Science.gov

Sample records for acid score pdcaas

  1. [Amino acid composition evaluation of Pleurotus spp. cultivated in banana leaves].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L

    1998-12-01

    The protein quality of edible mushrooms besides being species/strain specific, could also vary with the growth substrate. The aim of this work was to determine the amino acid composition of the protein from edible mushrooms--Pleurotus sp. "Florida" (L1), P. ostreatoroseus (L2) and P. sajor-caju (L3), cultivated on banana leaves (BL) single and, mixed with sugar cane bagasse (BLSCB). Total amino acids, cystine and tryptophan were evaluated; the chemical score index and PDCAAS--"protein digestibility-correct amino acid scoring" were calculated. From both substrates, the studied species contain all essential amino acids; in decreasing order, the amino acids in great amounts were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. The L1 chemical score was 90.4, with limitation in sulfur and aromatic amino acids when from BL substrate; and, from BLSC substrate the chemical score was 88.7 with limitation in aromatics only. The L2 and L3 was 100, 0, independent of cultivation substrate. The calculated PDCAAS value, considering 90% of recommended digestibility, varied between 80.0-96%. The L1 proteins were limiting in sulfur and aromatic amino acids and had the lowest value of PDCAAS (approximately 80.0) in both substrates; the L3 proteins were limiting in aromatic, sulfur and tryptophan, dependent of cultivation substrate; the L2 proteins had the greatest value of PDCAAS (approximately 96%) and were limiting in aromatic and/or sulfur amino acids, dependent of cultivation substrate. Considering the conditions of this study, the protein of the studied species is incomplete, although of high biological value, comparable to meet. PMID:10347700

  2. Prediction of nucleic acid binding probability in proteins: a neighboring residue network based score.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-06-23

    We describe a general binding score for predicting the nucleic acid binding probability in proteins. The score is directly derived from physicochemical and evolutionary features and integrates a residue neighboring network approach. Our process achieves stable and high accuracies on both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins and illustrates how the main driving forces for nucleic acid binding are common. Because of the effective integration of the synergetic effects of the network of neighboring residues and the fact that the prediction yields a hierarchical scoring on the protein surface, energy funnels for nucleic acid binding appear on protein surfaces, pointing to the dynamic process occurring in the binding of nucleic acids to proteins. PMID:25940624

  3. Prediction of nucleic acid binding probability in proteins: a neighboring residue network based score

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We describe a general binding score for predicting the nucleic acid binding probability in proteins. The score is directly derived from physicochemical and evolutionary features and integrates a residue neighboring network approach. Our process achieves stable and high accuracies on both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins and illustrates how the main driving forces for nucleic acid binding are common. Because of the effective integration of the synergetic effects of the network of neighboring residues and the fact that the prediction yields a hierarchical scoring on the protein surface, energy funnels for nucleic acid binding appear on protein surfaces, pointing to the dynamic process occurring in the binding of nucleic acids to proteins. PMID:25940624

  4. Plasma Ascorbic Acid, A Priori Diet Quality Score, and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Buijsse, Brian; Jacobs, David R.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Kromhout, Daan; Gross, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other’s predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and white adults (43% black, mean age 35 years) initially hypertension-free in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (study year 10, 1995–1996). Plasma ascorbic acid was assessed at year 10 and the diet quality score at year 7. Eight-hundred-and-forty cases of hypertension were documented between years 10 and 25. After multiple adjustments, each 12-point (1 SD) higher diet quality score at year 7 related to mean 3.7 μmol/L (95% CI 2.9 to 4.6) higher plasma ascorbic acid at year 10. In separate multiple-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio of hypertension per 19.6-μmol/L (1 SD) higher ascorbic acid was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79–0.92) and per 12-points higher diet score 0.86 (95% CI 0.79–0.94). These hazard ratios changed little with mutual adjustment of ascorbic acid and diet quality score for each other, or when adjusted for anthropometric variables, diabetes, and systolic blood pressure at year 10. Intake of dietary vitamin C and several food groups high in vitamin C content were inversely related to hypertension, whereas supplemental vitamin C was not. In conclusion, plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score independently predict hypertension. This suggests that hypertension risk is reduced by improving overall diet quality and/or vitamin C status. The inverse association seen for dietary but not for supplemental vitamin C suggests that vitamin C status is preferably improved by eating foods rich in vitamin C, in addition to not smoking and other dietary habits that prevent ascorbic acid from depletion. PMID:26683190

  5. Optimizing Scoring Function of Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions with Both Affinity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid (protein-DNA and protein-RNA) recognition is fundamental to the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the structures of the protein-nucleic acid recognition and insight into their interactions at molecular level are vital to understanding the regulation function. Recently, quantitative computational approach has been becoming an alternative of experimental technique for predicting the structures and interactions of biomolecular recognition. However, the progress of protein-nucleic acid structure prediction, especially protein-RNA, is far behind that of the protein-ligand and protein-protein structure predictions due to the lack of reliable and accurate scoring function for quantifying the protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this work, we developed an accurate scoring function (named as SPA-PN, SPecificity and Affinity of the Protein-Nucleic acid interactions) for protein-nucleic acid interactions by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. Specificity and affinity are two requirements of highly efficient and specific biomolecular recognition. Previous quantitative descriptions of the biomolecular interactions considered the affinity, but often ignored the specificity owing to the challenge of specificity quantification. We applied our concept of intrinsic specificity to connect the conventional specificity, which circumvents the challenge of specificity quantification. In addition to the affinity optimization, we incorporated the quantified intrinsic specificity into the optimization strategy of SPA-PN. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions validated that SPA-PN performs well on both the prediction of binding affinity and identification of native conformation. In terms of its performance, SPA-PN can be widely used to predict the protein-nucleic acid structures and quantify their interactions. PMID:24098651

  6. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  7. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. PMID:27452871

  8. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. PMID:27179602

  9. Targeting Uric Acid and the Inhibition of Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease—A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Tatsuru; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Kumagai, Takanori; Shibata, Shigeru; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Shen, Zhong Yang; Fujimori, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of uric acid (UA) in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains controversial due to the unavoidable cause and result relationship. This study was aimed to clarify the independent impact of UA on the subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by a propensity score analysis. Methods A retrospective CKD cohort was used (n = 803). Baseline 23 covariates were subjected to a multivariate binary logistic regression with the targeted time-averaged UA of 6.0, 6.5 or 7.0 mg/dL. The participants trimmed 2.5 percentile from the extreme ends of the cohort underwent propensity score analyses consisting of matching, stratification on quintile and covariate adjustment. Covariate balances after 1:1 matching without replacement were tested for by paired analysis and standardized differences. A stratified Cox regression and a Cox regression adjusted for logit of propensity scores were examined. Results After propensity score matching, the higher UA showed elevated hazard ratios (HRs) by Kaplan-Meier analysis (≥6.0 mg/dL, HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.79–11.43; ≥6.5 mg/dL, HR 3.39, 95%CI 1.55–7.42; ≥7.0 mg/dL, HR 2.19, 95%CI 1.28–3.75). The number needed to treat was 8 to 9 over 5 years. A stratified Cox regression likewise showed significant crude HRs (≥6.0 mg/dL, HR 3.63, 95%CI 1.25–10.58; ≥6.5 mg/dL, HR 3.46, 95%CI 1.56–7.68; ≥7.0 mg/dL, HR 2.05, 95%CI 1.21–3.48). Adjusted HR lost its significance at 6.0 mg/dL. The adjustment for the logit of the propensity scores showed the similar results but with worse model fittings than the stratification method. Upon further adjustment for other covariates the significance was attained at 6.5 mg/dL. Conclusions Three different methods of the propensity score analysis showed consistent results that the higher UA accelerates the progression to the subsequent ESRD. A stratified Cox regression outperforms other methods in generalizability and adjusting for residual bias. Serum UA should be

  10. Herring roe protein has a high digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Robert; Maathuis, Annet; de Jong, Aard; Mancinelli, Daniele; Berger, Alvin; Bellmann, Susann

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) can be determined based on dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments as replacement for invasive animal studies. We determined the in vitro DIAAS for immature herring eggs (roe) proteins in comparison with reference proteins. The true ileal digestibility of protein and indispensable amino acids (IAA) was measured under human conditions simulated in a gastrointestinal model (tiny-TIM). The in vitro true ileal digestibility of ovalbumin, cooked and raw chicken egg white, and casein was similar to that found in humans (r(2) = 0.96), providing a casual observation to support the validity of tiny-TIM. The digestibility of the immature herring egg proteins was 71% to 92%. The highest IAA digestibility was found for immature whole herring egg protein (55%-80%) in comparison to immature herring egg membrane and immature de-membraned herring protein (50%-70%). The DIAAS as recommended by FAO for children and adults, but measured in vitro, were 91% for immature whole herring egg protein (lysine first limiting), 71% for immature herring egg membrane protein (histidine first limiting), and 88% for immature herring egg de-membraned protein (sulfur AA first limiting). True ileal protein and amino acid digestibility can be determined in a dynamic gastrointestinal model, such as tiny-TIM, which can be used for estimating the DIAAS. Immature herring egg proteins, a previously underutilized resource, were determined to be an important and valuable source of IAA for human consumption. PMID:27440534

  11. Physical Nature of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Interactions with Its Inhibitors: Testing a Simple Nonempirical Scoring Model.

    PubMed

    Giedroyć-Piasecka, Wiktoria; Dyguda-Kazimierowicz, Edyta; Beker, Wiktor; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio; Sokalski, W Andrzej

    2014-12-26

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme responsible for the deactivating hydrolysis of fatty acid ethanolamide neuromodulators. FAAH inhibitors have gained considerable interest due to their possible application in the treatment of anxiety, inflammation, and pain. In the context of inhibitor design, the availability of reliable computational tools for predicting binding affinity is still a challenging task, and it is now well understood that empirical scoring functions have several limitations that in principle could be overcome by quantum mechanics. Herein, systematic ab initio analyses of FAAH interactions with a series of inhibitors belonging to the class of the N-alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters have been performed. In contrast to our earlier studies of other classes of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, reasonable correlation with experimental results required us to consider correlation effects along with electrostatic term. Therefore, the simplest comprehensive nonempirical model allowing for qualitative predictions of binding affinities for FAAH ligands consists of electrostatic multipole and second-order dispersion terms. Such a model has been validated against the relative stabilities of the benchmark S66 set of biomolecular complexes. As it does not involve parameters fitted to experimentally derived data, this model offers a unique opportunity for generally applicable inhibitor design and virtual screening. PMID:25420234

  12. Effect of branched-chain fatty acids, 3-methylindole and 4-methylphenol on consumer sensory scores of grilled lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P J; Kearney, G; Rose, G; Allen, D; Ball, A J; Pethick, D W; Warner, R D

    2014-02-01

    Tenderness, flavour, overall liking and odour are important components of sheepmeat eating quality. Consumer assessment of these attributes has been made for carcasses from the Information Nucleus Flock (INF) of the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation. The concentrations of three branched chain fatty acids, 4-methyloctanoic (MOA), 4-ethyloctanoic (EOA) and 4-methylnonanoic acids (compounds related to 'mutton flavour' in cooked sheepmeat) and 3-methylindole and 4-methylphenol (compounds related to 'pastoral' flavour) were determined for 178 fat samples taken from INF carcasses. Statistical modelling revealed that both MOA and EOA impacted on the 'Like Smell' consumer sensory score of the cooked meat product (P<0.05), with increasing concentration causing lower consumer acceptance of the product. None of the compounds though had an effect on the liking of flavour. Obviously, reducing the effect of MOA and EOA on the odour of grilled lamb will improve consumer acceptance of the cooked product but other factors affecting the eating quality also need to be considered. PMID:22950976

  13. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Edward S. C.; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein docking (PPD) predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions. PMID:25811640

  14. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  15. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    can reduce protein and amino acid digestibilities by up to 10%. D-amino acids and LAL formed during alkaline/heat treatment of proteins such as casein, lactalbumin, soy protein isolate, or wheat proteins are poorly digestible (less than 40%), and their presence can reduce protein digestibility by up to 28% in rats and pigs. A comparison of the protein digestibility determination in young (5-week) versus old (20-month) rats suggests greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of antinutritional factors in old rats than in young rats. Therefore, the inclusion of protein digestibility data obtained with young rats, as the recommended animal model, in the calculation of PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score) may overestimate protein digestibility and quality of products, especially those containing antinutritional factors, for the elderly. For products specifically intended for the elderly, protein digestibility should be determined using more mature rats. PMID:16001874

  16. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  17. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  18. Editorial on low-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment and impact on short-term mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Lagler, Heimo; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    The manuscript "Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Impact on Short-Term Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Bloodstream Infection: A propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study" published in Critical Care Medicine by Osthoff et al. reported an association of aspirin intake with a reduced short-term mortality. Direct anti-microbial effects of aspirin and its metabolite salicylate were suggested in preclinical studies. Especially intriguing is the inclusion of a control group with Escherichia coli (E. coli) blood stream infections in this study, in which aspirin was not associated with an improved outcome. However, as other observational studies also reported benefits of aspirin in critically ill patients, randomized trials are needed to confirm the effects of low-dose aspirin. PMID:27294095

  19. Editorial on low-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment and impact on short-term mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a propensity score-matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Lagler, Heimo

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript “Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Impact on Short-Term Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Bloodstream Infection: A propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study” published in Critical Care Medicine by Osthoff et al. reported an association of aspirin intake with a reduced short-term mortality. Direct anti-microbial effects of aspirin and its metabolite salicylate were suggested in preclinical studies. Especially intriguing is the inclusion of a control group with Escherichia coli (E. coli) blood stream infections in this study, in which aspirin was not associated with an improved outcome. However, as other observational studies also reported benefits of aspirin in critically ill patients, randomized trials are needed to confirm the effects of low-dose aspirin. PMID:27294095

  20. Effect of β-hydroxybutyric acid, parity, and body condition score on phenotype and proliferative capacity of colostral mononuclear leukocytes of high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Meganck, V; Goddeeris, B M; De Campeneere, S; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Piepers, S; Cox, E; Opsomer, G

    2015-10-01

    In neonatal calves, the ingestion of colostrum is imperative for preventing infectious diseases. Investigations into the transfer of passive immunity of cattle have primarily focused on the importance of colostral immunoglobulins, with a recent increase in focus on understanding the role of colostral leukocytes. The main objective of the present study was to measure the influence of parity, body condition score, serum nonesterified fatty acids, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of periparturient cows on phenotype and mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferative capacity of bovine colostral leukocytes. Holstein-Friesian cows (n=141) were intramuscularly vaccinated at 60 and 30 d before the expected parturition date with a tetanus toxoid vaccine. Of these 141 animals, 28 primiparous and 72 multiparous cows were sampled immediately after parturition. Colostrum mononuclear cell populations were identified by flow cytometry using bovine cluster of differentiation markers, and the proliferative capacity of these cells was determined using a (3)H-thymidine proliferation assay. Under-conditioned cows had a significantly higher percentage of colostral macrophages than normal-conditioned animals, whereas over-conditioned cows had significantly more colostral B-lymphocytes. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate was significantly associated with higher numbers of colostral T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Heifers had significantly higher mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of their colostral leukocytes than third parity or older cows. In conclusion, body condition score, parity, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of periparturient high-yielding dairy cows were shown to influence the number of colostral macrophages or the mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of colostral leukocytes, possibly influencing the cellular immunity of the newborn calf. PMID:26233460

  1. An Easy and Useful Noninvasive Score Based on α-1-acid Glycoprotein and C-Reactive Protein for Diagnosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Omran, Mohamed M; Emran, Tarek M; Farid, Khaled; Eltaweel, Fathy M; Omar, Mona A; Bazeed, Fagr B

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and develop a predictive score to improve the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AGP and CRP were measured in serum of 53 HCC patients and 20 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, in addition to 15 healthy individuals. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs) was used to create a predictive score comprising AGP, CRP, alpha fetoprotein, and albumin. The diagnostic performances of score was determined and compared with AFP alone for the diagnosis of HCC. The combination of AGP, albumin, CRP, and AFP had AUC 0.92 and sensitivity 85% which was higher than AFP alone. The odds ratio of having HCC was 8.4 for AGP, 5.8 for CRP, 12.5 for AFP and 6.5 for albumin. Our score predicted HCC with an OR of 50.6 for HCC. The AUC of score in HCC with single tumor, absent vascular invasion and CLIP score (0-1) were 0.9, 0.9, 0.82, respectively, compared with 0.71, 0.71, 0.68, respectively, for AFP. In conclusion, a non-invasive and simple score based on AGP, CRP, AFP, and albumin could improve the accuracy of HCC diagnosis. PMID:26685049

  2. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  3. Protein evaluation of four oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars adapted for cultivation in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedó, I; Sgarbieri, V C; Gutkoski, L C

    1999-01-01

    Four oat cultivars adapted for soil and climate conditions in the southern region of Brazil were evaluated for protein nutritive value. Evaluations were done both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro evaluation was done by essential amino acid profile, available lysine, amino acid scoring, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid-scoring (PDCAAS). Nitrogen balance indices and PER were determined in vivo with rats. In all four cultivars (UFP-15, UFP-16, CTC-03, UFRGS-14), lysine was the most limiting amino acid. Available lysine, amino acid score and PDCAAS were highest for cultivar UFRGS-14 and lowest for CTC-03. When compared to casein, only nitrogen retention for UFRGS-14 did not differ statistically (p>0.05); all other indices of protein quality were inferior to casein for the oat cultivars. The oat cultivars tended to be identical among themselves, except for apparent protein digestibility which was significantly higher in the UFRGS-14 and CTC-03 cultivars. On average, the PER values of the oat cultivars were 82% of casein; the net protein utilization was 88% of casein as determined in vivo and 49% by the estimation in vitro (PDCAAS). PMID:10540981

  4. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted with lactating Angus X Gelbvieh beef cows to determine the effects of postpartum lipid supplementation, BCS at parturition, and day of lactation on fatty acid profiles in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk. In Exp. 1, 36 primiparous cows (488 +/- 10 kg of initial BW; 5.5...

  5. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. PMID:26416932

  6. Research Approaches and Methods for Evaluating the Protein Quality of Human Foods Proposed by an FAO Expert Working Group in 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren Tk; Weisell, Robert; Albert, Janice; Tomé, Daniel; Kurpad, Anura V; Uauy, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) has been adopted for assessing protein quality in human foods since 1991, and the shortcomings of using the PDCAAS have been recognized since its adoption. The 2011 FAO Expert Consultation recognized that the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was superior to the PDCAAS for determining protein quality. However, there were insufficient human data on amino acid digestibility before adopting the DIAAS. More human data were needed before DIAAS could be implemented. In 2014, FAO convened an expert working group to propose and agree on research protocols using both human-based assays and animal models to study ileal amino acid digestibility (metabolic availability) of human foods. The working group identified 5 research protocols for further research and development. A robust database of protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed worldwide, including those consumed in low-income countries, is needed for an informed decision on adopting the DIAAS. A review on the impacts of using the DIAAS on public health policies is necessary. It would be advantageous to have a global coordinating effort to advance research and data collection. Collaboration with international and national agriculture institutes is desirable. Opportunities should be provided for young researchers, particularly those from developing countries, to engage in protein-quality research for sustainable implementation of DIAAS. To conclude, the DIAAS is a conceptually preferable method compared with the PDCAAS for protein and amino acid quality evaluation. However, the complete value of the DIAAS and its impact on public health nutrition cannot be realized until there are sufficient accumulated ileal amino acid digestibility data on human foods that are consumed in different nutritional and environmental conditions, measured by competent authorities. A future meeting may be needed to evaluate the size and quality of the data set

  7. Iron/folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents neonatal and under-five mortality in Pakistan: propensity score matched sample from two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies from low- and middle-income countries have reported a protective effect of maternal antenatal iron/folic acid (IFA) on childhood mortality. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal antenatal IFA supplementation on childhood mortality in Pakistan. Design A propensity score–matched sample of 8,512 infants live-born within the 5 years prior to interview was selected from the pooled data of two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (2006/07 and 2012/13). The primary outcomes were childhood mortality indicators and the main exposure variable was maternal antenatal IFA supplementation. Post-matched analyses used Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusted for 16 potential confounders. Results Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the adjusted risk of death on day 0 by 33% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.48–0.94], during the neonatal period by 29% (aHR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.88), and for under-fives by 27% (aHR=0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.89). When IFA was initiated in the first 4 months of pregnancy, the adjusted risk of neonatal and under-five deaths was significantly reduced by 35 and 33%, respectively. Twenty percent of under-five deaths were attributable to non-initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy. With universal initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy, 80,300 under-five deaths could be prevented annually in Pakistan. Conclusions Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced neonatal and under-five deaths in Pakistan. Earlier initiation of supplements in pregnancy was associated with a greater prevention of neonatal and under-five deaths. PMID:26873178

  8. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  9. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  10. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  11. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  12. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  13. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  14. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  15. Sweetpotato- and Cereal-Based Infant Foods: Protein Quality Assessment, and Effect on Body Composition Using Sprague Dawley Rats as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Chiridza, Tracy; Lemercier, Marie-Eve; Broomfield, Anne; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Coad, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa) and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac) was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53–67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g). The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (P<0.0001) higher than that for OFSP ComFa, CFSP ComFa and Weanimix. However, OFSP ComFa had the highest un-truncated PDCAAS by a difference of 4.1%, than CFSP ComFa, and about 20% difference compared with both the Weanimix and Cerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively). However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03). The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model. PMID:25836365

  16. Sweetpotato- and cereal-based infant foods: protein quality assessment, and effect on body composition using sprague dawley rats as a model.

    PubMed

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Chiridza, Tracy; Lemercier, Marie-Eve; Broomfield, Anne; Morel, Patrick C H; Coad, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa) and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac) was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g). The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (P<0.0001) higher than that for OFSP ComFa, CFSP ComFa and Weanimix. However, OFSP ComFa had the highest un-truncated PDCAAS by a difference of 4.1%, than CFSP ComFa, and about 20% difference compared with both the Weanimix and Cerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively). However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03). The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model. PMID:25836365

  17. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  18. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  19. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  20. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  1. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  2. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  3. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. PMID:26971084

  4. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  5. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  6. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  7. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  8. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  9. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  10. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  11. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  12. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  13. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  14. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  15. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  16. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.

    PubMed

    Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption. PMID:11442221

  17. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  18. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  19. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of the grain protein of new amaranths varieties.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Elba Graciela; Albarracín, Graciela de Jesús; Uñates, María Angelina; Piola, Hugo Daniel; Camiña, José Manuel; Escudero, Nora Lilian

    2015-03-01

    The efforts for promoting the consumption of food of plant origin are increasingly growing. The amaranth grain is an important vegetable protein source, superior in content and quality to traditional cereals. In the central-west region of Argentina, new amaranth varieties have been obtained to optimize its agronomic traits and promote its use. In this work, the analysis of the wholemeal flour protein from seeds of two new varieties of Amaranthus cruentus var. Candil (CC) and Amaranthus hypochondriacus var. Dorado (HD), as well as from advanced lines of Amaranthus hypochondriacus x Amaranthus cruentus H17a (H17) and Amaranthus cruentus G6/17a (CG6), was carried out in order to elucidate their nutritional contribution to human diet. The amino acids profile and the chemical score (CS) were determined, and the protein quality was evaluated in-vivo through the following indexes: net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (tD), biological value (BV) and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). In general, the amino acids values of the different varieties exceeded the requirements established by the WHO/FAO/UNU; however, valine was the limiting amino acid in all cases. The values obtained (%) were within the following ranges: NPU, 33.56-46.04%; tD, 68.80-75.40%; BV, 44.53-64.28%; and PDCAAS, 23.69-36.19%. These results suggest that the new amaranth flours varieties can be adequate for human consumption and as complementary protein source. PMID:25501792

  20. Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378–4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495–3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (p<0.0001 for both AUC). When scores conferred by single courses were compared over time, three time-trend patterns emerged: low variation, upward trend and erratic pattern. Conclusion/Significance An early identification of students with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance. PMID:21246033

  1. [Trauma scores: reproducibility and reliability].

    PubMed

    Waydhas, C; Nast-Kolb, D; Trupka, A; Kerim-Sade, C; Kanz, G; Zoller, J; Schweiberer, L

    1992-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Polytraumaschlüssel (PTS) [multiple trauma code] was studied using diagnosis sheets filled in for 107 multiple injured patients. The scoring was performed by eight physicians with different levels of qualification. The scores for individual patients varied widely depending on the scorer, with extremes differing from the mean by about 80% and 70% for the ISS and PTS, respectively. The mean ISS and PTS for the whole study population also varied significantly between the scorers (P less than 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). Raters with experience in trauma scoring calculated significantly higher scores (P less than 0.01, t-test) Neither the ISS nor the PTS seem reliable enough to describe injury severity in an individual patient. Treatment decisions must not be based on such grounds. Even for larger groups, caution must be exercised in comparison of different populations of multiple traumatized patients. PMID:1570531

  2. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  3. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  4. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  5. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  6. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  7. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  8. The problem with peptide presumption and low mascot scoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mascot, a database-search algorithm, is used to deduce an amino acid sequence from a peptide tandem mass spectrum. The magnitude of the Ions score associated with each peptide mostly reflects the extent of b-y ion matching in a collision-induced dissociation spectrum. Recently, several studies rep...

  9. Assessment of volatile compounds, neutral and polar lipid fatty acids of four beef muscles from USDA Choice and Select graded carcasses and their relationships with consumer palatability scores and intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M R; Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Garmyn, A J; O'Quinn, T G; Corbin, C H; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FA) in neutral and polar lipids (NL and PL) and volatile compounds were determined in Gluteus medius (GM), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Serratus ventralis (SV), and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles from upper 2/3 USDA Choice and Select quality grades (QG). Concentrations of NL FA (mg/g) were influenced by intramuscular fat (IMF) content being greater in upper 2/3 Choice compared with Select. The SV contained greater concentrations of NL FA; meanwhile, the SM contained the lowest quantities of NL FA. Percentages (g/100g of total FA) of NL SFA and MUFA were increased in beef with greater IMF content. Concentrations and percentages of PL FA had muscle specific differences between QG. Volatile compounds were primarily affected by muscle. Increases in SFA and MUFA were related with consumer liking, regardless of lipid fraction. Overall the influence of QG on SFA and MUFA was muscle specific. Therefore, each muscle may require specific considerations when considering FA, volatile compounds, and ultimately consumer liking. PMID:26874592

  10. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  11. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  12. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  13. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  14. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  15. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  16. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  17. The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct “BILD” (“Bayesian Integral Log-odds”) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  18. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  19. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  20. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  1. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  2. 7 CFR 4280.316 - Application scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application scoring. 4280.316 Section 4280.316... Program § 4280.316 Application scoring. Applications will be scored based on the criteria specified in this section using only the information submitted in the application. The total available points...

  3. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  4. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  5. A Comparison of Two Scoring Methods for an Automated Speech Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Higgins, Derrick; Zechner, Klaus; Williamson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative scoring methods--multiple regression and classification trees--for an automated speech scoring system used in a practice environment. The two methods were evaluated on two criteria: construct representation and empirical performance in predicting human scores. The empirical performance of the two scoring models…

  6. Are the Best Scores the Best Scores for Predicting College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…

  7. Oswestry Disability Index Scoring Made Easy

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, PB

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. PATIENTS AND METHODS The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. RESULTS The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires. PMID:18598595

  8. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan). PMID:26502582

  9. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score. PMID:25595855

  10. Scoring the VIA Survey of Character.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Mark R; O'Brien-Malone, Angela; Woodworth, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    The VIA Survey of Character (VIA) is a self-report inventory designed to measure and assess 24 character strengths that are linked conceptually to six fundamental "virtues"--Wisdom and Knowledge, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence, as developed by Peterson and Seligman in 2004. Despite its popularity, the current presentation of the VIA is not easy to score; researchers must either use a limited online scoring facility or must use outdated scoring keys. This paper presents a full description of the scoring key. PMID:21323141

  11. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  12. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  13. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  14. The Scoring of Writing Samples: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    Although the design of the writing task itself may present assessment problems, the scoring of the piece of writing raises the greatest difficulties for large-scale testing of writing ability. A study investigated whether teachers and staff members of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) (1) scored the same way, (2) agreed with each other in…

  15. Using Empirical Data to Set Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.

    Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…

  16. Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…

  17. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  18. Using Test Score Data to Focus Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Gay, Anne; Matthews, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology available to access test data coupled with the challenges of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) are pushing schools to grapple with the complexities of test score data. With the current frenzy to raise test scores, there is little attention being paid to teacher development in learning to use data to improve learning. For the past…

  19. Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

    Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

  20. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  1. MMPI T Scores: Linear versus Normalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1984-01-01

    Includes two articles regarding scoring for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales. Comments on the advisability of utilizing normalized T scores (Hsu), and addresses these objections from a theoretical standpoint and in the context of responses from a new reference sample (Colligan, Osborne, and Offord). (LLL)

  2. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  3. Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

  4. Using Educational Test Scores To Evaluate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandiani, John A.; Simon, Monica M.; Banks, Steven M.

    This paper reports on an ongoing effort of the Vermont Mental Health Performance Indicator Project (PIP) to examine the relevance and utility of standardized test scores for evaluating community mental health programs. This analysis is of test scores from Vermont's first four years of statewide testing. The study is examining anonymous…

  5. Evaluating Score Equity Assessment for State NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Baldwin, Su; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Karatonis, Ana; Jirka, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Score equity assessment is an important analysis to ensure inferences drawn from test scores are comparable across subgroups of examinees. The purpose of the present evaluation was to assess the extent to which the Grade 8 NAEP Math and Reading assessments for 2005 were equivalent across selected states. More specifically, the present study…

  6. Understanding Scoring Rubrics: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Carol, Ed.

    This compilation provides an introduction to using scoring rubrics in the classroom. When good rubrics are used well, teachers and students receive extensive feedback on the quality and quantity of student learning. When scoring rubrics are used in large-scale assessment, technical questions related to interrater reliability tend to dominate the…

  7. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  8. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  9. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  10. Do Student Growth Scores Measure Academic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomplun, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated convergent validity evidence for student growth scores with high school course grades. The Measures of Academic Progress and Educational Planning and Assessment System growth scores for approximately 1,800 ninth-grade students over 2 years were related to language, arts, and mathematics course grades for developmental,…

  11. Linking Teacher Pay to Student Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A suburban Philadelphia district set aside $100,000 for merit-pay (bonuses) for individuals and groups of teachers. Although teachers are resistant, vowing to give to charity any bonuses linked to test scores, morale and scores have improved. Cincinnati and Castle Rock, Colorado, have workable plans. (MLH)

  12. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  13. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  14. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  15. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  16. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  17. 24 CFR 902.63 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit... changed by HUD in accordance with data included in the independent audit report, or obtained through such... adjustments determined necessary as a result of the independent public accountant (IPA) audit, as provided...

  18. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  19. Model feedback in Bayesian propensity score estimation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin M; Watts, Krista; Yeh, Robert W; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Methods based on the propensity score comprise one set of valuable tools for comparative effectiveness research and for estimating causal effects more generally. These methods typically consist of two distinct stages: (1) a propensity score stage where a model is fit to predict the propensity to receive treatment (the propensity score), and (2) an outcome stage where responses are compared in treated and untreated units having similar values of the estimated propensity score. Traditional techniques conduct estimation in these two stages separately; estimates from the first stage are treated as fixed and known for use in the second stage. Bayesian methods have natural appeal in these settings because separate likelihoods for the two stages can be combined into a single joint likelihood, with estimation of the two stages carried out simultaneously. One key feature of joint estimation in this context is "feedback" between the outcome stage and the propensity score stage, meaning that quantities in a model for the outcome contribute information to posterior distributions of quantities in the model for the propensity score. We provide a rigorous assessment of Bayesian propensity score estimation to show that model feedback can produce poor estimates of causal effects absent strategies that augment propensity score adjustment with adjustment for individual covariates. We illustrate this phenomenon with a simulation study and with a comparative effectiveness investigation of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy among 123,286 Medicare beneficiaries hospitlized for stroke in 2006 and 2007. PMID:23379793

  20. Does field reliability for Static-99 scores decrease as scores increase?

    PubMed

    Rice, Amanda K; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Harris, Paige B; Hawes, Samuel W

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the field reliability of Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) scores among 21,983 sex offenders and focused on whether rater agreement decreased as scores increased. As expected, agreement was lowest for high-scoring offenders. Initial and most recent Static-99 scores were identical for only about 40% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 6 during their initial evaluations, but for more than 60% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 2 or lower. In addition, the size of the difference between scores increased as scores increased, with pairs of scores differing by 2 or more points for about 30% of offenders scoring in the high-risk range. Because evaluators and systems use high Static-99 scores to identify sexual offenders who may require intensive supervision or even postrelease civil commitment, it is important to recognize that there may be more measurement error for high scores than low scores and to consider adopting procedures for minimizing or accounting for measurement error. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24932647

  1. Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

  2. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances. PMID:27441407

  3. Teachers' Use of Rubrics to Score Non-traditional Tasks: Factors Related to Discrepancies in Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.; Cady, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    This study considered middle school mathematics teachers use of rubrics to score non-traditional tasks. A group of eighth-grade teachers attended a two-day workshop where they evaluated assessment tasks and discussed the use of an associated scoring rubric. Scored samples of student work submitted by the teachers indicated that they had difficulty…

  4. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  5. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  6. Methods for Constructing and Assessing Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M; Kelley, Amy S; Paris, Julia; Roza, Katherine; Meier, Diane E; Morrison, R Sean; Aldridge, Melissa D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To model the steps involved in preparing for and carrying out propensity score analyses by providing step-by-step guidance and Stata code applied to an empirical dataset. Study Design Guidance, Stata code, and empirical examples are given to illustrate (1) the process of choosing variables to include in the propensity score; (2) balance of propensity score across treatment and comparison groups; (3) balance of covariates across treatment and comparison groups within blocks of the propensity score; (4) choice of matching and weighting strategies; (5) balance of covariates after matching or weighting the sample; and (6) interpretation of treatment effect estimates. Empirical Application We use data from the Palliative Care for Cancer Patients (PC4C) study, a multisite observational study of the effect of inpatient palliative care on patient health outcomes and health services use, to illustrate the development and use of a propensity score. Conclusions Propensity scores are one useful tool for accounting for observed differences between treated and comparison groups. Careful testing of propensity scores is required before using them to estimate treatment effects. PMID:24779867

  7. The quantile score and its decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Friederichs, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Forecast verification for probabilistic weather and climate predictions gain more and more importance due to the increasing number of ensemble prediction systems. The predictive performance of probabilistic forecasts is generally assessed using proper score functions, which are applied to a set of forecast-observation pairs. The propriety of a score guarantees honesty and prevents hedging. A variety of proper scores exist for different types of probabilistic forecasts. Moreover, proper scoring functions can be decomposed into the three parts reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, which describe main characteristics of a forecasting scheme. This decomposition is well known for the Brier score and the continuous ranked probability score. This study expands the pool of verification methods for probabilistic forecasts by a decomposition of the quantile score (QS). Quantiles are suitable probabilistic measures especially for extreme forecast events, since they do not depend on an apriori defined threshold. The QS is a weighted absolute error between quantile forecasts and observations. We derive a decomposition of the QS in reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, and give a brief description of potential biases. A quantile reliability plot is presented. The quantile verification within this framework is illustrated on precipitation forecasts derived from the mesoscale ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Meteorological Service.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a scoring aid to improve GCS scoring by EMS providers (Brief Report)

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amanda Lynn; Hart, Kimberly Ward; Lindsell, Christopher John; McMullan, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel frequently use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to assess injured and critically ill patients. This study assessed the accuracy of EMS providers’ GCS scoring as well as the improvement in GCS assessment with the use of a scoring aid. Methods This randomized, controlled study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of an urban, academic trauma center. Emergency medical technicians or paramedics who transported a patient to the ED were randomly assessed one of nine written scenarios, either with or without a GCS scoring aid. Scenarios were created by consensus of expert attending emergency medicine, EMS, and neurocritical care physicians with universal consensus agreement on GCS scores. Chi-square and student’s t-tests were used to compare groups. Results Of 180 participants, 178 completed the study. Overall, 73/178 (41%) participants gave a GCS score that matched the expert consensus score. GCS was correct in 22/88 (25%) of cases without the scoring aid. GCS was correct in 51/90 (57%) of cases with the scoring aid. Most (69%) of total GCS scores fell within one point of the expert consensus GCS score. Differences in accuracy were most pronounced in scenarios with a correct GCS of 12 or below. Sub-component accuracy was: eye 62%, verbal 70%, and motor 51%. Conclusion In this study, 60% of EMS participants provided inaccurate GCS estimates. Use of a GCS scoring aid improved accuracy of EMS GCS assessments. PMID:25199613

  9. Estimating Reading Skill from ACT Assessment Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie

    1986-01-01

    A study correlating Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores with American College Testing Program Assessments (ACT) indicates that reading skill can be predicted accurately from the ACT social studies reading and English usage subtests. (MSE)

  10. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  11. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Exercise + Classwork May = Better Math Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157446.html Exercise + Classwork May = Better Math Scores Dutch study also found bringing exercise to ... time learning if exercise is part of their math and spelling lessons, a new study suggests. Dutch ...

  13. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators: Physical condition, financial condition, management operations, and the Capital Fund program... a single score for the physical condition, financial condition, and management operations indicators...: (1) The physical condition indicator is weighted 40 percent (40 points) of the overall PHAS...

  14. Purposes and methods of scoring earthquake forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, J.

    2010-12-01

    There are two kinds of purposes in the studies on earthquake prediction or forecasts: one is to give a systematic estimation of earthquake risks in some particular region and period in order to give advice to governments and enterprises for the use of reducing disasters, the other one is to search for reliable precursors that can be used to improve earthquake prediction or forecasts. For the first case, a complete score is necessary, while for the latter case, a partial score, which can be used to evaluate whether the forecasts or predictions have some advantages than a well know model, is necessary. This study reviews different scoring methods for evaluating the performance of earthquake prediction and forecasts. Especially, the gambling scoring method, which is developed recently, shows its capacity in finding good points in an earthquake prediction algorithm or model that are not in a reference model, even if its overall performance is no better than the reference model.

  15. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  16. Multifactor Screener in OPEN: Scoring Procedures & Results

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.

  17. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  18. Comparability of IQ Scores over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…

  19. The UPA score and teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Garlick, R; Ineichen, B; Hudson, F

    1993-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is often said to be the result of deficient contraceptive and abortion services. Using data from the Public Health Common Data Set (PH CDS) we demonstrate two important effects in a Regional Health Authority: higher rates of conception are related to a live birth rather than an abortion pregnancy outcome; District Health Authorities (DHAs) with high underprivileged area scores (UPA) are more likely to have high rates of conception in the teenage years than those districts with low scores. PMID:8480012

  20. Genetic evaluation of elbow scores and the relationship with hip scores in UK Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T W; Ilska, J J; Blott, S C; Woolliams, J A

    2011-08-01

    A linear mixed model analysis of elbow and hip score data from UK Labrador retrievers was used to estimate the heritability of elbow score (0.16-0.19) and to determine a moderate and beneficial genetic correlation with hip score (0.40). A small improvement in the genetic trend of elbow score was observed during the years 2000-2008, equivalent to avoiding only the worst 3-4% of scored dogs for breeding, but close to what may have been anticipated if the current British Veterinary Association-approved guidelines were followed. Calculations suggested that a correlated response to indirect selection on hip score may elicit a greater response than direct selection on elbow score and that the genetic trend in elbow score may be explained as a consequence of the stronger selection pressure that has been placed on hip score. Increases in the accuracy of estimated breeding values for elbow score of 4-7% for dogs with elbow data only and 7-11% for dogs with both hip and elbow score were observed from bivariate analysis of elbow and hip data. A selection index confirmed the benefits of bivariate analysis of elbow and hip score data by identifying increases in accuracy (directly related to the response to selection) of 14% from the use of optimum coefficients compared to use of hip data only. The quantified genetic correlation means that hip score effectively acts as a 'secondary indicator' of elbow score in this breed and the preponderance of hip data means that it acts as a major source of information that may be used to improve the accuracy of estimates of genetic risk for elbow dysplasia. PMID:21737324

  1. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  2. Clinical risk scores to guide perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sarah; Moonesinghe, Suneetha Ramani

    2011-08-01

    Perioperative morbidity is associated with reduced long term survival. Comorbid disease, cardiovascular illness, and functional capacity can predispose patients to adverse surgical outcomes. Accurate risk stratification would facilitate informed patient consent and identify those individuals who may benefit from specific perioperative interventions. The ideal clinical risk scoring system would be objective, accurate, economical, simple to perform, based entirely on information available preoperatively, and suitable for patients undergoing both elective and emergency surgery. The POSSUM (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity) scoring systems are the most widely validated perioperative risk predictors currently utilised; however, their inclusion of intra- and postoperative variables precludes validation for preoperative risk prediction. The Charlson Index has the advantage of consisting exclusively of preoperative variables; however, its validity varies in different patient cohorts. Risk models predicting cardiac morbidity have been extensively studied, despite the relatively uncommon occurrence of postoperative cardiac events. Probably the most widely used cardiac risk score is the Lee Revised Cardiac Risk Index, although it has limited validity in some patient populations and for non-cardiac outcomes. Bespoke clinical scoring systems responding to dynamic changes in population characteristics over time, such as those developed by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, are more precise, but require considerable resources to implement. The combination of objective clinical variables with information from novel techniques such as cardiopulmonary exercise testing and biomarker assays, may improve the predictive precision of clinical risk scores used to guide perioperative management. PMID:21257993

  3. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. Conclusions The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here. PMID:25780509

  4. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; Kora, Guruprasad H.; Hauser, Loren J.; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

    2014-12-08

    More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.

  5. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; Kora, Guruprasad H.; Hauser, Loren J.; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

    2014-12-08

    More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes hadmore » quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.« less

  6. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    PubMed Central

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  7. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  8. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luis C. L.; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    Background The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles. PMID:25029471

  9. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Marcos A.

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address. PMID:27171006

  10. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  11. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  12. Observed Score and True Score Equating Procedures for Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossman, Bradley Grant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted.…

  13. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  14. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  15. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  16. Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

  17. HPXML to Home Energy Score Translator

    2014-09-08

    Home Energy Score is a simulation-based rating method for existing homes. Home Performance XML (HPXML) is a data transfer standard for home energy audit and retrofit data used throughout the industry. This software receives an HPXML document and translates the building characteristics into HEScore inputs compliant with their API.

  18. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHAS scoring. 902.9 Section 902.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  19. Scoring Guides and National Percentages of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This book of scoring guides and national percentages is part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national survey measuring the…

  20. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  1. Incorporating Quality Scores in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Soyeon; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of quality-score weights in meta-analysis. A simulation examines the roles of study characteristics such as population effect size (ES) and its variance on the bias and mean square errors (MSEs) of the estimators for several patterns of relationship between quality and ES, and for specific patterns of systematic…

  2. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  3. Keeping Score on Alcohol: Millennium Hangover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report is issued by Drug Strategies, a non-profit research institute that promotes more effective approaches to the nation's drug problems and supports private and public initiatives that reduce the demand for drugs through prevention, treatment, and law enforcement. Drug Strategies prepares "Keeping Score" annually to capture the dimensions…

  4. SCORE, A Measurement of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Richard J.

    The University of Denver Libraries employed SCORE (Service Components Reliability and Efficiency), a cost analysis technique, to measure effectiveness and cost of reference activity. This report examines the results and the problems encountered in application of this methodology. A reference model, designed as a flow chart, was developed by…

  5. Computer Scoring of Sentence Completion Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; And Others

    This paper outlines the development of techniques for computer-based personality assessment from sentence completions. The One-Word Sentence Completion (OWSC) instrument was designed to elicit data suitable for machine processing, while retaining most of the advantages of a free-response format. Two operative scoring systems are described. The…

  6. Scoring Writing with an Informative Aim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabianski, Nancyanne

    Designed to evaluate the degree to which an essay is successful in giving information, this instrument is an analytic/holistic scoring guide for evaluating any writing that contains generalizations supported by elaboration. The following criteria are applied: (1) relevance--any statement that gives information or elaborates on information already…

  7. Scoring the All-Day Screener

    Cancer.gov

    For the All-Day screener, scoring involves a series of operations that are shown below and implemented in the All-Day Screener Pyramid Servings SAS Program and the All-Day Screener MyPyramid Cup Equivalents SAS Program.

  8. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  9. FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GACH, PENELOPE J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS IS DESCRIBED. THREE PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS WERE DEVELOPED--(1) A METAL FOIL ACTIVATING AN ELECTRICAL PROBE, (2) A METAL FOIL REACTING WITH A MAGNETIC PROBE, AND (3) INVISIBLE FLUORESCENT INK REVEALED BY THE APPLICATION OF LONGWAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. (MS)

  10. Graduate Research: Score Comparison by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    Do males and females differ as to performance in a graduate-level research class? To investigate this question, the study compared test scores before and after a graduate-level advanced research class, by sex. The six classes that were the focus of this study were offered in the fall 2001, spring and fall 2002 and 2003, and spring 2004 terms under…

  11. Empathic veterinarians score cattle pain higher.

    PubMed

    Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to qualify the influence of veterinarians skills, attitudes, and empathy on cattle pain assesment and consequently disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinions, pain scoring of cattle conditions and procedures. Empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI) and reworded IRI to measure empathy towards animals were also covered. The overall response rate was approximately 40%. The association between pain and empathy scores were analyzed by Pearsońs correlation, and the factors affecting pain scores and empathy towards animals analyzed using linear models. The need for pain medication of calves during disbudding was well recognized and the intention to treat such pain was very common. Higher mean scores for cattle pain were associated with greater empathy towards humans. On average, respondents' empathy towards animals was greater than towards humans, and was associated with respondents' empathy towards humans, family size and attachment to family pet. PMID:24685101

  12. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  13. Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test…

  14. Test Scores, Creativity, and Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines correlation between national test scores in mathematics from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Current Competitiveness Index (CCI). Finds, for example, that while the United States ranks 29th in TIMSS mathematics, it ranks second in competitiveness on the CCI. Korea ranks 3rd in mathematics, but 27th in…

  15. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  16. The Nature of Automated Essay Scoring Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the nature of feedback that English as a Second Language (ESL) students received on their writings either from an automated essay scoring (AES) system or from the teacher. The participants were 12 adult ESL students who were attending an intensive English center at a university in Florida. The drafts of the…

  17. Scoring annual earthquake predictions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Jiang, Changsheng

    2012-02-01

    The Annual Consultation Meeting on Earthquake Tendency in China is held by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) in order to provide one-year earthquake predictions over most China. In these predictions, regions of concern are denoted together with the corresponding magnitude range of the largest earthquake expected during the next year. Evaluating the performance of these earthquake predictions is rather difficult, especially for regions that are of no concern, because they are made on arbitrary regions with flexible magnitude ranges. In the present study, the gambling score is used to evaluate the performance of these earthquake predictions. Based on a reference model, this scoring method rewards successful predictions and penalizes failures according to the risk (probability of being failure) that the predictors have taken. Using the Poisson model, which is spatially inhomogeneous and temporally stationary, with the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquake magnitudes as the reference model, we evaluate the CEA predictions based on 1) a partial score for evaluating whether issuing the alarmed regions is based on information that differs from the reference model (knowledge of average seismicity level) and 2) a complete score that evaluates whether the overall performance of the prediction is better than the reference model. The predictions made by the Annual Consultation Meetings on Earthquake Tendency from 1990 to 2003 are found to include significant precursory information, but the overall performance is close to that of the reference model.

  18. The Black-White Test Score Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

    The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…

  19. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  20. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  1. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  2. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each quality of care measure is classified into one of the following equally weighted domains to determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination. (iv... the quality of care composite. (b)(1) The standardized score for each cost measure is grouped into...

  3. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... each quality of care measure is classified into one of the following equally weighted domains to determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination. (iv... the quality of care composite. (b)(1) The standardized score for each cost measure is grouped into...

  4. [Propensity score: A credible alternative to randomization?].

    PubMed

    Filleron, Thomas; Kwiatowski, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    In clinical research, the reference method to evaluate treatment benefit without bias is the randomized trial. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to realize one, as for example in surgery or for particular observational studies. In these cases, Rosenbaum and Rubin introduced in 1983 a new methodology: the calculation of a propensity score. When several treatments are compared, this calculation enables to take into account confusion bias using a score that synthesizes the influence on treatment choice of clinical parameters evaluated before. This article describes how to build this score, to estimate its validity, and how to use it: as a new variable into a multivariate analysis, as a matching criterion, or as a stratification parameter. Examples are given to illustrate each case and point out the limitations of such a methodology. This approach, although innovative and useful, cannot reach the level of evidence of randomized clinical trials: simulations have demonstrated this fact in several situations. On the other hand, it can be compared to standard multivariate analysis which permits in a non-randomized context, to limit evaluation bias of treatments by adjusting on potential confusion factors. Some guidelines are given in the last chapter to help researchers decide whether to use a propensity score or a standard multivariate analysis. PMID:26657188

  5. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  6. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  7. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  8. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  9. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard deviation below the mean for students with high school diplomas who have taken the test within... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  10. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  11. Visual scoring of clots in foremilk.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D

    2005-11-01

    The necessary unequivocal and generally accepted definitions of normal and abnormal milk are not available. A precise definition is needed in order for companies to develop sensors to detect and sort abnormal milk at the time of milking. Experts at a workshop defined abnormal milk to be that from cows whose foremilk had changed in homogeneity or was coloured by blood. The objectives of this paper were: firstly, to explore how different groups of people scored the appearance of foremilk; and secondly, to develop a method suitable as an objective reference for testing of manual and automatic detection systems. Consumers, farmers and advisors did not agree on the visual appearance of normal, watery, clotty milk, or milk with blood, and experience is needed to score the visual appearance of foremilk correctly. It seems reasonable to expect a sensitivity of at least 70% for detection of abnormal milk during foremilking. Filter sizes 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm were used to filter milk from cows with visually abnormal foremilk. If clots appeared in the foremilk, clots appeared on all size filters, but the filter with pore size 0.1 mm was the easiest to read and work with. The filter method is not reliable in identifying quarters with watery, yellowish, or bloody milk, whereas the method seems consistent, and at least as good as scoring of visual appearance in finding clots in the milk. Clots should show clearly on the filter to be counted as abnormal milk. All clinical cases with clots in the foremilk can be found on the filter and such cases have high somatic cell count (SCC). Both trained and untrained persons using the filter method can score normal and abnormal foremilk with a high specificity (>90%) and a high sensitivity (>80%). The filter method is recommended as a reference for scoring the homogeneity of foremilk. PMID:16223455

  12. A Computer-Graphic Method for Teaching Protein Chemical Score Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin, Stephen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the database, calculations, and various display modes of a computer subroutine that calculates the chemical score (or index of degree of balance) of essential amino acids in a protein and presents displays useful in illustrating concepts of protein complementarity. (DC)

  13. Development and Validation of a Disease Severity Scoring Model for Pediatric Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    HU, Li; ZHU, Yimin; CHEN, Mengshi; LI, Xun; LU, Xiulan; LIANG, Ying; TAN, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple severity scoring systems have been devised and evaluated in adult sepsis, but a simplified scoring model for pediatric sepsis has not yet been developed. This study aimed to develop and validate a new scoring model to stratify the severity of pediatric sepsis, thus assisting the treatment of sepsis in children. Methods: Data from 634 consecutive patients who presented with sepsis at Children’s hospital of Hunan province in China in 2011–2013 were analyzed, with 476 patients placed in training group and 158 patients in validation group. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to develop the accurate discriminate model. A simplified scoring model was generated using weightings defined by the discriminate coefficients. The discriminant ability of the model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). Results: The discriminant analysis showed that prothrombin time, D-dimer, total bilirubin, serum total protein, uric acid, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, myoglobin were associated with severity of sepsis. These seven variables were assigned with values of 4, 3, 3, 4, 3, 3, 3 respectively based on the standardized discriminant coefficients. Patients with higher scores had higher risk of severe sepsis. The areas under ROC (AROC) were 0.836 for accurate discriminate model, and 0.825 for simplified scoring model in validation group. Conclusions: The proposed disease severity scoring model for pediatric sepsis showed adequate discriminatory capacity and sufficient accuracy, which has important clinical significance in evaluating the severity of pediatric sepsis and predicting its progress. PMID:27516993

  14. Proteome Analysis of Bovine Longissimus dorsi Muscle Associated with the Marbling Score

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, D. H.; Lee, H. G.; Kang, H. S.; Seo, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The breeding value of marbling score in skeletal muscle is an important factor for evaluating beef quality. In the present study, we investigated proteins associated with the breeding value of the marbling score for bovine sirloin to select potential biomarkers to improve meat quality through comparative proteomic analysis. Proteins isolated from muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. After analyzing images of the stained gel, seven protein spots for the high marbling score group were identified corresponding to changes in expression that were at least two-fold compared to the low marbling score group. Four spots with increased intensities in the high marbling score group were identified as phosphoglycerate kinase 1, triosephophate isomerase, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein PO, and capping protein (actin filament) Z-line alpha 2. Spots with decreased intensities in the high marbling score group compared to the low score group were identified as 14-3-3 epsilon, carbonic anhydrase II, and myosin light chain 1. Expression of myosin light chain 1 and carbonic anhydrase 2 was confirmed by Western blotting. Taken together, these data could help improve the economic performance of cattle and provide useful information about the underlying the function of bovine skeletal muscle. PMID:25049666

  15. Scoring Methods for Building Genotypic Scores: An Application to Didanosine Resistance in a Large Derivation Set

    PubMed Central

    Houssaini, Allal; Assoumou, Lambert; Miller, Veronica; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several attempts have been made to determine HIV-1 resistance from genotype resistance testing. We compare scoring methods for building weighted genotyping scores and commonly used systems to determine whether the virus of a HIV-infected patient is resistant. Methods and Principal Findings Three statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine and logistic regression) are used to determine the weight of mutations involved in HIV resistance. We compared these weighted scores with known interpretation systems (ANRS, REGA and Stanford HIV-db) to classify patients as resistant or not. Our methodology is illustrated on the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research didanosine database (N = 1453). The database was divided into four samples according to the country of enrolment (France, USA/Canada, Italy and Spain/UK/Switzerland). The total sample and the four country-based samples allow external validation (one sample is used to estimate a score and the other samples are used to validate it). We used the observed precision to compare the performance of newly derived scores with other interpretation systems. Our results show that newly derived scores performed better than or similar to existing interpretation systems, even with external validation sets. No difference was found between the three methods investigated. Our analysis identified four new mutations associated with didanosine resistance: D123S, Q207K, H208Y and K223Q. Conclusions We explored the potential of three statistical methods to construct weighted scores for didanosine resistance. Our proposed scores performed at least as well as already existing interpretation systems and previously unrecognized didanosine-resistance associated mutations were identified. This approach could be used for building scores of genotypic resistance to other antiretroviral drugs. PMID:23555613

  16. Natural history of alkaptonuria revisited: analyses based on scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Cox, Trevor F

    2011-12-01

    Increased circulating homogentisic acid in body fluids occurs in alkaptonuria (AKU) due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to conversion of HGA to a pigmented melanin-like polymer, known as ochronosis. The tissue damage in AKU is due to ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, deploying nitisinone effectively requires its administration at the most optimal time in the natural history. AKU has a long apparent latent period before overt ochronosis develops. The rate of change of ochronosis and its consequences over time following its recognition has not been fully described in any quantitative manner. Two potential tools are described that were used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires in 44 people with AKU. Analysis of the data reveals distinct phases of the disease, a pre-ochronotic phase and an ochronotic phase. The ochronotic phase appears to demonstrate an earlier slower progression followed by a rapidly progressive phase. The rate of change of the disease will have implications for monitoring the course of the disease as well as decide on the most appropriate time that treatment should be started for it to be effective either in prevention or arrest of the disease. PMID:21748407

  17. Rapid conversion of adolescent MMPI raw scores to T scores using the HP-67 programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hembling, D W

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. PMID:6547731

  18. Knee instability scores for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Soni, Ashish; Olsen, Adam; Zlotnicki, Jason; Musahl, Volker

    2016-06-01

    Despite abundant biological, biomechanical, and clinical research, return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains a significant challenge. Residual rotatory knee laxity has been identified as one of the factors responsible for poor functional outcome. To improve and standardize the assessment of knee instability, a variety of instability scoring systems is available. Recently, devices to objectively quantify static and dynamic clinical exams have been developed to complement traditional subjective grading systems. These devices enable an improved evaluation of knee instability and possible associated injuries. This additional information may promote the development of new treatment algorithms and allow for individualized treatment. In this review, the different subjective laxity scores as well as complementary objective measuring systems are discussed, along with an introduction of injury to an individualized treatment algorithm. PMID:26980119

  19. High Scores at BASIS Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    While U.S. schools struggled to reach even an average score on a key international exam for 15-year-olds in 2012, BASIS Tucson North, an economically modest, ethnically diverse charter school in Arizona, outperformed every country in the world, and left even Shanghai, China's academic gem in the dust. With the U.S. frantic about its place in…

  20. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge. PMID:16174354

  1. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Jackson, Petra; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Dahl, Hildegunn; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Gutzkow, Kristine B

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to HT are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. HT methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies), and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The HT modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity, and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring. PMID:25389434

  2. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Jackson, Petra; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Dahl, Hildegunn; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R.; Gutzkow, Kristine B.

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to HT are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. HT methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies), and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The HT modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity, and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring. PMID:25389434

  3. Missing gene identification using functional coherence scores

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Meghana; Khan, Ishita K.; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing metabolic and signaling pathways is an effective way of interpreting a genome sequence. A challenge in a pathway reconstruction is that often genes in a pathway cannot be easily found, reflecting current imperfect information of the target organism. In this work, we developed a new method for finding missing genes, which integrates multiple features, including gene expression, phylogenetic profile, and function association scores. Particularly, for considering function association between candidate genes and neighboring proteins to the target missing gene in the network, we used Co-occurrence Association Score (CAS) and PubMed Association Score (PAS), which are designed for capturing functional coherence of proteins. We showed that adding CAS and PAS substantially improve the accuracy of identifying missing genes in the yeast enzyme-enzyme network compared to the cases when only the conventional features, gene expression, phylogenetic profile, were used. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the accuracy improves by considering indirect neighbors to the target enzyme position in the network using a proper network-topology-based weighting scheme. PMID:27552989

  4. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  5. A novel score predicting PEG placement in ICH – the GRAVo score

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysphagia after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to morbidity, often necessitating placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. This study describes a novel risk prediction score for PEG placement after ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 234 ICH patients presenting during a 4-year period. One hundred and eighty nine patients met inclusion criteria. The sample was randomly divided into a development and a validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop a risk score by weighting predictors of PEG placement based on strength of association. Results Age (OR 1.64 per 10 years increase in age, 95% CI 1.02–2.65), African American race (OR 3.26, 95% CI 0.96–11.05), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62–1.03), and ICH volume (OR 1.38 per 10 cc increase in ICH volume) were independent predictors of PEG placement. The final model for score development achieved an AUC of 0.7911 (95% CI 0.6931–0.8892) in the validation group. The score was named the GRAVo score: GCS ≤12 (2 points), Race (1 point for African-American), Age >50 years (2 points), and ICH Volume >30 cc (1 point). A score >4 was associated with nearly 12 times higher odds of PEG placement compared to a score ≤4 (OR 11.81, 95% CI 5.04–27.66), predicting PEG placement with 46.55% sensitivity and 93.13% specificity. Conclusion The GRAVo score, combining information about GCS, race, age, and ICH volume, may be a useful predictor of PEG placement in ICH patients. PMID:25468881

  6. Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

  7. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  8. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  9. On Interpreting Test Scores as Social Indicators: Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Because test scores are ordinal not cordinal attributes, the average test score often is a misleading way to summarize the scores of a group of individuals. Similarly, correlation coefficients may be misleading summary measures of association between test scores. Proper, readily interpretable, summary statistics are developed from a theory of…

  10. Evaluation of temperament scoring methods for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...

  11. Simple Adding versus Differential Weighting of MCAT Subtest Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A statistical comparison of Medical College Admission Test scores with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I scores of one school's students supported simple averaging of subtest scores rather than weighting as a predictor of NBME Part I performance. Similar results were obtained using basic science course examination scores. (MSE)

  12. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  13. The use of E-scores to determine the quality of protein alignments.

    PubMed

    Silvanovich, Andre; Bannon, Gary; McClain, Scott

    2009-08-01

    In 2001, the FAO/WHO suggested a procedure for performing FASTA or BLAST searches, and a threshold of greater than 35% identity in 80 or greater amino acids to identify potential allergenic cross-reactivity of transgene encoded proteins in genetically enhanced crops. Transgene encoded proteins meeting or exceeding this threshold would require additional in vitro evaluation for allergy safety. In work described herein, a method to calculate an E-score threshold is proposed for utilizing the full capability of bioinformatics to accurately identify potential cross-reactive allergens. The threshold E-score, 3.9E-07, was produced using a test dataset of 7695 corn protein sequences and a method that entailed FASTA searches of the FARRP 7 allergen database with each of the dataset sequences using a conventional full length and an 80 amino acid sliding window FASTA comparison followed by an evaluation of E-score distribution. The results show that this E-score threshold identifies known corn allergens and it displays a false positive rate for known allergens that is comparable to that obtained from the 2001 FAO/WHO guidance. Furthermore, the E-score threshold is of sufficient stringency that it rejects the majority of false positive, composition-based anomalies and is 100% effective at identifying Bet v 1 cross-reactive allergens. PMID:19245824

  14. The LUX Score: A Metric for Lipidome Homology

    PubMed Central

    Marella, Chakravarthy; Torda, Andrew E.; Schwudke, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    A lipidome is the set of lipids in a given organism, cell or cell compartment and this set reflects the organism’s synthetic pathways and interactions with its environment. Recently, lipidomes of biological model organisms and cell lines were published and the number of functional studies of lipids is increasing. In this study we propose a homology metric that can quantify systematic differences in the composition of a lipidome. Algorithms were developed to 1. consistently convert lipids structure into SMILES, 2. determine structural similarity between molecular species and 3. describe a lipidome in a chemical space model. We tested lipid structure conversion and structure similarity metrics, in detail, using sets of isomeric ceramide molecules and chemically related phosphatidylinositols. Template-based SMILES showed the best properties for representing lipid-specific structural diversity. We also show that sequence analysis algorithms are best suited to calculate distances between such template-based SMILES and we adjudged the Levenshtein distance as best choice for quantifying structural changes. When all lipid molecules of the LIPIDMAPS structure database were mapped in chemical space, they automatically formed clusters corresponding to conventional chemical families. Accordingly, we mapped a pair of lipidomes into the same chemical space and determined the degree of overlap by calculating the Hausdorff distance. We named this metric the ‘Lipidome jUXtaposition (LUX) score’. First, we tested this approach for estimating the lipidome similarity on four yeast strains with known genetic alteration in fatty acid synthesis. We show that the LUX score reflects the genetic relationship and growth temperature better than conventional methods although the score is based solely on lipid structures. Next, we applied this metric to high-throughput data of larval tissue lipidomes of Drosophila. This showed that the LUX score is sufficient to cluster tissues and

  15. SCMHBP: prediction and analysis of heme binding proteins using propensity scores of dipeptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heme binding proteins (HBPs) are metalloproteins that contain a heme ligand (an iron-porphyrin complex) as the prosthetic group. Several computational methods have been proposed to predict heme binding residues and thereby to understand the interactions between heme and its host proteins. However, few in silico methods for identifying HBPs have been proposed. Results This work proposes a scoring card method (SCM) based method (named SCMHBP) for predicting and analyzing HBPs from sequences. A balanced dataset of 747 HBPs (selected using a Gene Ontology term GO:0020037) and 747 non-HBPs (selected from 91,414 putative non-HBPs) with an identity of 25% was firstly established. Consequently, a set of scores that quantified the propensity of amino acids and dipeptides to be HBPs is estimated using SCM to maximize the predictive accuracy of SCMHBP. Finally, the informative physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids are identified by utilizing the estimated propensity scores to be used to categorize HBPs. The training and mean test accuracies of SCMHBP applied to three independent test datasets are 85.90% and 71.57%, respectively. SCMHBP performs well relative to comparison with such methods as support vector machine (SVM), decision tree J48, and Bayes classifiers. The putative non-HBPs with high sequence propensity scores are potential HBPs, which can be further validated by experimental confirmation. The propensity scores of individual amino acids and dipeptides are examined to elucidate the interactions between heme and its host proteins. The following characteristics of HBPs are derived from the propensity scores: 1) aromatic side chains are important to the effectiveness of specific HBP functions; 2) a hydrophobic environment is important in the interaction between heme and binding sites; and 3) the whole HBP has low flexibility whereas the heme binding residues are relatively flexible. Conclusions SCMHBP yields knowledge that improves our understanding

  16. SDS, a structural disruption score for assessment of missense variant deleteriousness

    PubMed Central

    Preeprem, Thanawadee; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a novel structure-based evaluation for missense variants that explicitly models protein structure and amino acid properties to predict the likelihood that a variant disrupts protein function. A structural disruption score (SDS) is introduced as a measure to depict the likelihood that a case variant is functional. The score is constructed using characteristics that distinguish between causal and neutral variants within a group of proteins. The SDS score is correlated with standard sequence-based deleteriousness, but shows promise for improving discrimination between neutral and causal variants at less conserved sites. The prediction was performed on 3-dimentional structures of 57 gene products whose homozygous SNPs were identified as case-exclusive variants in an exome sequencing study of epilepsy disorders. We contrasted the candidate epilepsy variants with scores for likely benign variants found in the EVS database, and for positive control variants in the same genes that are suspected to promote a range of diseases. To derive a characteristic profile of damaging SNPs, we transformed continuous scores into categorical variables based on the score distribution of each measurement, collected from all possible SNPs in this protein set, where extreme measures were assumed to be deleterious. A second epilepsy dataset was used to replicate the findings. Causal variants tend to receive higher sequence-based deleterious scores, induce larger physico-chemical changes between amino acid pairs, locate in protein domains, buried sites or on conserved protein surface clusters, and cause protein destabilization, relative to negative controls. These measures were agglomerated for each variant. A list of nine high-priority putative functional variants for epilepsy was generated. Our newly developed SDS protocol facilitates SNP prioritization for experimental validation. PMID:24795746

  17. The unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert D.; Beseoglu, Kerim; Juvela, Seppo; Raymond, Jean; Morita, Akio; Torner, James C.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Raabe, Andreas; Mocco, J.; Korja, Miikka; Abdulazim, Amr; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Barrow, Daniel L.; Bederson, Joshua; Bonafe, Alain; Dumont, Aaron S.; Fiorella, David J.; Gruber, Andreas; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hasan, David M.; Hoh, Brian L.; Jabbour, Pascal; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Kelly, Michael E.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Knuckey, Neville; Koivisto, Timo; Krings, Timo; Lawton, Michael T.; Marotta, Thomas R.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Mee, Edward; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Molyneux, Andrew; Morgan, Michael K.; Mori, Kentaro; Murayama, Yuichi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Nakayama, Naoki; Niemelä, Mika; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Pierot, Laurent; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.; Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M.; Rinne, Jaakko; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Ronkainen, Antti; Schaller, Karl; Seifert, Volker; Solomon, Robert A.; Spears, Julian; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.; Wanke, Isabel; Wermer, Marieke J.H.; Wong, George K.C.; Wong, John H.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Connolly, E. Sander; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Pasqualin, Alberto; Rüfenacht, Daniel; Vajkoczy, Peter; McDougall, Cameron; Hänggi, Daniel; LeRoux, Peter; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We endeavored to develop an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment score (UIATS) model that includes and quantifies key factors involved in clinical decision-making in the management of UIAs and to assess agreement for this model among specialists in UIA management and research. Methods: An international multidisciplinary (neurosurgery, neuroradiology, neurology, clinical epidemiology) group of 69 specialists was convened to develop and validate the UIATS model using a Delphi consensus. For internal (39 panel members involved in identification of relevant features) and external validation (30 independent external reviewers), 30 selected UIA cases were used to analyze agreement with UIATS management recommendations based on a 5-point Likert scale (5 indicating strong agreement). Interrater agreement (IRA) was assessed with standardized coefficients of dispersion (vr*) (vr* = 0 indicating excellent agreement and vr* = 1 indicating poor agreement). Results: The UIATS accounts for 29 key factors in UIA management. Agreement with UIATS (mean Likert scores) was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1–4.3) per reviewer for both reviewer cohorts; agreement per case was 4.3 (95% CI 4.1–4.4) for panel members and 4.5 (95% CI 4.3–4.6) for external reviewers (p = 0.017). Mean Likert scores were 4.2 (95% CI 4.1–4.3) for interventional reviewers (n = 56) and 4.1 (95% CI 3.9–4.4) for noninterventional reviewers (n = 12) (p = 0.290). Overall IRA (vr*) for both cohorts was 0.026 (95% CI 0.019–0.033). Conclusions: This novel UIA decision guidance study captures an excellent consensus among highly informed individuals on UIA management, irrespective of their underlying specialty. Clinicians can use the UIATS as a comprehensive mechanism for indicating how a large group of specialists might manage an individual patient with a UIA. PMID:26276380

  18. Docking and scoring protein interactions: CAPRI 2009.

    PubMed

    Lensink, Marc F; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2010-11-15

    Protein docking algorithms are assessed by evaluating blind predictions performed during 2007-2009 in Rounds 13-19 of the community-wide experiment on critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI). We evaluated the ability of these algorithms to sample docking poses and to single out specific association modes in 14 targets, representing 11 distinct protein complexes. These complexes play important biological roles in RNA maturation, G-protein signal processing, and enzyme inhibition and function. One target involved protein-RNA interactions not previously considered in CAPRI, several others were hetero-oligomers, or featured multiple interfaces between the same protein pair. For most targets, predictions started from the experimentally determined structures of the free (unbound) components, or from models built from known structures of related or similar proteins. To succeed they therefore needed to account for conformational changes and model inaccuracies. In total, 64 groups and 12 web-servers submitted docking predictions of which 4420 were evaluated. Overall our assessment reveals that 67% of the groups, more than ever before, produced acceptable models or better for at least one target, with many groups submitting multiple high- and medium-accuracy models for two to six targets. Forty-one groups including four web-servers participated in the scoring experiment with 1296 evaluated models. Scoring predictions also show signs of progress evidenced from the large proportion of correct models submitted. But singling out the best models remains a challenge, which also adversely affects the ability to correctly rank docking models. With the increased interest in translating abstract protein interaction networks into realistic models of protein assemblies, the growing CAPRI community is actively developing more efficient and reliable docking and scoring methods for everyone to use. PMID:20806235

  19. Analysis of five specific scores for cervical spondylogenic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dalitz, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The ability to compare various results that measure clinical deficits and outcome is a necessity for successful worldwide discussion about cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM) and its treatment. There is hardly any information in literature how to value and compare outcome assessed by different scores. In a retrospective study we objectively evaluated the Nurick-score, Japanese-orthopaedic-association-score (JOA-Score), Cooper-myelopathy-scale (CMS), Prolo-score and European-myelopathy-score (EMS) using the data of 43 patients, all of whom showed clinical and morphological signs of CSM and underwent operative decompression. The scores were assessed pre- and postoperatively. The correlation between the score-results, anamnesis, clinical and diagnostic data was investigated. All the scores show a statistically significant correlation and measure postoperative improvement. With exception of the Prolo-score all scores reflect clinical deficits of CSM. The Prolo-score rates the severity of CSM on the state of the economic situation above clinical symptoms. The main differences of the scores are shown in the number of patients showing postoperative improvement, varying between 33% (Nurick-score) and 81% (JOA-score). The recovery-rates, as a measure of the cumulative improvement of all the symptoms, show less variation (23–37%). The differences of the recovery-rate were only statistically significant between JOA-score, Nurick-score and EMS (P < 0.05), whereas all the other scores showed no significant differences. To assess the postoperative successes, the evaluation of the recovery-rate is essential. There is no significant difference in the recovery-rate amongst the majority of the scores, which allows a good comparison of the results from different studies. Nevertheless, it is always important to differentiate the therapy results of CSM published worldwide. PMID:17922150

  20. Operational scores in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis. A semi-quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Stănculeţ, N; Grigoraş, Adriana; Predescu, O; Floarea-Strat, Alina; Luca, Cătălina; Manciuc, Carmen; Dorobăţ, Carmen; Căruntu, Irina Draga

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the quantification of the specific lesions for chronic hepatitis B and C, our study focused on (i) the correspondence between the necroinflammatory activity and the fibrosis stage ascertained through the Ishak scoring system, (ii) the classification overlaps and differences of Ishak vs. METAVIR score. The study group consisted of 202 cases with chronic hepatitis B and 751 cases with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed based on liver biopsies. The fragments of hepatic tissue were routinely processed and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, trichrome Szekely, Gordon-Sweet silver impregnation, and Periodic Acid-Schiff. A semiquantitative evaluation was performed using the Ishak (for hepatitis B and C) and the METAVIR (for hepatitis C) scoring systems. Our results revealed that the comparison between hepatitis B and C, based on the necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis, is able to offer through the numeric values of the Ishak scoring system accurate proofs, which support the aggressivity of hepatitis C, because it develops fibrosis more quickly, even on the background of mild necroinflammatory activity. Also, our data showed that the necroinflammatory activity and the fibrosis are not processes which progress in a consistent pattern. The application of the METAVIR scoring system for the cases with chronic hepatitis C confirmed that there is not a direct correlation between necroinflammation and fibrosis. The Ishak scoring system provides through the wide range of numeric values attributed for the evaluation of necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis far more precise criteria for the appraisal of the degree of damage to the hepatic parenchyma at the time of the diagnosis. Supplementary, the METAVIR scoring system allows for the hepatitis C an assessment of the entire histologic activity, including the interface hepatitis and the associated lobular necrosis components. The scoring systems have unavoidably strengths and weaknesses, but the choice of a specific one

  1. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  2. Propensity score matching: a conceptual review for radiology researchers.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seunghee; Park, Seong Ho; Won, Eugene; Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2015-01-01

    The propensity score is defined as the probability of each individual study subject being assigned to a group of interest for comparison purposes. Propensity score adjustment is a method of ensuring an even distribution of confounders between groups, thereby increasing between group comparability. Propensity score analysis is therefore an increasingly applied statistical method in observational studies. The purpose of this article was to provide a step-by-step nonmathematical conceptual guide to propensity score analysis with particular emphasis on propensity score matching. A software program code used for propensity score matching was also presented. PMID:25741190

  3. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. PMID:25773314

  4. Assessing calibration of prognostic risk scores.

    PubMed

    Crowson, Cynthia S; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M

    2016-08-01

    Current methods used to assess calibration are limited, particularly in the assessment of prognostic models. Methods for testing and visualizing calibration (e.g. the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and calibration slope) have been well thought out in the binary regression setting. However, extension of these methods to Cox models is less well known and could be improved. We describe a model-based framework for the assessment of calibration in the binary setting that provides natural extensions to the survival data setting. We show that Poisson regression models can be used to easily assess calibration in prognostic models. In addition, we show that a calibration test suggested for use in survival data has poor performance. Finally, we apply these methods to the problem of external validation of a risk score developed for the general population when assessed in a special patient population (i.e. patients with particular comorbidities, such as rheumatoid arthritis). PMID:23907781

  5. Scoring functions--the first 100 years.

    PubMed

    Tame, Jeremy R H

    2005-06-01

    The use of simple linear mathematical models to estimate chemical properties is not a new idea. Albert Einstein used very simple 'gravity-like' forces to explain the capillarity of different liquids in 1900-1901. Today such models are used in more complicated situations, and a great many have been developed to analyse interactions between proteins and their ligands. This is not surprising, since proteins are too complicated to model accurately without lengthy numerical analysis, and simple models often do at least as good a job in predicting binding constants as much more computationally expensive methods. One hundred years after Einstein's 'miraculous year' in which he transformed physics, it is instructive to recall some of his even earlier work. As approximations, 'scoring functions' are excellent, but it is dangerous to read too much into them. A few cautionary tales are presented for the beginner to the field of ligand affinity prediction by linear models. PMID:16231202

  6. Evolution of music score watermarking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Christoph; Nesi, Paolo; Schmucker, Martin; Spinu, Marius B.

    2002-04-01

    Content protection for multimedia data is widely recognized especially for data types that are frequently distributed, sold or shared using the Internet. Particularly music industry dealing with audio files realized the necessity for content protection. Distribution of music sheets will face the same problems. Digital watermarking techniques provide a certain level of protection for these music sheets. But classical raster-oriented watermarking algorithms for images suffer several drawbacks when directly applied to image representations of music sheets. Therefore new solutions have been developed which are designed regarding the content of the music sheets. In Comparison to other media types the development for watermarking of music scores is a rather young art. The paper reviews the evolution of the early approaches and describes the current state of the art in the field.

  7. Team 393 robot scores in FIRST competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Bee Bots team (393) robot, named Dr. Beevil, scores by gathering balls. The team is composed of students from Morristown Jr. and Sr. high schools in Morristown, Ind., and is co-sponsored by NASA Kennedy Space Center and IPT Inc. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  8. DLQI and POSAS Scores in Keloid Patients.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Reinholz, Markus; Schwaiger, Hannah; Epple, Andreas; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of keloids remains complex and challenging. A multitude of different treatment options exists. While current guidelines frequently promote the combination of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cryotherapy as a first-line therapy for keloids, its efficacy has mainly been proven clinically and objective evaluation is widely missing. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TAC and cryotherapy for the improvement of keloids by employing two well-recognized questionnaires for the evaluation of scar appearance and patient's quality of life. Twenty keloid patients from our outpatient scar clinic were treated with individual doses of TAC and cryotherapy in four consecutive sessions. Retrospectively, Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire data from those patients were analyzed to evaluate changes over five visits (one baseline, four after treatment). Both overall patient and observer scores of the POSAS significantly decreased (41.10 ± 9.771 to 29.85 ± 11.42 [p < 0.001] and 33.75 ± 6.231 to 22.70 ± 5.992 [p < 0.001], respectively), while DLQI scores significantly declined over the time period studied, indicating significant improvements in scar appearance. Objective evaluation confirmed the clinically demonstrated improvements of scar appearance and symptoms after treatments with TAC and cryotherapy which was associated with significant improvements in quality of life as indicated by DLQI measures. Standardized questionnaires help in objectifying clinical improvements; however, more detailed options for scar documentation, such as objective imaging, may be additionally required for an in-depth analysis of treatment progress. PMID:27248027

  9. Applying polygenic risk scores to postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Enda M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Sallis, Hannah M; Viktorin, Alexander; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Boschloo, Lynn; van Grootheest, Gerard; McMahon, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be heterogeneous, but postpartum depression (PPD) is hypothesized to represent a more homogenous subset of MDD. We use genome-wide SNP data to explore this hypothesis. Method We assembled a total cohort of 1,420 self-report cases of PPD and 9,473 controls with genome-wide genotypes from Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. We estimated the total variance attributable to genotyped variants. We used association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) of Bipolar Disorder (BPD) and MDD to create polygenic scores in PPD and related MDD data sets to estimate the genetic overlap between the disorders. Results We estimated that the percentage of variance on the liability scale explained by common genetic variants to be 0.22 with a standard error of 0.12, p = 0.02. The R2 from a logistic regression of PPD case-control status in all four cohorts on a SNP profile score weighted by PGC-BPD association results was small (0.1%) but significant (p= 0.004) indicating a genetic overlap between BPD and PPD. The results were highly significant in the Australian and Dutch cohorts (R2 > 1.1%, p < 0.008), where the majority of cases met criteria for MDD. The genetic overlap between BPD and MDD was not significant in larger Australian and Dutch MDD case-control cohorts after excluding PPD cases (R2 =0.06%, p= 0.08), despite the larger MDD group affording more power. Conclusions Our results suggest empirical genetic evidence for a more important shared genetic etiology between BPD and PPD, than between BPD and MDD. PMID:25037970

  10. Scoring docking conformations using predicted protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since proteins function by interacting with other molecules, analysis of protein-protein interactions is essential for comprehending biological processes. Whereas understanding of atomic interactions within a complex is especially useful for drug design, limitations of experimental techniques have restricted their practical use. Despite progress in docking predictions, there is still room for improvement. In this study, we contribute to this topic by proposing T-PioDock, a framework for detection of a native-like docked complex 3D structure. T-PioDock supports the identification of near-native conformations from 3D models that docking software produced by scoring those models using binding interfaces predicted by the interface predictor, Template based Protein Interface Prediction (T-PIP). Results First, exhaustive evaluation of interface predictors demonstrates that T-PIP, whose predictions are customised to target complexity, is a state-of-the-art method. Second, comparative study between T-PioDock and other state-of-the-art scoring methods establishes T-PioDock as the best performing approach. Moreover, there is good correlation between T-PioDock performance and quality of docking models, which suggests that progress in docking will lead to even better results at recognising near-native conformations. Conclusion Accurate identification of near-native conformations remains a challenging task. Although availability of 3D complexes will benefit from template-based methods such as T-PioDock, we have identified specific limitations which need to be addressed. First, docking software are still not able to produce native like models for every target. Second, current interface predictors do not explicitly consider pairwise residue interactions between proteins and their interacting partners which leaves ambiguity when assessing quality of complex conformations. PMID:24906633

  11. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  12. Standard-setting methodology: Establishing performance standards and setting cut-scores to assist score interpretation.

    PubMed

    Zumbo, Bruno D

    2016-06-01

    A critical step in the development and use of tests of physical fitness for employment purposes (e.g., fitness for duty) is to establish 1 or more cut points, dividing the test score range into 2 or more ordered categories reflecting, for example, fail/pass decisions. Over the last 3 decades elaborated theories and methods have evolved focusing on the process of establishing 1 or more cut-scores on a test. This elaborated process is widely referred to as "standard-setting". As such, the validity of the test score interpretation hinges on the standard-setting, which embodies the purpose and rules according to which the test results are interpreted. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of standard-setting methodology. The essential features, key definitions and concepts, and various novel methods of informing standard-setting will be described. The focus is on foundational issues with an eye toward informing best practices with new methodology. Throughout, a case is made that in terms of best practices, establishing a test standard involves, in good part, setting a cut-score and can be conceptualized as evidence/data-based policy making that is essentially tied to test validity and an evidential trail. PMID:27277569

  13. Recalibration of the SCORE risk chart for the Russian population.

    PubMed

    Jdanov, Dmitri A; Deev, Alexander D; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Shkolnikova, Maria A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2014-09-01

    Persisting high levels of cardiovascular mortality in Russia present a specific case among developed countries. Application of cardiovascular risk prediction models holds great potential for primary prevention in this country. Using a unique set of cohort follow-up data from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, this study aims to test and recalibrate the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) methods for predicting CVD mortality risks in the general population. The study is based on pooled epidemiological cohort data covering the period 1975-2001. The algorithms from the SCORE project were used for the calibration of the SCORE equation for the Moscow and St. Petersburg populations (SCORE-MoSP). Age-specific 10-year cumulative cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated according to the original SCORE-High and SCORE-Low equations and compared to the estimates based on the recalibrated SCORE-MoSP model and observed CVD mortality rates. Ten-year risk prediction charts for CVD mortality were derived and compared using conventional SCORE-High and recalibrated SCORE-MoSP methods. The original SCORE-High model tends to substantially under-estimate 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk for females. The SCORE-MoSP model provided better results which were closer to the observed rates. For males, both the SCORE-High and SCORE-MoSP provided similar estimates which tend to under-estimate CVD mortality risk at younger ages. These differences are also reflected in the risk prediction charts. Using non-calibrated scoring models for Russia may lead to substantial under-estimation of cardiovascular mortality risk in some groups of individuals. Although the SCORE-MoSP provide better results for females, more complex scoring methods involving a wider range of risk factors are needed. PMID:25179794

  14. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  15. Multidimensional Scoring of Abilities: The Ordered Polytomous Response Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that multidimensionally scoring responses from different tests can provide better ability estimates. For educational assessment data, applications of this approach have been limited to binary scores. Of the different variants, the de la Torre and Patz model is considered more general because implementing the scoring procedure…

  16. Money Improves Test Scores--Even State-Level SATs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1996-01-01

    Three former secretaries of education--William Bennett, Lauro Cavazos, and Terrel Bell--have touted state-level SAT scores as proof that educational financing does not matter. Recently, Brian Powell and Lala Carr Steelman adjusted scores for participation rate and detected a very strong relationship between expenditures and SAT scores. Bigger…

  17. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Adjustments to PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit report for the fiscal... for the next fiscal year and select the audit firm that will perform the audit in question. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews....

  18. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Adjustments to PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit report for the fiscal... for the next fiscal year and select the audit firm that will perform the audit in question. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews....

  19. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Adjustments to PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit report for the fiscal... for the next fiscal year and select the audit firm that will perform the audit in question. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews....

  20. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... performance shall be accomplished using the following scoring plan or one specifically developed for...

  1. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... performance shall be accomplished using the following scoring plan or one specifically developed for...

  2. Effectiveness of Automated Chinese Sentence Scoring with Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Pai, Kai-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Automated scoring by means of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) has been introduced lately to improve the traditional human scoring system. The purposes of the present study were to develop a LSA-based assessment system to evaluate children's Chinese sentence construction skills and to examine the effectiveness of LSA-based automated scoring function…

  3. A Framework for Evaluation and Use of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Xi, Xiaoming; Breyer, F. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A framework for evaluation and use of automated scoring of constructed-response tasks is provided that entails both evaluation of automated scoring as well as guidelines for implementation and maintenance in the context of constantly evolving technologies. Consideration of validity issues and challenges associated with automated scoring are…

  4. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  5. Demystifying the GMAT: Where Do Scale Scores Comes from?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…

  6. Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  7. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined. PMID:26506017

  8. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the management operations indicator, HUD will...

  9. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the management operations indicator, HUD will...

  10. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the management operations indicator, HUD will...

  11. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  12. The Effects of Using Different Procedures to Score Maze Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Rebecca L.; McMaster, Kristen L.; Deno, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how different scoring procedures affect interpretation of maze curriculum-based measurements. Fall and spring data were collected from 199 students receiving supplemental reading instruction. Maze probes were scored first by counting all correct maze choices, followed by four scoring variations designed to…

  13. Teachers with High Licensing Scores Found More Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Students whose teachers score high on state licensing exams learn more mathematics over the course of a school year than peers taught by teachers with low scores, according to a new study that draws on 10 years of test-score data on North Carolina schoolchildren. Coming at a time when experts and policymakers are divided over what makes a "highly…

  14. Performance of a Generic Approach in Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A generic approach in automated essay scoring produces scores that have the same meaning across all prompts, existing or new, of a writing assessment. This is accomplished by using a single set of linguistic indicators (or features), a consistent way of combining and weighting these features into essay scores, and a focus on features that are not…

  15. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  16. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  17. A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Shirley A.

    In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…

  18. Score Study Practices of Texas High School Choir Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Herring, Michelle; Moore, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Score study combines the task of what music educators do to prepare for class everyday with many of the components that are taught in collegiate theory classes. While non-research articles have cited the practical application of score study techniques, there is a need for research on score study to describe the ways choral educators pragmatically…

  19. 49 CFR 383.135 - Minimum passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... score on such knowledge test. (b) To achieve a passing score on the skills test, the driver applicant must demonstrate that he/she can successfully perform all of the skills listed in § 383.113. (c) If the... automatically fail the test. (d) The scoring of the basic knowledge and skills tests shall be adjusted...

  20. Examining Guidelines for Developing Accurate Proficiency Level Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye

    2006-01-01

    One attempt to make scores from large-scale assessments more interpretable has been to provide proficiency level scores to describe the meaning of student performance on tests. This study has examined the accuracy of Ercikan and Julian's (2002) guidelines for developing proficiency level scores and the classification accuracy of proficiency level…

  1. Statistical Assessment of Estimated Transformations in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; González, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Equating methods make use of an appropriate transformation function to map the scores of one test form into the scale of another so that scores are comparable and can be used interchangeably. The equating literature shows that the ways of judging the success of an equating (i.e., the score transformation) might differ depending on the adopted…

  2. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  3. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Zhu, Min; Mindrila, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and…

  4. Analytic versus Holistic Scoring of Science Performance Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Stecher, Brian M.; Shavelson, Richard J.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Ormseth, Tor; Bell, Robert M.; Comfort, Kathy; Othman, Abdul R.

    1998-01-01

    Two studies involving 368 elementary and high school students and 29 readers were conducted to investigate reader consistency, score reliability, and reader time requirements of three hands-on science performance tasks. Holistic scores were as reliable as analytic scores, and there was a high correlation between them after they were disattenuated…

  5. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  6. An Analysis of the Robustness of Composition Scoring Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle

    Various claims have been made about the efficiency of different composition scoring schemes. This paper reports the results of a systematic analysis of the robustness of holistic scoring, analytical scoring, and an obective diagnostic test, Davidson's "Test of the Ability to Subordinate." Compositions from an advanced English as a Second Language…

  7. Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

  8. Propensity scores for prediction and characterization of bioluminescent proteins from sequences.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescent proteins (BLPs) are a class of proteins with various mechanisms of light emission such as bioluminescence and fluorescence from luminous organisms. While valuable for commercial and medical applications, identification of BLPs, including luciferases and fluorescent proteins (FPs), is rather challenging, owing to their high variety of protein sequences. Moreover, characterization of BLPs facilitates mutagenesis analysis to enhance bioluminescence and fluorescence. Therefore, this study proposes a novel methodological approach to estimating the propensity scores of 400 dipeptides and 20 amino acids in order to design two prediction methods and characterize BLPs based on a scoring card method (SCM). The SCMBLP method for predicting BLPs achieves an accuracy of 90.83% for 10-fold cross-validation higher than existing support vector machine based methods and a test accuracy of 82.85%. A dataset consisting of 269 luciferases and 216 FPs is also established to design the SCMLFP prediction method, which achieves training and test accuracies of 97.10% and 96.28%, respectively. Additionally, four informative physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids are identified using the estimated propensity scores to characterize BLPs as follows: 1) high transfer free energy from inside to the protein surface, 2) high occurrence frequency of residues in the transmembrane regions of the protein, 3) large hydrophobicity scale from the native protein structure, and 4) high correlation coefficient (R = 0.921) between the amino acid compositions of BLPs and integral membrane proteins. Further analyzing BLPs reveals that luciferases have a larger value of R (0.937) than FPs (0.635), suggesting that luciferases tend to locate near the cell membrane location rather than FPs for convenient receipt of extracellular ions. Importantly, the propensity scores of dipeptides and amino acids and the identified properties facilitate efforts to predict, characterize, and apply BLPs

  9. Localization of binding sites in protein structures by optimization of a composite scoring function.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea; Marti-Renom, Marc A; Sali, Andrej

    2006-10-01

    The rise in the number of functionally uncharacterized protein structures is increasing the demand for structure-based methods for functional annotation. Here, we describe a method for predicting the location of a binding site of a given type on a target protein structure. The method begins by constructing a scoring function, followed by a Monte Carlo optimization, to find a good scoring patch on the protein surface. The scoring function is a weighted linear combination of the z-scores of various properties of protein structure and sequence, including amino acid residue conservation, compactness, protrusion, convexity, rigidity, hydrophobicity, and charge density; the weights are calculated from a set of previously identified instances of the binding-site type on known protein structures. The scoring function can easily incorporate different types of information useful in localization, thus increasing the applicability and accuracy of the approach. To test the method, 1008 known protein structures were split into 20 different groups according to the type of the bound ligand. For nonsugar ligands, such as various nucleotides, binding sites were correctly identified in 55%-73% of the cases. The method is completely automated (http://salilab.org/patcher) and can be applied on a large scale in a structural genomics setting. PMID:16963645

  10. Localization of binding sites in protein structures by optimization of a composite scoring function

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Andrea; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Sali, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    The rise in the number of functionally uncharacterized protein structures is increasing the demand for structure-based methods for functional annotation. Here, we describe a method for predicting the location of a binding site of a given type on a target protein structure. The method begins by constructing a scoring function, followed by a Monte Carlo optimization, to find a good scoring patch on the protein surface. The scoring function is a weighted linear combination of the z-scores of various properties of protein structure and sequence, including amino acid residue conservation, compactness, protrusion, convexity, rigidity, hydrophobicity, and charge density; the weights are calculated from a set of previously identified instances of the binding-site type on known protein structures. The scoring function can easily incorporate different types of information useful in localization, thus increasing the applicability and accuracy of the approach. To test the method, 1008 known protein structures were split into 20 different groups according to the type of the bound ligand. For nonsugar ligands, such as various nucleotides, binding sites were correctly identified in 55%–73% of the cases. The method is completely automated (http://salilab.org/patcher) and can be applied on a large scale in a structural genomics setting. PMID:16963645

  11. Score distributions of gapped multiple sequence alignments down to the low-probability tail.

    PubMed

    Fieth, Pascal; Hartmann, Alexander K

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the significance of alignment scores of optimally aligned DNA or amino acid sequences can be achieved via the knowledge of the score distribution of random sequences. But this requires obtaining the distribution in the biologically relevant high-scoring region, where the probabilities are exponentially small. For gapless local alignments of infinitely long sequences this distribution is known analytically to follow a Gumbel distribution. Distributions for gapped local alignments and global alignments of finite lengths can only be obtained numerically. To obtain result for the small-probability region, specific statistical mechanics-based rare-event algorithms can be applied. In previous studies, this was achieved for pairwise alignments. They showed that, contrary to results from previous simple sampling studies, strong deviations from the Gumbel distribution occur in case of finite sequence lengths. Here we extend the studies to multiple sequence alignments with gaps, which are much more relevant for practical applications in molecular biology. We study the distributions of scores over a large range of the support, reaching probabilities as small as 10^{-160}, for global and local (sum-of-pair scores) multiple alignments. We find that even after suitable rescaling, eliminating the sequence-length dependence, the distributions for multiple alignment differ from the pairwise alignment case. Furthermore, we also show that the previously discussed Gaussian correction to the Gumbel distribution needs to be refined, also for the case of pairwise alignments. PMID:27627266

  12. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  13. Trabecular bone score in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, A; Ponti, F; Diano, D; Amadori, M; Albisinni, U; Battista, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this work was to report on trabecular bone score (TBS) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of healthy Italian subjects to be used as a reference standard for future study in clinical and research settings. The secondary aim was to investigate the link between TBS and conventional parameters of bone and body composition by DXA. Methods: 250 individuals of 5 age bands (spanning from 18 to 70 years of age, equally distributed for both age and sex) were prospectively recruited. A lumbar spine (LS) DXA scan (Lunar iDXA™; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) was acquired for each subject and then analysed with the latest version of TBS iNsight v. 2.1 (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) software. LS bone mineral density (LS BMD), Z-score, T-score and TBS values were collected. Pearson's test was used to investigate the correlations between TBS and LS BMD and the influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and body composition on these parameters. Results: A significant decrease of TBS and LS BMD was observed with ageing in both males (TBS mean values from 1.486 to 1.374; LS BMD mean values from 1.219 to 1.187) and females (TBS mean values from 1.464 to 1.306; LS BMD mean values from 1.154 to 1.116). No statistically significant difference was achieved among males and females of the same age group for both TBS and LS BMD, with the exception of the fifth age group. A significant correlation was found between LS BMD and TBS values in both sexes (r  = 0.555–0.655, p < 0.0001). BMI influenced LS BMD but not TBS. TBS values were inversely correlated with some fat mass parameters, in particular with visceral adipose tissue (in males: r = −0.332, p < 0.001; in females: r = −0.348, p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between TBS and total lean mass, opposite to LS BMD (in males: r = 0.418; p < 0.0001; in females: r = −0.235; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This report is an attempt to start building a database for

  14. A scoring scheme for evaluating magnetofossil identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    In many Quaternary lacustrine and marine settings, fossil magnetotactic bacteria are a major contributor to sedimentary magnetization [1]. Magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria have traits, shaped by natural selection, that increase the efficiency with which the bacteria utilize iron and also facilitate the recognition of the particles' biological origin. In particular, magnetotactic bacteria generally produce particles with characteristic shapes and narrow size and shape distributions that lie within the single domain stability field. The particles have effective positive magnetic anisotropy, produced by alignment in chains and frequently by particle elongation. In addition, the crystals are often nearly stochiometric and have few crystallographic defects. Yet, despite these distinctive traits, there are few identified magnetofossils that predate the Quaternary, and many putative identifications are highly controversial. We propose a six-criteria scoring scheme for evaluating identifications based on the quality of the geological, magnetic, and electron microscopic evidence. Our criteria are: (1) whether the geological context is well-constrained stratigraphically, and whether paleomagnetic evidence suggests a primary magnetization; (2) whether magnetic or microscopic evidence support the presence of significant single-domain magnetite; (3) whether magnetic or ferromagnetic resonance evidence indicates narrow size and shape distributions, and whether microscopic evidence reveals single-domain particles with truncated edges, elongate single-domain particles, and/or narrow size and shape distributions; (4) whether ferromagnetic resonance, low-temperature magnetic, or electron microscopic evidence reveals the presence of chains; (5) whether low-temperature magnetometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, or other techniques demonstrate the near-stochiometry of the particles; and (6) whether high-resolution TEM indicates the near- absence of

  15. Skill Scores for Probabilistic Climate and Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, T.; Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of skill scores are in use for the evaluation of probability forecasts. While the importance of using proper scores is well recognised, researchers often face requests to present results under a variety of different scores. Is there any sense in which considering many "different" skill scores makes a case more (or less) persuasive? Which set of scores makes the most persuasive case? A number of scores are considered, and their strengths and weaknesses contrasted, including the most commonly used metrics such as the proper linear score, continous ranked probability score and logartithmic score, amongst others. The role of moving from ensembles of point forecasts to continuous probability distributions is discussed. Illustrations with meteorological forecasts are considered, as are mathematical experiments where the size of the forecast-outcome archive can be made arbitrarily large. The aim is to restrict the number of skill scores considered, reduce the use of misleading scores, identify independent evidence and ensure that the set of scores published are specified before the results are in. I J Good's logarithmic score is known to be the only local, proper score for continuous variables. Proposed criticisms of locality are considered and rejected and it is argued that proper, non-local scores tend to include a term that is independent of the probability mass associated with the outcome. Thus they reward the forecast for some other property of the distribution function itself, having for example a particular shape; it is conjectured that this may be a general result. This is depricated, except in cases where the forecaster is being rewarded for something other than the relation between the forecast and reality, or whose distribution functions are unavoidably constrained by some particular structure. Remaining challenges to the evaluation of probability forecasts are noted. In partucular the effect of small samples and the implications of uncertinaty

  16. A Study of the Predictability of Praxis I Examination Scores from ACT Scores and Teacher Education Program Prerequisite Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student enrollment in certain college courses and Praxis I scores. Specifically, the study examined the predictive nature of the relationships between students' grades in college algebra, their freshman English course of choice, their ACT scores, and their Praxis I scores. The subjects…

  17. Strategies in Comparison of Methods for Scoring Patient Management Problems: Use of External Criteria to Validate Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, G. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Whether alternative scoring strategies result in improved measurement properties of patient management problems (PMPs) was studied. Nine scoring systems (proficiency, efficiency, select, omit, data gathering, therapy, absolute, goal-oriented, and empiric expert score) were applied to 16 PMPs used in a certifying examination taken by 4,590…

  18. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  19. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change. PMID:26708116

  20. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  1. Comparison of three acute care pediatric early warning scoring tools.

    PubMed

    Robson, Mary-Ann J; Cooper, Carole L; Medicus, Lori A; Quintero, Mary J; Zuniga, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric Early Warning (PEW) scoring tools effectively identify hospitalized children at risk for clinical deterioration. The study compared the predictability of three previously validated PEW scoring tools. A retrospective case-control design was used that identified the PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) as a stronger predictor of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) than either the PEW Tool (C. Haines, M. Perrott, & P. Weir, 2006) or the Bedside PEW System Score (C. Parshuram, J. Hutchison, & K. Middaugh, 2009). The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) demonstrated a greater sensitivity (86.6%) and specificity (72.9%) at a score of five. The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) could benefit healthcare providers in potentially averting CPA. PMID:23276507

  2. Validity and reliability of the SPORTS score for shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    BLONNA, DAVIDE; BELLATO, ENRICO; CARANZANO, FRANCESCO; BONASIA, DAVIDE E.; MARMOTTI, ANTONGIULIO; ROSSI, ROBERTO; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose athletes affected by shoulder instability cannot be judged solely according to the criteria used for non-athletes. In order to improve the assessment of shoulder instability surgery outcomes, the SPORTS score was tested in a cohort of athletes. Methods ninety-eight athletes at an average follow-up of 4.6 years (range 1–9.2) after open or arthroscopic surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability were included in this study. The patients were asked to complete the SPORTS score questionnaire twice, with an interval of 2–3 weeks between the two assessments. The Bland-Altman method and the intra-class correlation coefficient were used to measure reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient between the SPORTS score and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) score, the Rowe score, the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Results the SPORTS score showed excellent test-retest reliability. The systematic error between the first and the second assessment was 0.3 points (95% upper limit of agreement = 2.3 points). The criterion validity was found to be strong for the SPORTS score, which correlated best with the SSV and the “sport, recreation, and work” component of the WOSI score. The SPORTS score had an acceptable floor effect (8%). The ceiling effect was 46%, which was better than the ceiling effects seen with the Rowe, OSIS and WOSI scores. Conclusions this study suggests that the SPORTS score is a valid score in the assessment of athletes after surgery for shoulder instability and that it adds important information to the currently available scores. Level of evidence Level III, diagnostic study of nonconsecutive patients. PMID:25606544

  3. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  4. Gambling score in earthquake prediction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.

    2011-03-01

    The number of successes and the space-time alarm rate are commonly used to characterize the strength of an earthquake prediction method and the significance of prediction results. It has been recently suggested to use a new characteristic to evaluate the forecaster's skill, the gambling score (GS), which incorporates the difficulty of guessing each target event by using different weights for different alarms. We expand parametrization of the GS and use the M8 prediction algorithm to illustrate difficulties of the new approach in the analysis of the prediction significance. We show that the level of significance strongly depends (1) on the choice of alarm weights, (2) on the partitioning of the entire alarm volume into component parts and (3) on the accuracy of the spatial rate measure of target events. These tools are at the disposal of the researcher and can affect the significance estimate. Formally, all reasonable GSs discussed here corroborate that the M8 method is non-trivial in the prediction of 8.0 ≤M < 8.5 events because the point estimates of the significance are in the range 0.5-5 per cent. However, the conservative estimate 3.7 per cent based on the number of successes seems preferable owing to two circumstances: (1) it is based on relative values of the spatial rate and hence is more stable and (2) the statistic of successes enables us to construct analytically an upper estimate of the significance taking into account the uncertainty of the spatial rate measure.

  5. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method. PMID:26250757

  6. Computer scoring of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Bajgar, Jane; Leaf, Duncan Ermini; Lane, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlan, 1990) is the most commonly used measure of differentiation and complexity in the use of emotion words and is associated with important clinical outcomes. Hand scoring the LEAS is time consuming. Existing programs for scoring open-ended responses cannot mimic LEAS hand scoring. Therefore, Leaf and Barchard (2006) developed the Program for Open-Ended Scoring (POES) to score the LEAS. In this article, we report a study in which the reliability and validity of POES scoring were examined. In the study, we used three participant types (adult community members, university students, children), three LEAS versions (paper based, computer based, and the LEAS for children), and a diverse set of criterion variables. Across this variety of conditions, the four POES scoring methods had internal consistencies and validities that were comparable to hand scoring, indicating that POES scoring can be used in clinical practice and other applied settings in which hand scoring is impractical. PMID:20479190

  7. Combining event scores to estimate the ability of competitors.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Green, J R

    1995-04-01

    Simulation was used to investigate the validities of nine measures of ability derived from scores of two or more competitive events. The measures were: raw means and least-squares means of raw scores, z scores, and normal scores; two measures derived from ranked scores; and the "personal-best" raw score. Simulations were performed for different numbers of competitors, events, and event entries, each for a range of validity of performance in a single event. A complete set of simulations was repeated for each of the following conditions: normal distribution of competitors' ability; skewed distribution of ability; event validity related to ability; validity, ability, and spread of scores differing between events; and events differing in difficulty. The raw mean of raw scores was generally the most valid measure. The personal best was comparable to the mean only when the number of entries approached one per competitor. The least-squares mean of raw scores had highest validity when events differed substantially in difficulty; it should therefore be used when events differ in length, or when event scores are affected by environmental conditions, judging bias, or by uneven matching of competitors in match-play sports. PMID:7791592

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  9. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  10. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions.

    PubMed

    Nax, Heinrich H; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner's dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others' individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for 'group scoring' but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed. PMID:26177466

  11. The AFC Score: Validation of a 4-Item Predicting Score of Postoperative Mortality After Colorectal Resection for Cancer or Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Arnaud; Panis, Yves; Mantion, Georges; Slim, Karem; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Vicaut, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present prospective study was to validate externally a 4-item predictive score of mortality after colorectal surgery (the AFC score) by testing its generalizability on a new population. Summary Background Data: We have recently reported, in a French prospective multicenter study, that age older than 70 years, neurologic comorbidity, underweight (body weight loss >10% in <6 months), and emergency surgery significantly increased postoperative mortality after resection for cancer or diverticulitis. Patients and Methods: From June to September 2004, 1049 consecutive patients (548 men and 499 women) with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years, undergoing open or laparoscopic colorectal resection, were prospectively included. The AFC score was validated in this population. We assessed also the predictive value of other scores, such as the “Glasgow” score and the ASA score. To express and compare the predictive value of the different scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Results: Postoperative mortality rate was 4.6%. Variables already identified as predictors of mortality and used in the AFC score were also found to be associated with a high odds ratio in this study: emergency surgery, body weight loss >10%, neurologic comorbidity, and age older than 70 years in a multivariate logistic model. The validity of the AFC score in this population was found very high based both on the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P = 0.37) and on the area under the ROC curve (0.89). We also found that discriminatory capacity was higher than other currently used risk scoring systems such as the Glasgow or ASA score. Conclusion: The present prospective study validated the AFC score as a pertinent predictive score of postoperative mortality after colorectal surgery. Because it is based on only 4 risk factors, the AFC score can be used in daily practice. PMID:17592296

  12. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Mariam; Kassab, Salah Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS) have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician) for assessment of medical students (n=130) studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX) during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha statistics. The relationships between students’ scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management) and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862). Inter-item correlations between students’ scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01). Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01), while students’ scores in real patient encounters did not predict any of the CCS scores. Conclusion Students’ scores in OSCE are the most important predictors of their scores in clinical reasoning and patient management using CCS. However, real patient

  13. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  14. Observational scores of dampness and mold associated with measurements of microbial agents and moisture in three public schools

    PubMed Central

    Cho, S. J.; Cox-Ganser, J. M.; Park, J.-H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined associations between observational dampness scores and measurements of microbial agents and moisture in three public schools. A dampness score was created for each room from 4-point-scale scores (0–3) of water damage, water stains, visible mold, moldy odor, and wetness for each of 8 room components (ceiling, walls, windows, floor, ventilation, furniture, floor trench, and pipes), when present. We created mixed microbial exposure indices (MMEIs) for each of 121 rooms by summing decile ranks of 8 analytes (total culturable fungi; total, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive culturable bacteria; ergosterol; (1→3)-β-D-glucan; muramic acid; and endotoxin) in floor dust. We found significant (P ≤ 0.01) linear associations between the dampness score and culturable bacteria (total, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative) and the MMEIs. Rooms with dampness scores greater than 0.25 (median) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of most microbial agents, MMEIs, and relative moisture content than those with lower scores (≤0.25). Rooms with reported recent water leaks had significantly (P < 0.05) higher dampness scores than those with historical or no reported water leaks. This study suggests that observational assessment of dampness and mold using a standardized form may be valuable for identifying and documenting water damage and associated microbial contamination. PMID:25650175

  15. Observational scores of dampness and mold associated with measurements of microbial agents and moisture in three public schools.

    PubMed

    Cho, S J; Cox-Ganser, J M; Park, J-H

    2016-04-01

    We examined associations between observational dampness scores and measurements of microbial agents and moisture in three public schools. A dampness score was created for each room from 4-point-scale scores (0-3) of water damage, water stains, visible mold, moldy odor, and wetness for each of 8 room components (ceiling, walls, windows, floor, ventilation, furniture, floor trench, and pipes), when present. We created mixed microbial exposure indices (MMEIs) for each of 121 rooms by summing decile ranks of 8 analytes (total culturable fungi; total, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive culturable bacteria; ergosterol; (1→3)-β-D-glucan; muramic acid; and endotoxin) in floor dust. We found significant (P ≤ 0.01) linear associations between the dampness score and culturable bacteria (total, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative) and the MMEIs. Rooms with dampness scores greater than 0.25 (median) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of most microbial agents, MMEIs, and relative moisture content than those with lower scores (≤0.25). Rooms with reported recent water leaks had significantly (P < 0.05) higher dampness scores than those with historical or no reported water leaks. This study suggests that observational assessment of dampness and mold using a standardized form may be valuable for identifying and documenting water damage and associated microbial contamination. PMID:25650175

  16. A Genetic Response Score for Hydrochlorothiazide Use: Insights From Genomics and Metabolomics Integration.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Mohamed H; Gong, Yan; McDonough, Caitrin W; Rotroff, Daniel M; Beitelshees, Amber L; Garrett, Timothy J; Gums, John G; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Chapman, Arlene B; Turner, Stephen T; Boerwinkle, Eric; Frye, Reginald F; Fiehn, Oliver; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide is among the most commonly prescribed antihypertensives; yet, <50% of hydrochlorothiazide-treated patients achieve blood pressure (BP) control. Herein, we integrated metabolomic and genomic profiles of hydrochlorothiazide-treated patients to identify novel genetic markers associated with hydrochlorothiazide BP response. The primary analysis included 228 white hypertensives treated with hydrochlorothiazide from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study. Genome-wide analysis was conducted using Illumina Omni 1 mol/L-Quad Chip, and untargeted metabolomics was performed on baseline fasting plasma samples using a gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry platform. We found 13 metabolites significantly associated with hydrochlorothiazide systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) responses (false discovery rate, <0.05). In addition, integrating genomic and metabolomic data revealed 3 polymorphisms (rs2727563 PRKAG2, rs12604940 DCC, and rs13262930 EPHX2) along with arachidonic acid, converging in the netrin signaling pathway (P=1×10(-5)), as potential markers, significantly influencing hydrochlorothiazide BP response. We successfully replicated the 3 genetic signals in 212 white hypertensives treated with hydrochlorothiazide and created a response score by summing their BP-lowering alleles. We found patients carrying 1 response allele had a significantly lower response than carriers of 6 alleles (∆SBP/∆DBP: -1.5/1.2 versus -16.3/-10.4 mm Hg, respectively, SBP score, P=1×10(-8) and DBP score, P=3×10(-9)). This score explained 11.3% and 11.9% of the variability in hydrochlorothiazide SBP and DBP responses, respectively, and was further validated in another independent study of 196 whites treated with hydrochlorothiazide (DBP score, P=0.03; SBP score, P=0.07). This study suggests that PRKAG2, DCC, and EPHX2 might be important determinants of hydrochlorothiazide BP response. PMID:27381900

  17. Influences on nurses' scoring of children's post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Simons, Joan; Moseley, Laurence

    2009-06-01

    There is a lack of clarity as to why some nurses are not delivering optimal pain management to children post-operatively. This retrospective chart review study examined nurses' pain scoring on 175 children during the first 24 hours post-operatively. Data were analysed on the amount of assessments made, assessment scores recorded, as well as the age, gender and type of surgery performed. One-quarter of children had no assessment record of their pain in the first 24 hours post-operatively. When the pain tool was part of an observation chart, nurses recorded more pain scores. Nurses' scoring of children's pain is influenced positively by children under five years of age and those who undergo abdominal surgery. Nurses who had access to one document for recording vital signs as well as pain scores were more likely to assess and record a child's pain score than nurses who had to use a separate chart. PMID:19458166

  18. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  19. Age, Creatinine and Ejection Fraction Score in Brazil: Comparison with InsCor and the EuroSCORE

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Omar Asdrúbal Vilca; Matrangolo, Bruna La Regina; Titinger, David Provenzale; de Faria, Leandro Batisti; Dallan, Luís Roberto Palma; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto Ferreira; Dallan, Luís Alberto Oliveira; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk scores for cardiac surgery cannot continue to be neglected. Objective To assess the performance of “Age, Creatinine and Ejection Fraction Score” (ACEF Score) to predict mortality in patients submitted to elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve surgery, and to compare it to other scores. Methods A prospective cohort study was carried out with the database of a Brazilian tertiary care center. A total of 2,565 patients submitted to elective surgeries between May 2007 and July 2009 were assessed. For a more detailed analysis, the ACEF Score performance was compared to the InsCor’s and EuroSCORE’s performance through correlation, calibration and discrimination tests. Results Patients were stratified into mild, moderate and severe for all models. Calibration was inadequate for ACEF Score (p = 0.046) and adequate for InsCor (p = 0.460) and EuroSCORE (p = 0.750). As for discrimination, the area under the ROC curve was questionable for the ACEF Score (0.625) and adequate for InsCor (0.744) and EuroSCORE (0.763). Conclusion Although simple to use and practical, the ACEF Score, unlike InsCor and EuroSCORE, was not accurate for predicting mortality in patients submitted to elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve surgery in a Brazilian tertiary care center. PMID:26312550

  20. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  1. Extended score interval in the assessment of basic surgical skills

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan; Sevonius, Dan; Beckman, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Basic Surgical Skills course uses an assessment score interval of 0–3. An extended score interval, 1–6, was proposed by the Swedish steering committee of the course. The aim of this study was to analyze the trainee scores in the current 0–3 scored version compared to a proposed 1–6 scored version. Methods Sixteen participants, seven females and nine males, were evaluated in the current and proposed assessment forms by instructors, observers, and learners themselves during the first and second day. In each assessment form, 17 tasks were assessed. The inter-rater reliability between the current and the proposed score sheets were evaluated with intraclass correlation (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The distribution of scores for ‘knot tying’ at the last time point and ‘bowel anastomosis side to side’ given by the instructors in the current assessment form showed that the highest score was given in 31 and 62%, respectively. No ceiling effects were found in the proposed assessment form. The overall ICC between the current and proposed score sheets after assessment by the instructors increased from 0.38 (95% CI 0.77–0.78) on Day 1 to 0.83 (95% CI 0.51–0.94) on Day 2. Discussion A clear ceiling effect of scores was demonstrated in the current assessment form, questioning its validity. The proposed score sheet provides more accurate scores and seems to be a better feedback instrument for learning technical surgical skills in the Basic Surgical Skills course. PMID:25636607

  2. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed. PMID:26177466

  3. Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Kluender, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    “Big data” and statistical techniques to score potential transactions have transformed insurance and credit markets. In this paper, we observe that these widely-used statistical scores summarize a much richer heterogeneity, and may be endogenous to the context in which they get applied. We demonstrate this point empirically using data from Medicare Part D, showing that risk scores confound underlying health and endogenous spending response to insurance. We then illustrate theoretically that when individuals have heterogeneous behavioral responses to contracts, strategic incentives for cream skimming can still exist, even in the presence of “perfect” risk scoring under a given contract. PMID:27429712

  4. Utilizing signature-score to identify oncogenic pathways of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Chen, Hung-I Harry; Lu, Jo-Yang; Lin, Pei-Ying; Keller, Charles; Comerford, Sarah; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Chen, Yidong

    2013-01-01

    Extracting maximal information from gene signature sets (GSSs) via microarray-based transcriptional profiling involves assigning function to up and down regulated genes. Here we present a novel sample scoring method called Signature-score (S-score) which can be used to quantify the expression pattern of tumor samples from previously identified gene signature sets. A simulation result demonstrated an improved accuracy and robustness by S-score method comparing with other scoring methods. By applying the S-score method to cholangiocarcinoma (CAC), an aggressive hepatic cancer that arises from bile ducts cells, we identified enriched oncogenic pathways in two large CAC data sets. Thirteen pathways were enriched in CAC compared with normal liver and bile duct. Moreover, using S-score, we were able to dissect correlations between CAC-associated oncogenic pathways and Gene Ontology function. Two major oncogenic clusters and associated functions were identified. Cluster 1, which included beta-catenin and Ras, showed a positive correlation with the cell cycle, while cluster 2, which included TGF-beta, cytokeratin 19 and EpCAM was inversely correlated with immune function. We also used S-score to identify pathways that are differentially expressed in CAC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the more common subtype of liver cancer. Our results demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of S-score in assigning functional roles to tumor-associated gene signature sets and in identifying potential therapeutic targets for specific liver cancer subtypes. PMID:23905013

  5. SCMPSP: Prediction and characterization of photosynthetic proteins based on a scoring card method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Photosynthetic proteins (PSPs) greatly differ in their structure and function as they are involved in numerous subprocesses that take place inside an organelle called a chloroplast. Few studies predict PSPs from sequences due to their high variety of sequences and structues. This work aims to predict and characterize PSPs by establishing the datasets of PSP and non-PSP sequences and developing prediction methods. Results A novel bioinformatics method of predicting and characterizing PSPs based on scoring card method (SCMPSP) was used. First, a dataset consisting of 649 PSPs was established by using a Gene Ontology term GO:0015979 and 649 non-PSPs from the SwissProt database with sequence identity <= 25%.- Several prediction methods are presented based on support vector machine (SVM), decision tree J48, Bayes, BLAST, and SCM. The SVM method using dipeptide features-performed well and yielded - a test accuracy of 72.31%. The SCMPSP method uses the estimated propensity scores of 400 dipeptides - as PSPs and has a test accuracy of 71.54%, which is comparable to that of the SVM method. The derived propensity scores of 20 amino acids were further used to identify informative physicochemical properties for characterizing PSPs. The analytical results reveal the following four characteristics of PSPs: 1) PSPs favour hydrophobic side chain amino acids; 2) PSPs are composed of the amino acids prone to form helices in membrane environments; 3) PSPs have low interaction with water; and 4) PSPs prefer to be composed of the amino acids of electron-reactive side chains. Conclusions The SCMPSP method not only estimates the propensity of a sequence to be PSPs, it also discovers characteristics that further improve understanding of PSPs. The SCMPSP source code and the datasets used in this study are available at http://iclab.life.nctu.edu.tw/SCMPSP/. PMID:25708243

  6. Comparison of Human and Machine Scoring of Essays: Differences by Gender, Ethnicity, and Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine; Attali, Yigal

    2012-01-01

    Essay scores generated by machine and by human raters are generally comparable; that is, they can produce scores with similar means and standard deviations, and machine scores generally correlate as highly with human scores as scores from one human correlate with scores from another human. Although human and machine essay scores are highly related…

  7. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P.; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  8. External validation of the HIT Expert Probability (HEP) score.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lee; Gomes, Marcelo P V; Al Solaiman, Firas; St John, Julie; Ozaki, Asuka; Raju, Manjunath; Dhariwal, Manoj; Kim, Esther S H

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be challenging. The HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score has recently been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of HIT. We sought to externally and prospectively validate the HEP score. We prospectively assessed pre-test probability of HIT for 51 consecutive patients referred to our Consultative Service for evaluation of possible HIT between August 1, 2012 and February 1, 2013. Two Vascular Medicine fellows independently applied the 4T and HEP scores for each patient. Two independent HIT expert adjudicators rendered a diagnosis of HIT likely or unlikely. The median (interquartile range) of 4T and HEP scores were 4.5 (3.0, 6.0) and 5 (3.0, 8.5), respectively. There were no significant differences between area under receiver-operating characteristic curves of 4T and HEP scores against the gold standard, confirmed HIT [defined as positive serotonin release assay and positive anti-PF4/heparin ELISA] (0.74 vs 0.73, p = 0.97). HEP score ≥ 2 was 100 % sensitive and 16 % specific for determining the presence of confirmed HIT while a 4T score > 3 was 93 % sensitive and 35 % specific. In conclusion, the HEP and 4T scores are excellent screening pre-test probability models for HIT, however, in this prospective validation study, test characteristics for the diagnosis of HIT based on confirmatory laboratory testing and expert opinion are similar. Given the complexity of the HEP scoring model compared to that of the 4T score, further validation of the HEP score is warranted prior to widespread clinical acceptance. PMID:25588983

  9. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  10. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  11. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  12. An Empirical Comparison of Factor, Image, Component, and Scale Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Joseph L.; Velicer, Wayne F.

    1992-01-01

    Principal component, image component, three types of factor score estimates, and one scale score method were compared over different levels of variables, saturations, sample sizes, variable to component ratios, and pattern rotations. There were virtually no overall differences among methods, with the average correlation between matched scores…

  13. A Comparison of Decision Theoretic Approaches to Adjusting Cut Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druva-Roush, Cynthia Ann; And Others

    Methods of adjusting cut scores used in placement decisions are examined empirically. Admission and performance variables are used to study alternate methods of adjusting cut scores for placement in standard and accelerated rhetoric courses in a large university setting, with the predicted variable being success or failure as measured by…

  14. 24 CFR 902.35 - Financial condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... project under 24 CFR 990.280 and 990.285. The financial condition score for PHAs will be based on a unit... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial condition scoring and thresholds. 902.35 Section 902.35 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  15. Comparison of Program Effects: The Use of Mastery Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Jennie P.; Moy, Raymond

    The setting of a cut-off score on a mastery test usually involves a consideration of one or more of the following elements: (1) the distribution of observed test scores; (2) the type of mastery criterion used; (3) the level of acceptable risks of mis-classification; (4) the loss of functions of mis-classifications; and (5) the distribution of true…

  16. "New Balls, Please!"--The Prosody of Tennis Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swerts, Marc; van Wijk, Carel

    2010-01-01

    Tennis scores represent a natural language domain that offers the unique opportunity to study the effects of discourse constraints on prosody with strict control over syntactic and lexical variation. This study analyzed a set of tennis scores, such as "30-15," from live recordings of several Wimbledon and Davis Cup matches. The objective was to…

  17. The Generalizability of Motivation Filtering in Improving Test Score Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Vicki L.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2006-01-01

    Accountability for educational quality is a priority at all levels of education. Low-stakes testing is one way to measure the quality of education that students receive and make inferences about what students know and can do. Aggregate test scores from low-stakes testing programs are suspect, however, to the degree that these scores are influenced…

  18. Checklist for Evaluating SREB-SCORE Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This checklist is based on "Evaluation Criteria for SREB-SCORE Learning Objects" and is designed to help schools and colleges determine the quality and effectiveness of learning objects. It is suggested that each learning object be rated to the extent to which it meets the criteria and the SREB-SCORE definition of a learning object. A learning…

  19. Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

  20. Neck pain patients’ preference scores for their current health

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Côté, Pierre; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Krahn, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To elicit neck pain (NP) patients’ preference scores for their current health, and investigate the association between their scores and NP disability. Methods Rating scale scores (RSs) and standard gamble scores (SGs) for current health were elicited from chronic NP patients (n = 104) and patients with NP following a motor vehicle accident (n = 116). Patients were stratified into Von Korff Pain Grades: Grade I (low-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade II (high-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade III (pain with high disability levels, moderate activity limitations); and Grade IV (pain with high disability levels, several activity limitations). Multivariable regression quantified the association between preference scores and NP disability. Results Mean SGs and RSs were as follows: Grade I patients: 0.81, 0.76; Grade II: 0.70, 0.60; Grade III: 0.64, 0.44; Grade IV: 0.57, 0.39. The association between preference scores and NP disability depended on type of NP and preference-elicitation method. Chronic NP patients’ scores were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than with NP disability. In both samples, NP disability explained little more than random variance in SGs, and up to 51% of variance in RSs. Conclusion Health-related quality-of-life is considerably diminished in NP patients. Depressive symptoms and preference-elicitation methods influence preference scores that NP patients assign to their health. PMID:20349212

  1. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calculated for individual projects, as well as for the overall condition of a PHA's public housing portfolio. (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score is... total number of units in the PHA's portfolio to derive the overall physical condition indicator...

  2. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... calculated for individual projects, as well as for the overall condition of a PHA's public housing portfolio. (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score is... total number of units in the PHA's portfolio to derive the overall physical condition indicator...

  3. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calculated for individual projects, as well as for the overall condition of a PHA's public housing portfolio. (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score is... total number of units in the PHA's portfolio to derive the overall physical condition indicator...

  4. Examining Classification Criteria: A Comparison of Three Cut Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This study compared 3 different methods of creating cut scores for a screening instrument, T scores, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and the Rasch rating scale method (RSM), for use with the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Teacher Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007). Using…

  5. Mental Test Performance as a Function of Various Scoring Cutoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Veeser, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Investigates the influence of various scoring cutoffs on mental test performance as measured by the Michell General Ability Test (MGAT) and develops a rationale for selecting the optimum cutoff based on raw scores, internal consistency, stability, parallel-form reliability and concurrent validity estimates. (MB)

  6. 24 CFR 902.67 - Score and designation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... receive a status designation corresponding to its final PHAS score as follows: (a) High performer. (1) A... or greater of the total available points under PHAS shall be designated a high performer. (2) A PHA shall not be designated a high performer if it scores below the threshold established for any...

  7. Determination of Passing Scores on Certification Examinations: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karni, Karen R.; Lofsness, Karen G.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the results obtained from certification applicants and practitioners on a national certification examination for clinical laboratory scientists (medical technologists), using a modified Angoff procedure to establish the cut-off score. The major question of the investigation concerned whether the cut-off score was appropriate.…

  8. A FORTRAN IV Program for Scoring Written Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Thomas J.; Noe, Michael J.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program for scoring written simulation tests provides individual scores and basic item analysis data. The program is written in Fortran IV and can accomodate up to thirty-five hundred options and up to ten thousand examinees. (Author/JKS)

  9. Reliability of Scores on the Summative Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Oosterhof, Albert; Xia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the reliability of scores obtained on the summative performance assessments during the pilot year of our research. Contrary to classical test theory, we discussed the advantages of using generalizability theory for estimating reliability of scores for summative performance assessments. Generalizability theory was used as the…

  10. Score-Informed Musical Source Separation and Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yushen

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach to retrieve individual parts in a monaural music recording with its score is introduced. We are interested in isolating the accompaniment part by removing the solo part from a recording of concerto music in which a solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. We require the music audio, the score, and optionally a sample…

  11. Longitudinal Factor Score Estimation Using the Kalman Filter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oud, Johan H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    How longitudinal factor score estimation--the estimation of the evolution of factor scores for individual examinees over time--can profit from the Kalman filter technique is described. The Kalman estimates change more cautiously over time, have lower estimation error variances, and reproduce the LISREL program latent state correlations more…

  12. Automated Essay Scoring With e-rater[R] V.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Burstein, Jill

    2006-01-01

    E-rater[R] has been used by the Educational Testing Service for automated essay scoring since 1999. This paper describes a new version of e-rater (V.2) that is different from other automated essay scoring systems in several important respects. The main innovations of e-rater V.2 are a small, intuitive, and meaningful set of features used for…

  13. Shrinkage Estimation of Linear Combinations of True Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that, in the presence of population information, a linear combination of true scores can be estimated more efficiently than by the same linear combination of the observed scores. Three criteria for optimality are discussed, but they yield the same solution, described as a multivariate shrinkage estimator. (Author/SLD)

  14. Motivational Effects on Test Scores of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven M.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of motivational manipulated conditions on students' mathematics scores, elementary students received either ordinary standardized test instructions or special instructions (do as well as possible for themselves, parents, and teachers). Those given special instructions scored significantly higher in the test, implying that…

  15. Using Dogmatism Scores as a Counseling Training Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklare, Gerald B.; Cunningham, Nancy Jean

    1980-01-01

    Counselors with low dogmatism scores are more effective than counselors with higher dogmatism scores. Over the course of training, the group of trainees classified as highly dogmatic both decreased in level of dogmatism and increased in level of counseling effectiveness as measured by improvement in level of performance. (Author)

  16. Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

  17. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  18. Differentiation of Illusory and True Halo in Writing Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Emily R.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Vickers, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes an empirical study that addresses two related topics within the context of writing assessment--illusory halo and how much unique information is provided by multiple analytic scores. Specifically, we address the issue of whether unique information is provided by analytic scores assigned to student writing, beyond what is…

  19. Measuring the Relationship between Scores on Two Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2007-01-01

    Characterising the relationship between participants' scores on two different questionnaires is a common problem in educational research. The complement of the statistic known as Wilks' lambda measures the amount of variance shared between the scores obtained by the same group of participants on two sets of variables. (1 - lambda) is symmetric, in…

  20. Prediction of College Student Dropouts Using EDS Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, A. D.; Long, Carolyn K.; Chubick, Jennifer D.

    1999-01-01

    To identify college students at risk for dropping out, scores on the Environmental Deprivation Scale (EDS) given six quarters earlier were studied. Students who had graduated at follow-up had lower scores than those who had dropped out. Examination of items showed types of support lacking for at-risk students. (EMK)

  1. Propensity Score Analysis in R: A Software Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bryan; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review four software packages for implementing propensity score analysis in R: "Matching, MatchIt, PSAgraphics," and "twang." After briefly discussing essential elements for propensity score analysis, we apply each package to a data set from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study in order to estimate the…

  2. Automatically Scoring Short Essays for Content. CRESST Report 836

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed response items over multiple choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way is found to score them automatically. Current automatic essay scoring techniques are…

  3. Validity of Scoring "Dangerous Answers" on a Written Certification Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slogoff, Stephen; Hughes, Francis P.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of "dangerous answers" as a scoring method for certification examinations in anesthesiology concluded that selection of dangerous answers in multiple-choice tests results from lack of information rather than purposeful action, and that implementation of the scoring method is unjustified and unfairly punitive. (MSE)

  4. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  5. Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

  6. Mathematical SAT Test Scores and College Chemistry Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Harry E.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the comparative performance of various segments of the student sample in general chemistry courses relative to their scores on the mathematical SAT test. Results indicate that mathematical skill measured by the SAT scores is an important factor in determining grades while factors that are not important in determining grades are gender…

  7. First-Year Chemistry Grades and SAT Math Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Marjorie H.; Andrews, Lester

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of SAT math scores, high school grade point averages (GPAs), and final chemistry grades for both the 1972 and 1976 fall semester classes of the first-year chemistry course at the University of Virginia showed that SAT math scores were a much better predictor of final chemistry grades than were high school GPAs. (BB)

  8. The Reliability of Difference Scores in Populations and Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the relation between the reliability of difference scores, considered as a parameter characterizing a population of examinees, and the reliability estimates obtained from random samples from the population. The parameters in familiar equations for the reliability of difference scores were redefined in such a way…

  9. Using Large-Scale Assessment Scores to Determine Student Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tess

    2013-01-01

    Many Canadian provinces provide guidelines for teachers to determine students' final grades by combining a percentage of students' scores from provincial large-scale assessments with their term scores. This practice is thought to hold students accountable by motivating them to put effort into completing the large-scale assessment, thereby…

  10. The Essay Scoring and Scorer Reliability in TOEFL CBT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    An essay test is now an integral part of the computer based Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL-CBT). This paper provides a brief overview of the current TOEFL-CBT essay test, describes the operational procedures for essay scoring, including the Online Scoring Network (OSN) of the Educational Testing Service (ETS), and discusses major…

  11. Covariate Balance in Bayesian Propensity Score Approaches for Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jianshen; Kaplan, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian alternatives to frequentist propensity score approaches have recently been proposed. However, few studies have investigated their covariate balancing properties. This article compares a recently developed two-step Bayesian propensity score approach to the frequentist approach with respect to covariate balance. The effects of different…

  12. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  13. Another Answer to the Cut-Off Score Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Test development procedures and six methods for determining cut-off scores are briefly described. An alternate method, appropriate when the test developer also determines the cut-off score, is suggested. Unlike other methods, the standard is set during the test development stage. Its computations are intelligible to nonstatistically-oriented…

  14. A Practical Guide for Using Propensity Score Weighting in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Antonio; Govindasamy, Priyalatha

    2015-01-01

    Propensity score weighting is one of the techniques used in controlling for selection biases in nonexperimental studies. Propensity scores can be used as weights to account for selection assignment differences between treatment and comparison groups. One of the advantages of this approach is that all the individuals in the study can be used for…

  15. ECRHS Screening Questionnaire Scoring: A Methodological Suggestion for Asthma Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biino, G.; Rezzani, C.; Grassi, M.; Marinoni, A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the unidimensionality of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire and determined and validated a scoring of asthma-like symptoms seriousness. Data from 6,946 adults at 3 Italian screening centers found a single dimension underlying the screening questionnaire. A scoring of asthma-like symptoms…

  16. Validating Alternative Modes of Scoring for Coloured Progressive Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razel, Micha; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    Conventional scoring of the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) was compared with three methods of multiple weight scoring. The methods include: (1) theoretical weighting in which the weights were based on a theory of cognitive processing; (2) judged weighting in which the weights were given by a group of nine adult expert judges; and (3)…

  17. Recategorized WISC-R Scores of Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Martin G.; Hubble, Larry M.

    1981-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised scores of a male delinquent sample were grouped by A. Bannatyne's classification of Wechsler's subtests, and these recategorized scores were compared with results of a previous study of learning disabled children. Findings failed to support a theory that learning disabled youth possess a unique…

  18. Are Medical Students Assigning Proper Global Assessment of Functioning Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsi, Mustafa K.; Sattar, S. Pirzada; Din, Amad U.; Petty, Frederick; Padala, Prasad R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article seeks to determine whether medical students can estimate the appropriate score for the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) compared with psychiatry residents and staff psychiatrists. The authors hypothesized that medical students' estimations of GAF scores for patients in clinical vignettes would differ from those…

  19. 24 CFR 901.105 - Computing assessment score.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing assessment score. 901.105 Section 901.105 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.105 Computing assessment score. (a)...

  20. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

  1. Relationship between Machiavellianism scores and performance of real estate salespersons.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Abdul

    2005-02-01

    Data from two samples (ns=37 and 35) of real estate agents showed a significant positive correlation of .37 between Machiavellianism (Mach-B scores) and self-reported sales volume. Present findings support earlier results from samples of stockbrokers and automobile salespersons showing Mach-B scores to be positively related to sales performance. PMID:15825935

  2. The Effects of Write Score Formative Assessment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    In an "ex post facto" causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a formative writing assessment program, Write Score, on increasing student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading language arts and writing scores from 2012 were utilized for this study. The…

  3. Uncovering Concerns with Developing a Scoring System at ETS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stires, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes an expert panel member's experiences in working with Educational Testing Service to redesign the scoring for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Early Adolescence/English Language Arts Assessment. Maintains that a less mechanistic and more valid scoring system could have been developed if criticism and open discussion…

  4. Clickers to the Rescue: Technology Integration Helps Boost Literacy Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moratelli, Katelyn; DeJarnette, Nancy K.

    2014-01-01

    Literacy assessment scores in an urban 5th grade classroom left much to be desired. In this diverse classroom population, typical urban distractions such as poverty, crime, English as a second language, and lack of parental support contribute to extremely low literacy scores. This classroom study examined the effects of implementing clickers, a…

  5. Bayesian Propensity Score Analysis: Simulation and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Cassie J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Propensity score analysis (PSA) has been used in a variety of settings, such as education, epidemiology, and sociology. Most typically, propensity score analysis has been implemented within the conventional frequentist perspective of statistics. This perspective, as is well known, does not account for uncertainty in either the parameters of the…

  6. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  7. The Relative Influence of Faculty Mobility on NJ HSPA Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Dana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher examined the strength and direction of relationships between New Jersey School Report Card Variables, in particular Faculty Mobility, and 2009-2010 New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA) Math and Language Arts Literacy test scores. Variables found to have an influence on standardized test scores in the…

  8. 48 CFR 1816.405-275 - Award fee evaluation scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Award fee evaluation scoring. 1816.405-275 Section 1816.405-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.405-275 Award fee evaluation scoring. (a)...

  9. Content Influence While Stage Scoring Moral Thought Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of test scores were analyzed to examine whether sixty teachers were unable to use Kohlberg's measurement system for determining stages of moral thought because they were stage scoring invalidly on the basis of content. This proved to be the case. (Author/JKS)

  10. Pain Scores Are Not Predictive of Pain Medication Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Suzanne; Chimhanda, Maryann; Sloan, Jayme; Anderson, Charles; Sinacore, James; Brubaker, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94). We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) or RN administered (intravenous or oral) medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management. PMID:22110938

  11. Pain scores are not predictive of pain medication utilization.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Suzanne; Chimhanda, Maryann; Sloan, Jayme; Anderson, Charles; Sinacore, James; Brubaker, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94). We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) or RN administered (intravenous or oral) medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management. PMID:22110938

  12. The Correlation Between GRE Scores and Performance in Graduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, David

    1996-05-01

    We investigate the correlation between GRE scores and various measures of performance for graduate students in the Physics Department at Harvard University. We consider students who entered the program between 1980 and 1989. The degree to which GRE scores can predict performance is shown for different subgroups of students.

  13. Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2013-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

  14. BASIC Computer Scoring Program for the Leadership Scale for Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.

    This paper describes a computer scoring program, written in Commodore BASIC, that offers an efficient approach to the scoring of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). The LSS measures: (1) the preferences of athletes for specific leader behaviors from the coach; (2) the perception of athletes regarding the actual leader behavior of their coach;…

  15. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70 Section 1515.305-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When trade-offs are performed (in...

  16. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70 Section 1515.305-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When trade-offs are performed (in...

  17. A Genomic Score Prognostic of Outcome in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, H Shaw; Elson, Constance M; Hayden, Douglas L; Schoenfeld, David A; Cobb, J Perren; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Ernest E; Harbrecht, Brian G; Pelak, Kimberly; Cuschieri, Joseph; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Brownstein, Bernard H; Hennessy, Laura; Mason, Philip H; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injuries frequently lead to infection, organ failure, and death. Health care providers rely on several injury scoring systems to quantify the extent of injury and to help predict clinical outcome. Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE], Injury Severity Score [ISS]) are utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. The recent development of techniques for measuring the expression level of all of a person’s genes simultaneously may make it possible to develop an injury scoring system based on the degree of gene activation. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. To test such a scoring system, we measured gene expression of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients within 12 h of traumatic injury. cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 h of injury provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a composite gene expression score for each patient. Total blood leukocytes were chosen because they are active during inflammation, which is reflective of poor outcome. The gene expression score combines the activation levels of all the genes into a single number which compares the patient’s gene expression to the average gene expression in uninjured volunteers. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 h following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE, and ISS scores with outcome. We hypothesized that patients with a total gene response more different from uninjured volunteers would tend to have poorer

  18. Psychometric properties of scores on three Black racial identity scales.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Crystal; Worrell, Frank C; Berry, Jane M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and the structural validity of scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale (ASCS), the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), and the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS). Participants consisted of 225 African American college students--75 attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and 150 attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Internal consistency estimates were above .60 for scores on one ASCS subscale, six MIBI subscales, and six CRIS subscales. Exploratory factor analytic procedures supported a two-factor structure for ASCS scores, a five-factor structure for MIBI scores, and a six-factor structure for CRIS scores. Implications for Black racial identity and scale development are discussed. PMID:18362185

  19. Assessing effective care in normal labor: the Bologna score.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, B; Porter, R

    2001-06-01

    The intention of the "Bologna score" is to quantify, both in an individual labor and in a wider population, the extent to which labors have been managed as if they are normal as opposed to complicated. In this way it may be possible to assess both attitudes and practices within a maternity service toward the effective care of normal labor. A scoring system for normal labor was proposed at the World Health Organization (Regional Office for Europe) Task Force Meeting on Monitoring and Evaluation of Perinatal Care, held in Bologna in January 2000. This paper describes conceptual development of the scale. Recommendations for future evaluation of the Bologna score's validity and potential include field testing globally, comparison with the Apgar score, and evaluation of the relative weight contributed by each of the five measures comprising the Bologna score. PMID:11380378

  20. Where Does the Alignment Score Distribution Shape Come from?

    PubMed Central

    Ortet, Philippe; Bastien, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Alignment algorithms are powerful tools for searching for homologous proteins in databases, providing a score for each sequence present in the database. It has been well known for 20 years that the shape of the score distribution looks like an extreme value distribution. The extremely large number of times biologists face this class of distributions raises the question of the evolutionary origin of this probability law. We investigated the possibility of deriving the main properties of sequence alignment score distributions from a basic evolutionary process: a duplication-divergence protein evolution process in a sequence space. Firstly, the distribution of sequences in this space was defined with respect to the genetic distance between sequences. Secondly, we derived a basic relation between the genetic distance and the alignment score. We obtained a novel score probability distribution which is qualitatively very similar to that of Karlin-Altschul but performing better than all other previous model. PMID:21258650

  1. Exact score distribution computation for ontological similarity searches

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic similarity searches in ontologies are an important component of many bioinformatic algorithms, e.g., finding functionally related proteins with the Gene Ontology or phenotypically similar diseases with the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). We have recently shown that the performance of semantic similarity searches can be improved by ranking results according to the probability of obtaining a given score at random rather than by the scores themselves. However, to date, there are no algorithms for computing the exact distribution of semantic similarity scores, which is necessary for computing the exact P-value of a given score. Results In this paper we consider the exact computation of score distributions for similarity searches in ontologies, and introduce a simple null hypothesis which can be used to compute a P-value for the statistical significance of similarity scores. We concentrate on measures based on Resnik's definition of ontological similarity. A new algorithm is proposed that collapses subgraphs of the ontology graph and thereby allows fast score distribution computation. The new algorithm is several orders of magnitude faster than the naive approach, as we demonstrate by computing score distributions for similarity searches in the HPO. It is shown that exact P-value calculation improves clinical diagnosis using the HPO compared to approaches based on sampling. Conclusions The new algorithm enables for the first time exact P-value calculation via exact score distribution computation for ontology similarity searches. The approach is applicable to any ontology for which the annotation-propagation rule holds and can improve any bioinformatic method that makes only use of the raw similarity scores. The algorithm was implemented in Java, supports any ontology in OBO format, and is available for non-commercial and academic usage under: https://compbio.charite.de/svn/hpo/trunk/src/tools/significance/ PMID:22078312

  2. Assessment of prognostic scores in brain metastases from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Metellus, Philippe; Gonçalves, Anthony; Esterni, Benjamin; Charaffe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Viens, Patrice; Tallet, Agnés

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of brain metastases (BM). Optimal management of BM from BC is still debated. In an attempt to provide appropriate treatment and to assist with optimal patient selection, several specific prognostic classifications for BM from BC have been established. We evaluated the prognostic value and validity of the 6 proposed scoring systems in an independent population of BC patients with BM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive BC patients referred to our institution for newly diagnosed BM between October 1995 and July 2011 (n = 149). Each of the 6 scores proposed for BM from BC (Sperduto, Niwinska, Park, Nieder, Le Scodan, and Claude) was applied to this population. The discriminative ability of each score was assessed using the Brier score and the C-index. Individual prognostic values of clinical and histological factors were analyzed using uni- and multivariate analyses. Results Median overall survival was 15.1 months (95% CI,11.5–18.7). Sperduto-GPA (P < .001), Nieder (P < .001), Park (P < .001), Claude (P < .001), Niwinska (P < .001), and Le Scodan (P = .034) scores all showed significant prognostic value. The Nieder score showed the best discriminative ability (C-index, 0.672; Brier score error reduction, 16.1%). Conclusion The majority of prognostic scores were relevant for patients with BM from BC in our independent population, and the Nieder score seems to present the best predictive value but showed a relatively low positive predictive value. Thus, these results remain insufficient and challenge the routine use of these scoring systems. PMID:24311640

  3. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  4. Poor Auditory Task Scores in Children with Specific Reading and Language Difficulties: Some Poor Scores Are More Equal than Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve M.; Hogben, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with specific reading disability (SRD) or specific language impairment (SLI), who scored poorly on an auditory discrimination task, did up to 140 runs on the failed task. Forty-one percent of the children produced widely fluctuating scores that did not improve across runs (untrainable errant performance), 23% produced widely fluctuating…

  5. Comparison of AIMS65 Score and Other Scoring Systems for Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Koreans with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Min; Yeum, Seok Cheon; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Ji Hee; Sim, Eun Hui; Ji, Jeong-Seon; Choi, Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The AIMS65 score has not been sufficiently validated in Korea. The objective of this study was to compare the AIMS65 and other scoring systems for the prediction of various clinical outcomes in Korean patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Methods The AIMS65 score, clinical and full Rockall scores (cRS and fRS) and Glasgow-Blatchford (GBS) score were calculated in patients with NVUGIB in a single center retrospectively. The performance of these scores for predicting mortality, rebleeding, transfusion requirement, and endoscopic intervention was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results Of the 523 patients, 3.4% died within 30 days, 2.5% experienced rebleeding, 40.0% required endoscopic intervention, and 75.7% needed transfusion. The AIMS65 score was useful for predicting the 30-day mortality, the need for endoscopic intervention and for transfusion. The fRS was superior to the AIMS65, GBS, and cRS for predicting endoscopic intervention and the GBS was superior to the AIMS65, fRS, and cRS for predicting the transfusion requirement. Conclusions The AIMS65 score was useful for predicting the 30-day mortality, transfusion requirement, and endoscopic intervention in Korean patients with acute NVUGIB. However, it was inferior to the GBS and fRS for predicting the transfusion requirement and endoscopic intervention, respectively. PMID:27377742

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  7. An Investigation into the Relationships Between Cloze Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores of Fifth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Richard Barry

    This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…

  8. Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

  9. BgN-Score and BsN-Score: Bagging and boosting based ensemble neural networks scoring functions for accurate binding affinity prediction of protein-ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately predicting the binding affinities of large sets of protein-ligand complexes is a key challenge in computational biomolecular science, with applications in drug discovery, chemical biology, and structural biology. Since a scoring function (SF) is used to score, rank, and identify drug leads, the fidelity with which it predicts the affinity of a ligand candidate for a protein's binding site has a significant bearing on the accuracy of virtual screening. Despite intense efforts in developing conventional SFs, which are either force-field based, knowledge-based, or empirical, their limited predictive power has been a major roadblock toward cost-effective drug discovery. Therefore, in this work, we present novel SFs employing a large ensemble of neural networks (NN) in conjunction with a diverse set of physicochemical and geometrical features characterizing protein-ligand complexes to predict binding affinity. Results We assess the scoring accuracies of two new ensemble NN SFs based on bagging (BgN-Score) and boosting (BsN-Score), as well as those of conventional SFs in the context of the 2007 PDBbind benchmark that encompasses a diverse set of high-quality protein families. We find that BgN-Score and BsN-Score have more than 25% better Pearson's correlation coefficient (0.804 and 0.816 vs. 0.644) between predicted and measured binding affinities compared to that achieved by a state-of-the-art conventional SF. In addition, these ensemble NN SFs are also at least 19% more accurate (0.804 and 0.816 vs. 0.675) than SFs based on a single neural network that has been traditionally used in drug discovery applications. We further find that ensemble models based on NNs surpass SFs based on the decision-tree ensemble technique Random Forests. Conclusions Ensemble neural networks SFs, BgN-Score and BsN-Score, are the most accurate in predicting binding affinity of protein-ligand complexes among the considered SFs. Moreover, their accuracies are even higher

  10. An international study to increase concordance in Ki67 scoring.

    PubMed

    Polley, Mei-Yin C; Leung, Samuel C Y; Gao, Dongxia; Mastropasqua, Mauro G; Zabaglo, Lila A; Bartlett, John M S; McShane, Lisa M; Enos, Rebecca A; Badve, Sunil S; Bane, Anita L; Borgquist, Signe; Fineberg, Susan; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gown, Allen M; Grabau, Dorthe; Gutierrez, Carolina; Hugh, Judith C; Moriya, Takuya; Ohi, Yasuyo; Osborne, C Kent; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique M; Piper, Tammy; Porter, Peggy L; Sakatani, Takashi; Salgado, Roberto; Starczynski, Jane; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Viale, Giuseppe; Dowsett, Mitch; Hayes, Daniel F; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2015-06-01

    Although an important biomarker in breast cancer, Ki67 lacks scoring standardization, which has limited its clinical use. Our previous study found variability when laboratories used their own scoring methods on centrally stained tissue microarray slides. In this current study, 16 laboratories from eight countries calibrated to a specific Ki67 scoring method and then scored 50 centrally MIB-1 stained tissue microarray cases. Simple instructions prescribed scoring pattern and staining thresholds for determination of the percentage of stained tumor cells. To calibrate, laboratories scored 18 'training' and 'test' web-based images. Software tracked object selection and scoring. Success for the calibration was prespecified as Root Mean Square Error of scores compared with reference <0.6 and Maximum Absolute Deviation from reference <1.0 (log2-transformed data). Prespecified success criteria for tissue microarray scoring required intraclass correlation significantly >0.70 but aiming for observed intraclass correlation ≥0.90. Laboratory performance showed non-significant but promising trends of improvement through the calibration exercise (mean Root Mean Square Error decreased from 0.6 to 0.4, Maximum Absolute Deviation from 1.6 to 0.9; paired t-test: P=0.07 for Root Mean Square Error, 0.06 for Maximum Absolute Deviation). For tissue microarray scoring, the intraclass correlation estimate was 0.94 (95% credible interval: 0.90-0.97), markedly and significantly >0.70, the prespecified minimum target for success. Some discrepancies persisted, including around clinically relevant cutoffs. After calibrating to a common scoring method via a web-based tool, laboratories can achieve high inter-laboratory reproducibility in Ki67 scoring on centrally stained tissue microarray slides. Although these data are potentially encouraging, suggesting that it may be possible to standardize scoring of Ki67 among pathology laboratories, clinically important discrepancies persist. Before

  11. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk scores: Who, when and why?

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Sara; Gonçalves, Tiago Cúrdia; Magalhães, Joana; Cotter, José

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a significant cause of hospital admission. In order to stratify patients according to the risk of the complications, such as rebleeding or death, and to predict the need of clinical intervention, several risk scores have been proposed and their use consistently recommended by international guidelines. The use of risk scoring systems in early assessment of patients suffering from UGIB may be useful to distinguish high-risks patients, who may need clinical intervention and hospitalization, from low risk patients with a lower chance of developing complications, in which management as outpatients can be considered. Although several scores have been published and validated for predicting different outcomes, the most frequently cited ones are the Rockall score and the Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS). While Rockall score, which incorporates clinical and endoscopic variables, has been validated to predict mortality, the GBS, which is based on clinical and laboratorial parameters, has been studied to predict the need of clinical intervention. Despite the advantages previously reported, their use in clinical decisions is still limited. This review describes the different risk scores used in the UGIB setting, highlights the most important research, explains why and when their use may be helpful, reflects on the problems that remain unresolved and guides future research with practical impact. PMID:26909231

  13. Fully automated scoring of chest radiographs in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Zhao; Cai, Weidong; Song, Yang; Selvadurai, Hiran; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-01-01

    We present a prototype of a fully automated scoring system for chest radiographs (CXRs) in cystic fibrosis. The system was used to analyze real, clinical CXR data, to estimate the Shwachman-Kulczycki score for the image. Images were resampled and normalized to a standard size and intensity level, then segmented with a patch-based nearest-neighbor mapping algorithm. Texture features were calculated regionally and globally, using Tamura features, local binary patterns (LBP), gray-level co-occurrence matrix and Gabor filtering. Feature selection was guided by current understanding of the disease process, in particular the reorganization and thickening of airways. Combinations of these features were used as inputs for support vector machine (SVM) learning to classify each CXR, and evaluated using two-fold cross-validation for agreement with clinician scoring. The final computed score for each image was compared with the score assigned by a physician. Using this prototype system, we analyzed 139 CXRs from an Australian pediatric cystic fibrosis registry, for which texture directionality showed greatest discriminating power. Computed scores agreed with clinician scores in 75% of cases, and up to 90% of cases in discriminating severe disease from mild disease, similar to the level of human interobserver agreement for this dataset. PMID:24110600

  14. Evaluation of Student Factors Associated with Pre-NAPLEX Scores

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Christina A.; McDonough, Sharon; Phelps, Stephanie; Byrd, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships among students’ Pre-NAPLEX scores and prepharmacy, pharmacy school, and demographic variables to better understand factors that may contribute to Pre-NAPLEX performance. Methods: A retrospective review of pharmacy students’ Pre-NAPLEX scores, demographics, prepharmacy factors, and pharmacy school factors was performed. Bivariate (eg, ANOVA) and correlational analyses and stepwise linear regression were conducted to examine the significance of various factors and their relationship to Pre-NAPLEX score. Results: 168 students were included, with the majority being female (60.7%) and White (72%). Mean Pre-NAPLEX score was 68.95 ± 14.5. Non-Hispanic White students had significantly higher Pre-NAPLEX scores compared to minority students (p<0.001). Pre-NAPLEX score was correlated (p<0.001) to race/ethnicity (r=-0.341), PCAT score (r=0.272), and pharmacy school GPA (r=0.346). The regression model (adjusted R2=0.216; p<0.001) included pharmacy school GPA, academic probation, academic remediation, and PCAT composite. Conclusion: This study highlighted that select demographic, prepharmacy, and pharmacy school factors were associated with Pre-NAPLEX outcomes. Such factors may assist colleges/schools of pharmacy in identifying students who may be at risk for poorer NAPLEX performance and may need greater preparation. PMID:25657368

  15. Genetic scores of smoking behaviour in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; He, Yao; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population. PMID:26948517

  16. Implementation of the Simple Endoscopic Activity Score in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) was developed as an attempt to simplify Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS). Since it was constructed from CDEIS, SES-CD performs comparably but also carries similar limitations. Several studies have utilized SES-CD scoring to describe disease severity or response to therapy. Some of them used SES-CD score as a continuous variable while others utilized certain cutoff values to define severity grades. All SES-CD cutoff values reported in published clinical trials were empirically selected by experts. Although in most of the studies that used SEC-CD scoring to define disease severity, a score <3 reflected inactive disease, no study is using score 0 to predefine inactivity. Studies applying SES-CD to define response to treatment used score 0. There is no optimal SES-CD cut-off for endoscopic remission. The quantification of mucosal healing using SES-CD scoring has not been standardized yet. As the definition of mucosal healing by SES-CD is unset, the concept of deep remission is also still evolving. Serum and fecal biomarkers as well as new radiologic imaging techniques are complementary to SES-CD. Current practice as well as important changes in endoscopy should be taken into consideration when defining SES-CD cutoffs. The optimal timing of SES-CD scoring to assess mucosal healing is not defined yet. To conclude, SES-CD represents a valuable tool. However, a consensus agreement on its optimal use is required. PMID:27184635

  17. A Topic-Independent Method for Scoring Student Essay Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper proposes a topic-independent method for automatically scoring essay content. Unlike conventional topic-dependent methods, it predicts the human-assigned score of a given essay without training essays written to the same topic as the target essay. To achieve this, this paper introduces a new measure called MIDF that measures how important and relevant a word is in a given essay. The proposed method predicts the score relying on the distribution of MIDF. Surprisingly, experiments show that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 0.848 and performs as well as or even better than conventional topic-dependent methods.

  18. Peculiarities of Anxiety Score Distribution in Adult Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239

  19. Perioperative Anaphylactic Risk Score For Risk-Oriented Premedication

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Giacomo; Pezzuto, F.; Balestrini, A.; Lo Schiavo, M.; Montera, M.C.; Pio, A.; Iannelli, M.; Gargano, D.; Bianchi, M.J.; Casale, G.; Galimberti, M.; Triggiani, M.; Piazza, O.

    Basing on the current knowledge, this paper is aimed to review the core characteristics of the most relevant therapeutic agents (steroids and antihistamines), administered to prevent perioperative anaphylaxis. Moreover, the Authors propose the validation of a Global Anaphylactic Risk Score, built up by recording the individual scores related to the most relevant anaphylaxis parameters (i.e. medical history, symptoms and medication for asthma, rhinitis and urticaria etc) and by adding them on all together; the score could be used in the preoperative phase to evaluate the global anaphylactic risk and to prescribe risk-oriented premedication protocols. PMID:24251246

  20. Cathy Zoi on the new Home Energy Score pilot program

    ScienceCinema

    Zoi, Cathy

    2013-05-29

    Acting Under Secretary Cathy Zoi talks about the new Home Energy Score pilot program that was announced today by Vice President Biden and U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu. The Home Energy Score will offer homeowners straightforward, reliable information about their homes' energy efficiency. A report provides consumers with a home energy score between 1 and 10, and shows them how their home compares to others in their region. The report also includes customized, cost-effective recommendations that will help to reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort of their homes.

  1. Cathy Zoi on the new Home Energy Score pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Zoi, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Acting Under Secretary Cathy Zoi talks about the new Home Energy Score pilot program that was announced today by Vice President Biden and U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu. The Home Energy Score will offer homeowners straightforward, reliable information about their homes' energy efficiency. A report provides consumers with a home energy score between 1 and 10, and shows them how their home compares to others in their region. The report also includes customized, cost-effective recommendations that will help to reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort of their homes.

  2. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Steinberg, Stacy; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel M; Johannesson, Magnus; Galesloot, Tessel E; Hottenga, Jouke J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Ullén, Fredrik; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; van Rooij, Frank J A; Walters, G Bragi; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Ingason, Andres; Helgason, Agnar; Kong, Augustine; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Koellinger, Philipp; Boomsma, Dorret I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots. PMID:26053403

  3. A Surgical Business Composite Score for Army Medicine.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Douglas R; Robinson, Andrew B; Comer, Tracy A; Meno, Jenifer A; Welder, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Measuring surgical business performance for Army military treatment facilities is currently done through 6 business metrics developed by the Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Surgical Services Service Line (3SL). Development of a composite score for business performance has the potential to simplify and synthesize measurement, improving focus for strategic goal setting and implementation. However, several considerations, ranging from data availability to submetric selection, must be addressed to ensure the score is accurate and representative. This article presents the methodology used in the composite score's creation and presents a metric based on return on investment and a measure of cases recaptured from private networks. PMID:27244067

  4. Comparison of original EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk models in a Turkish cardiac surgical cohort†

    PubMed Central

    Kunt, Ayse Gul; Kurtcephe, Murat; Hidiroglu, Mete; Cetin, Levent; Kucuker, Aslihan; Bakuy, Vedat; Ruchan Akar, Ahmet; Sener, Erol

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to compare additive and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), EuroSCORE II and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) models in calculating mortality risk in a Turkish cardiac surgical population. METHODS The current patient population consisted of 428 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2004 and 2012, extracted from the TurkoSCORE database. Observed and predicted mortalities were compared for the additive/logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk calculator. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) values were calculated for these models to compare predictive power. RESULTS The mean patient age was 74.5 ± 3.9 years at the time of surgery, and 35.0% were female. For the entire cohort, actual hospital mortality was 7.9% (n = 34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.4–10.5). However, the additive EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was 6.4% (P = 0.23 vs observed; 95% CI 6.2–6.6), logistic EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was 7.9% (P = 0.98 vs observed; 95% CI 7.3–8.6), EuroSCORE II- predicted mortality was 1.7% (P = 0.00 vs observed; 95% CI 1.6–1.8) and STS predicted mortality was 5.8% (P = 0.10 vs observed; 95% CI 5.4–6.2). The mean predictive performance of the analysed models for the entire cohort was fair, with 0.7 (95% CI 0.60–0.79). AUC values for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk calculator were 0.70 (95% CI 0.60–0.79), 0.70 (95% CI 0.59–0.80), 0.72 (95% CI 0.62–0.81) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.51–0.73), respectively. CONCLUSIONS EuroSCORE II significantly underestimated mortality risk for Turkish cardiac patients, whereas additive and logistic EuroSCORE and STS risk calculators were well calibrated. PMID:23403767

  5. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  6. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  7. Investigating kindergarteners' number sense and self-regulation scores in relation to their mathematics and Turkish scores in middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İvrendi, Asiye

    2016-07-01

    Number sense and self-regulation are considered foundational skills for later school learning. This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of kindergarten children's number sense and self-regulation scores on their mathematics and Turkish language examination scores in the 5th and 6th grades. The participants in this study were 5th grade (n = 46) and 6th grade (n = 28) students, whose number sense and self-regulation skills were measured when they were in kindergarten in 2009 and 2010. Data were analyzed through multiple regression. The results showed positive and mid-level correlations. The children's kindergarten number sense and self-regulation scores significantly predicted their 5th and 6th grade mathematics and Turkish language examination scores. Self-regulation was the stronger predictor of mathematics scores, whereas number sense scores were the better predictor of Turkish language examination scores. The findings from this study provide further evidence as to the critical role of children's early skills in middle school mathematics and language achievement.

  8. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  9. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. PMID:26410019

  10. Nephrolithometric Scoring Systems to Predict Outcomes of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Vernez, Simone L; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Motamedinia, Piruz; Bird, Vincent; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no single agreement upon an ideal predictive model that characterizes the complexity of renal stones and predicts surgical outcomes following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). New predictive tools have recently emerged to systematically and quantitatively assess kidney stone complexity to predict outcomes following PCNL: the Guy’s Stone Score, the CROES nomogram, S.T.O.N.E. nephrolithometry, and S-ReSC score. An ideal scoring system should include variables that both influence surgical planning and are predictive of postoperative outcomes. This review discusses the strengths, weaknesses, and commonalities of each of the above scoring systems. Additionally, we propose future directions for the development and analysis of surgical treatment for stone disease, namely, the importance of assessing radiation exposure and patient quality of life when counseling patients on treatment options. PMID:27162508

  11. A random walk method for computing genetic location scores.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, K; Sobel, E

    1991-01-01

    Calculation of location scores is one of the most computationally intensive tasks in modern genetics. Since these scores are crucial in placing disease loci on marker maps, there is ample incentive to pursue such calculations with large numbers of markers. However, in contrast to the simple, standardized pedigrees used in making marker maps, disease pedigrees are often graphically complex and sparsely phenotyped. These complications can present insuperable barriers to exact likelihood calculations with more than a few markers simultaneously. To overcome these barriers we introduce in the present paper a random walk method for computing approximate location scores with large numbers of biallelic markers. Sufficient mathematical theory is developed to explain the method. Feasibility is checked by small-scale simulations for two applications permitting exact calculation of location scores. PMID:1746559

  12. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  13. Statistical Scoring Procedures Applicable to Laboratory Performance Evaluation1

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, A. S.; Su, Guoqin; Streets, W. Elane

    2009-01-01

    Two statistical scoring procedures based on p-values have been developed to evaluate the overall performance of analytical laboratories performing environmental measurements. The overall score of bias and standing are used to determine how consistently a laboratory is able to measure the true (unknown) value correctly over time. The overall score of precision and standing are used to determine how well a laboratory is able to reproduce its measurements in the long run. Criteria are established for qualitatively labeling measurements as Acceptable, Warning, and Not Acceptable, and for identifying areas where laboratories should re-evaluate their measurement procedures. These statistical scoring procedures are applied to two real environmental data sets. PMID:19885371

  14. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  15. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

  16. C57BL/6 Neuromuscular Healthspan Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Developing a scoring system based on physiological and functional measurements is critical to test the efficacy of potential interventions for sarcopenia and frailty in aging animal models; therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a neuromuscular healthspan scoring system (NMHSS). We examined three ages of male C57BL/6 mice: adults (6–7 months old, 100% survival), old (24–26 months old, 75% survival), and elderly group (>28 months old, ≤50% survival)—as well as mice along this age continuum. Functional performance (as determined by the rotarod and inverted-cling grip test) and in vitro muscle contractility were the determinants. A raw score was derived for each determinant, and the NMHSS was then derived as the sum of the individual determinant scores. In comparison with individual determinants, the NMHSS reduced the effect of individual variability within age groups, thus potentially providing an enhanced ability to detect treatment effects in future studies. PMID:23585418

  17. Scoring systems of severity in patients with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Rapsang, Amy Grace; Shyam, Devajit Chowlek

    2015-04-01

    Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; hence severity scales are important adjuncts to trauma care in order to characterize the nature and extent of injury. Trauma scoring models can assist with triage and help in evaluation and prediction of prognosis in order to organise and improve trauma systems. Given the wide variety of scoring instruments available to assess the injured patient, it is imperative that the choice of the severity score accurately match the application. Even though trauma scores are not the key elements of trauma treatment, they are however, an essential part of improvement in triage decisions and in identifying patients with unexpected outcomes. This article provides the reader with a compendium of trauma severity scales along with their predicted death rate calculation, which can be adopted in order to improve decision making, trauma care, research and in comparative analyses in quality assessment. PMID:25015031

  18. 7 CFR 52.1011 - Score sheet for dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dates. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label or brand Net weight Style Count (per lb.) Moisture content (if determined) One variety (□) Yes (□) No Factors Score points Color 20...

  19. Heritability Analyses of IQ Scores: Science or Numerology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layzer, David

    1974-01-01

    Examines limitations of the heritability concept and heritability analysis, and discusses a conventional application of heritability analysis, IQ scores as measurements of a phenotypic character, the heritability of IQ, and the relationship of IQ and race. (JR)

  20. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    SciTech Connect

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  1. Risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rohini; Dent, Tom; Meads, Catherine; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes and inform selection and implementation of these in practice. Design Systematic review using standard (quantitative) and realist (mainly qualitative) methodology. Inclusion criteria Papers in any language describing the development or external validation, or both, of models and scores to predict the risk of an adult developing type 2 diabetes. Data sources Medline, PreMedline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched. Included studies were citation tracked in Google Scholar to identify follow-on studies of usability or impact. Data extraction Data were extracted on statistical properties of models, details of internal or external validation, and use of risk scores beyond the studies that developed them. Quantitative data were tabulated to compare model components and statistical properties. Qualitative data were analysed thematically to identify mechanisms by which use of the risk model or score might improve patient outcomes. Results 8864 titles were scanned, 115 full text papers considered, and 43 papers included in the final sample. These described the prospective development or validation, or both, of 145 risk prediction models and scores, 94 of which were studied in detail here. They had been tested on 6.88 million participants followed for up to 28 years. Heterogeneity of primary studies precluded meta-analysis. Some but not all risk models or scores had robust statistical properties (for example, good discrimination and calibration) and had been externally validated on a different population. Genetic markers added nothing to models over clinical and sociodemographic factors. Most authors described their score as “simple” or “easily implemented,” although few were specific about the intended users and under what circumstances. Ten mechanisms were identified by which measuring diabetes risk might improve outcomes. Follow-on studies that applied a risk score as part of an

  2. On the Variance of the Optimal Alignments Score for Binary Random Words and an Asymmetric Scoring Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdré, Christian; Matzinger, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the order of the variance of the optimal alignments (OA) score of two independent iid binary random words having the same length. The letters are equiprobable, but the scoring function is such that one letter has a larger score than the other. In this setting, we prove that the order of variance is linear in the common length. OAs constitute a generalization of longest common subsequences, they can be represented as optimal paths in a two-dimensional last passage percolation setting with dependent weights.

  3. Development and validation of the Essen Intracerebral Haemorrhage Score

    PubMed Central

    Weimar, C; Benemann, J; Diener, H‐C

    2006-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for the highest in‐hospital mortality of all stroke types. Nevertheless, outcome is favourable in about 30% of patients. Only one model for the prediction of favourable outcome has been validated so far. Objective To describe the development and validation of the Essen ICH score. Methods Inception cohorts were assessed on the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIH‐SS) on admission and after follow up of 100 days. On the basis of previously validated clinical variables, a simple clinical score was developed to predict mortality and complete recovery (Barthel index after 100 days ⩾95) in 340 patients with acute ICH. Subscores for age (<60 = 0; 60–69 = 1; 70–79 = 2; ⩾80 = 3), NIH‐SS level of consciousness (alert = 0; drowsy = 1; stuporose = 2; comatose = 3), and NIH‐SS total score (0–5 = 0; 6–10 = 1; 11–15 = 2; 16–20 = 3; >20 or coma = 4) were combined into a prognostic scale with <3 predicting complete recovery and >7 predicting death. The score was subsequently validated in an external cohort of 371 patients. Results The Essen ICH score showed a high prognostic accuracy for complete recovery and death in both the development and validation cohort. For prediction of complete recovery on the Barthel index after 100 days, the Essen ICH score was superior to the physicians' prognosis and to two previous prognostic scores developed for a slightly modified outcome. Conclusions The Essen ICH score provides an easy to use scale for outcome prediction following ICH. Its high positive predictive values for adverse outcomes and easy applicability render it useful for individual prognostic indications or the design of clinical studies. In contrast, physicians tended to predict outcome too pessimistically. PMID:16354736

  4. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, Mahalingam; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Raghuveera, Kamila; Baliga, BS; Shivanagaraja, BSV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fetal malnutrition (FM) implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score) and anthropometry. No previous studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed by CAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI), Body mass index (BMI) and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC) calculated and compared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC) were found well nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC) with statistical significance(0.0001). BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition. Conclusion FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns. PMID:23056862

  5. Coronary Risk Factor Scoring as a Guide for Counseling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A risk factor scoring system for early detection, possible prediction, and counseling to coronary heart disease patients is discussed. Scoring data include dynamic EKG, cholesterol levels, triglycerine content, total lipid level, total phospolipid levels, and electrophoretic patterns. Results indicate such a system is effective in identifying high risk subjects, but that the ability to predict exceeds the ability to prevent heart disease or its complications.

  6. scoringRules - A software package for probabilistic model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Jordan, Alexander; Krüger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Models in the geosciences are generally surrounded by uncertainty, and being able to quantify this uncertainty is key to good decision making. Accordingly, probabilistic forecasts in the form of predictive distributions have become popular over the last decades. With the proliferation of probabilistic models arises the need for decision theoretically principled tools to evaluate the appropriateness of models and forecasts in a generalized way. Various scoring rules have been developed over the past decades to address this demand. Proper scoring rules are functions S(F,y) which evaluate the accuracy of a forecast distribution F , given that an outcome y was observed. As such, they allow to compare alternative models, a crucial ability given the variety of theories, data sources and statistical specifications that is available in many situations. This poster presents the software package scoringRules for the statistical programming language R, which contains functions to compute popular scoring rules such as the continuous ranked probability score for a variety of distributions F that come up in applied work. Two main classes are parametric distributions like normal, t, or gamma distributions, and distributions that are not known analytically, but are indirectly described through a sample of simulation draws. For example, Bayesian forecasts produced via Markov Chain Monte Carlo take this form. Thereby, the scoringRules package provides a framework for generalized model evaluation that both includes Bayesian as well as classical parametric models. The scoringRules package aims to be a convenient dictionary-like reference for computing scoring rules. We offer state of the art implementations of several known (but not routinely applied) formulas, and implement closed-form expressions that were previously unavailable. Whenever more than one implementation variant exists, we offer statistically principled default choices.

  7. Effect of object identification algorithms on feature based verification scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weniger, Michael; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Many modern spatial verification techniques rely on feature identification algorithms. We study the importance of the choice of algorithm and its parameters for the resulting scores. SAL is used as an example to show that these choices have a statistically significant impact on the distributions of object dependent scores. Non-continuous operators used for feature identification are identified as the underlying reason for the observed stability issues, with implications for many feature based verification techniques.

  8. Free Energy Score Spaces: Using Generative Information in Discriminative Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Perina, Alessandro; Cristani, Marco; Castellani, Umberto; Murino, Vittorio; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2012-07-01

    A score function induced by a generative model of the data can provide a feature vector of a fixed dimension for each data sample. Data samples themselves may be of differing lengths (e.g., speech segments or other sequential data), but as a score function is based on the properties of the data generation process, it produces a fixed-length vector in a highly informative space, typically referred to as "score space." Discriminative classifiers have been shown to achieve higher performances in appropriately chosen score spaces with respect to what is achievable by either the corresponding generative likelihood-based classifiers or the discriminative classifiers using standard feature extractors. In this paper, we present a novel score space that exploits the free energy associated with a generative model. The resulting free energy score space (FESS) takes into account the latent structure of the data at various levels and can be shown to lead to classification performance that at least matches the performance of the free energy classifier based on the same generative model and the same factorization of the posterior. We also show that in several typical computer vision and computational biology applications the classifiers optimized in FESS outperform the corresponding pure generative approaches, as well as a number of previous approaches combining discriminating and generative models. PMID:22156097

  9. Scoring functions for prediction of protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jui-Chih; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    The scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions plays central roles in computational drug design, virtual screening of chemical libraries for new lead identification, and prediction of possible binding targets of small chemical molecules. An ideal scoring function for protein-ligand interactions is expected to be able to recognize the native binding pose of a ligand on the protein surface among decoy poses, and to accurately predict the binding affinity (or binding free energy) so that the active molecules can be discriminated from the non-active ones. Due to the empirical nature of most, if not all, scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions, the general applicability of empirical scoring functions, especially to domains far outside training sets, is a major concern. In this review article, we will explore the foundations of different classes of scoring functions, their possible limitations, and their suitable application domains. We also provide assessments of several scoring functions on weakly-interacting protein-ligand complexes, which will be useful information in computational fragment-based drug design or virtual screening. PMID:23016847

  10. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  11. Regression analysis exploring teacher impact on student FCI post scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadeo, Jonathan V.; Manthey, Seth R.; Brewe, Eric

    2013-01-01

    High School Modeling Workshops are designed to improve high school physics teachers' understanding of physics and how to teach using the Modeling method. The basic assumption is that the teacher plays a critical role in their students' physics education. This study investigated teacher impacts on students' Force Concept Inventory scores, (FCI), with the hopes of identifying quantitative differences between teachers. This study examined student FCI scores from 18 teachers with at least a year of teaching high school physics. This data was then evaluated using a General Linear Model (GLM), which allowed for a regression equation to be fitted to the data. This regression equation was used to predict student post FCI scores, based on: teacher ID, student pre FCI score, gender, and representation. The results show 12 out of 18 teachers significantly impact their student post FCI scores. The GLM further revealed that of the 12 teachers only five have a positive impact on student post FCI scores. Given these differences among teachers it is our intention to extend our analysis to investigate pedagogical differences between them.

  12. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  13. Healthy dietary habits score as an indicator of diet quality in New Zealand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Parnell, Winsome R

    2014-06-01

    Adoption of optimal dietary habits during adolescence is associated with better health outcomes later in life. However, the associations between a pattern of healthy dietary habits encapsulated in an index and sociodemographic and nutrient intake have not been examined among adolescents. This study aimed to develop a behavior-based diet index and examine its validity in relation to sociodemographic factors, nutrient intakes, and biomarkers in a representative sample of New Zealand (NZ) adolescents aged 15-18 y (n = 694). A 17-item Healthy Dietary Habits Score for Adolescents (HDHS-A) was developed based on dietary habits information from the 2008/2009 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey. Post hoc trend analyses were used to identify the associations between HDHS-A score and nutrient intakes estimated by single 24-h diet recalls and selected nutritional biomarkers. Being female, not of Maori or Pacific ethnicity, and living in the least-deprived socioeconomic quintile were associated with a higher HDHS-A score (all P < 0.001). HDHS-A tertile was associated positively with intake of protein, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and lactose and negatively with sucrose. Associations in the expected directions were also found with most micronutrients (P < 0.05), urinary sodium (P < 0.001), whole blood (P < 0.05), serum (P < 0.01), and RBC folate (P < 0.05) concentrations. This suggests that the HDHS-A is a valid indicator of diet quality among NZ adolescents. PMID:24744308

  14. Does the Surgical Apgar Score Measure Intraoperative Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Regenbogen, Scott E.; Lancaster, R. Todd; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Greenberg, Caprice C.; Hutter, Matthew M.; Gawande, Atul A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether Surgical Apgar Scores measure the relationship between intraoperative care and surgical outcomes. Summary Background Data With preoperative risk-adjustment now well-developed, the role of intraoperative performance in surgical outcomes may be considered. We previously derived and validated a ten-point Surgical Apgar Score—based on intraoperative blood loss, heart rate, and blood pressure—that effectively predicts major postoperative complications within 30 days of general and vascular surgery. This study evaluates whether the predictive value of this score comes solely from patients’ preoperative risk, or also measures care in the operating room. Methods Among a systematic sample of 4,119 general and vascular surgery patients at a major academic hospital, we constructed a detailed risk-prediction model including 27 patient-comorbidity and procedure-complexity variables, and computed patients’ propensity to suffer a major postoperative complication. We evaluated the prognostic value of patients’ Surgical Apgar Scores before and after adjustment for this preoperative risk. Results After risk-adjustment, the Surgical Apgar Score remained strongly correlated with postoperative outcomes (p<0.0001). Odds of major complications among average-scoring patients (scores 7–8) were equivalent to preoperative predictions (likelihood ratio (LR) 1.05, 95%CI 0.78–1.41), significantly decreased for those who achieved the best scores of 9–10 (LR 0.52, 95%CI 0.35–0.78), and were significantly poorer for those with low scores—LRs 1.60 (1.12–2.28) for scores 5–6, and 2.80 (1.50–5.21) for scores 0–4. Conclusions Even after accounting for fixed preoperative risk—due to patients’ acute condition, comorbidities and/or operative complexity—the Surgical Apgar Score appears to detect differences in intraoperative management that reduce odds of major complications by half, or increase them by nearly three-fold. PMID:18650644

  15. Correlation of the score for subjective pain with physical disability, clinical and radiographic scores in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Fiorini, Tania; Panni, Benedetta; Turiel, Maurizio; Cazzola, Marco; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2002-01-01

    Background To analyse the relationship between subjective pain score and other measures of clinical, radiographic and functional status; in particular Larsen radiographic scores and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ); in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a disease duration of less than 3 years. Methods In this cross sectional study of 105 patients with RA (76 women, 29 men: mean age 50.93; mean disease duration 15.86 months; 71% rheumatoid factor positive) subjective pain was assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Correlation coefficients between pain score and disease activity measures (patients' global assessment of disease by VAS, number of tender and swollen joints, morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP] and titre of rheumatoid factor, radiographic evaluations (Larsen-Dale scores for radiographic damage of the small joints of the hands, wrist and feet), disability measures (health assessment questionnaire [HAQ]), and demographic variables were calculated; hierarchical regression analysis was done with subjective pain score as the dependent variable. Results The Spearman's correlation coefficient comparing subjective pain and HAQ was 0.421 (p < 0.001), between subjective pain and global assessment of disease and morning stiffness was 0.573 (p < 0.001) and 0.427 (p < 0.001) respectively, and between pain and number of tender and swollen joints 0.037 and 0.050 respectively (p > 0.05). In regression analysis, global assessment of disease by patients explained 32.8% of the variation in pain intensity score, morning stiffness 10.7%, CRP 4.0%, HAQ 3.8% and Larsen-Dale scores explained 2.1%; other variables were not significant in the model. Conclusions Pain scores of patients with early severe rheumatoid arthritis are correlated at higher levels with patients' global assessment of disease and with morning stiffness rather than with radiographic or other clinical variables such as number of

  16. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  17. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  18. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  19. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  20. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  1. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  2. How Criterion Scores Predict the Overall Impact Score and Funding Outcomes for National Institutes of Health Peer-Reviewed Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eblen, Matthew K.; Wagner, Robin M.; RoyChowdhury, Deepshikha; Patel, Katherine C.; Pearson, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with successful funding outcomes of research project grant (R01) applications is critical for the biomedical research community. R01 applications are evaluated through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) peer review system, where peer reviewers are asked to evaluate and assign scores to five research criteria when assessing an application’s scientific and technical merit. This study examined the relationship of the five research criterion scores to the Overall Impact score and the likelihood of being funded for over 123,700 competing R01 applications for fiscal years 2010 through 2013. The relationships of other application and applicant characteristics, including demographics, to scoring and funding outcomes were studied as well. The analyses showed that the Approach and, to a lesser extent, the Significance criterion scores were the main predictors of an R01 application’s Overall Impact score and its likelihood of being funded. Applicants might consider these findings when submitting future R01 applications to NIH. PMID:27249058

  3. Approximating frustration scores in complex networks via perturbed Laplacian spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savol, Andrej J.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2015-12-01

    Systems of many interacting components, as found in physics, biology, infrastructure, and the social sciences, are often modeled by simple networks of nodes and edges. The real-world systems frequently confront outside intervention or internal damage whose impact must be predicted or minimized, and such perturbations are then mimicked in the models by altering nodes or edges. This leads to the broad issue of how to best quantify changes in a model network after some type of perturbation. In the case of node removal there are many centrality metrics which associate a scalar quantity with the removed node, but it can be difficult to associate the quantities with some intuitive aspect of physical behavior in the network. This presents a serious hurdle to the application of network theory: real-world utility networks are rarely altered according to theoretic principles unless the kinetic impact on the network's users are fully appreciated beforehand. In pursuit of a kinetically interpretable centrality score, we discuss the f-score, or frustration score. Each f-score quantifies whether a selected node accelerates or inhibits global mean first passage times to a second, independently selected target node. We show that this is a natural way of revealing the dynamical importance of a node in some networks. After discussing merits of the f-score metric, we combine spectral and Laplacian matrix theory in order to quickly approximate the exact f-score values, which can otherwise be expensive to compute. Following tests on both synthetic and real medium-sized networks, we report f-score runtime improvements over exact brute force approaches in the range of 0 to 400 % with low error (<3 % ).

  4. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  5. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  6. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  7. Approximating frustration scores in complex networks via perturbed Laplacian spectra

    PubMed Central

    Savol, Andrej J.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2016-01-01

    Systems of many interacting components, as found in physics, biology, infrastructure, and the social sciences, are often modeled by simple networks of nodes and edges. The real-world systems frequently confront outside intervention or internal damage whose impact must be predicted or minimized, and such perturbations are then mimicked in the models by altering nodes or edges. This leads to the broad issue of how to best quantify changes in a model network after some type of perturbation. In the case of node removal there are many centrality metrics which associate a scalar quantity with the removed node, but it can be difficult to associate the quantities with some intuitive aspect of physical behavior in the network. This presents a serious hurdle to the application of network theory: real-world utility networks are rarely altered according to theoretic principles unless the kinetic impact on the network’s users are fully appreciated beforehand. In pursuit of a kinetically-interpretable centrality score, we discuss the f-score, or frustration score. Each f-score quantifies whether a selected node accelerates or inhibits global mean first passage times to a second, independently-selected target node. We show that this is a natural way of revealing the dynamical importance of a node in some networks. After discussing merits of the f-score metric, we combine spectral and Laplacian matrix theory in order to quickly approximate the exact f-score values, which can otherwise be expensive to compute. Following tests on both synthetic and real medium-sized networks, we report f-score runtime improvements over exact brute force approaches in the range of 0 to 400% with low error (< 3%). PMID:26764743

  8. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  9. Pain threshold correlates with functional scores in osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuni, Benita; Wang, Haili; Rickert, Markus; Ewerbeck, Volker; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Pain sensitization may be one of the reasons for persistent pain after technically successful joint replacement. We analyzed how pain sensitization, as measured by quantitative sensory testing, relates preoperatively to joint function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for joint replacement. Patients and methods We included 50 patients with knee OA and 49 with hip OA who were scheduled for joint replacement, and 15 control participants. Hip/knee scores, thermal and pressure detection, and pain thresholds were examined. Results Median pressure pain thresholds were lower in patients than in control subjects: 4.0 (range: 0–10) vs. 7.8 (4–10) (p = 0.003) for the affected knee; 4.5 (2–10) vs. 6.8 (4–10) (p = 0.03) for the affected hip. Lower pressure pain threshold values were found at the affected joint in 26 of the 50 patients with knee OA and in 17 of the 49 patients with hip OA. The American Knee Society score 1 and 2, the Oxford knee score, and functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the pressure pain thresholds in patients with knee OA. Also, Harris hip score and the functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the cold detection threshold in patients with hip OA. Interpretation Quantitative sensory testing appeared to identify patients with sensory changes indicative of mechanisms of central sensitization. These patients may require additional pain treatment in order to profit fully from surgery. There were correlations between the clinical scores and the level of sensitization. PMID:25323797

  10. SCMMTP: identifying and characterizing membrane transport proteins using propensity scores of dipeptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying putative membrane transport proteins (MTPs) and understanding the transport mechanisms involved remain important challenges for the advancement of structural and functional genomics. However, the transporter characters are mainly acquired from MTP crystal structures which are hard to crystalize. Therefore, it is desirable to develop bioinformatics tools for the effective large-scale analysis of available sequences to identify novel transporters and characterize such transporters. Results This work proposes a novel method (SCMMTP) based on the scoring card method (SCM) using dipeptide composition to identify and characterize MTPs from an existing dataset containing 900 MTPs and 660 non-MTPs which are separated into a training dataset consisting 1,380 proteins and an independent dataset consisting 180 proteins. The SCMMTP produced estimating propensity scores for amino acids and dipeptides as MTPs. The SCMMTP training and test accuracy levels respectively reached 83.81% and 76.11%. The test accuracy of support vector machine (SVM) using a complicated classification method with a low possibility for biological interpretation and position-specific substitution matrix (PSSM) as a protein feature is 80.56%, thus SCMMTP is comparable to SVM-PSSM. To identify MTPs, SCMMTP is applied to three datasets including: 1) human transmembrane proteins, 2) a photosynthetic protein dataset, and 3) a human protein database. MTPs showing α-helix rich structure is agreed with previous studies. The MTPs used residues with low hydration energy. It is hypothesized that, after filtering substrates, the hydrated water molecules need to be released from the pore regions. Conclusions SCMMTP yields estimating propensity scores for amino acids and dipeptides as MTPs, which can be used to identify novel MTPs and characterize transport mechanisms for use in further experiments. Availability http://iclab.life.nctu.edu.tw/iclab_webtools/SCMMTP/ PMID:26677931

  11. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  12. Graphlet signature-based scoring method to estimate protein–ligand binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Omkar; Sawariya, Kunal; Aparoy, Polamarasetty

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, various computational methodologies have been developed to understand and quantify receptor–ligand interactions. Protein–ligand interactions can also be explained in the form of a network and its properties. The ligand binding at the protein-active site is stabilized by formation of new interactions like hydrogen bond, hydrophobic and ionic. These non-covalent interactions when considered as links cause non-isomorphic sub-graphs in the residue interaction network. This study aims to investigate the relationship between these induced sub-graphs and ligand activity. Graphlet signature-based analysis of networks has been applied in various biological problems; the focus of this work is to analyse protein–ligand interactions in terms of neighbourhood connectivity and to develop a method in which the information from residue interaction networks, i.e. graphlet signatures, can be applied to quantify ligand affinity. A scoring method was developed, which depicts the variability in signatures adopted by different amino acids during inhibitor binding, and was termed as GSUS (graphlet signature uniqueness score). The score is specific for every individual inhibitor. Two well-known drug targets, COX-2 and CA-II and their inhibitors, were considered to assess the method. Residue interaction networks of COX-2 and CA-II with their respective inhibitors were used. Only hydrogen bond network was considered to calculate GSUS and quantify protein–ligand interaction in terms of graphlet signatures. The correlation of the GSUS with pIC50 was consistent in both proteins and better in comparison to the Autodock results. The GSUS scoring method was better in activity prediction of molecules with similar structure and diverse activity and vice versa. This study can be a major platform in developing approaches that can be used alone or together with existing methods to predict ligand affinity from protein–ligand complexes. PMID:26064572

  13. Saturation biopsy improves preoperative Gleason scoring of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Philip; Wolf, Susanne; Adam, Alexander; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Ellinger, Jörg; Vorreuther, Roland; Solleder, Gerold; Buettner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the differences between conventional needle biopsy (CB) and saturation biopsy (SB) techniques with regard to the prediction of Gleason score, tumor stage, and insignificant prostate cancer. Data from a total number of 240 patients were analyzed. The main group, consisting of 185 patients, was diagnosed according to a saturation prostate needle biopsy protocol (SB), by which more than 12 cores were taken per biopsy. The control group was diagnosed using CB, by which 12 or less than 12 cores were taken per biopsy (n=55). In the main group, the Gleason score of the biopsy was confirmed in 19.5%, in the control group in 23.5% according to the prostatectomy specimen (p=0.50). Upgrading after the operation was found in 56.7% in the main group and in 60% in the control group (p=0.24). Downgrading after the operation was found in 23.9% in the main group and in 16.3% in the control group (p=0.24). If the Gleason score of the postoperative specimens differed by only one point from the biopsy, we considered this a minor deviation. In the main group, 59% of the carcinomas were preoperatively classified correctly or revealed minor deviation in Gleason scores. In contrast, only 47% of the carcinomas in the control group were assessed correctly or with minor deviation in Gleason scores. Thus, the main group demonstrated a better rate of preoperative prediction in tumor grading assessed by Gleason score (p=0.05). In addition, the Gleason scores of both protocols were assigned to three groups (Gleason <7; Gleason 7; Gleason >7), and the group changes from the biopsy to the prostatectomy specimen were found to be significantly more frequent in the CB group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the two types of biopsy techniques regarding tumor stage or the detection of insignificant carcinomas. The advantage of the extensive prostate needle biopsy technique (SB) is a better preoperative prediction of the Gleason score as well as the risk groups with

  14. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways. PMID:24169960

  15. Osteoporosis diagnosis in men: the T-score controversy revisited.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Neil; Adler, Robert; Bilezikian, John P

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis becomes common with aging in both sexes, but is often ignored in men. The 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry consensus conference endorsed a Caucasian female referent database for T-score calculation in men. This recommendation has generated controversy and concern. Accumulating data indicate that at the same DXA-measured body mineral density (BMD) (g/cm(2)), men and women are at approximately the same fracture risk. With this point in mind, using the same database to derive the T-score in men and women is reasonable. As a result, a greater proportion of men who sustain a fragility fracture will have T-scores that are higher than they would if a male database were used; in fact, many men will fracture at T-scores that are "normal." This highlights the importance of diagnosing osteoporosis not just by T-score, but also by the presence of fragility fracture and/or by estimations of fracture risk as generated by tools such as the FRAX calculator. The practical consequences of this change in densitometric definition of osteoporosis in men should be monitored, including the proportion of men at risk identified and treated as well as defining the response to treatment in those assessed by this more comprehensive approach. PMID:25255867

  16. Digital watermarking for the protection of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph; Pant, Anoop

    2001-08-01

    The need for protection mechanisms for multimedia content is widely recognized. In the past digital watermarking algorithms for images have been developed that provide a certain level of protection for colored or gray-scale images. Since classical raster-oriented watermarking algorithms do not satisfy the needs for symbol oriented music score images we present in this paper a solution that should give promising robustness of the watermark at minimal visibility impact. This solution respects the content of binary images and can be considered as a symbolic interpretation and modification of music scores. Some music symbols are used by changing their features for hiding an information string in a music score. The advantage is its robustness and invisibility. Regarding the invisibility a musician should under no circumstances be impeded in reading the music. One must even consider the fact of being influenced unconsciously. For example, it might be more difficult to concentrate on a music sheet if the symbols were changed invisibly. The most probable way of distributing music scores is the analog (paper) form. Music scores are copied and distributed. So watermarks should be readable even after multiple copy procedures. By choosing suitable features a blind detection of the watermark is possible.

  17. Relationships between fed cattle traits and Igenity panel scores.

    PubMed

    DeVuyst, E A; Biermacher, J T; Lusk, J L; Mateescu, R G; Blanton, J B; Swigert, J S; Cook, B J; Reuter, R R

    2011-05-01

    Although several previous studies have identified associations between cattle carcass characteristics and various SNP, comparatively little work has sought to validate the marker panels currently sold and marketed by commercial genotyping companies. Panels typically use a handful of SNP, but these range from as few as 2 to more than 100. Data from 764 commercially fed steers and heifers were used to assess the relationships of growth and carcass traits and Igenity panel scores for ADG, marbling (or percentage of USDA Choice), rib-eye area (REA), tenderness, fat thickness, and USDA Yield grade (YG). Results revealed statistically significant, but low, correlations between carcass measurements and corresponding Igenity panel scores. Genetic correlations were computed among the various Igenity panels and demonstrated either that several common markers existed across the panels or that markers across panels were in high linkage disequilibrium. Across all breeds, the genotypic correlations between the Igenity panel scores for ADG, REA, marbling, and YG with observed ADG, REA, USDA Quality grade, and YG at slaughter were 0.51, 0.38, 0.63, and 0.59 (P < 0.01), respectively. The partial effects of the Igenity marbling panel persisted in a multivariate regression model. Net return was significantly affected only by marbling panel score; a 1-unit increase in marbling panel score increased the net return by an estimated $7.53 per animal. PMID:21278104

  18. A new scoring function for top-down spectral deconvolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Liu, Xiaowen

    2014-12-18

    Background: Top-down mass spectrometry plays an important role in intact protein identification and characterization. Top-down mass spectra are more complex than bottom-up mass spectra because they often contain many isotopomer envelopes from highly charged ions, which may overlap with one another. As a result, spectral deconvolution, which converts a complex top-down mass spectrum into a monoisotopic mass list, is a key step in top-down spectral interpretation. Results: In this paper, we propose a new scoring function, L-score, for evaluating isotopomer envelopes. By combining L-score with MS-Deconv, a new software tool, MS-Deconv+, was developed for top-down spectral deconvolution. Experimental results showedmore » that MS-Deconv+ outperformed existing software tools in top-down spectral deconvolution. Conclusions: L-score shows high discriminative ability in identification of isotopomer envelopes. Using L-score, MS-Deconv+ reports many correct monoisotopic masses missed by other software tools, which are valuable for proteoform identification and characterization.« less

  19. A new scoring function for top-down spectral deconvolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Liu, Xiaowen

    2014-12-18

    Background: Top-down mass spectrometry plays an important role in intact protein identification and characterization. Top-down mass spectra are more complex than bottom-up mass spectra because they often contain many isotopomer envelopes from highly charged ions, which may overlap with one another. As a result, spectral deconvolution, which converts a complex top-down mass spectrum into a monoisotopic mass list, is a key step in top-down spectral interpretation. Results: In this paper, we propose a new scoring function, L-score, for evaluating isotopomer envelopes. By combining L-score with MS-Deconv, a new software tool, MS-Deconv+, was developed for top-down spectral deconvolution. Experimental results showed that MS-Deconv+ outperformed existing software tools in top-down spectral deconvolution. Conclusions: L-score shows high discriminative ability in identification of isotopomer envelopes. Using L-score, MS-Deconv+ reports many correct monoisotopic masses missed by other software tools, which are valuable for proteoform identification and characterization.

  20. Mathematical SAT Test Scores and College Chemistry Grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Harry E.

    1996-12-01

    The relationships between mathematical SAT scores (SAT-M) and grades earned by students in eight consecutive years of first- and second-semester general chemistry courses at Oberlin College are reported. The academic years surveyed are 1987-1988 through 1994-1995. SAT-M scores are grouped within seven ranges from 450 and less to 710-800. Within any range of scores, students in both courses earned a wide variety of grades, but those within the higher ranges tended to earn higher grades and fewer failures relative to students in the lower ranges. For all students within each range of SAT-M scores, the fraction earning each grade are calculated. These fractions along with the numbers of students and their SAT-M scores in a subset are used to calculate grades expected for that subset. In the first-semester course, the expected and actual grades for subsets of males, females, first-year students, non-first-year students, Asians, Blacks, and Latinos are not significantly different. Those who eventually majored in chemistry or biochemistry attained grades very significantly higher than expected. Most students tended to achieve grades in the second-semester course that were similar to those earned in the first-semester course.

  1. Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2006-06-22

    Humans are highly social animals and often help unrelated individuals that may never reciprocate the altruist's favour. This apparent evolutionary puzzle may be explained by the altruist's gain in social image: image-scoring bystanders, also known as eavesdroppers, notice the altruistic act and therefore are more likely to help the altruist in the future. Such complex indirect reciprocity based on altruistic acts may evolve only after simple indirect reciprocity has been established, which requires two steps. First, image scoring evolves when bystanders gain personal benefits from information gathered, for example, by finding cooperative partners. Second, altruistic behaviour in the presence of such bystanders may evolve if altruists benefit from access to the bystanders. Here, we provide experimental evidence for both of the requirements in a cleaning mutualism involving the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners may cooperate and remove ectoparasites from clients or they may cheat by feeding on client mucus. As mucus may be preferred over typical client ectoparasites, clients must make cleaners feed against their preference to obtain a cooperative service. We found that eavesdropping clients spent more time next to 'cooperative' than 'unknown cooperative level' cleaners, which shows that clients engage in image-scoring behaviour. Furthermore, trained cleaners learned to feed more cooperatively when in an 'image-scoring' than in a 'non-image-scoring' situation. PMID:16791194

  2. ADOPTION OF MELD SCORE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF LIVER TRANSPLANT

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; ANDRAUS, Wellington; MARTINO, Rodrigo Bronze; SANTOS, Vinicius Rocha; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; HADDAD, Luciana BP; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is performed at large transplant centers worldwide as a therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Aim To analyze the outcomes and incidence of liver transplantation performed at the University of São Paulo and to compare those with the State of São Paulo before and after adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Method Evaluation of the number of liver transplantations before and after adoption of the MELD score. Mean values and standard deviations were used to analyze normally distributed variables. The incidence results were compared with those of the State of São Paulo. Results There was a high prevalence of male patients, with a predominance of middle-aged. The main indication for liver transplantation was hepatitis C cirrhosis. The mean and median survival rates and overall survival over ten and five years were similar between the groups (p>0.05). The MELD score increased over the course of the study period for patients who underwent liver transplantation (p>0.05). There were an increased number of liver transplants after adoption of the MELD score at this institution and in the State of São Paulo (p<0.001). Conclusion The adoption of the MELD score led to increase the number of liver transplants performed in São Paulo. PMID:25184772

  3. A scoring system for predicting recurrence of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Ng, H.T.; Shyu, S.K.; Chen, Y.K.; Yuan, C.C.; Chao, K.C.; Kan, Y.Y.

    1992-03-01

    An evaluation was made of factors that affect the recurrence of cervical cancer after primary surgery, these including age, clinical stage, histology, grade, involvement of uterine body, parametrium or vagina and lymph node metastases. During a period of at least 3 years, 702 of 1508 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection were studied by using a scoring system. A comparison between the group of women scored at or greater than 13 that scored less than 13 revealed that the risk of recurrence was higher in the former group. One hundred and twenty five of 702 patients found to have positive pelvic node involvement scored greater than 13, which rendered them eligible for further mangement as follows: the recurrence rate in 99 patients receiving multi-agent chemotherapy was 34.4%, compared with 65.4% in 26 patients receiving no treatment (P < 0.01). Applying this score to other patients in planning adjuvant therapy, the recurrence rate may be reduced further. The number of patients needlessly exposed to the toxic effects of multi-agent chemotherapy may be reduced also. PMID:11576239

  4. [Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: comparison among scores].

    PubMed

    Del Colle, Sara; Rabbia, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco

    2004-09-01

    At present, a correct and thorough risk evaluation represents the best prognostic and therapeutic approach for hypertensive patients. Recent European and American guidelines recommend a global stratification of the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients, based on the evaluation of risk factors, organ damage, and the clinical conditions associated with hypertension. A similar approach uses numerical risk scores that transform the percentage risk, calculated from large populations, into absolute values. These scores have been calculated by different research groups and scientific organizations with the aim of better defining the real risk of a given population over time. Many of these risk scores have been conceived by American and European scientific groups on the basis of the epidemiology of different risk variables in the respective populations; in general, north American hypertensives are exposed to a higher cardiovascular risk compared to Europeans and some European countries have a higher risk than others. The present review underlines the pivotal role of a correct risk evaluation of hypertension as reported in the guidelines. We briefly analyze the principal studies on risk scores: we compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different scores, as well as the similarities and differences, in order to demonstrate not only their utility, but also the possible equivalence of the different parameters considered. PMID:15568607

  5. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  6. The metabolic score: A decision making tool in diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-11-01

    The heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus, and the various metabolic abnormalities associated with it, are well known. Current management guidelines used to help choose glucose-lowering drugs in diabetes mellitus describe various drug classes in detail, but do not take the overall metabolic profile into consideration. To help physicians choose appropriate oral therapy, we propose a discrete metabolic score, based upon the presence and absence of metabolic comorbidities included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. This communication describes how to choose an appropriate oral antidiabetic drug using such a score. The metabolic score based decision making aid should be able to prove its utility in all health care settings, especially resource constrained societies. PMID:26564303

  7. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12 to 30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  8. Scoring functions for fragment-based drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jui-Chih; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design represents a challenge for computational drug design because almost inevitably fragments will be weak binders to the biomolecular targets of a specific disease, and the performances of the scoring functions for weak binders are usually poorer than those for the stronger binders. This protocol describes how to predict the binding modes and binding affinities of fragments towards their binding partner with our refined AutoDock scoring function incorporating a quantum chemical charge model, namely, the restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) model. This scoring function was calibrated by robust regression analysis and has been demonstrated to perform well for general classes of protein-ligand interactions and for weak binders (with root-mean square of error of about 2.1 kcal/mol). PMID:25709036

  9. Large unbalanced credit scoring using Lasso-logistic regression ensemble.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data. PMID:25706988

  10. Local immunization strategy based on the scores of nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Deng, Yong; Wei, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding a better immunization strategy for controlling the spreading of the epidemic with limited resources has attracted much attention because of its great theoretical significance and wide application. In this paper, we propose a successful immunization strategy only depending on local information. Our strategy initializes the scores of nodes with the values of their degree and recalculates the score of a certain immunized node based on its local information, and then replaces the certain immunized node with its nonimmunized higher-score neighbor. To test the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, we conduct the experiments on several synthetic networks and real-world networks. The results show that the proposed strategy outperforms the existing well-known local strategies, even the degree centrality targeted strategy.

  11. Scores and scales used in emergency medicine. Practicability in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Oprita, B; Aignatoaie, B; Gabor-Postole, D A

    2014-01-01

    Medical scores, criteria and classification systems support clinical decision-making and management. They enable the clinician to predict the outcome, stratify risk, assess conditions and diagnose diseases accurately. In the emergency medicine, it is very important to ascertain safety criteria to discharge patients, time to remain in the E.R., and also ascertain the time intervals for discharge/admission. The use of the scores in the emergency medicine, toxicology and other areas of intensive medicine have become increasingly efficient. Creating a prognostic score for the acute intoxications to be used by the personnel from the Emergency Departments may have positive effects in the management of the poisoned patients (e.g. the admission in a certain treatment space: cases expected to have a trend towards worsening will be directed to the resuscitation space and after a short period of time admitted in the appropriate facility; this way, the bed occupancy time in the Emergency Department will be shortened). PMID:25870686

  12. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Browne, Una

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects. PMID:22577843

  13. Large Unbalanced Credit Scoring Using Lasso-Logistic Regression Ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data. PMID:25706988

  14. Psychometric analysis of the Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH).

    PubMed

    Poonnoose, P M; Thomas, R; Keshava, S N; Cherian, R S; Padankatti, S; Pazani, D; Kavitha, M L; Devadarasini, M; Bhattacharji, S; Viswabandya, A; John, J A; Macaden, A S; Mathews, V; Srivastava, A

    2007-09-01

    Joint morbidity in haemophilia has traditionally been measured using clinical and radiological scores. There have been no reliable, validated tools for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia till recently. The Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH) has been developed as a performance based assessment tool to address this need. The FISH is designed to measure the patient's independence in performing activities of daily living (grooming and eating, bathing and dressing), transfers (chair and floor), and mobility (walking, step climbing and running). On assessment of its psychometric properties in 63 patients with haemophilia (mean age 14 years), FISH was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85). It had moderate correlation with the World Federation of Hemophilia clinical score (r = -0.61), and a correlation with the Pettersson score of -0.38. It had good correlation with other self-rated functional scores, such as the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (r = -0.75); the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (r = -0.66) and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL) (r = -0.66). It had good reliability with a pooled intra class correlation of 0.98. On assessing responsiveness following treatment of flexion deformities of the knee in 12 patients, the FISH showed significant changes in the score with a standardized responsiveness mean of -1.93. In conclusion, the FISH was found to be a reliable and valid tool with good internal consistency and responsiveness to therapy, for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia. PMID:17880453

  15. The Accuracy of Performance Task Scores after Resolution of Rater Disagreement: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, James A.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    When multiple raters score a writing sample, on occasion they will award discrepant scores. To report a single score to the examinee, some method of resolving those differences must be applied to the ratings before an operational score can be reported. Several forms of resolving score discrepancies have been described in the literature. Initial…

  16. A Brief Report on How Impossible Scores Affect Smoothing and Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam; von Davier, Alina A.; Gupta, Shaloo

    2010-01-01

    Equating under the external anchor design is frequently conducted using scaled scores on the anchor test. However, scaled scores often lead to the unique problem of creating zero frequencies in the score distribution because there may not always be a one-to-one correspondence between raw and scaled scores. For example, raw scores of 17 and 18 may…

  17. Multiple Regression Analysis of Factors that May Influence Middle School Science Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative multiple regression study was to determine whether a relationship existed between Maryland State Assessment (MSA) reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, age, and MSA science scores. Also examined was if MSA reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, and age can be used in combination or alone…

  18. Reliability of Raw Gain, Residual Gain, and Estimated True Gain Scores: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachor, Robert E.; Cizek, Gregory J.

    The gain, or difference, score is defined as the difference between the posttest score and the pretest score for an individual. Gain scores appear to be a natural measure of growth for education and the social sciences, but they contain two sources of measurement error, error in either the pretest or posttest scores, and cannot be considered…

  19. Cut Scores: Results May Vary. NBETPP Monographs, Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine; Ramos, Miguel; Blumer, Irwin; Madaus, George

    This paper discusses how cut scores are set and used and how accurately they reflect student achievement. Regardless of the method used, the cut-score setting process is subjective. The cut score is the point on a score scale that separates one performance standard from another. Cut scores may also be used to set performance levels for…

  20. Student Perception of Score Miniaturization as a Pedagogical Tool for Developing Choral Conducting Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot study where choral conducting students used miniaturized scores (simplified scores that focus on specific gestural problems). Students received three simplified scores, each one highlighting a different approach. Students overwhelmingly favored the simplified score using a cuing technique. Includes, score excerpts, student…

  1. Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores

    PubMed Central

    Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

    2009-01-01

    We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades. PMID:19805049

  2. Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently?

    PubMed

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores. PMID:24014932

  3. Simplifying multivariate survival analysis using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve multiple endpoints, and this situation further complicates the analysis of survival data. In the case of tumor patients, endpoints concerning survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For each patient, these endpoints are correlated, and the estimation of the correlation between two score statistics is fundamental in derivation of overall treatment advantage. In this paper, the bivariate survival analysis method using the global score test methodology is extended to multivariate setting.

  4. Utility scores for vesicoureteral reflux and anti-reflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Caleb; Routh, Jonathan C.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kokorowski, Paul; Prosser, Lisa A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) continues to be controversial. In conditions of uncertainty, decision analytic techniques such as cost-utility analysis (CUA) can help to structure the decision-making process. However, CUA analyses require a “utility,” a value between 0 (death) and 1 (perfect health) corresponding to the quality of life associated with a health state. Ideally, utility values are elicited directly from representative community samples, but utilities have not been rigorously measured for pediatric urology conditions. Objectives To elicit utility scores for VUR and open anti-reflux surgery (ARS) from a representative, well-characterized community sample of adults who have been parents. Methods Cross-sectional survey of nationally representative adults who had ever been parents. Each respondent saw one of four descriptions of VUR, with or without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) and occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). A 6-week postoperative health state following ARS was also assessed. We used the time trade-off (TTO) method to elicit utility scores. Factors associated with utility score were assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. Results The survey was completed by 1200 individuals. Data were weighted to adjust for demographic differences between responders and non-responders. Mean age was 52 ± 15 years, 44% were male, and 68% were White. In terms of education, 29% had a college degree or higher. The mean utility score for VUR overall was 0.82 ± 0.28. VUR utility scores did not differ significantly based on inclusion of CAP or UTI in the health state description (p=0.21). The 6-week postoperative period garnered a utility of 0.71 ± 0.43. Discussion Our results showed that VUR has a mean utility score of 0.82, which indicates that the community perceives this condition to be a substantial burden. For comparison, conditions with similar utility scores include compensated hepatitis

  5. Development of the Knowledge-based & Empirical Combined Scoring Algorithm (KECSA) to Score Protein-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel knowledge-based protein-ligand scoring function that employs a new definition for the reference state, allowing us to relate a statistical potential to a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. In this way, the LJ potential parameters were generated from protein-ligand complex structural data contained in the PDB. Forty-nine types of atomic pairwise interactions were derived using this method, which we call the knowledge-based and empirical combined scoring algorithm (KECSA). Two validation benchmarks were introduced to test the performance of KECSA. The first validation benchmark included two test sets that address the training-set and enthalpy/entropy of KECSA The second validation benchmark suite included two large-scale and five small-scale test sets to compare the reproducibility of KECSA with respect to two empirical score functions previously developed in our laboratory (LISA and LISA+), as well as to other well-known scoring methods. Validation results illustrate that KECSA shows improved performance in all test sets when compared with other scoring methods especially in its ability to minimize the RMSE. LISA and LISA+ displayed similar performance using the correlation coefficient and Kendall τ as the metric of quality for some of the small test sets. Further pathways for improvement are discussed which would KECSA more sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. PMID:23560465

  6. Making the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores meaningful at the patient level through normative scoring and registry data

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. F.; Giesinger, J. M.; Patton, J. T.; MacDonald, D. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.; Howie, C. R.; Giesinger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) have been demonstrated to vary according to age and gender, making it difficult to compare results in cohorts with different demographics. The aim of this paper was to calculate reference values for different patient groups and highlight the concept of normative reference data to contextualise an individual’s outcome. Methods We accessed prospectively collected OHS and OKS data for patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasty at a single orthopaedic teaching hospital during a five-year period. T-scores were calculated based on the OHS and OKS distributions. Results Data were obtained from 3203 total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients and 2742 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The mean age of the patient was 68.0 years (sd 11.3, 58.4% women) in the THA group and in 70.2 (sd 9.4; 57.5% women) in the TKA group. T-scores were calculated for age and gender subgroups by operation. Different T-score thresholds are seen at different time points pre and post surgery. Values are further stratified by operation (THA/TKA) age and gender. Conclusions Normative data interpretation requires a fundamental shift in the thinking as to the use of the Oxford Scores. Instead of reporting actual score points, the patient is rated by their relative position within the group of all patients undergoing the same procedure. It is proposed that this form of transformation is beneficial (a) for more appropriately comparing different patient cohorts and (b) informing an individual patient how they are progressing compared with others of their age and gender. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:137–144 PMID:26311163

  7. Somersaulting techniques used in high-scoring and low-scoring Roche vaults performed by male Olympic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshiaki; Dunn, J Hubert; Blucker, Erik P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the somersaulting techniques used in the 16 highest-scoring and 16 lowest-scoring Roche vaults. Our hypothesis was that the gymnasts performing the highest-scoring Roche vaults would demonstrate a better technique than those performing the lowest-scoring Roche vaults while on the horse (pushing off the horse more effectively), somersaulting (executing most of the required somersaults higher in flight), and landing (showing a greater control). A 16-mm motion picture camera, operating at 100 Hz, recorded the vaults during the official competition. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation was used for spatial reconstruction. The results of t-tests (P < 0.05) indicated that, compared with the low-scoring gymnasts, the high-scoring gymnasts had: (1) greater height of body centre of mass and a more fully extended body position at the horse take-off; (2) greater height of body centre of mass at the peak of post-flight, knee release, and touchdown on the mat; (3) greater horizontal and vertical displacements of body centre of mass, greater somersaulting rotation, and longer time from the knee release to mat touchdown; and (d) markedly smaller landing point deductions. In conclusion, a successful Roche vault is likely when the focus is on: (a) leaving the horse with a large vertical velocity in an extended body position to achieve a high trajectory of centre of mass by first extending the legs, then immediately pushing off the horse vigorously, using the muscles of the upper extremity; (b) grasping the knees immediately after the take-off from the horse, achieving the tightly tucked body position early during the ascent to the peak, and completing two-thirds of the required somersaults at a great height; (c) releasing the knees and extending the body above the top level of the horse; and (d) contacting the mat with a high body centre of mass position. PMID:17454535

  8. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  9. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  10. The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary

    The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test…

  11. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews. 902.64 Section 902.64 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  12. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management operations scoring and thresholds. 902.45 Section 902.45 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45...

  13. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  14. Evaluating Public Libraries Using Standard Scores: The Library Quotient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Daniel O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the performance of public libraries using a standardized scoring system and provides an analysis of public library data from New Jersey as an example. Library standards and the derivation of measurement ratios are also discussed. A 33-item bibliography and three data tables are included. (JL)

  15. Automated Scoring in Context: Rapid Assessment for Placed Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klobucar, Andrew; Elliot, Norbert; Deess, Perry; Rudniy, Oleksandr; Joshi, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of automated essay scoring (AES) to identify at-risk students enrolled in a first-year university writing course. An application of AES, the "Criterion"[R] Online Writing Evaluation Service was evaluated through a methodology focusing on construct modelling, response processes, disaggregation, extrapolation,…

  16. Covariate Selection in Propensity Scores Using Outcome Proxies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the practical problem of covariate selection in propensity scores (PSs) given a predetermined set of covariates. Because the bias reduction capacity of a confounding covariate is proportional to the concurrent relationships it has with the outcome and treatment, particular focus is set on how we might approximate…

  17. Validating MMI Scores: Are We Measuring Multiple Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Tom; Hecker, Kent; Hausdorf, Peter A.; Conlon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The multiple mini-interview (MMI) used in health professional schools' admission processes is reported to assess multiple non-cognitive constructs such as ethical reasoning, oral communication, or problem evaluation. Though validation studies have been performed with total MMI scores, there is a paucity of information regarding how well MMI…

  18. Scoring Student-Generated Concept Maps in Introductory College Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Deborah A.; Abegg, Gerald L.

    This study presents a quantitative method for scoring concept maps generated by students learning introductory college chemistry. Concept maps measure the amount of chemical information the student possesses, reasoning ability in chemistry, and specific misconceptions about introductory and physical chemistry concepts. They provide a visualization…

  19. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  20. A Review of Score Reliability: Contemporary Thinking on Reliability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Bruce Thompson's edited volume begins with a basic principle, one might call it a basic truth, "reliability is a property that applies to scores, and not immutably across all conceivable uses everywhere of a given measure." (p. 3). The author claims that this principle is little known and-or little understood. While that is an arguable point, the…