they play in shaping interactions between individuals. Some progress has been made in deciphering the molecular, cellular, and systems level mechanisms underlying these interactions, as well as how these interactions can lead to structuring of communities and even ecosystems. The neuroecological approach unifies practices and principles from these diverse disciplines and at all scales as it attempts to explain in a single conceptual framework the abundances of organisms and the distributions of species within natural habitats. This article explores the neuroecology of chemical defenses with a focus on aquatic organisms and environments. We review the concept of molecules of keystone significance, including examples of how saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin can shape the organization and dynamics of marine and riparian communities, respectively. We also describe the current status and future directions of a topic of interest to our research group-the use of ink by marine molluscs, especially sea hares, in their defense. We describe a diversity of molecules and mechanisms mediating the protective effects of sea hares' ink, including use as chemical defenses against predators and as alarm cues toward conspecifics, and postulate that some defensive molecules may function as molecules of keystone significance. Finally, we propose future directions for studying the neuroecology of the chemical defenses of sea hares and their molluscan relatives, the cephalopods.

  3. Is the insanity defense "unconscionable"?

    PubMed

    Perr, I N

    1975-01-01

    The debate over the meaningfulness and utility of the insanity defense has continued unabated ober the years. President Nixon has referred to the "unconscionably abuse" of the defense. This paper, presented as part of a panel on the subject, has propounded the view that the defense is unconscionable, using that aspect of the definition dealing with unreasonableness. The historical antecedents and the religious and social philosophy of the concept of responsibility and nonresponsibility have been reviewed. In addition to the inapplicability of the concept to current social problems, and the difficulties of applying current psychiatric knowledge to effect a rational delineation between the two legal entities encompassed under the rubric of responsibility and nonresponsibility, the potential problems and the potential opportunities which may result from the abolition of the plea are presented. With these factors in mind, as well as the obvious failure of the legal-social-penal system in handling the problems of the behaviorally deviant, I believe that the use of the current system has hampered the development of possibly more reasonable alternative systems and that, therefore, the maintenance of the insanity defense is unreasonable and harmful to our society. The insanity defense, as currently constituted and institutionalized, has evolved into a rigid and archaic vestige of the legal system of an earlier era and therefore its use has, in the sense defined, indeed become "unconscionable" and lacking in social meaningfulness.

  4. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively.

  5. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  6. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  7. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense... notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to... Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics and the Director, Missile Defense...

  8. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG25 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting...

  9. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG81 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  10. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense Logistics... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense....

  11. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Pedra, Joao H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes. PMID:22315529

  12. Violence and the epilepsy defense.

    PubMed

    Treiman, D M

    1999-05-01

    The essence of the epilepsy defense is the argument that a crime was committed as a result of the perpetrator having epilepsy, and thus that he or she should not be held responsible for a violent crime. Neurologists are frequently asked to pass judgment regarding whether an alleged act may have been the result of an epileptic condition; therefore, neurologists should be informed as to what criteria should be used to decide if a given act was, or could have been, the result of an epileptic seizure. This article discusses three cases where epilepsy is used as the defense argument. In addition, this article reviews types of epileptic seizures, syncopal events, and pseudoseizures.

  13. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  14. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  15. Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

  16. Radiological Defense Officer. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This student workbook includes the necessary administrative materials, briefs, exercises and answer sheets for the quizzes and final course examination as needed by the students during the conduct of the Radiological Defense Officer course. Among the briefs included are the following: (1) Reporting Forms; (2) Forecasting Dose Rates; (3) Dose…

  17. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  18. In Defense of the Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, G. Brockett

    1975-01-01

    The problems that are encountered when cooperation breaks down between the industrial source operator and the pollution control equipment vendor are examined. The focal point of this examination is the study of defenses available to the equipment vendor when industrial source operators refuse to cooperate. (Author/BT)

  19. Macroevolution of plant defenses against herbivores in the evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marc T J; Ives, Anthony R; Ahern, Jeffrey; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2014-07-01

    Plant species vary greatly in defenses against herbivores, but existing theory has struggled to explain this variation. Here, we test how phylogenetic relatedness, tradeoffs, trait syndromes, and sexual reproduction affect the macroevolution of defense. To examine the macroevolution of defenses, we studied 26 Oenothera (Onagraceae) species, combining chemistry, comparative phylogenetics and experimental assays of resistance against generalist and specialist herbivores. We detected dozens of phenolic metabolites within leaves, including ellagitannins (ETs), flavonoids, and caffeic acid derivatives (CAs). The concentration and composition of phenolics exhibited low to moderate phylogenetic signal. There were clear negative correlations between multiple traits, supporting the prediction of allocation tradeoffs. There were also positively covarying suites of traits, but these suites did not strongly predict resistance to herbivores and thus did not act as defensive syndromes. By contrast, specific metabolites did correlate with the performance of generalist and specialist herbivores. Finally, that repeated losses of sex in Oenothera was associated with the evolution of increased flavonoid diversity and altered phenolic composition. These results show that secondary chemistry has evolved rapidly during the diversification of Oenothera. This evolution has been marked by allocation tradeoffs between traits, some of which are related to herbivore performance. The repeated loss of sex appears also to have constrained the evolution of plant secondary chemistry, which may help to explain variation in defense among plants. PMID:24634986

  20. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  1. Markers of Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, K.; Naskalski, J. W.; Fedak, D.; Pawlica-Gosiewska, D.; Grudzień, U.; Dumnicka, P.; Małecki, M. T.; Solnica, B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Diabetes is considered a state of increased oxidative stress. This study evaluates blood concentrations of selected markers of antioxidant defense in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study included 80 type 2 diabetes patients and 79 apparently healthy controls. Measured markers included ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and uric acid serum, and plasma and/or hemolysate levels. Results. FRAP, uric acid, CRP, and GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes. Plasma and hemolysate GR was significantly higher whereas GPx activity was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in antioxidant defense markers between patients with and without chronic diabetes complications. Fasting serum glucose correlated with plasma GPx, plasma and hemolysate GR, FRAP, and serum GGT, and HbA1c correlated with serum GGT. Only FRAP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) patients with diabetes than in nonobese patients. Conclusions. Some components of antioxidant defense such as GR, uric acid, and GGT are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the whole system cannot compensate for an enhanced production of ROS as reflected by the trend toward decreased erythrocytes GSH. PMID:26640613

  2. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid

    PubMed Central

    Nazareth, Taís M.; Machado, Glauco

    2015-01-01

    Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs) would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF). We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders) than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group. PMID:26331946

  3. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  4. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  5. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-03-20

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses.

  6. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  7. Issues in national missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-01

    Strategic missiles and weapons are proliferating rapidly; thus, the US and its Allies are likely to face both capable bilateral threats and multilateral configurations with complex coalitions for which defenses could be essential for stability. Current hit-to-kill interceptor and radar and infrared detection, track, and discrimination technology should suffice for limited threats, but it is necessary to meet those threats in time while maintaining growth potential for the more sophisticated threats likely to follow. National Missile Defense faces a confusing array of threats, programs, and alternatives, but the technologies in development are clearly an appropriate first step towards any of them. They are likely to succeed in the near term; the challenge is to retain flexibility to provide needed options in the mid and long terms.

  8. Defense bill: Earmarking as usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earmarked funds in the $268 billion defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 1991 stirred congressional debate in late October. Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, charged that the defense bill contains questionable projects totaling tens of millions of dollars. AGU opposes legislative earmarking of money for particular institutions, maintaining that the practice prevents the best use of federal funding by circumventing competitive review. Nunn noted on the Senate floor that the appropriations bill provided specific funds for cited institutions—contravening a federal law promoting competition. “ If these programs have merit, they will succeed in a fair and competent review in competition,” Nunn said. “If no other institution in the country is able to compete, there should be no fear whatever of competition… But no one else in the world is allowed to compete to work on these projects.”

  9. The insanity defense to suicide.

    PubMed

    Massello, W

    1986-07-01

    The certification of suicide as the manner of death can result in either the complete loss or a significant reduction in life insurance benefits to the victim's survivors. It is, thus, not uncommon for these beneficiaries to contest suicide as the manner of death. Insanity is a recognized defense in law against suicide. It is recognized in law that, in some cases, an insane man cannot intentionally destroy himself. However, it is also recognized that life insurers can exclude suicide by an insane man from coverage. This article discusses the common law doctrines upon which the insanity defense to suicide is based, with references to judicial opinions from cases which involve contested suicides and the issue of insanity.

  10. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  11. Second line of defense program

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Thomas, L L

    1999-07-15

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the prospect of nuclear materials entering the world market has become an ever-increasing threat. The Second Line of Defense (SLD) program was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43) to assist the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RFSCC) in strengthening its capability to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials across Russia's borders. The SLD program is a natural complement to the Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program, which represents a first line of defense against the theft and diversion of nuclear materials. The SLD program is the first U.S.-Russian cooperative program to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear and nuclear-related materials to would-be proliferators across Russia's borders.

  12. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  13. Technical issues in theater missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note discusses technical issues in theater missile defenses in the terminal, midcourse, and boost phases. The first two are familiar and developed, but face fundamental countermeasures. Boost phase intercepts engage missiles when they are most vulnerable, but have been studied less for theater defense because the engagement times are short. Overall, theater missile defenses resemble strategic defenses, complicated by the tenfold shorter boost phase. 12 refs.

  14. Defense of a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  15. Problems of National Missile Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, John

    2000-04-01

    The currently-proposed national missile defense (NMD) is supposed to counter accidental Russian or Chinese launches of intercontinental nuclear-armed missiles, or rogue nation launches of similar nuclear missiles or of missiles armed with biological weapons, by using mid-course hit-to-kill vehicles guided by IR and radar. But it seems very likely that any nation capable of building (or buying) such a missile offense can build (or buy) effective countermeasures to NMD. These include anti-simulation decoys made of multi-layer insulation (MLI), with warheads covered in MLI sheaths so their signatures resemble those of the decoys. MLI can be effective against both passive IR and radar detection/discrimination. Biological warheads can counter any mid-course defense by releasing a great number of submunitions early in flight. Both nuclear and biological weapons can be deployed by other means, including covert ships in port; trucks; and cruise missiles. The best defense against Russian/Chinese accidental launches is assistance to these countries in improving their launch control systems.

  16. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  17. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  18. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  19. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  20. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  1. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  2. Radiological Defense. Planning and Operations Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide is a reprint of published and draft materials from the Federal Civil Defense Guide. This guide is intended to assist the student in planning, developing, implementing and operating a local, county, or state radiological defense (RADEF) system. The state and local radiological defense program objectives are to create an effective and…

  3. 78 FR 78163 - Eligibility of the Gulf Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ..., Washington, December 16, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-30984 Filed 12-23-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 4710-10 ... Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Gulf Cooperation Council...

  4. 76 FR 71467 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor-Prot g Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2011-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  5. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor-Prot g Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2012-D024) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  6. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal...

  7. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... (DLA) published a Notice of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION:...

  8. Newly Identified Targets of Aspirin and Its Primary Metabolite, Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Klessig, Daniel F

    2016-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone, which influences several physiological processes, and is a critical modulator of multiple levels of immunity in plants. Several high-throughput screens, which were developed to identify SA-binding proteins through which SA mediates its many physiological effects in plants, uncovered several novel targets of aspirin and its primary metabolite, SA, in humans. These include glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), two proteins associated with some of the most prevalent and devastating human diseases. In addition, natural and synthetic SA derivatives were discovered, which are much more potent than SA at inhibiting the disease-associated activities of these targets. PMID:26954428

  9. Newly Identified Targets of Aspirin and Its Primary Metabolite, Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Klessig, Daniel F

    2016-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone, which influences several physiological processes, and is a critical modulator of multiple levels of immunity in plants. Several high-throughput screens, which were developed to identify SA-binding proteins through which SA mediates its many physiological effects in plants, uncovered several novel targets of aspirin and its primary metabolite, SA, in humans. These include glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), two proteins associated with some of the most prevalent and devastating human diseases. In addition, natural and synthetic SA derivatives were discovered, which are much more potent than SA at inhibiting the disease-associated activities of these targets.

  10. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes.

  11. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes. PMID:26802804

  12. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jack C.; Appel, Heidi M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Arnold, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals) to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness. PMID:23986767

  13. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwon; Felton, Gary W

    2013-06-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction. A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic, and upon the following stimulus, induce defenses more quickly and strongly. For instance, some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding. Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently, but significant advances were made in the past three years, including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming, epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming, and others. It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plant-insect interactions.

  14. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  15. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  16. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  17. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  18. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  19. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Ethylene contributes to mir1-mediated maize defense against the phloem-sap sucking insect Rhopalosiphum maidis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Signaling networks among multiple phytohormones fine-tune plant defense responses to insect herbivore attack. Previously, it was reported that the synergistic combination of ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) was required for providing maize insect resistance1 (mir1), a key endogenous defense sign...

  1. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bajsa, Joanna; Pan, Zhiqiang; Duke, Stephen O

    2011-12-01

    Depending on the threat to a plant, different pattern recognition receptors, such as receptor-like kinases, identify the stress and trigger action by appropriate defense response development. The plant immunity system primary response to these challenges is rapid accumulation of phytohormones, such as ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives. These phytohormones induce further signal transduction and appropriate defenses against biotic threats. Phytohormones play crucial roles not only in the initiation of diverse downstream signaling events in plant defense but also in the activation of effective defenses through an essential process called signaling pathway crosstalk, a mechanism involved in transduction signals between two or more distinct, "linear signal transduction pathways simultaneously activated in the same cell."

  2. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. PMID:26946468

  3. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: a two-way street?

    PubMed

    Luthe, Dawn S; Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on "constant alert" due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are "primed" and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault.

  4. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses.

  5. Elevated CO2 influences nematode-induced defense responses of tomato genotypes differing in the JA pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO(2) can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO(2) in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO(2) increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2) will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO(2) reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO(2), and that CO(2)-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO(2). The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  6. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  7. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    PubMed

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems.

  8. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    PubMed

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  10. Biogeography of a defensive symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Stubblefield, J. William; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic microorganisms play important roles in nutrition, reproduction and defense of many insects, yet the factors contributing to their maintenance and dispersal remain unknown in most cases. Theory suggests that collaboration can be maintained by repeated interaction of the same partners (partner fidelity) or by selective discrimination against non-cooperative partners (partner choice). In the defensive mutualism between solitary beewolf wasps and their antibiotic-producing Streptomyces bacteria, partner choice by host control of vertical symbiont transmission reinforces partner fidelity and has helped to maintain this highly specific association since it originated in the late Cretaceous. However, co-phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses suggest that there has also been considerable horizontal transmission of the symbionts. While the beewolves clearly have a paleotropic or palearctic origin, with later colonization of the nearctic and neotropics via Beringia and the Aves ridge, respectively, the bacteria show only weak geographical clustering, implying global dispersal or vicariance within the confines of an otherwise apparently exclusive symbiotic relationship. We discuss several hypotheses that may explain these patterns. Future studies investigating the occurrence of beewolf symbionts in the environment could yield broadly applicable insights into the relative impact of animal-vectored and free-living dispersal on the distribution of microorganisms in nature. PMID:26479018

  11. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  12. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  13. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J.; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W.; Williamson, Valerie M.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr#18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial, oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small-molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. PMID:26203561

  14. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  15. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    PubMed

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  16. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    PubMed

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. PMID:26568089

  17. Flexible defense strategies: competition modifies investment in behavioral vs. morphological defenses.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, Céline; Laurila, Anssi

    2007-07-01

    Competition is predicted to affect the expression of inducible defenses, but because costs of behavioral and morphological antipredator defenses differ along resource gradients, its effects on defenses may depend on the traits considered. We tested the predictions from different defense models in tadpoles of the common frog Rana temporaria, which exhibit both types of defenses. In an outdoor experiment, we exposed the tadpoles to nonlethal predators (Aeshna dragonfly larvae) and to a gradient of intraspecific competition. Morphological responses did not follow any of the expected patterns, since investment in defense was not affected by resource level. Instead, tail depth decreased in the absence of predators. Behavioral defenses followed a state-dependent model. Overall, the defense strategy of the tadpoles revealed a shift from morphological and behavioral defenses at low tadpole density to morphological defense only at high density. This difference probably reflects the different efficiency of the defenses. Hiding is an effective means of defense, but it is unsustainable when resources are scarce. Morphological responses become more important with increasing density to compensate for the increase in behavioral risk-taking. Our results indicate that competition can strongly affect reaction norms of inducible defenses and highlight the importance of integrating ecological parameters that affect the cost-benefit balance of phenotypic plasticity.

  18. Theater missile defense programs: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1994-09-01

    The Clinton administration now calls the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) the ballistic missile defense program. But the names have simply been changed to protect the guilty - the new program exhibits substantial continuity with the old in technology and goals. While acronyms have been changed, many of the programs continued by the Clinton administration date from the Reagan or Bush eras. And most strikingly, the Clinton administrations` ambitions for a virtually perfect defense against theater ballistic missiles harken to the unattainable goals for strategic defense initially set by President Reagan over a decade ago.

  19. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223

  20. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups.

  1. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carles; Pamer, Eric G

    2012-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration.

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  3. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  4. 75 FR 13093 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Acquisition University Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... University Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.50(c), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  5. 75 FR 15695 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors National Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Board of Visitors National Defense University (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of...

  6. Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS). A New Concept in Economic Forecasting for Defense Expenditures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, David L.

    The Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS) analyzes the economic effect of defense expenditures on the United States economy by using a consistent, reliable framework of economic models and government policy assumptions. Planning information on defense requirements is also provided to private sector firms. The DEIMS allows the Department…

  7. Department of Defense Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... American Act. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 06/00/10 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes... DoD oversight of contractor business systems. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 01/15/10 75 FR 2457... Part V Department of Defense Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD)...

  8. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  9. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  10. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  11. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  12. Research and technology for strategic defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, R.R. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    In response to President Reagan's speech related to the objective for putting an end to the threat of nuclear ballistic missiles, an intensive study was conducted by the Dept. of Defense regarding the technologies applicable to ballistic-missile defense. It was concluded that emerging technologies do hold substantial promise for achieving the President's long-term ballistic-missile defense goal. The committee recommended a long-term program to bring the new technologies to a point of readiness where a decision could be made whether to enter full-scale development. Based on the results of the study, DOD has established a new program for the President's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Details regarding the SDI program are discussed. Surveillance, acquisition, tracking, and kill assessment (SATKA) programs will culminate in technical demonstrations. Attention is given to directed energy weapons, battle management, and survivable defenses.

  13. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  14. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  15. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K

    2007-05-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models. In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated with these defenses were reduced developmental rate, reduced growth, and reduced survival. At low resource availability, these costs predominately resulted in reduced survival, while at high resource availability the costs yielded a reduced developmental rate. Defensive traits responded strongly to predation risk, but did not respond to resource availability (with the exception of feeding activity), whereas traits construed as costs of defenses showed the opposite pattern. Therefore, defensive traits were highly sensitive to predation risk, while traits construed as costs of defense were highly sensitive to resource allocation tradeoffs. This difference in sensitivity between the two groups of traits may explain why the correlation between the expression of defensive traits and the expression of the associated defense costs was weak. Furthermore, my results indicate that genetic linkages and mechanistic integration of multiple defensive traits and their associated costs may constrain time and resource allocation in ways that are not addressed in existing models.

  16. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  17. Analyzing plant defenses in nature

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    A broad range of chemical plant defenses against herbivores has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. In many of these cases there is still little understanding of their relevance in nature. In natural systems, functional analyses of plant traits are often complicated by an extreme variability, which affects the interaction with higher trophic levels. Successful analyses require consideration of the numerous sources of variation that potentially affect the plant trait of interest. In our recent study on wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in South Mexico, we applied an integrative approach combining analyses for quantitative correlations of cyanogenic potential (HCNp; the maximum amount of cyanide that can be released from a given tissue) and herbivory in the field with subsequent feeding trials under controlled conditions. This approach allowed us to causally explain the consequences of quantitative variation of HCNp on herbivore-plant interactions in nature and highlights the importance of combining data obtained in natural systems with analyses under controlled conditions. PMID:19820300

  18. Defensive medicine: two historical cases.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Dalla-Vorgia, P

    1996-01-01

    Two characteristic historical examples of defensive medicine are referred to and analysed. The first of them relates to the behaviour of the eminent and experienced physician Critobulus, a member of the family of Asclepiades of Cos Island, native island of Hippocrates, who hesitated to undertake the operation on the severely wounded Alexander the Great, who was hurt during the siege of a town of the Mallians in India (326 BC). The second case refers to the Byzantine Emperor, Justin II (578 AD), when his physicians hesitated to undertake an operation for a possible wedging of a stone in the urethra, which caused painful inflammation. In both cases, the physicians proceeded to the operation after being reassured by their illustrious patients that they would not be punished in the event of failure. Furthermore, in the second case, of the mentally unbalanced Justin II, the physicians requested, obviously in the presence of witnesses, their immunity from punishment with the symbolic gesture of the handing over of the scalpel to them by the patient. This act symbolised the agreement of the patient to the operation.

  19. Toward directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka; O'Neill, Hugh

    2014-02-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR, for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. The DE-STAR is a modular-phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological codevelopment. An orbiting structure would be developed in stages. The main objective of the DE-STAR is to use focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ˜3000 K, sufficient to vaporize all known substances. Ejection of evaporated material creates a large reaction force that would alter an asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1- to 10-km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows initial engagement beyond 1 AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in 1 year. Small objects can be diverted with a DE-STAR 2 (100 m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10 m).

  20. Immune defense against pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pestis is one of the world's most virulent human pathogens. Inhalation of this Gram-negative bacterium causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant strains of Y. pestis exist and have significant potential for exploitation as agents of terrorism and biowarfare. Subunit vaccines comprised of the Y. pestis F1 and LcrV proteins are well-tolerated and immunogenic in humans but cannot be tested for efficacy, because pneumonic plague outbreaks are uncommon and intentional infection of humans is unethical. In animal models, F1/LcrV-based vaccines protect mice and cynomolgus macaques but have failed, thus far, to adequately protect African green monkeys. We lack an explanation for this inconsistent efficacy. We also lack reliable correlate assays for protective immunity. These deficiencies are hampering efforts to improve vaccine efficacy. Here, I review the immunology of pneumonic plague, focusing on evidence that humoral and cellular defense mechanisms collaborate to defend against pulmonary Y. pestis infection. PMID:18837787

  1. The myoepithelial defense: a host defense against cancer.

    PubMed

    Sternlicht, M D; Barsky, S H

    1997-01-01

    advance our hypothesis that host myoepithelial cells regulate the progression of in situ to invasive carcinoma by providing an important host defense against cancer invasion.

  2. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of...

  3. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulations System, OUSD (AT&L) DPAP (DARS), Room 3B855, 3060 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC...

  4. 75 FR 78619 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 216 and 237 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is making technical amendments to the Defense Federal...

  5. Peptidoglycan from Fermentation By-Product Triggers Defense Responses in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Takeda, Taito; Aoki, Yoshinao; Fujita, Keiko; Suzuki, Shunji; Igarashi, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Plants are constantly under attack from a variety of microorganisms, and rely on a series of complex detection and response systems to protect themselves from infection. Here, we found that a by-product of glutamate fermentation triggered defense responses in grapevine, increasing the expression of defense response genes in cultured cells, foliar chitinase activity, and resistance to infection by downy mildew in leaf explants. To identify the molecule that triggered this innate immunity, we fractionated and purified candidates extracted from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a bacterium used in the production of amino acids by fermentation. Using hydrolysis by lysozyme, a silkworm larva plasma detection system, and gel filtration analysis, we identified peptidoglycan as inducing the defense responses. Peptidoglycans of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus also generated similar defensive responses. PMID:25427192

  6. Defense-Inducing Volatiles: In Search of the Active Motif

    PubMed Central

    Lion, Ulrich; Boland, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely appreciated as an indirect defense mechanism since carnivorous arthropods use VOCs as cues for host localization and then attack herbivores. Another function of VOCs is plant–plant signaling. That VOCs elicit defensive responses in neighboring plants has been reported from various species, and different compounds have been found to be active. In order to search for a structural motif that characterizes active VOCs, we used lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which responds to VOCs released from damaged plants with an increased secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We exposed lima bean to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a substance naturally released from damaged lima bean and known to induce EFN secretion, and to several structurally related compounds. (E)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, 5-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenylisovalerate, and (Z)-3-hexenylbutyrate all elicited significant increases in EFN secretion, demonstrating that neither the (Z)-configuration nor the position of the double-bond nor the size of the acid moiety are critical for the EFN-inducing effect. Our result is not consistent with previous concepts that postulate reactive electrophile species (Michael-acceptor-systems) for defense-induction in Arabidopsis. Instead, we postulate that physicochemical processes, including interactions with odorant binding proteins and resulting in changes in transmembrane potentials, can underlie VOCs-mediated signaling processes. PMID:18408973

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 90-317-2150, Kalapana Civil Defense Department, Hilo, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    In response to a request from the Director of the Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency (SIC-9229), a site visit was conducted between July 30 and August 2, 1990 in an effort to measure possible hazardous exposures resulting from the lava flow from Kilauea Volcano entering the ocean with the resulting formation of laze, an acidic steam cloud formed by the interaction of lava with seawater. Short term colorimetric detector tubes measured hydrochloric-acid (7647010) (HC1) concentrations in the dense laze near the shoreline at 10 to 15 parts per million (ppm). Air samples collected over longer periods of time gave HC1 concentrations of up to 3.6ppm. Samples collected at the civil defense road block locations and in areas where the general public or community residents had access measured from not detectable to 1.1ppm. Hydrofluoric-acid (7664393) (HF) concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.4ppm. Analyses for other acids and for sulfur-dioxide (7446095) did not prove fruitful. The author concludes that civil defense personnel, community residents, and the general public were not being exposed to concentrations of HC1, HF or other inorganic acids in excess of occupational standards in the unrestricted areas. The author recommends that protective equipment be used by individuals who may be downwind of the laze, including civil defense workers, photographers, geologists, and others authorized to be in restricted areas of the lava flow.

  8. California's diminished capacity defense: evolution and transformation.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R; Leong, G B; Silva, J A

    1996-01-01

    Diminished capacity survives in California as a severely attenuated mens rea defense known as diminished actuality. Some other states have similar limited strict mens rea defenses. The lost advantages of California's former expanded concept of diminished capacity are reviewed. As opposed to the all-or-none insanity defense, mens rea defenses permit the trier of fact to find gradations of guilt but are generally inapplicable unless the elements of a crime are redefined to permit consideration of motivational aspects, as California had done. The change from diminished capacity to a diminished actuality defense was a return to the complex, somewhat artificial legal concept of intent and a resurrection of confusing and antiquated common law definitions. The change was made in response to an unpopular jury verdict and a political climate in which little interest existed or still exists for understanding the reasons behind the commission of any crime. Some of the later restrictions imposed by the California Supreme Court on allowing voluntary intoxication to reduce murder to voluntary manslaughter logically should not apply to mental illness. Knowledge of the complex mens rea issues and the various relevant current defenses is essential for any forensic psychiatrist evaluating defendants in jurisdictions in which such defenses are admissible.

  9. Strategic defenses and crisis stability. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, D.; Watman, K.; Kennedy, M.; Darilek, R.

    1989-04-01

    The effect that defenses have on crisis stability is one of the central issues in the current debate over the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Crisis stability would be threatened in a situation in which either the United States or the Soviet Union feels pressure to strike first in the hope of producing a more favorable outcome to what appears to be inevitable nuclear war. This note examines various issues surrounding the question of crisis stability. In particular, it considers options for ameliorating any potential instabilities that might arise during a transition to higher levels of strategic defenses. The authors suggest that a crisis-stable transition is possible, that the mutual survivability of strategic offensive forces is crucial to maintaining crisis stability, that space-based defenses of strategic offensive forces (SOF) are potentially crisis-destabilizing unless they are backed up by terminal defenses of SOF, and that the mutual survivability of strategic defenses and defense suppression forces is also critical to crisis stability.

  10. Antioxidant Enzyme Responses Induced by Whiteflies in Tobacco Plants in Defense against Aphids: Catalase May Play a Dominant Role

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haipeng; Sun, Xia; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Qingliang

    2016-01-01

    led to the suppression of the B. tabaci mediated PR-2a expression. Conclusions/Significance Aphid resistance in plants infested with B. tabaci nymphs is associated with enhanced antioxidant activities in which CAT may play a dominant role. This resistance probably acted via interactions with SA-mediated defense responses. PMID:27788203

  11. Strategic defense initiative: Folly or future

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.E.; Merritt, J.

    1986-01-01

    This collection of analyses is a guide through the maze of claims and criticisms about ''Star Wars,'' the controversial effort of the Reagan administration to reorient United States nuclear strategy to strategic defense. The text starts with an introduction by the editors followed by individual chapters outlining the strategic defense initiative as originally conceived and subsequently modified by the Reagan administration; the arguments for and against the plan's strategic and technical feasibility; and assessments of the harmful and constructive effects of strategic defense on U.S.-Soviet and U.S.-allied relations.

  12. The insanity defense: the case for abolition.

    PubMed

    Perr, I N

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses psychiatrists' objections to the insanity defense, including the negative publicity generated by murder trials in which psychiatrists provide expert testimony. He also examines the legal profession's attitudes toward the defense and the pressure applied to expert witnesses through our adversarial system of justice. The abolition of the insanity defense might expedite the legal process, the author concludes, but it would not greatly affect the courtroom role of psychiatrists. Psychiatric evaluation would still be required in certain cases, such as those involving diminished responsibility and competency to stand trial.

  13. 78 FR 36113 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 222 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: June 17, 2013. FOR...

  14. 77 FR 10976 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: February 24, 2012. FOR...

  15. 77 FR 11775 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: February 28, 2012. FOR...

  16. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to direct contracting officers to additional guidance on supporting contingency...

  17. 78 FR 41331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to insert a hyperlink and direct contracting officers to the DFARS Procedures,...

  18. 77 FR 19128 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 203 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to add a reference for reporting suspected lobbying violations. DATES: Effective...

  19. 78 FR 54968 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: September 9,...

  20. 78 FR 30232 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective: May 22, 2013....

  1. 78 FR 38235 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: June 26, 2013....

  2. 78 FR 13543 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial...

  3. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  4. Department of Defense Helps "Fight" Poverty Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opportunity, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Begun in April, 1969, the Department of Defense Domestic Action Program's activities include: loan of equipment to Community Action Agencies; use of DOD facilities for training and recreation; assistance in technical areas; and, general aid. (JM)

  5. Defense mechanisms: 40 years of empirical research.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on defense mechanisms carried out over the past 40 years with children, adolescents, adults, and psychiatric patients. Both experimental and observational studies are included.

  6. Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school children. Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed through a combination of parent and self-report questionnaires. Correlational analyses indicated that children who relied on the developmentally immature defense of denial reported higher levels of self-rated social anxiety and depression and received higher ratings of parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, children who made use of the developmentally mature defense of identification exhibited higher scores on perceived competence in social, academic, conduct, athletic, and global domains. Significantly, there was no relationship between children's use of denial and their level of perceived competence or between children's use of identification and their degree of maladjustment.

  7. Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headache Following Concussion/Mild TBI Clinical Recommendation DCoE Blog TBI Highlights Give Concussion the Red Card (link ... of TBI (link is external) Read more DCoE blog articles » Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Crisis ...

  8. Self-defense training for college women.

    PubMed

    Cummings, N

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of self-defense training for college women. Advocates of self-defense training believe these courses will not only provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks effectively, but that this kind of training will also help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that self-defense training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. This article reviews the relevant literature, outlines practical suggestions for initiatives in this area, and describes a model self-defense course at one university. Guidelines for evaluation and implications for university policy and program decisions that address violence against women on college campuses are included. PMID:1583240

  9. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  10. [Irony and cynicism as forms of defense].

    PubMed

    Blaser, A

    1976-01-01

    Irony and Cynicism are understood to be defense mechanisms. The principle of opposites explains Irony best: it serves the purpose of avoiding the negative affect of a state by maintaining its dialectic opposite. Irony can thus be attributed to counter-cathexis. Cynicism has already been shown in its historical development to be a form of denial with the purpose to minimize the importance of the object. Sarcasm is not a defense but a form of aggressive discharge.

  11. The Integrity of the Esophageal Mucosa. Balance Between Offensive and Defensive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    Heartburn is the most common and characteristic symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ultimately results from contact of refluxed gastric acid with nociceptors within the esophageal mucosa and transmission of this peripheral signal to the central nervous system for cognition. Healthy esophageal epithelium provides an effective barrier between refluxed gastric acid and esophageal nociceptors; but this barrier is vulnerable to attack and damage, particularly by acidic gastric contents. How gastric acid is countered by defensive elements within the esophageal mucosa is a major focus of this discussion. When the defense is successful, the subject is asymptomatic and when unsuccessful, the subject experiences heartburn. Those with heartburn commonly fall into one of three endoscopic types: nonerosive reflux disease, erosive esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Although what determines endoscopic type remains unknown; it is proposed herein that inflammation plays a key, modulating role. PMID:21126700

  12. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY-1981. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1982-09-01

    Both simulated alkaline defense wastes and simulated acidic defense wastes (formed by treating alkaline waste with formic acid) were successfully vitrified in direct liquid-fed melter experiments. The vitrification process was improved while using the formate-treated waste. Leach resistance was essentially the same. Off-gas entrainment was the primary mechanism for material exiting the melter. When formate waste was vitrified, the flow behavior of the off gas from the melter changed dramatically from an erratic surging behavior to a more quiet, even flow. Hydrogen and CO were detectable while processing formate feed; however, levels exceeding the flamability limits in air were never approached. Two types of melter operation were tested during the year, one involving boost power. Several boosting methods located within the melter plenum were tested. When lid heating was being used, water spray cooling in the off gas was required. Countercurrent spray cooling was more effective than cocurrent spray cooling. Materials of construction for the off-gas system were examined. Inconel-690 is preferred in the plenum area. Inspection of the pilot-scale melter found that corrosion of the K-3 refractory and Inconel-690 electrodes was minimal. An overheating incident occurred with the LFCM in which glass temperatures up to 1480/sup 0/C were experienced. Lab-scale vitrification tests to study mercury behavior were also completed this year. 53 figures, 63 tables.

  13. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-10-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

  14. Amphibian defenses against ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Andrew R; Belden, Lisa K

    2003-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, amphibian populations throughout the world are disappearing. There are a number of potential causes for these declines, including those related to environmental changes such as increasing ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion. UV-B radiation can kill amphibian embryos or can cause sublethal effects that can harm amphibians in later life stages. However, amphibians have defenses against UV-B damage that can limit damage or repair it after exposure to UV-B radiation. These include behavioral, physiological, and molecular defenses. These defenses differ interspecifically, with some species more able to cope with exposure to UV-B than others. Unfortunately, the defense mechanisms of many species may not be effective against increasing persistent levels of UV-B radiation that have only been present for the past several decades due to human-induced environmental damage. Moreover, we predict that persistent UV-B-induced mortality and sublethal damage in species without adequate defenses could lead to changes in community structure. In this article we review the effects of UV-B radiation on amphibians and the defenses they use to avoid solar radiation and make some predictions regarding community structure in light of interspecific differences in UV-B tolerance. PMID:12492415

  15. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  16. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: A two-way street?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multi-pronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plan...

  17. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    latitudes where fire is a major ecosystem driver and mammals are the main herbivores of deciduous trees such as birches. We propose that these interconnected relationships are the key drivers of the positive correlation between defense and latitude in B. neoalaskana. Understanding patterns of boreal plant defense and growth is especially important because high latitude ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Key words: Alaska paper birch; Betula neoalaskana; biogeography; chemical defense; grotvth-defense trade-offs; inherent growth rate; latitude; latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis; papyr'feric acid; plant ar- chitecture; resin glands; root-to-shoot ratio. PMID:27145623

  18. Origins of the Strategic Defense Initiative: Ballistic Missile Defense, 1944-1983. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baucom, D.R.

    1989-12-01

    America's ballistic missile defense program may be said to have its roots in the V-2 attacks on London in 1944. This document traces the development of antiballistic missile defense policy from the V-2 attacks up to President Reagan's 1983 speech announcing the new strategic defense initiative. The history follows the policy debates from the NIKE-X, SALT I and SALT II, the ABM Treaty, and SAFEGUARD through research and development innovations in the areas of computers, optical sensors, interceptors, and directed energy weapons. The emergence of political organizations and individuals who either opposed or championed ballistic missile defense is also included.

  19. The comprehensive assessment of defense style: measuring defense mechanisms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laor, N; Wolmer, L; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study introduces the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS), a new method to assess descriptively the defensive behavior of children and adolescents. Parents of 124 children and adolescents referred to a mental health clinic, of 104 nontreated children, and of 15 children whose fathers were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder completed the CADS. Factor analysis of 28 defenses yielded one mature factor, one immature factor of defenses expressed in relations with the environment (other-oriented), and one of defenses expressed in relations with the self (self-oriented). The CADS significantly discriminated between patients and nonpatients. Psychiatric patients used more immature and fewer mature defenses than control subjects, and adolescents used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than children. Girls used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than boys. The reliability and validity data of the CADS are encouraging. The three defense factors may be implemented for diagnostic and clinical purposes as well as for screening for psychopathology risk in untreated populations.

  20. Hormone-regulated defense and stress response networks contribute to heterosis in Arabidopsis F1 hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Lyons, Rebecca L.; Greaves, Ian K.; Kazan, Kemal; Peacock, W. James; Dennis, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant hybrids are extensively used in agriculture to deliver increases in yields, yet the molecular basis of their superior performance (heterosis) is not well understood. Our transcriptome analysis of a number of Arabidopsis F1 hybrids identified changes to defense and stress response gene expression consistent with a reduction in basal defense levels. Given the reported antagonism between plant immunity and growth, we suggest that these altered patterns of expression contribute to the greater growth of the hybrids. The altered patterns of expression in the hybrids indicate decreases to the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis pathway and increases in the auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] biosynthesis pathway. SA and IAA are hormones known to control stress and defense responses as well as plant growth. We found that IAA-targeted gene activity is frequently increased in hybrids, correlating with a common heterotic phenotype of greater leaf cell numbers. Reduced SA concentration and target gene responses occur in the larger hybrids and promote increased leaf cell size. We demonstrated the importance of SA action to the hybrid phenotype by manipulating endogenous SA concentrations. Increasing SA diminished heterosis in SA-reduced hybrids, whereas decreasing SA promoted growth in some hybrids and phenocopied aspects of hybrid vigor in parental lines. Pseudomonas syringae infection of hybrids demonstrated that the reductions in basal defense gene activity in these hybrids does not necessarily compromise their ability to mount a defense response comparable to the parents. PMID:26527659

  1. Discrimination of Arabidopsis PAD4 activities in defense against green peach aphid and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Louis, Joe; Gobbato, Enrico; Mondal, Hossain A; Feys, Bart J; Parker, Jane E; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lipase-like protein PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) is essential for defense against green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) and the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. In basal resistance to virulent strains of P. syringae and H. arabidopsidis, PAD4 functions together with its interacting partner ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) to promote salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defenses. By contrast, dissociated forms of PAD4 and EDS1 signal effector-triggered immunity to avirulent strains of these pathogens. PAD4-controlled defense against GPA requires neither EDS1 nor SA. Here, we show that resistance to GPA is unaltered in an eds1 salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) double mutant, indicating that redundancy between EDS1 and SID2-dependent SA, previously reported for effector-triggered immunity conditioned by certain nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat receptors, does not explain the dispensability of EDS1 and SID2 in defense against GPA. Mutation of a conserved serine (S118) in the predicted lipase catalytic triad of PAD4 abolished PAD4-conditioned antibiosis and deterrence against GPA feeding, but S118 was dispensable for deterring GPA settling and promoting senescence in GPA-infested plants as well as for pathogen resistance. These results highlight distinct molecular activities of PAD4 determining particular aspects of defense against aphids and pathogens.

  2. Jasmonates induce both defense responses and communication in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Abe, Hiroshi; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (jasmonates, JAs) are phytohormones with essential roles in plant defense against pathogenesis and herbivorous arthropods. Both the up- and down-regulation of defense responses are dependent on signaling pathways mediated by JAs as well as other stress hormones (e.g. salicylic acid), generally those involving the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors via protein modification and epigenetic regulation. In addition to the typical model plant Arabidopsis (a dicotyledon), advances in genetics research have made rice a model monocot in which innovative pest control traits can be introduced and whose JA signaling pathway can be studied. In this review, we introduce the dynamic functions of JAs in plant defense strategy using defensive substances (e.g. indole alkaloids and terpenoid phytoalexins) and airborne signals (e.g. green leaf volatiles and volatile terpenes) in response to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens as well as above-ground and below-ground herbivores. We then discuss the important issue of how the mutualism of herbivorous arthropods with viruses or bacteria can cause cross-talk between JA and other phytohormones to counter the defense systems.

  3. Isonitrosoacetophenone Drives Transcriptional Reprogramming in Nicotiana tabacum Cells in Support of Innate Immunity and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T.; Maake, Mmapula P.; Piater, Lizelle A.; Dubery, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to various stress stimuli by activating broad-spectrum defense responses both locally as well as systemically. As such, identification of expressed genes represents an important step towards understanding inducible defense responses and assists in designing appropriate intervention strategies for disease management. Genes differentially expressed in tobacco cell suspensions following elicitation with isonitrosoacetophenone (INAP) were identified using mRNA differential display and pyro-sequencing. Sequencing data produced 14579 reads, which resulted in 198 contigs and 1758 singletons. Following BLAST analyses, several inducible plant defense genes of interest were identified and classified into functional categories including signal transduction, transcription activation, transcription and protein synthesis, protein degradation and ubiquitination, stress-responsive, defense-related, metabolism and energy, regulation, transportation, cytoskeleton and cell wall-related. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the expression of 17 selected target genes within these categories. Results indicate that INAP has a sensitising or priming effect through activation of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid- and ethylene pathways that result in an altered transcriptome, with the expression of genes involved in perception of pathogens and associated cellular re-programming in support of defense. Furthermore, infection assays with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci confirmed the establishment of a functional anti-microbial environment in planta. PMID:25658943

  4. Prickly poppies can get pricklier: ontogenetic patterns in the induction of physical defense traits.

    PubMed

    Hoan, Ryan P; Ormond, Rhys A; Barton, Kasey E

    2014-01-01

    Plant ontogeny is a common source of variation in defense and herbivory. Yet, few studies have investigated how the induction of physical defense traits changes across plant ontogeny. Physical defense traits are costly to produce, and thus, it was predicted that induction as a cost-saving strategy would be particularly favorable for seedlings, leading to ontogenetic declines in the inducibility of these traits. We tested for induction of three different physical defense traits (prickles, latex and leaf toughness) in response to mechanical defoliation and jasmonic acid application using prickly poppies (Argemone glauca and A. mexicana, Papaveraceae) as a model system. Genetic variation in the induction of physical defenses was tested using maternal sib-ships sampled from multiple populations. Both species induced higher densities of laminar prickles, although the magnitude of induction was much higher in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, A. glauca, than in the cosmopolitan A. mexicana. The magnitude of prickle induction was also higher in young compared to older juvenile plant stages in A. glauca, demonstrating a strong role of ontogeny. Neither latex exudation nor leaf toughness was induced in either species. Although significant genetic variation was detected within and among populations for constitutive expression of physical defense traits in Argemone, there was no evidence for genetic variation in the induction of these traits. This study provides the first evidence for the induction of physical defenses in prickly poppies, emphasizing how an ontogenetically explicit framework can reveal new insights into plant defense. Moreover, this study illustrates how sister species comparisons between island vs. continental plants can provide new insights into plant functional and evolutionary ecology, highlighting a fruitful area for future research on more species pairs. PMID:24802133

  5. Prickly Poppies Can Get Pricklier: Ontogenetic Patterns in the Induction of Physical Defense Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hoan, Ryan P.; Ormond, Rhys A.; Barton, Kasey E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant ontogeny is a common source of variation in defense and herbivory. Yet, few studies have investigated how the induction of physical defense traits changes across plant ontogeny. Physical defense traits are costly to produce, and thus, it was predicted that induction as a cost-saving strategy would be particularly favorable for seedlings, leading to ontogenetic declines in the inducibility of these traits. We tested for induction of three different physical defense traits (prickles, latex and leaf toughness) in response to mechanical defoliation and jasmonic acid application using prickly poppies (Argemone glauca and A. mexicana, Papaveraceae) as a model system. Genetic variation in the induction of physical defenses was tested using maternal sib-ships sampled from multiple populations. Both species induced higher densities of laminar prickles, although the magnitude of induction was much higher in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, A. glauca, than in the cosmopolitan A. mexicana. The magnitude of prickle induction was also higher in young compared to older juvenile plant stages in A. glauca, demonstrating a strong role of ontogeny. Neither latex exudation nor leaf toughness was induced in either species. Although significant genetic variation was detected within and among populations for constitutive expression of physical defense traits in Argemone, there was no evidence for genetic variation in the induction of these traits. This study provides the first evidence for the induction of physical defenses in prickly poppies, emphasizing how an ontogenetically explicit framework can reveal new insights into plant defense. Moreover, this study illustrates how sister species comparisons between island vs. continental plants can provide new insights into plant functional and evolutionary ecology, highlighting a fruitful area for future research on more species pairs. PMID:24802133

  6. 75 FR 11868 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION..., a subcommittee of the Defense Health Board (DHB), will receive briefings from various speakers... registration are available online at the Defense Health Board Web site, http://www.ha.osd.mil/dhb ....

  7. 75 FR 9399 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces, a subcommittee of the Defense Health Board (DHB), will... difficulties, beyond the control of the Defense Health Board or its Designated Federal Officer, the...

  8. 75 FR 5289 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION..., and in accordance with section 10(a)(2) of Public Law, DoD announces that the Defense Health Board...- 3317. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Commander Edmond F. Feeks, Executive Secretary, Defense...

  9. 76 FR 6766 - Meeting of the Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... persons may submit a written statement for consideration by the Defense Science Board. Individuals... of the Secretary Meeting of the Defense Science Board AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board will meet in closed session...

  10. 76 FR 21705 - Closed Meeting of the Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... statement for consideration by the Defense Science Board. Individuals submitting a written statement must... of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Defense Science Board AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board will meet in closed session on May 11-12, 2011; at...

  11. 77 FR 20795 - Establishment of the Defense Legal Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... of the Secretary Establishment of the Defense Legal Policy Board AGENCY: Department of Defense, DoD... establishing the Defense Legal Policy Board (hereafter referred to as ``the Board''). The Board is a... Board relating to legal and related legal policy matters within the Department of Defense. The Board,...

  12. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-10-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race.

  13. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  14. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  15. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a "preponderance of the evidence" which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail.

  16. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a “preponderance of the evidence” which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail. PMID:26702167

  17. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a "preponderance of the evidence" which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail. PMID:26702167

  18. A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: fear/anxiety and defensive distance.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Neil; Corr, Philip J

    2004-05-01

    We present in this paper a picture of the neural systems controlling defense that updates and simplifies Gray's "Neuropsychology of Anxiety". It is based on two behavioural dimensions: 'defensive distance' as defined by the Blanchards and 'defensive direction'. Defensive direction is a categorical dimension with avoidance of threat corresponding to fear and approach to threat corresponding to anxiety. These two psychological dimensions are mapped to underlying neural dimensions. Defensive distance is mapped to neural level, with the shortest defensive distances involving the lowest neural level (periaqueductal grey) and the largest defensive distances the highest neural level (prefrontal cortex). Defensive direction is mapped to separate parallel streams that run across these levels. A significant departure from prior models is the proposal that both fear and anxiety are represented at all levels. The theory is presented in a simplified form that does not incorporate the interactions that must occur between non-adjacent levels of the system. It also requires expansion to include the dimension of escapability of threat. Our current development and these proposed future extensions do not change the core concepts originally proposed by Gray and, we argue, demonstrate their enduring value.

  19. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a) and 2794(7)) provides that the President shall designate...

  20. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a) and 2794(7)) provides that the President shall designate...

  1. Defense Dollars and Sense: A Common Cause Guide to the Defense Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovner, Mark

    Designed to increase public awareness of military spending, this 5-part guide examines the process and problems of preparing the national defense budget. The publication begins with a brief overview of the 1984 defense budget. Major military programs, trends in budgeting, and key concerns in budget formulation are explored. Graphs and charts…

  2. Ego Defenses and Reaction to Stress: A Validation Study of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleser, Goldine C.; Sacks, Marilyn

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between scores on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory and reaction to an experimental conflict situation in which Ss (85 undergraduate college students) were led to believe that their performance was deficient on a new test of scholastic ability. The pattern of defenses predicted residual posttest estimates of…

  3. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  4. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  5. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  6. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  7. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  8. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  9. Strategic defense and the Western alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lakoff, S.; Willoughby, R. )

    1987-01-01

    Strategic defense has again become a major item on the agenda of the Western Alliance. Revived by President Ronald Reagan in his Star Wars speech of March 1983, and implemented in his Strategic Defense Initiative, it has achieved renewed emphasis in military spending, in alliance research efforts, and in arms control negotiations. SDI is packaged in a way that makes it the largest single item in the Department of Defense's annual budget. It engages researchers in industrial and military laboratories on both sides of the Atlantic as well as in Japan and Israel. In the arms control negotiations now under way between the United States and the USSR, the conduct of this research and its implications for the strategic balance and the reduction of offensive weapons are critical considerations. The implications of this largely unexpected development are the subject of this book.

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  13. Missile Defense and International Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Y.

    2002-01-01

    By the withdrawal from Anti Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 by the United States of America, there will emerge the age of no concrete legal restrictions for ballistic missiles defense in the outer space.On the other hand, because the proliferation of ballistic missile technology has been the problem to be solved as soon as possible, we have to build new regulations for the adequate missile defense and other related activities including the use of outer space.In this paper, the implication of ABM Treaty in the Cold War era will be reviewed and the present and future situation and ideal legal scheme for missile defense and outer space usage will be considered.

  14. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  15. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  16. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Hulou, M Maher; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Das, Sunit; Gormley, William B; Rutka, James T; Laws, Edward R; Heary, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden. CONCLUSIONS Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.

  17. Hormone crosstalk in plant disease and defense: more than just jasmonate-salicylate antagonism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Grant, Murray; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, most studies on the role of hormones in plant-pathogen interactions focused on salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). It is now clear that pathogen-induced modulation of signaling via other hormones contributes to virulence. A picture is emerging of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance, with outcomes dependent on pathogen lifestyles and the genetic constitution of the host. Recent progress has revealed intriguing similarities between hormone signaling mechanisms, with gene induction responses often achieved by derepression. Here, we report on recent advances, updating current knowledge on classical defense hormones SA, JA, and ET, and the roles of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (CKs), and brassinosteroids in molding plant-pathogen interactions. We highlight an emerging theme that positive and negative regulators of these disparate hormone signaling pathways are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense.

  18. Understanding the use of the insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Blau, G L; McGinley, H; Pasewark, R

    1993-05-01

    Psychologists often are called upon to give their opinion about a legal concept, the insanity plea. Criminal cases that involve the insanity plea consistently receive the attention of the media and of legislators who contemplate restricting the use of the defense, yet there is little nationwide information on the use and possible abuse of the insanity defense. This paper reviews what little is known and suggests that in order to make psychologically and socially responsible decisions, more information is needed on the use and success of the plea.

  19. The insanity defense: a difficult necessity.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J J

    1985-01-01

    The author considers the merits of the insanity defense in light of three premises. First, a defendant's sanity must be taken into account both in assessing culpability and in assigning punishment for a crime. Second, all members of society must be protected against harmful acts. And third, it is the responsibility of psychiatrists to assess, but not to predict, the existence of mental illness. After briefly discussing the limitations of expert testimony and the adversarial demands of the judicial system, the author concludes that the insanity defense should be retained but altered, and that psychiatrists should bear the burdens of advocating for the mentally ill.

  20. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  1. PEPR2 is a second receptor for the Pep1 and Pep2 peptides and contributes to defense responses in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 23-amino acid peptide, AtPep1, and its homologues are endogenous elicitors in Arabidopsis, inducing defense related genes. AtPep1 enhances resistance to a root pathogen, Pythium irregulare, through the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways. AtPep...

  2. 76 FR 64902 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership of Offeror

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership of Offeror AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice...

  3. 75 FR 28786 - Federal Advisory Committee; National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, National Defense Intelligence College, DoD. ACTION... of the Defense Intelligence Agency, National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors will...

  4. Insect regurgitant and wounding elicit similar defense responses in poplar leaves: not something to spit at?

    PubMed

    Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter

    2007-01-01

    How plants perceive insect attacks is an area of active research. Numerous studies have shown that regurgitant from feeding insects elicits a defense response in plants, which is often assumed to be distinct from a wound response. We have characterized the inducible defense response in hybrid poplar and found it to be qualitatively similar between wounding and application of regurgitant from forest tent caterpillar. We suggest that this is likely attributable to our wounding treatment which is much more intense compared to most other studies. These overlapping responses appear to be activated via jasmonic acid signaling, and we speculate that they are both triggered by elicitors of plant origin. Wounding would release such elicitor molecules when leaf cells are disrupted, and regurgitant may contain them in a modified or processed form. This hypothesis could explain why some other necrosis-inducing stresses also induce herbivore defense genes.

  5. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression in a pulmonate land snail.

    PubMed

    Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, K B

    1995-06-01

    During arousal from estivation oxygen consumption by land snails (Otala lactea) increases severalfold. To determine whether snails prepared for an accompanying rise in the rates of oxyradical generation by altering their antioxidant defense mechanisms, changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products were quantified in foot and hepatopancreas of control, 30-day estivating, and aroused snails. Compared with controls, estivating O. lactea showed significant increases in the activities of foot muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) (increasing by 56-67%), catalase (51-72%), and glutathione S-transferase (79-108%), whereas, in hepatopancreas, SOD (57-78%) and glutathione peroxidase (93-144%) increased. Within 40 min after arousal began, hepatopancreas glutathione peroxidase activity had returned to control values, but SOD showed a further 70% increase in activity but then returned to control levels by 80 min. Estivation had no effect on total glutathione (GSH + 2 GSSG) concentrations in tissues, but GSSG content had increased about twofold in both organs of 30-day dormant snails. Lipid peoxidation (quantified as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was significantly enhanced at the onset of arousal from dormancy, indicating that oxidative stress and tissue damage occurred at this time. The data suggest that antioxidant defenses in snail organs are increased while snails are in the hypometabolic state as a preparation for oxidative stress during arousal.

  6. Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cacho, N Ivalú; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2015-11-01

    We explored macroevolutionary patterns of plant chemical defense in Streptanthus (Brassicaceae), tested for evolutionary escalation of defense, as predicted by Ehrlich and Raven's plant-herbivore coevolutionary arms-race hypothesis, and tested whether species inhabiting low-resource or harsh environments invest more in defense, as predicted by the resource availability hypothesis (RAH). We conducted phylogenetically explicit analyses using glucosinolate profiles, soil nutrient analyses, and microhabitat bareness estimates across 30 species of Streptanthus inhabiting varied environments and soils. We found weak to moderate phylogenetic signal in glucosinolate classes and no signal in total glucosinolate production; a trend toward evolutionary de-escalation in the numbers and diversity of glucosinolates, accompanied by an evolutionary increase in the proportion of aliphatic glucosinolates; some support for the RAH relative to soil macronutrients, but not relative to serpentine soil use; and that the number of glucosinolates increases with microhabitat bareness, which is associated with increased herbivory and drought. Weak phylogenetic signal in chemical defense has been observed in other plant systems. A more holistic approach incorporating other forms of defense might be necessary to confidently reject escalation of defense. That defense increases with microhabitat bareness supports the hypothesis that habitat bareness is an underappreciated selective force on plants in harsh environments.

  7. Community perceptions of allowable counterforce in self-defense and defense of property.

    PubMed

    Oleson, K C; Darley, J M

    1999-12-01

    What level of force do people believe is appropriate to use in self-defense and defense of property? One answer is that a person may use only the bare minimum of force necessary to terminate the threat in self-defense and must retreat if it is possible. One may not use deadly force in defense of property since that would be disproportionate. This set of rules is in the Model Penal Code (MPC). The current research explores the patterning of lay views about the use of counterforce in defense of self and property. Several New Jersey samples (N = 197 total) made liability ratings for four self-defense and four property defense case vignettes that differed in their underlying rationales for action. For both the self-defense and property defense cases, participants gave much lower sentences for cases in which a person kills a thief who is stealing his car, kills an unarmed attacker, or kills an attacker even when he could safely retreat, as compared to a control case in which the person is killed in response to a trivial threat. Participants' sentencing ratings were predicted by their beliefs about whether the force the defender used in the situation was necessary. In addition, participants who lacked confidence in the ability of the criminal justice system to protect them and their property recommended shorter sentences; those with less confidence in the system seemed to believe that a person should not be punished as much for taking the law into his own hands. Further results suggest that participants believed that their sentencing judgments mirrored the New Jersey Criminal Code, modeled after the MPC, although they were actually discrepant from it. We consider implications of these results for legal codes.

  8. When self-affirmations reduce defensiveness: timing is key.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Armor, David A

    2010-07-01

    Research on self-affirmation has shown that simple reminders of self-integrity reduce people's tendency to respond defensively to threat. Recent research has suggested it is irrelevant whether the self-affirmation exercise takes place before or after the threat or the individual's defensive response to it, supposedly because the meaning of threats is continuously reprocessed. However, four experiments revealed that affirmations may be effective only when introduced prior to the initiation of a defensive response. Affirmations introduced before threatening feedback reduced defensive responding; affirming after a threat was effective in reducing defensiveness only if the defensive conclusion had yet to be reached. Even though threats may activate a defensive motivation, the authors' results suggest that defensive responses may not be spontaneous and may be prompted only when suggested by the dependent measures themselves. This explains why some affirmations positioned after threats are effective in reducing defensiveness. Implications for self-affirmation theory are discussed.

  9. When self-affirmations reduce defensiveness: timing is key.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Armor, David A

    2010-07-01

    Research on self-affirmation has shown that simple reminders of self-integrity reduce people's tendency to respond defensively to threat. Recent research has suggested it is irrelevant whether the self-affirmation exercise takes place before or after the threat or the individual's defensive response to it, supposedly because the meaning of threats is continuously reprocessed. However, four experiments revealed that affirmations may be effective only when introduced prior to the initiation of a defensive response. Affirmations introduced before threatening feedback reduced defensive responding; affirming after a threat was effective in reducing defensiveness only if the defensive conclusion had yet to be reached. Even though threats may activate a defensive motivation, the authors' results suggest that defensive responses may not be spontaneous and may be prompted only when suggested by the dependent measures themselves. This explains why some affirmations positioned after threats are effective in reducing defensiveness. Implications for self-affirmation theory are discussed. PMID:20505163

  10. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  11. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

  12. Maintenance of an insanity defense under Montana's "abolition" of the insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Steadman, H J; Callahan, L A; Robbins, P C; Morrissey, J P

    1989-03-01

    In 1979, Montana's insanity defense was replaced with the more restrictive mens rea defense, a change that has been described as an example of "abolition" of the insanity defense. The authors identified cases in which mental health was an issue in seven Montana counties for 3 years before and 3 years after the 1979 reform. They found that acquittals based on the insanity plea markedly declined, but that dismissals based on incompetence to stand trial increased substantially following the reform. They conclude that dismissal based on incompetence to stand trial became a substitute for acquittal based on the insanity plea under mens rea.

  13. 29 CFR 1630.15 - Defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard” may include a requirement that an individual shall not pose a direct threat to the health or... disparate impact charges. It may be a defense to a charge of discrimination brought under this part that a uniformly applied standard, criterion, or policy has a disparate impact on an individual with a...

  14. Department of Defense Information Analysis Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothschild, M. Cecilia

    1987-01-01

    Describes the establishment of Department of Defense (DOD) information analysis centers and discusses their purpose and activities, how they differ from special libraries and other information centers, and some problems resulting from the communication of classified information. A list of existing information analysis centers is provided. (CLB)

  15. 7 CFR 601.3 - Defense responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Defense responsibilities. 601.3 Section 601.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... selection and use of land for agricultural production. (2) The harvesting of crops. (3) The use of...

  16. 7 CFR 601.3 - Defense responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Defense responsibilities. 601.3 Section 601.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... selection and use of land for agricultural production. (2) The harvesting of crops. (3) The use of...

  17. EXTENSION METHODS IDEAS FOR RURAL CIVIL DEFENSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    TECHNIQUES FOR INVOLVING THE RURAL POPULATION IN CIVIL DEFENSE PLANNING IS THE SUBJECT OF THIS DOCUMENT. AN INITIAL STEP INVOLVES DETERMINING THE VARIOUS COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO BE USED. METHODS OF WORKING WITH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS, MASS MEDIA TECHNIQUES, AND CONSTRUCTION OF EXHIBITS ARE DESCRIBED. SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES EXPLAINED…

  18. Philosophical Scrutiny of the Strategic Defense Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonsheck, Jonathan

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes three Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposals, and argues that only the least technologically feasible variant (the AstroAtmosOceanDome conception) can be judged morally superior to old-fashioned "we'll kill you if you kill us" deterrence ideas. (JDH)

  19. 7 CFR 601.3 - Defense responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defense responsibilities. 601.3 Section 601.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... selection and use of land for agricultural production. (2) The harvesting of crops. (3) The use of...

  20. 7 CFR 601.3 - Defense responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Defense responsibilities. 601.3 Section 601.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... selection and use of land for agricultural production. (2) The harvesting of crops. (3) The use of...

  1. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

  2. Premenstrual syndrome as a criminal defense.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W

    1990-10-01

    Premenstrual syndrome may be effective as an affirmative defense to a criminal charge if the defendant can show that (i) she was suffering from premenstrual syndrome at the time the crime was committed; and (ii) because of her condition, either that the criminal act was an involuntary act or that at the time of the criminal act she did not possess the mental state required by law for the commission of a crime. Premenstrual syndrome has been successfully pleaded as a criminal defense in Great Britain but has not been tested in American criminal courts. It may now be possible, however, because of the increase of behavioral, psychological, and physiological studies precisely characterizing premenstrual syndrome and elucidating the necessary criteria for its accurate diagnosis, for the appropriate defendant to assert this defense in an American court. This paper discusses (i) the use of recent scientific data to demonstrate the existence of premenstrual syndrome; (ii) the use of standardized psychological tests or physiological assays to demonstrate that the defendant suffers from premenstrual syndrome; and, (iii) the legal choices to be made and evidentiary hurdles that must be overcome in presenting a premenstrual syndrome defense.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of CBI in Defense Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; Orlansky, Jesse

    This presentation provides an in-process review of researching efforts at the U.S. Army Research Institute and the Institute for Defense Analysis to update their earlier studies of Computer Based Instruction (CBI) cost-effectiveness. In the presentation five topics are addressed: (1) the differences between education and training, and why they…

  4. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  5. The Development of Ego Defenses in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levit, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A model for developmental transitions in defense use in adolescence based on an integration of psychoanalytic views of adolescence and J. Loevinger's theory of ego development was tested with 31 male and 35 female adolescents. Results support some hypothesized developmental transitions and not others. Implications of findings are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Education Programs in the Department of Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Force Management and Personnel (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A guide to an extensive range of education programs offered by the Department of Defense is presented. K-12 school systems overseas and in the United States make it possible for children to attend school around the world. Voluntary Education programs generate nearly 700,000 undergraduate and graduate-level college enrollments by military services…

  7. CERCLA's innocent landowner defense -- Consultants beware

    SciTech Connect

    Nijman, J.T. )

    1994-05-01

    Consultant liability is an area of the innocent landowner defense under CERCLA that is not often discussed. The only reasonable way to protect consultants hired by innocent purchasers'' is for Congress or state legislatures to establish standardized, regulated audit guidelines. However, even standardized guidelines do not protect consultants completely, because standards cannot specify all activity necessary to perform a particular task. Each project has unique circumstances, and standards arguably can become per se determinants of liability. CERCLA provides three defenses to its basic strict, joint and several liability provisions -- an act of God, an act of war, and an act or omission of a third party not in a contractual relationship with the current owner. Congress amended the third-party not in a contractual relationship with the current owner. Congress amended the third-party defense in SARA by redefining contractual relationship'' to exclude from liability owners who acquired the real property following disposal or placement of hazardous material, and established satisfactorily that the owner at the time of purchase neither knew nor had reason to know hazardous substances were disposed on the property -- the innocent landowner defense.

  8. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): a policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fought, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    Contents include -- Foundations of Deterrence; A Model for Stability; Analysis of SDI/Stability; Related Issues; Treatment of Implementation Factors; Historical Evolution and Trends; The Strategic Choices and Flexible Response; The Planners' Perspective; The Impact of Strategic Defense on a Strategy of Flexible Response; Synthesis.

  9. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    .... Additional Authorities. (a) To create, maintain, protect, expand, or restore domestic industrial base... expand the productive capacities of domestic sources for critical components, critical technology items... or controlled by the Department of Defense, use of petroleum and gas pipelines, and coal...

  10. 77 FR 59404 - Food Defense; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Defense; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office... University (OSU), Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center (FAPC), is announcing a public...

  11. Promise or Peril: The Strategic Defense Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Zbigniew, Ed.; And Others

    The major policy debate touched off by President Reagan's March 1983 speech announcing the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was the reopening of one that had begun 35 years before. Then and now the ultimate question is what kind of strategic posture is most likely to contribute to mutual strategic stability? The answer is central to national…

  12. Hanford defense mission: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes the origin of Hanford, and its role in the Manhattan Project, its current role, and what is seen for Hanford in the future. Emphasis is on Hanford's defense mission. However, Hanford is a national resource in a number of areas and some of these are mentioned as well.

  13. The chemistry of defense: theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, M R

    1995-01-01

    Defensive chemicals used by organisms for protection against potential consumers are generally products of secondary metabolism. Such chemicals are characteristic of free-living organisms with a limited range of movement or limited control over their movements. Despite the fact that chemical defense is widespread among animals as well as plants, the vast majority of theories advanced to account for patterns of allocation of energy and materials to defensive chemistry derive exclusively from studies of plant-herbivore interactions. Many such theories place an undue emphasis on primary physiological processes that are unique to plants (e.g., photosynthesis), rendering such theories limited in their utility or predictive power. The general failure of any single all-encompassing theory to gain acceptance to date may indicate that such a theory might not be a biologically realistic expectation. In lieu of refining theory, focusing attention on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie chemical defense allocation is likely to provide greater insights into understanding patterns across taxa. In particular, generalizations derived from understanding such mechanisms in natural systems have immediate applications in altering patterns of human use of natural and synthetic chemicals for pest control. PMID:7816816

  14. Department of Defense Education Activity. An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Defense, 2004

    2004-01-01

    DoDEA operates 223 public schools in 16 districts located in seven states, Puerto Rico, Guam, and 13 foreign countries to serve the children of military service members and Department of Defense civilian employees. Approximately 104,935 students are enrolled in DoDEA schools, with approximately 73,200 students in the DoDDS system, and…

  15. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. PMID:26173238

  16. Schools Enlisting Defense Industry to Boost STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Defense contractors Northrop Grumman Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. are joining forces in an innovative partnership to develop high-tech simulations to boost STEM--or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics--education in the Baltimore County schools. The Baltimore County partnership includes the local operations of two major military…

  17. The University and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira J.

    1987-01-01

    Under full scrutiny, the Strategic Defense Initiative program is revealed as a form of escapism from global realities, with dangerous and destabilizing themes for both the university and society. Universities must face this issue squarely, and limit their focus to activities best suited to an intellectually constructive and humane purpose. (MSE)

  18. 75 FR 32416 - Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Systems and Assets to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and other Nuclear Weapons Effects will meet in closed... discuss presentations on: findings and recommendations of the Congressional EMP Commission, the Defense...; implementation to date of DoD Instruction 3150.09; the SECDEF 2009 Report to Congress on EMP Survivability;...

  19. Homeland defense: looking back, moving forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quine, Dennis H.

    2002-07-01

    A concern for homeland defense has been with us since the inception of the Republic. However, it has changed in focus and emphasis depending on the nature of the threat we perceived. In the earliest decades the threat was from invasion by a Britain that still did not accept the results of the Revolutionary War. Later the focus shifted to concern about possible attack by ships, and during WW I and WW II, by submarines. With the advent of the intercontinental nuclear-armed bomber in 1950, our focus changed again. When we could be attacked by ballistic missiles after 1960, our concern focused on that threat. Now that we have seen that damaging attacks can be brought to the homeland 'under the radar screen', by terrorist operations, the focus has shifted again. We are now entering an era when we must address potential homeland attacks with weapons of mass destruction (WMD) that may be delivered by a range of means, depending on the source of the attack. In response to this full spectrum of attack modes, the U.S. has implemented a three-stage defense policy that integrates overseas 'offense' and homeland 'defense'. This framework for defense analysis and planning is likely to be with us into the indefinite future.

  20. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... component of the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury (DCoE). DHCC’s mission is to improve the lives of our nation’s service members, veterans and families by advancing excellence in ... health care and prevention of psychological health disorders. ...

  1. Analysis of Defensiveness in Relation to Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefic, Edward C.; Lorr, Maurice

    1971-01-01

    One major finding is that a substantial share of the variance common to the five defensive scales included in the study are accounted for by the role playing factor. Also, all subtest scores of admission of common frailties load on the same factor as do aggression, suspicion, autism, and body symptoms. (Author)

  2. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  3. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  4. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  5. The organization of the hypothalamic pathways mediating affective defense behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S A; Edinger, H M; Siegel, A

    1985-03-18

    The purpose of this study was to describe the hypothalamic pathways which mediate affective defense in the cat utilizing the methods of [14C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and [3H]leucine radioautography in concert with the technique of electrical brain stimulation. The feline affective defense response, characterized by pupillary dilatation, piloerection, ear retraction, hissing, growling and striking with the forepaws, was elicited consistently by stimulation of sites within the ventromedial hypothalamus and anterior aspect of the medial hypothalamus. In one series of experiments, 2-DG autoradiography was employed to describe the brain regions activated following stimulation of sites in the region of the ventromedial hypothalamus from which affective defense had been elicited. Ventromedial hypothalamic stimulation produced activation primarily in forebrain regions situated rostral to the level of the stimulating electrode. These structures included principally the anteromedial hypothalamus and medial preoptic area, as well as the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis and anterior commissure, diagonal band and lateral septal area. The caudal extent of activation included only the dorsal and perifornical hypothalamus at the level of the stimulation site. In a second series of experiments, affective defense sites in the anteromedial hypothalamus were stimulated and the regional distribution of 2-DG label was identified. In contrast to the results obtained from ventromedial hypothalamic stimulation, these experiments revealed a marked descending distribution of label within the posterior hypothalamus, midbrain central gray and ventral tegmental area. Results obtained from studies in which tritiated amino acids were injected into affective defense sites in both the ventromedial nucleus and anteromedial hypothalamus confirmed the general findings observed with 2-DG autoradiography. From these observations, we have concluded that the organization of the pathway mediating affective

  6. Microbiota-Mediated Inflammation and Antimicrobial Defense in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Silvia; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    The diverse microbial populations constituting the intestinal microbiota promote immune development and differentiation, but because of their complex metabolic requirements and the consequent difficulty culturing them, they remained, until recently, largely uncharacterized and mysterious. In the last decade, deep nucleic acid sequencing platforms, new computational and bioinformatics tools, and full-genome characterization of several hundred commensal bacterial species facilitated studies of the microbiota and revealed that differences in microbiota composition can be associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases, that each human is colonized by a distinct bacterial flora, and that the microbiota can be manipulated to reduce and even cure some diseases. Different bacterial species induce distinct immune cell populations that can play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, and thus the composition of the microbiota determines, in part, the level of resistance to infection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent work characterizing commensal microbes that contribute to the antimicrobial defense/inflammation axis. PMID:25581310

  7. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses: A case of active manipulation?

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-07-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such "indirect defenses" can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation.

  8. Multitasking antimicrobial peptides in plant development and host defense against biotic/abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2014-11-01

    Crop losses due to pathogens are a major threat to global food security. Plants employ a multilayer defense against a pathogen including the use of physical barriers (cell wall), induction of hypersensitive defense response (HR), resistance (R) proteins, and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Unlike a complex R gene-mediated immunity, AMPs directly target diverse microbial pathogens. Many a times, R-mediated immunity breaks down and plant defense is compromised. Although R-gene dependent pathogen resistance has been well studied, comparatively little is known about the interactions of AMPs with host defense and physiology. AMPs are ubiquitous, low molecular weight peptides that display broad spectrum resistance against bacteria, fungi and viruses. In plants, AMPs are mainly classified into cyclotides, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins, snakins, and hevein-like vicilin-like and knottins. Genetic distance lineages suggest their conservation with minimal effect of speciation events during evolution. AMPs provide durable resistance in plants through a combination of membrane lysis and cellular toxicity of the pathogen. Plant hormones - gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonates, and salicylic acid, are among the physiological regulators that regulate the expression of AMPs. Transgenically produced AMP-plants have become a means showing that AMPs are able to mitigate host defense responses while providing durable resistance against pathogens.

  9. The MAP kinase substrate MKS1 is a regulator of plant defense responses.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Erik; Jenkins, Thomas; Brodersen, Peter; Thorgrimsen, Stephan; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Zhu, Shijiang; Qiu, Jin-Long; Micheelsen, Pernille; Rocher, Anne; Petersen, Morten; Newman, Mari-Anne; Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik; Hirt, Heribert; Somssich, Imre; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2005-07-20

    Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) functions as a regulator of pathogen defense responses, because it is required for both repression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent resistance and for activation of jasmonate (JA)-dependent defense gene expression. To understand MPK4 signaling mechanisms, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the MPK4 substrate MKS1. Analyses of transgenic plants and genome-wide transcript profiling indicated that MKS1 is required for full SA-dependent resistance in mpk4 mutants, and that overexpression of MKS1 in wild-type plants is sufficient to activate SA-dependent resistance, but does not interfere with induction of a defense gene by JA. Further yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that MKS1 interacts with the WRKY transcription factors WRKY25 and WRKY33. WRKY25 and WRKY33 were shown to be in vitro substrates of MPK4, and a wrky33 knockout mutant was found to exhibit increased expression of the SA-related defense gene PR1. MKS1 may therefore contribute to MPK4-regulated defense activation by coupling the kinase to specific WRKY transcription factors.

  10. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Yang, Haibian; Bao, Fei; Ao, Kevin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuelin; Yang, Shuhua

    2015-10-01

    Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR)-type resistance (R) protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains) domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5), which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1) to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1), RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4) and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1). Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses. PMID:26451844

  11. Natural History of Innate Host Defense Peptides.

    PubMed

    Linde, A; Wachter, B; Höner, O P; Dib, L; Ross, C; Tamayo, A R; Blecha, F; Melgarejo, T

    2009-12-01

    Host defense peptides act on the forefront of innate immunity, thus playing a central role in the survival of animals and plants. Despite vast morphological changes in species through evolutionary history, all animals examined to date share common features in their innate immune defense strategies, hereunder expression of host defense peptides (HDPs). Most studies on HDPs have focused on humans, domestic and laboratory animals. More than a thousand different sequences have been identified, yet data on HDPs in wild-living animals are sparse. The biological functions of HDPs include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation. Natural selection and coevolutionary host-pathogen arms race theory suggest that the extent and specificity of the microbial load influences the spectrum and potency of HDPs in different species. Individuals of extant species-that have lived for an extended period in evolutionary history amid populations with intact processes of natural selection-likely possess the most powerful and well-adapted "natural antibiotics". Research on the evolutionary history of the innate defense system and the host in context of the consequences of challenges as well as the efficacy of the innate immune system under natural conditions is therefore of immediate interest. This review focuses on evolutionary aspects of immunophysiology, with emphasis on innate effector molecules. Studies on host defense in wild-living animals may significantly enhance our understanding of inborn immune mechanisms, and help identify molecules that may assist us to cope better with the increasing microbial challenges that likely follow from the continuous amplification of biodiversity levels on Earth. PMID:26783164

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants. PMID:25914698

  13. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants' susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.

  14. Ralstonia solanacearum Extracellular Polysaccharide Is a Specific Elicitor of Defense Responses in Wilt-Resistant Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Milling, Annett; Babujee, Lavanya; Allen, Caitilyn

    2011-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt of diverse plants, produces copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. The function of EPS in wilt disease is uncertain. Leading hypotheses are that EPS physically obstructs plant water transport, or that EPS cloaks the bacterium from host plant recognition and subsequent defense. Tomato plants infected with R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 upregulated genes in both the ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) defense signal transduction pathways. The horizontally wilt-resistant tomato line Hawaii7996 activated expression of these defense genes faster and to a greater degree in response to R. solanacearum infection than did susceptible cultivar Bonny Best. However, EPS played different roles in resistant and susceptible host responses to R. solanacearum. In susceptible plants the wild-type and eps− mutant strains induced generally similar defense responses. But in resistant Hawaii7996 tomato plants, the wild-type pathogens induced significantly greater defense responses than the eps− mutants, suggesting that the resistant host recognizes R. solanacearum EPS. Consistent with this idea, purified EPS triggered significant SA pathway defense gene expression in resistant, but not in susceptible, tomato plants. In addition, the eps− mutant triggered noticeably less production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species in resistant tomato stems and leaves, despite attaining similar cell densities in planta. Collectively, these data suggest that bacterial wilt-resistant plants can specifically recognize EPS from R. solanacearum. PMID:21253019

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  17. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  18. Low Levels of Polymorphism in Genes That Control the Activation of Defense Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Erica G.; Traw, M. Brian; Toomajian, Christopher; Kreitman, Martin; Bergelson, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Plants use signaling pathways involving salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene to defend against pathogen and herbivore attack. Many defense response genes involved in these signaling pathways have been characterized, but little is known about the selective pressures they experience. A representative set of 27 defense response genes were resequenced in a worldwide set of 96 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, and patterns of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated in relation to an empirical distribution of SNPs generated from either 876 fragments or 236 fragments with >400 bp coding sequence (this latter set was selected for comparisons with coding sequences) distributed across the genomes of the same set of accessions. Defense response genes have significantly fewer protein variants, display lower levels of nonsynonymous nucleotide diversity, and have fewer nonsynonymous segregating sites. The majority of defense response genes appear to be experiencing purifying selection, given the dearth of protein variation in this set of genes. Eight genes exhibit some evidence of partial selective sweeps or transient balancing selection. These results therefore provide a strong contrast to the high levels of balancing selection exhibited by genes at the upstream positions in these signaling pathways. PMID:18245336

  19. Pulmonary defense mechanisms against opportunistic fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, A R

    1989-01-01

    Though of critical importance, nonimmune host defense mechanisms against aspergillosis and mucormycosis are not completely understood. Prevention of these infections presumably requires control of either spore germination and/or hyphal growth by the host. The data suggest that the host provides an important barrier to infection by control of spore or conidia germination, the critical step involving conversion of the fungus to its tissue-invasive form. The mechanisms of host defense against A. fumigatus are not strictly dependent on inhibition of conidia germination. Rather, pulmonary defense against Aspergillus appears to depend to a greater degree on early killing of fungal conidia by alveolar macrophages. In contrast, prevention of mucormycosis appears to require inhibition of fungal spore germination by the bronchoalveolar macrophage, thereby preventing conversion of the fungus to its hyphal form, although resident bronchoalveolar macrophages are unable to kill R. oryzae spores. Thus, host pulmonary defenses to Rhizopus and Aspergillus vary, even in normal animals. The tissue-invasive hyphal forms of the fungi which cause aspergillosis and mucormycosis are too large to be ingested by phagocytic cells. Although macrophages and monocytes can damage hyphae, the bulk of this role appears to fall upon the neutrophil. However, antihyphal mechanisms of neutrophils may not necessarily be identical for all types of hyphae. Moreover, interactions of several potential oxidative and nonoxidative antihyphal mechanisms may define the host's ability to limit fungal infections. In individuals where concentrations of oxidative or nonoxidative substances are limiting or suboptimal, interactions of mechanisms may be required for antihyphal activity, and studies of these interactions are important to gain better knowledge of the defense mechanisms against opportunistic mycoses in the intact host. In summary, at least two distinct lines of defense against Aspergillus and Rhizopus

  20. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  1. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability Date: All solicitations for... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy memorandum dated March 4, 2011, Department of...

  2. 77 FR 39487 - Defense Business Board (DBB); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Augment the Department of Defense's Mission'' Task Group Study.'' The mission of the Board is to examine... Deliberations on ``Leveraging Public- Private Collaboration to Augment the Department of Defense's...

  3. Defense Mechanisms: Discussions and Bibliographies; General or Multiple, and Specific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This publication considers some Freudian ego mechanisms. The first discussion and bibliography concerns defense mechanisms, in general or in multiple; after which, the discussions and bibliographies concern specific defense mechanisms: denial; displacement, substitution, sublimation; fixation; identification, introjection, incorporation,…

  4. 75 FR 64711 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... session on October 27-28, 2010, at the Pentagon, Arlington, VA. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Debra Rose, Executive Officer, Defense Science Board, 3140 Defense Pentagon, Room 3B888A, Washington,...

  5. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Sign up Search: Defense Centers of Excellence For Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury U.S. Department ... Section 508 External Link Disclaimer Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury | 800- ...

  6. 32 CFR 28.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal action from the... appropriate channels to: Director for Research, ODDR&E(R), 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC....

  7. Cascade defense via routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Lan; Du, Wen-Bo; Hong, Chen

    2015-05-01

    As the cascading failures in networked traffic systems are becoming more and more serious, research on cascade defense in complex networks has become a hotspot in recent years. In this paper, we propose a traffic-based cascading failure model, in which each packet in the network has its own source and destination. When cascade is triggered, packets will be redistributed according to a given routing strategy. Here, a global hybrid (GH) routing strategy, which uses the dynamic information of the queue length and the static information of nodes' degree, is proposed to defense the network cascade. Comparing GH strategy with the shortest path (SP) routing, efficient routing (ER) and global dynamic (GD) routing strategies, we found that GH strategy is more effective than other routing strategies in improving the network robustness against cascading failures. Our work provides insight into the robustness of networked traffic systems.

  8. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

  9. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950`s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

  10. Emptiness as defense in severe regressive states.

    PubMed

    LaFarge, L

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the empty states experienced by severely ill borderline patients. At times of stressful regression, these patients use complaints of emptiness to describe profound disturbances of affect, cognition, object relations, and bodily experience. Empty states may be seen as complex defensive configurations which protect a borderline level of psychic structure from the impact of aggressively charged object relations, and ward off further regression to states of fragmentation or fusion. Severely ill borderline patients consolidate an empty screen by means of a characteristic repertoire of primitive defenses consisting of various forms of projective identification, including bitriangulation and projective identification of psychic agencies, somatization, acting out, and specific alterations in cognition. The author describes the highly deviant organizations of the object world seen in empty states, and the complex and disturbing countertransferences which these states evoke.

  11. Infrared point sensors for homeland defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ross C.; Carter, Michael T.; Homrighausen, Craig L.

    2004-03-01

    We report recent progress toward the development of infrared point sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents and explosive related chemicals, which pose a significant threat to both health and environment. Technical objectives have focused on the development of polymer sorbents to enhance the infrared response of these hazardous organic compounds. For example, infrared point sensors which part-per-billion detection limits have been developed that rapidlypartition chemical warfare agents and explosive related chemicals into polymer thin films with desirable chemical and physical properties. These chemical sensors demonstrate novel routes to reversible sensing of hazardous organic compounds. The development of small, low-power, sensitive, and selective instruments employing these chemical sensors would enhance the capabilities of federal, state, and local emergency response to incidents involving chemical terrorism. Specific applications include chemical defense systems for military personnel and homeland defense, environmental monitors for remediation and demilitarization, and point source detectors for emergency and maintenance response teams.

  12. Commentary: the insanity defense and youths in juvenile court.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jamison E; Myers, Wade C

    2013-01-01

    Juveniles, like adults, should be afforded the right to raise an insanity defense. In this commentary on the article by Morse and Bonnie on the abolition of the insanity defense, we explain why so few juveniles across the United States are granted access to the insanity defense and the reasons that they should have that option. We also consider whether the Delling case was the best suited vehicle to argue for extending constitutional protection to the insanity defense nationwide.

  13. Commentary: the insanity defense and youths in juvenile court.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jamison E; Myers, Wade C

    2013-01-01

    Juveniles, like adults, should be afforded the right to raise an insanity defense. In this commentary on the article by Morse and Bonnie on the abolition of the insanity defense, we explain why so few juveniles across the United States are granted access to the insanity defense and the reasons that they should have that option. We also consider whether the Delling case was the best suited vehicle to argue for extending constitutional protection to the insanity defense nationwide. PMID:24335320

  14. JUB1 suppresses Pseudomonas syringae-induced defense responses through accumulation of DELLA proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Nobmann, Barbara; Devi Allu, Annapurna; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytohormones act in concert to coordinate plant growth and the response to environmental cues. Gibberellins (GAs) are growth-promoting hormones that recently emerged as modulators of plant immune signaling. By regulating the stability of DELLA proteins, GAs intersect with the signaling pathways of the classical primary defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), thereby altering the final outcome of the immune response. DELLA proteins confer resistance to necrotrophic pathogens by potentiating JA signaling and raise the susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens by attenuating the SA pathway. Here, we show that JUB1, a core element of the GA - brassinosteroid (BR) - DELLA regulatory module, functions as a negative regulator of defense responses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) and mediates the crosstalk between growth and immunity. PMID:27159137

  15. Synthetic Ultrashort Cationic Lipopeptides Induce Systemic Plant Defense Responses against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Yariv; Makovitzki, Arik; Shai, Yechiel; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada

    2009-01-01

    A new family of synthetic, membrane-active, ultrashort lipopeptides composed of only four amino acids linked to fatty acids was tested for the ability to induce systemic resistance and defense responses in plants. We found that two peptides wherein the third residue is a d-enantiomer (italic), C16-KKKK and C16-KLLK, can induce medium alkalinization of tobacco suspension-cultured cells and expression of defense-related genes in cucumber and Arabidopsis seedlings. Moreover, these compounds can prime systemic induction of antimicrobial compounds in cucumber leaves similarly to the plant-beneficial fungus Trichoderma asperellum T203 and provide systemic protection against the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea B05, Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans, and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Thus, short cationic lipopeptides are a new category of compounds with potentially high utility in the induction of systemic resistance in plants. PMID:19542326

  16. Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2013-08-01

    11/13/2013 Committee on Appropriations Senate Subcommittee on Department of Defense. Hearings held prior to introduction and/or referral. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 113-260. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3547, which became Public Law 113-76 on 1/17/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. A geometric model of defensive peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Bufacchi, R J; Liang, M; Griffin, L D; Iannetti, G D

    2016-01-01

    Potentially harmful stimuli occurring within the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS), a protective area surrounding the body, elicit stronger defensive reactions. The spatial features of the DPPS are poorly defined and limited to descriptive estimates of its extent along a single dimension. Here we postulated a family of geometric models of the DPPS, to address two important questions with respect to its spatial features: What is its fine-grained topography? How does the nervous system represent the body area to be defended? As a measure of the DPPS, we used the strength of the defensive blink reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the hand (hand-blink reflex, HBR), which is reliably modulated by the position of the stimulated hand in egocentric coordinates. We tested the goodness of fit of the postulated models to HBR data from six experiments in which we systematically explored the HBR modulation by hand position in both head-centered and body-centered coordinates. The best-fitting model indicated that 1) the nervous system's representation of the body area defended by the HBR can be approximated by a half-ellipsoid centered on the face and 2) the DPPS extending from this area has the shape of a bubble elongated along the vertical axis. Finally, the empirical observation that the HBR is modulated by hand position in head-centered coordinates indicates that the DPPS is anchored to the face. The modeling approach described in this article can be generalized to describe the spatial modulation of any defensive response. PMID:26510762

  18. The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Coluccia, Fania; Torres, Martha; L’Haridon, Floriane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics, and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses. PMID:24982666

  19. Civil defense: nuclear debate's new element

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1982-06-04

    President Reagan's plans to build up US military forces include a seven-year $4.2 billion civil-defense program that will emphasize the removal of residents from urban centers and will match the Soviet capability. In the Soviet Union, cities of 100,000 have shelters for 10 to 20% of the population, but they lack the US transportation system, low-density suburbs, mild climate, and other factors. The House Armed Services Committee approved raising the current $133 million civil-defense budget to $252 million, but the Senate's May 14th vote limited the increase to $144 million. The civil-defense debate offers peace and anti-nuclear activists on opportunity to organize and coordinate their efforts. Peace activists were to demonstrate against the administration's plans during a special June 7-9 United Nations session because they feel the public will now be able to understand the implications of relocation in government planning for nuclear war. 17 references, 2 figures, 31 tables. (DCK)

  20. Vagal nerve and the gastric mucosal defense.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, G; Karádi, O; Király, A; Matus, Z; Sütö, G; Tóth, G; Vincze, A

    1993-01-01

    An essential role for an intact vagal nerve has been proven in the development of gastric mucosal cyto- and general protection. On the other hand, chemically-induced (ethanol, HCl, indomethacin) gastric mucosal damage is enhanced after acute surgical vagotomy. The aims of this paper were to study the possible mechanisms of the vagal nerve in the development of gastric mucosal defense. The following questions were addressed: 1) effect of surgical vagotomy on the development of ethanol- (ETOH), HCl-, and indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal damage: 2) changes in the gastric mucosal defense by scavengers, prostacyclin and other compounds (small doses of atropine and cimetidine; 3) changes in the gastric mucosal vascular permeability due to chemicals; 4) effect of indomethacin in the ETOH and HCl models with and without surgical vagotomy; 5) changes in the gastric mucosal content of prostacyclin and PGE2 in the ETOH and HCl models after surgical vagotomy; and 6) changes in the role of SH-groups in gastric mucosal defense after surgical vagotomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Extracellular DNA: the tip of root defenses?

    PubMed

    Hawes, Martha C; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Wen, Fushi; White, Gerard J; Vanetten, Hans D; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2011-06-01

    This review discusses how extracellular DNA (exDNA) might function in plant defense, and at what level(s) of innate immunity this process might operate. A new role for extracellular factors in mammalian defense has been described in a series of studies. These studies reveal that cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells produce 'extracellular traps' (ETs) consisting of histone-linked exDNA. When pathogens are attracted to such ETs, they are trapped and killed. When the exDNA component of ETs is degraded, trapping is impaired and resistance against invasion is reduced. Conversely, mutation of microbial genes encoding exDNases that degrade exDNA results in loss of virulence. This discovery that exDNases are virulence factors opens new avenues for disease control. In plants, exDNA is required for defense of the root tip. Innate immunity-related proteins are among a group of >100 proteins secreted from the root cap and root border cell populations. Direct tests revealed that exDNA also is rapidly synthesized and exported from the root tip. When this exDNA is degraded by the endonuclease DNase 1, root tip resistance to fungal infection is lost; when the polymeric structure is degraded more slowly, by the exonuclease BAL31, loss of resistance to fungal infection is delayed accordingly. The results suggest that root border cells may function in a manner analogous to that which occurs in mammalian cells.

  2. Demeter's Resilience: an International Food Defense exercise.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Morgan; Kennedy, Shaun; Busta, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD), which is led by the University of Minnesota, hosted an international food defense exercise on 27 to 29 May 2008. Established in 2004, NCFPD is a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence with the mission of defending the food system through research and education. Tabletop exercises are practice-based scenarios intended to mimic real life experiences. The objective of the exercise discussed in this article was to facilitate discussion to increase awareness among exercise participants of both the threat that would be posed by an intentional attack on the food supply and the international impact of such an attack. Through facilitated discussion, exercise participants agreed on the following themes: (i) recognition of a foodborne disease outbreak is driven by the characteristics of the illness rather than the actual number of ill individuals; (ii) during the course of a foodborne outbreak there are generally multiple levels of communication; (iii) a common case definition for a foodborne disease is difficult to develop on a global scale; and (iv) the safety and health of all individuals is the number one priority of all parties involved. Several challenges were faced during the development of the exercise, but these were overcome to produce a more robust exercise. The following discussion will provide an overview of the challenges and the strategies used to overcome them. The lessons learned provide insight into how to plan, prepare, and host an international food defense exercise. PMID:20615353

  3. Using spallation neutron sources for defense research

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Sterbenz, S.M.; Weinacht, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced characterization techniques and accelerated simulation are the cornerstones of the Energy Department`s science-based program to maintain confidence in the safety, reliability, and performance of the US nuclear deterrent in an era of no nuclear testing. Neutrons and protons provided by an accelerator-based facility have an important role to play in this program, impacting several of the key stockpile stewardship and management issues identified by the Department of Defense. Many of the techniques used for defense research at a spallation source have been used for many years for the basic research community, and to a lesser extent by industrial scientists. By providing access to a broad spectrum of researchers with different backgrounds, a spallation source such as the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is able to promote synergistic interaction between defense, basic and industrial researchers. This broadens the scientific basis of the stockpile stewardship program in the short term and will provide spin-off to industrial and basic research in the longer term.

  4. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  5. 14 CFR § 1271.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. § 1271.500 Section § 1271.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 1271.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a...

  6. 14 CFR 1271.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Secretary of Defense. 1271.500 Section 1271.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 1271.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case...

  7. 14 CFR 1271.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 1271.500 Section 1271.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 1271.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case...

  8. 14 CFR 1271.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 1271.500 Section 1271.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 1271.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case...

  9. Rural Civil Defense Education Program. Report for Fiscal Year 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    In 1968, the Rural Civil Defense Education Program, conducted by the Cooperative Extension Service under contract with the Office of Civil Defense, was faced with discontinuance of funds; in some cases, the Rural Civil Defense (RCD) leader was absorbed into the regular budgets and in others the work was incorporated into the regular ongoing…

  10. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...

  11. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...

  12. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...

  13. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau...

  14. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 209 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to add a mailing address DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  15. 75 FR 25119 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to correct a reference to a paragraph in a FAR clause. DATES: Effective Date: May 7,...

  16. 76 FR 25 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to correct the clause list and associated clause dates in the clause ``Contract Terms and... making technical amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  17. 75 FR 34946 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 239 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to change a DoD Directive number for DoD Directive 8570.01 Information Assurance...

  18. 10 CFR 70.13 - Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Defense. 70.13 Section 70.13 Energy NUCLEAR... Department of Defense. The regulations in this part do not apply to the Department of Defense to the extent that the Department receives, possesses and uses special nuclear material in accordance with...

  19. 10 CFR 70.13 - Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of Defense. 70.13 Section 70.13 Energy NUCLEAR... Department of Defense. The regulations in this part do not apply to the Department of Defense to the extent that the Department receives, possesses and uses special nuclear material in accordance with...

  20. 10 CFR 70.13 - Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department of Defense. 70.13 Section 70.13 Energy NUCLEAR... Department of Defense. The regulations in this part do not apply to the Department of Defense to the extent that the Department receives, possesses and uses special nuclear material in accordance with...

  1. 10 CFR 70.13 - Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of Defense. 70.13 Section 70.13 Energy NUCLEAR... Department of Defense. The regulations in this part do not apply to the Department of Defense to the extent that the Department receives, possesses and uses special nuclear material in accordance with...

  2. 75 FR 27735 - Department of Defense Wage Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Department of Defense Wage Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given that closed meeting of the Department of...

  3. 75 FR 135 - Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings AGENCY: Civilian Personnel Management... that the Department of Defense Wage Committee will meet in closed session on January 12 and...

  4. 10 CFR 70.13 - Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of Defense. 70.13 Section 70.13 Energy NUCLEAR... Department of Defense. The regulations in this part do not apply to the Department of Defense to the extent that the Department receives, possesses and uses special nuclear material in accordance with...

  5. The Child as Psychologist: Attributions and Evaluations of Defensive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied children's attributions and evaluations concerning defense mechanisms used by other children. Children negatively evaluated the blame-externalizing defense of projection and viewed it as a masculine characteristic. The internalizing defense of self-blame was evaluated more positively and viewed as a feminine characteristic. (Author/DB)

  6. Children's Use of Defenses and Self-Esteem Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Deborah

    Children's use of defenses to maintain or enhance self-esteem was investigated. Attention was given to four questions: Do children with different levels of self-esteem differ in (1) the frequency with which they employ defenses? (2) kinds of emotions they defend against? (3) the kinds of social situations which elicit their defensive responses?…

  7. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  8. 14 CFR 1271.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 1271.500 Section 1271.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 1271.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case...

  9. Cross-Lagged Analysis of Children's Test Anxiety and Defensiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    1980-01-01

    The common negative relationship between the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) and the Lie Scale for Children (LSC) was examined using previous data. Defensiveness (measured by the LSC) was more related to later test anxiety than anxiety was to defensiveness, indicating causal effects of defensiveness on anxiety. (Author/GDC)

  10. 78 FR 25853 - Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 323 RIN 0790-AI86 Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is revising... INFORMATION: The proposed rule was published on August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46653). No comments were...

  11. 76 FR 20336 - Defense Audit Advisory Committee (DAAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... meeting must contact Mr. Christopher Hamrick at the number listed in this FR notice no later than noon on... of the Secretary Defense Audit Advisory Committee (DAAC) AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... committee meeting of the Defense Audit Advisory Committee will be held. DATES: Monday, May 16,...

  12. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...

  13. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  14. 75 FR 9588 - Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of subsection... hereby given that the Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board, will meet on March 22 and 23, 2010....

  15. 6 CFR 9.41 - Secretary of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 9.41 Section 9.41 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY RESTRICTIONS UPON LOBBYING Exemptions § 9.41 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a...

  16. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  17. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  18. Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage

    PubMed Central

    Savatin, Daniel V.; Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Cervone, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to agents such as herbivores and environmental mechanical stresses that cause wounding and open the way to the invasion by microbial pathogens. Wounding provides nutrients to pathogens and facilitates their entry into the tissue and subsequent infection. Plants have evolved constitutive and induced defense mechanisms to properly respond to wounding and prevent infection. The constitutive defenses are represented by physical barriers, i.e., the presence of cuticle or lignin, or by metabolites that act as toxins or deterrents for herbivores. Plants are also able to sense the injured tissue as an altered self and induce responses similar to those activated by pathogen infection. Endogenous molecules released from wounded tissue may act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) that activate the plant innate immunity. Wound-induced responses are both rapid, such as the oxidative burst and the expression of defense-related genes, and late, such as the callose deposition, the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and of hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., chitinases and gluganases). Typical examples of DAMPs involved in the response to wounding are the peptide systemin, and the oligogalacturonides, which are oligosaccharides released from the pectic component of the cell wall. Responses to wounding take place both at the site of damage (local response) and systemically (systemic response) and are mediated by hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid. PMID:25278948

  19. Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Cervone, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to agents such as herbivores and environmental mechanical stresses that cause wounding and open the way to the invasion by microbial pathogens. Wounding provides nutrients to pathogens and facilitates their entry into the tissue and subsequent infection. Plants have evolved constitutive and induced defense mechanisms to properly respond to wounding and prevent infection. The constitutive defenses are represented by physical barriers, i.e., the presence of cuticle or lignin, or by metabolites that act as toxins or deterrents for herbivores. Plants are also able to sense the injured tissue as an altered self and induce responses similar to those activated by pathogen infection. Endogenous molecules released from wounded tissue may act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) that activate the plant innate immunity. Wound-induced responses are both rapid, such as the oxidative burst and the expression of defense-related genes, and late, such as the callose deposition, the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and of hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., chitinases and gluganases). Typical examples of DAMPs involved in the response to wounding are the peptide systemin, and the oligogalacturonides, which are oligosaccharides released from the pectic component of the cell wall. Responses to wounding take place both at the site of damage (local response) and systemically (systemic response) and are mediated by hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid.

  20. 75 FR 20578 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB); Department of Defense Task Force on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... Department of Defense Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces will meet on May... Defense Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces, One Skyline Place,...

  1. 22 CFR 124.15 - Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special Export Controls for Defense Articles...-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.15 Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and..., delay, or cancellation, including post-launch failure investigations or analyses with regard to...

  2. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  3. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

  4. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  5. Validity of Self-Report Measures of Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed

    Mehlman; Slane

    1994-06-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI), and the FIRO Coping Operations Preferences Enquiry (FIRO) were administered to 187 undergraduates in order to determine convergent and discriminant validity of self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A correlational analysis of the four scales resulted in low correlations among subscales measuring similar defense mechanisms. A factor analysis produced factors based on particular scales rather than identical or similar constructs. Results suggest that self-report measures may not be an effective method for assessing various ego defense strategies.

  6. Regulatory subunit B'gamma of protein phosphatase 2A prevents unnecessary defense reactions under low light in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Andrea; Wrzaczek, Michael; Scharte, Judith; Tikkanen, Mikko; Konert, Grzegorz; Rahikainen, Moona; Holmström, Maija; Hiltunen, Hanna-Maija; Rips, Stephan; Sipari, Nina; Mulo, Paula; Weis, Engelbert; von Schaewen, Antje; Aro, Eva-Mari; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2011-07-01

    Light is an important environmental factor that modulates acclimation strategies and defense responses in plants. We explored the functional role of the regulatory subunit B'γ (B'γ) of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in light-dependent stress responses of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The predominant form of PP2A consists of catalytic subunit C, scaffold subunit A, and highly variable regulatory subunit B, which determines the substrate specificity of PP2A holoenzymes. Mutant leaves of knockdown pp2a-b'γ plants show disintegration of chloroplasts and premature yellowing conditionally under moderate light intensity. The cell-death phenotype is accompanied by the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide through a pathway that requires CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF PR GENES5 (CPR5). Moreover, the pp2a-b'γ cpr5 double mutant additionally displays growth suppression and malformed trichomes. Similar to cpr5, the pp2a-b'γ mutant shows constitutive activation of both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent defense pathways. In contrast to cpr5, however, pp2a-b'γ leaves do not contain increased levels of salicylic acid or jasmonic acid. Rather, the constitutive defense response associates with hypomethylation of DNA and increased levels of methionine-salvage pathway components in pp2a-b'γ leaves. We suggest that the specific B'γ subunit of PP2A is functionally connected to CPR5 and operates in the basal repression of defense responses under low irradiance.

  7. Landscape Variation in Plant Defense Syndromes across a Tropical Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores shape tropical rainforest biodiversity, yet community- and landscape-scale patterns of plant defense and the phylogenetic and environmental factors that may shape them are poorly known. We measured foliar defense, growth, and longevity traits for 345 canopy trees across 84 species in a tropical rainforest and examined whether patterns of trait co-variation indicated the existence of plant defense syndromes. Using a DNA-barcode phylogeny and remote sensing and land-use data, we investigated how phylogeny and topo-edaphic properties influenced the distribution of syndromes. We found evidence for three distinct defense syndromes, characterized by rapid growth, growth compensated by defense, or limited palatability/low nutrition. Phylogenetic signal was generally lower for defense traits than traits related to growth or longevity. Individual defense syndromes were organized at different taxonomic levels and responded to different spatial-environmental gradients. The results suggest that a diverse set of tropical canopy trees converge on a limited number of strategies to secure resources and mitigate fitness losses due to herbivory, with patterns of distribution mediated by evolutionary histories and local habitat associations. Plant defense syndromes are multidimensional plant strategies, and thus are a useful means of discerning ecologically-relevant variation in highly diverse tropical rainforest communities. Scaling this approach to the landscape level, if plant defense syndromes can be distinguished in remotely-sensed data, they may yield new insights into the role of plant defense in structuring diverse tropical rainforest communities.

  8. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  9. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered.

  10. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. PMID:27501311

  11. PTSD as a criminal defense: a review of case law.

    PubMed

    Berger, Omri; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been offered as a basis for criminal defenses, including insanity, unconsciousness, self-defense, diminished capacity, and sentencing mitigation. Examination of case law (e.g., appellate decisions) involving PTSD reveals that when offered as a criminal defense, PTSD has received mixed treatment in the judicial system. Courts have often recognized testimony about PTSD as scientifically reliable. In addition, PTSD has been recognized by appellate courts in U.S. jurisdictions as a valid basis for insanity, unconsciousness, and self-defense. However, the courts have not always found the presentation of PTSD testimony to be relevant, admissible, or compelling in such cases, particularly when expert testimony failed to show how PTSD met the standard for the given defense. In cases that did not meet the standard for one of the complete defenses, PTSD has been presented as a partial defense or mitigating circumstance, again with mixed success.

  12. 78 FR 63462 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... organizational conflicts of interest arising in a systems engineering and technical assistance contract for an... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice and request...

  13. 75 FR 33587 - Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Wage Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Wage Committee AGENCY: Department..., Department of Defense Wage Committee, 4000 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301- 4000....

  14. 78 FR 63461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Acquisition AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of...) 372-6094. Mail: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Amy Williams, OUSD(AT&L)DPAP(DARS),...

  15. 75 FR 48278 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Excessive Pass-Through Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 215, 231, and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Excessive Pass-Through Charges AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... language implementing section 852 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007...

  16. 75 FR 9114 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Additional Requirements Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 217 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Additional Requirements Applicable to Multiyear Contracts (DFARS Case 2008-D023) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... is issuing this interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

  17. 75 FR 51416 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 202, 212, and 234 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... interim rule that amended the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  18. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  19. The Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 Type 3 Secretion System Suppresses Early Defense Responses to Effectively Nodulate Soybean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Monreal, José Antonio; Preston, Gail M; Fones, Helen; Vioque, Blanca; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    Plants that interact with pathogenic bacteria in their natural environments have developed barriers to block or contain the infection. Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to subvert these defenses and promote infection. Thus, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) delivers bacterial effectors directly into the plant cells to alter host signaling and suppress defenses, providing an appropriate environment for bacterial multiplication. Some rhizobial strains possess a symbiotic T3SS that seems to be involved in the suppression of host defenses to promote nodulation and determine the host range. In this work, we show that the inactivation of the Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 T3SS negatively affects soybean nodulation in the early stages of the symbiotic process, which is associated with a reduction of the expression of early nodulation genes. This symbiotic phenotype could be the consequence of the bacterial triggering of soybean defense responses associated with the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the impairment of the T3SS mutant to suppress these responses. Interestingly, the early induction of the transcription of GmMPK4, which negatively regulates SA accumulation and defense responses in soybean via WRKY33, could be associated with the differential defense responses induced by the parental and the T3SS mutant strain.

  20. Toward a defense-dominated world

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.

    1993-08-01

    Maintaining the large-scale peace in a defense-dominated world necessarily will require not only passive but also active defenses against large-scale aggression that are technically feasible, practical and easy to employ -- and robust against perversion into support of aggression. Such peace maintenance tool-sets will feature means for effectively rebuking aggression as well as providing timely and very widely available seaming of aggression underway anywhere. This report discusses the technology base which currently exists to provide world-wide, high-quality imagery at moderate (5--10 meter) spatial resolution or imagery of 1% of the Earth`s land surface at high ({le} 1 meter) resolution no less frequently than daily, at a total cost of the order of $1 B, with operational capability in the later `90s. Such systems could provide timely warning of aggressive actions anywhere. Similarly, space-based means of defeating aggression conducted with even quite short-range ballistic missiles anywhere in the world could be brought into existence by the end of the `90s for a total cost of about $10 B, and small high-altitude, long flight-duration robotic aircraft carrying high-performance sensors and interceptor missilery could provide both seaming and active defenses against attacks conducted with very short range ballistic missiles, as well as attacks launched with air-breathing threats such as bombers and cruise missiles, for a cost per defended area of the order of $10/km{sup 2}. It appears that all of the associated sensors can find apt dual-use as high-performance systems for monitoring physical aspects of the human environment.