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Sample records for acid sequences based

  1. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  2. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  3. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  4. Nanopore Analysis of Nucleic Acids: Single-Molecule Studies of Molecular Dynamics, Structure, and Base Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasagasti, Felix; Deamer, David W.

    Nucleic acids are linear polynucleotides in which each base is covalently linked to a pentose sugar and a phosphate group carrying a negative charge. If a pore having roughly the crosssectional diameter of a single-stranded nucleic acid is embedded in a thin membrane and a voltage of 100 mV or more is applied, individual nucleic acids in solution can be captured by the electrical field in the pore and translocated through by single-molecule electrophoresis. The dimensions of the pore cannot accommodate anything larger than a single strand, so each base in the molecule passes through the pore in strict linear sequence. The nucleic acid strand occupies a large fraction of the pore's volume during translocation and therefore produces a transient blockade of the ionic current created by the applied voltage. If it could be demonstrated that each nucleotide in the polymer produced a characteristic modulation of the ionic current during its passage through the nanopore, the sequence of current modulations would reflect the sequence of bases in the polymer. According to this basic concept, nanopores are analogous to a Coulter counter that detects nanoscopic molecules rather than microscopic [1,2]. However, the advantage of nanopores is that individual macromolecules can be characterized because different chemical and physical properties affect their passage through the pore. Because macromolecules can be captured in the pore as well as translocated, the nanopore can be used to detect individual functional complexes that form between a nucleic acid and an enzyme. No other technique has this capability.

  5. High speed nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid. Each type of labeled nucleotide comprises an acceptor fluorophore attached to a phosphate portion of the nucleotide such that the fluorophore is removed upon incorporation into a growing strand. Fluorescent signal is emitted via fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the donor fluorophore and the acceptor fluorophore as each nucleotide is incorporated into the growing strand. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing strand.

  6. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  7. New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B; Bairoch, A

    1993-01-01

    301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. J. 280, 309-316]. Approximately half of the families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number), whereas the other half were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). A > 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. On the basis of a comparison of 482 sequences corresponding to 52 EC entries, 45 families, out of which 22 are polyspecific, can now be defined. This classification has been implemented in the SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank. PMID:8352747

  8. Templated synthesis of peptide nucleic acids via sequence-selective base-filling reactions.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Jennifer M; Liu, David R

    2009-08-19

    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either reductive amination or amine acylation chemistries, we observed efficient and selective addition of each of the four nucleobases to an abasic site in the middle of the PNA strand. We also describe the addition of single nucleobases to the end of a PNA strand through base filling, as well as the tandem addition of two bases to the middle of the PNA strand. These findings represent an experimental foundation for nonenzymatic information transfer through base filling. PMID:19722647

  9. Templated Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids via Sequence-Selective Base-Filling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either reductive amination or amine acylation chemistries, we observed efficient and selective addition of each of the four nucleobases to an abasic site in the middle of the PNA strand. We also describe the addition of single nucleobases to the end of a PNA strand through base filling, as well as the tandem addition of two bases to the middle of the PNA strand. These findings represent an experimental foundation for nonenzymatic information transfer through base filling. PMID:19722647

  10. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-05-30

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  11. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  12. Evolutionary connections of biological kingdoms based on protein and nucleic acid sequence evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic evolutionary trees are developed from protein and nucleic-acid sequences by the methods of numerical taxonomy. Trees are presented for bacterial ferredoxins, 5S ribosomal RNA, c-type cytochromes , cytochromes c2 and c', and 5.8S ribosomal RNA; the implications for early evolution are discussed; and a composite tree showing the branching of the anaerobes, aerobes, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes is shown. Single lines are found for all oxygen-evolving photosynthetic forms and for the salt-loving and high-temperature forms of archaebacteria. It is argued that the eukaryote mitochondria, chloroplasts, and cytoplasmic host material are descended from free-living prokaryotes that formed symbiotic associations, with more than one symbiotic event involved in the evolution of each organelle.

  13. A simple ligation-based method to increase the information density in sequencing reactions used to deconvolute nucleic acid selections

    PubMed Central

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Herein, a method is described to increase the information density of sequencing experiments used to deconvolute nucleic acid selections. The method is facile and should be applicable to any selection experiment. A critical feature of this method is the use of biotinylated primers to amplify and encode a BamHI restriction site on both ends of a PCR product. After amplification, the PCR reaction is captured onto streptavidin resin, washed, and digested directly on the resin. Resin-based digestion affords clean product that is devoid of partially digested products and unincorporated PCR primers. The product's complementary ends are annealed and ligated together with T4 DNA ligase. Analysis of ligation products shows formation of concatemers of different length and little detectable monomer. Sequencing results produced data that routinely contained three to four copies of the library. This method allows for more efficient formulation of structure-activity relationships since multiple active sequences are identified from a single clone. PMID:18065718

  14. Nucleic acid-binding molecules with high affinity and base sequence specificity: intercalating agents covalently linked to oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Asseline, U; Delarue, M; Lancelot, G; Toulmé, F; Thuong, N T; Montenay-Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1984-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides covalently linked to an intercalating agent via a polymethylene linker were synthesized. Oligothymidylates attached to an acridine dye (Acr) through the 3'-phosphate group [(Tp)n(CH2) mAcr ] specifically interact with the complementary sequence. The interaction is strongly stabilized by the intercalating agent. By using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, it is shown that complex formation between (Tp)n(CH2) mAcr and poly(rA) involves the formation of n A X T base pairs, where n is the number of thymines in the oligonucleotide. The acridine ring intercalates between A X T base pairs. Fluorescence excitation spectra reveal the existence of two environments for the acridine ring, whose relative contributions depend on the linker length (m). The binding of (Tp)4(CH2) mAcr to poly(rA) is analyzed in terms of site binding and cooperative interactions between oligonucleotides along the polynucleotide lattice. Thermodynamic parameters show that the covalent attachment of the acridine ring strongly stabilizes the binding of the oligonucleotide to its complementary sequence. The stabilization depends on the linker length; the compound with m = 5 gives a more stable complex than that with m = 3. These results open the way to the synthesis of a family of molecules exhibiting both high-affinity and high-specificity for a nucleic acid base sequence. PMID:6587350

  15. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  16. Amino acid sequence alignment of bacterial and mammalian pancreatic serine proteases based on topological equivalences.

    PubMed

    James, M N; Delbaere, L T; Brayer, G D

    1978-06-01

    The three-dimensional structures of the bacterial serine proteases SGPA, SGPB, and alpha-lytic protease have been compared with those of the pancreatic enzymes alpha-chymotrypsin and elastase. This comparison shows that approximately 60% (55-64%) of the alpha-carbon atom positions of the bacterial serine proteases are topologically equivalent to the alpha-carbon atom positions of the pancreatic enzymes. The corresponding value for a comparison of the bacterial enzymes among themselves is approximately 84%. The results of these topological comparisons have been used to deduce an experimentally sound sequence alignment for these several enzymes. This alignment shows that there is extensive tertiary structural homology among the bacteria and pancreatic enzymes without significant primary sequence identity (less than 21%). The acquisition of a zymogen function by the pancreatic enzymes is accompanied by two major changes to the bacterial enzymes' architecture: an insertion of 9 residues to increase the length of the N-terminal loop, and one of 12 residues to a loop near the activation salt bridge. In addition, in these two enzyme families, the methionine loop (residues 164-182) adopts very different comformations which are associated with their altered substrate specificities. PMID:96920

  17. COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES AND RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES AMONG DISSIMILATORY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). f these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA direct...

  18. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays for rapid detection of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Kerst, A J

    2001-12-01

    The development and application of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays for the detection of West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are reported. Two unique detection formats were developed for the NASBA assays: a postamplification detection step with a virus-specific internal capture probe and electrochemiluminescence (NASBA-ECL assay) and a real-time assay with 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled virus-specific molecular beacon probes (NASBA-beacon assay). The sensitivities and specificities of these NASBA assays were compared to those of a newly described standard reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and TaqMan assays for SLE virus and to a previously published TaqMan assay for WN virus. The NASBA assays demonstrated exceptional sensitivities and specificities compared to those of virus isolation, the TaqMan assays, and standard RT-PCR, with the NASBA-beacon assay yielding results in less than 1 h. These assays should be of utility in the diagnostic laboratory to complement existing diagnostic testing methodologies and as a tool in conducting flavivirus surveillance in the United States. PMID:11724870

  19. Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  20. Monitoring of Chlamydia trachomatis infections after antibiotic treatment using RNA detection by nucleic acid sequence based amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Morré, S A; Sillekens, P T; Jacobs, M V; de Blok, S; Ossewaarde, J M; van Aarle, P; van Gemen, B; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J; van den Brule, A J

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the value of RNA detection by nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) for the monitoring of Chlamydia trachomatis infections after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: Cervical smears (n = 97) and urine specimens (n = 61) from 25 C trachomatis positive female patients were analysed for the presence of C trachomatis 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) by NASBA and C trachomatis plasmid DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before and up to five weeks after antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Chlamydia trachomatis RNA was found in all cervical smears taken before antibiotic treatment (n = 24) and in two smears taken one week after antibiotic treatment; no C trachomatis RNA was detected after two weeks or more. In contrast, C trachomatis DNA was found in all such specimens before treatment, and 21 of 25, six of 21, and five of 20 smears were found to be positive at one, two, and three weeks after treatment, respectively. After four weeks, only one of six smears was positive, and this smear had been negative in the two preceding weeks. Of the 61 urine samples investigated, C trachomatis DNA and C trachomatis RNA were found in all before treatment (n = 15), whereas one week after treatment four of 15 were C trachomatis DNA positive and C trachomatis RNA was detected in one sample only. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that RNA detection by NASBA can be used successfully to monitor C trachomatis infections after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, it might be possible to use urine specimens as a test of cure because neither C. trachomatis DNA or RNA could be detected two weeks or more after treatment. PMID:9850338

  1. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  2. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  3. Universal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for simultaneous amplification of messengerRNAs and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Mader, Andreas; Riehle, Ulrike; Brandstetter, Thomas; Stickeler, Elmar; Ruehe, Juergen

    2012-11-19

    A universal NASBA assay is presented for simultaneous amplification of multiple microRNA (miRNA) and messengerRNA (mRNA) sequences. First, miRNA and mRNA sequences are reverse transcribed using tailed reverse transcription primer pairs containing a gene-specific and an non-specific region. For reverse transcription of small miRNA molecules a non-specific region is incorporated into a structured stem-loop reverse transcription primer. Second, a universal NASBA primer pair that recognizes the tagged cDNA molecules enables a simultaneous, transcription-based amplification reaction (NASBA) of all different cDNA molecules in one reaction. The NASBA products (RNA copies) are detected by gene-specific DNA probes immobilized on a biochip. By using the multiplex reverse transcription combined with the universal NASBA amplification up to 14 different mRNA and miRNA sequences can be specifically amplified and detected in parallel. In comparison with standard multiplex NASBA assays this approach strongly enhances the multiplex capacity of NASBA-based amplification reactions. Furthermore simultaneous assaying of different RNA classes can be achieved that might be beneficial for studying miRNA-based regulation of gene expression or for RNA-based tumor diagnostics. PMID:23140948

  4. Nucleic acid based molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2011-03-28

    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. PMID:21432950

  5. [Creation of DNA vaccine vector based on codon-optimized gene of rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) with consensus amino acid sequence].

    PubMed

    Starodubova, E S; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Preobrazhenskaya, O V; Karpov, V L

    2016-01-01

    An optimized design of the rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) for use within DNA vaccines has been suggested. The design represents a territorially adapted antigen constructed taking into account glycoprotein amino acid sequences of the rabies viruses registered in the Russian Federation and the vaccine Vnukovo-32 strain. Based on the created consensus amino acid sequence, the nucleotide codon-optimized sequence of this modified glycoprotein was obtained and cloned into the pVAX1 plasmid (a vector of the last generation used in the creation of DNA vaccines). A twofold increase in this gene expression compared to the expression of the Vnukovo-32 strain viral glycoprotein gene in a similar vector was registered in the transfected cell culture. It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of modified G protein exceeds the number of the control protein synthesized using the plasmid with the Vnukovo-32 strain viral glycoprotein gene by 20 times. Thus, the obtained modified rabies virus glycoprotein can be considered to be a promising DNA vaccine antigen. PMID:27239860

  6. Creation of a data base for sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids and detection of conserved restriction endonucleases sites through computerized processing.

    PubMed Central

    Patarca, R; Dorta, B; Ramirez, J L

    1982-01-01

    As part of a project pertaining the organization of ribosomal genes in Kinetoplastidae, we have created a data base for published sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids, with information in Spanish. As a first step in their processing, we have written a computer program which introduces the new feature of determining the length of the fragments produced after single or multiple digestion with any of the known restriction enzymes. With this information we have detected conserved SAU 3A sites: (i) at the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA and at the 3' end of the small subunit rRNA, both included in similar larger sequences; (ii) in the 5.8S rRNA of vertebrates (a second one), which is not present in lower eukaryotes, showing a clear evolutive divergence; and, (iii) at the 5' terminal of the small subunit rRNA, included in a larger conserved sequence. The possible biological importance of these sequences is discussed. PMID:6278402

  7. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  8. Amino-Acid Sequence of Porcine Pepsin

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J.; Sepulveda, P.; Marciniszyn, J.; Chen, K. C. S.; Huang, W-Y.; Tao, N.; Liu, D.; Lanier, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    As the culmination of several years of experiments, we propose a complete amino-acid sequence for porcine pepsin, an enzyme containing 327 amino-acid residues in a single polypeptide chain. In the sequence determination, the enzyme was treated with cyanogen bromide. Five resulting fragments were purified. The amino-acid sequence of four of the fragments accounted for 290 residues. Because the structure of a 37-residue carboxyl-terminal fragment was already known, it was not studied. The alignment of these fragments was determined from the sequence of methionyl-peptides we had previously reported. We also discovered the locations of activesite aspartyl residues, as well as the pairing of the three disulfide bridges. A minor component of commercial crystalline pepsin was found to contain two extra amino-acid residues, Ala-Leu-, at the amino-terminus of the molecule. This minor component was apparently derived from a different site of cleavage during the activation of porcine pepsinogen. PMID:4587252

  9. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  10. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  11. Methods for analyzing nucleic acid sequences

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid. The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The time duration of the signal from labeled nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated is distinguished from freely diffusing labels by a longer retention in the observation volume for the nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated than for the freely diffusing labels.

  12. A method to find palindromes in nucleic acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Anjana, Ramnath; Shankar, Mani; Vaishnavi, Marthandan Kirti; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Various types of sequences in the human genome are known to play important roles in different aspects of genomic functioning. Among these sequences, palindromic nucleic acid sequences are one such type that have been studied in detail and found to influence a wide variety of genomic characteristics. For a nucleotide sequence to be considered as a palindrome, its complementary strand must read the same in the opposite direction. For example, both the strands i.e the strand going from 5' to 3' and its complementary strand from 3' to 5' must be complementary. A typical nucleotide palindromic sequence would be TATA (5' to 3') and its complimentary sequence from 3' to 5' would be ATAT. Thus, a new method has been developed using dynamic programming to fetch the palindromic nucleic acid sequences. The new method uses less memory and thereby it increases the overall speed and efficiency. The proposed method has been tested using the bacterial (3891 KB bases) and human chromosomal sequences (Chr-18: 74366 kb and Chr-Y: 25554 kb) and the computation time for finding the palindromic sequences is in milli seconds. PMID:23515654

  13. On Quantum Algorithm for Multiple Alignment of Amino Acid Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriyama, Satoshi; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    The alignment of genome sequences or amino acid sequences is one of fundamental operations for the study of life. Usual computational complexity for the multiple alignment of N sequences with common length L by dynamic programming is O(LN). This alignment is considered as one of the NP problems, so that it is desirable to find a nice algorithm of the multiple alignment. Thus in this paper we propose the quantum algorithm for the multiple alignment based on the works12,1,2 in which the NP complete problem was shown to be the P problem by means of quantum algorithm and chaos information dynamics.

  14. The phylogeny of acetic acid bacteria based on the partial sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA: the elevation of the subgenus Gluconoacetobacter to the generic level.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Hoshino, K; Ishikawa, T

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria classified in the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Acidomonas were examined for their partial base sequences in positions 1220 through 1375, 156 bases, of 16S rRNA. The strains of the Q10-equipped Gluconobacter species examined were divided into two subgroups, which included the type strains of Gluconobacter oxydans, the type species of the genus Gluconobacter, and of a second species, Gluconobacter cerinus, respectively. The base differences numbered four between the two type strains. The strains of the Q9-equipped species examined classified in the type subgenus Acetobacter of the genus Acetobacter were not very distant phylogenetically from those of the genus Gluconobacter. The calculated number of base differences was 9-6 between the type strains of G. oxydans and G. cerinus and the type strains of Acetobacter aceti and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In contrast, the strains of the Q10-equipped species examined classified in the subgenus Gluconoacetobacter of the genus Acetobacter were very distant phylogenetically from those of the Acetobacter and Gluconobacter species mentioned above. The number of base differences was calculated to be 14-8. Furthermore, the strains of the methanol-assimilating, Q10-equipped species of the genus Acidomonas examined were located in phylogenetically isolated positions. The type strain of Acidomonas methanolica (identical to Acetobacter methanolicus), the type species of the genus Acidomonas, had 16-9 base differences. The data obtained here indicated that the members of the subgenus Gluconoacetobacter of the genus Acetobacter can be distinguished at the generic level. The new genus Gluconoacetobacter was proposed with the type species, Gluconoacetobacter liquefaciens, in recognition of the genus Acidomonas along with the genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter in the classification of the acetic acid bacteria. PMID:9301103

  15. Species specific identification of spore-producing microbes using the gene sequence of small acid-soluble spore coat proteins for amplification based diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    McKinney, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers for the detection of certain Bacillus species, such as Bacillus anthracis. The primers specifically amplify only DNA found in the target species and can distinguish closely related species. Species-specific PCR primers for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus globigii and Clostridium perfringens are disclosed. The primers are directed to unique sequences within sasp (small acid soluble protein) genes.

  16. Real-time detection of noroviruses in surface water by use of a broadly reactive nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Rutjes, Saskia A; van den Berg, Harold H J L; Lodder, Willemijn J; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2006-08-01

    Noroviruses are the most common agents causing outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis. Outbreaks originating from contaminated drinking water and from recreational waters have been described. Due to a lack of cell culture systems, noroviruses are detected mostly by molecular methods. Molecular detection assays for viruses in water are often repressed by inhibitory factors present in the environment, like humic acids and heavy metals. To study the effect of environmental inhibitors on the performance of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), we developed a real-time norovirus NASBA targeting part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Specificity of the assay was studied with 33 divergent clones that contained part of the targeted RdRp gene of noroviruses from 15 different genogroups. Viral RNA originated from commercial oysters, surface waters, and sewage treatment plants in The Netherlands. Ninety-seven percent of the clones derived from human noroviruses were detected by real-time NASBA. Two clones containing animal noroviruses were not detected by NASBA. We compared the norovirus detection by real-time NASBA with that by conventional reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) with large-volume river water samples and found that inhibitory factors of RT-PCR had little or no effect on the performance of the norovirus NASBA. This consequently resulted in a higher sensitivity of the NASBA assay than of the RT-PCR. We show that by combining an efficient RNA extraction method with real-time NASBA the sensitivity of norovirus detection in water samples increased at least 100 times, which consequently has implications for the outcome of the infectious risk assessment. PMID:16885286

  17. Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Park, Steven; Warn, Peter; Shrief, Raghdaa; Harrison, Elizabeth; Perlin, David S

    2010-04-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples may facilitate the early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). A real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method was investigated by use of an inhalational rat model of IPA. Immunosuppressed male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus spores for an hour in an aerosol chamber. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung tissues, and whole blood were collected from five infected rats at 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postinfection and five uninfected rats at the end of the experiment. Total nucleic acid (TNA) was extracted on an easyMAG instrument. A primer-molecular beacon set targeting 28S rRNA was designed to detect Aspergillus spp. The results were compared to those of quantitative PCR (qPCR) (18S rDNA) and quantitative culture. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was <1 CFU/assay. A linear range of detection was demonstrated over 5 log units of conidia (10 to 10(5) spores). Both NASBA and qPCR showed a progressive increase in lung tissue burdens, while the CFU counts were stable over time. The fungal burdens in BAL fluid were more variable and not indicative of a progressive infection. The results of both real-time assays correlated well for both sample types (r = 0.869 and P < 0.0001 for lung tissue, r = 0.887 and P < 0.0001 for BAL fluid). For all whole-blood specimens, NASBA identified Aspergillus-positive samples in the group from which samples were collected at 72 h postinfection (three of five samples) and the group from which samples were collected at 96 h postinfection (five of five samples), but no positive results were obtained by culture or PCR. Real-time NASBA is highly sensitive and useful for the detection of Aspergillus in an experimental model of IPA. PMID:20129972

  18. Nanopores and nucleic acids: prospects for ultrarapid sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.; Akeson, M.

    2000-01-01

    DNA and RNA molecules can be detected as they are driven through a nanopore by an applied electric field at rates ranging from several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds per molecule. The nanopore can rapidly discriminate between pyrimidine and purine segments along a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. Nanopore detection and characterization of single molecules represents a new method for directly reading information encoded in linear polymers. If single-nucleotide resolution can be achieved, it is possible that nucleic acid sequences can be determined at rates exceeding a thousand bases per second.

  19. Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA viral load using nucleic acid sequence based amplification methodology and comparison with other surrogate markers for disease progression.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, R; Pinho, J R

    1998-01-01

    In this study, HIV-1 viral blood quantitation determined by Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) was compared with other surrogate disease progression markers (antigen p24, CD4/CD8 cell counts and beta-2 microglobulin) in 540 patients followed up at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. HIV-1 RNA detection was statistically associated with the presence of antigen p24, but the viral RNA was also detected in 68% of the antigen p24 negative samples, confirming that NASBA is much more sensitive than the determination of antigen p24. Regarding other surrogate markers, no statistically significant association with the detection of viral RNA was found. The reproducibility of this viral load assay was assessed by 14 runs of the same sample, using different reagents batches. Viral load values in this sample ranged from 5.83 to 6.27 log (CV = 36%), less than the range (0.5 log) established to the determination of significant viral load changes. PMID:9698880

  20. Amino acid sequence of bovine heart coupling factor 6.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, J K; Jacobs, J W; Kanner, B I; Racker, E; Bradshaw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of bovine heart mitochondrial coupling factor 6 (F6) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the whole protein and derived peptides. Preparations based on heat precipitation and ethanol extraction showed allotypic variation at three positions while material further purified by HPLC yielded only one sequence that also differed by a Phe-Thr replacement at residue 62. The mature protein contains 76 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 9006 and a pI of approximately equal to 5, in good agreement with experimentally measured values. The charged amino acids are mainly clustered at the termini and in one section in the middle; these three polar segments are separated by two segments relatively rich in nonpolar residues. Chou-Fasman analysis suggests three stretches of alpha-helix coinciding (or within) the high-charge-density sequences with a single beta-turn at the first polar-nonpolar junction. Comparison of the F6 sequence with those of other proteins did not reveal any homologous structures. PMID:6149548

  1. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  2. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures must include a copy of the sequence listing in accordance with the requirements in 37 CFR...

  3. Predicting intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Zoran; Peng, Kang; Vucetic, Slobodan; Radivojac, Predrag; Brown, Celeste J; Dunker, A Keith

    2003-01-01

    Blind predictions of intrinsic order and disorder were made on 42 proteins subsequently revealed to contain 9,044 ordered residues, 284 disordered residues in 26 segments of length 30 residues or less, and 281 disordered residues in 2 disordered segments of length greater than 30 residues. The accuracies of the six predictors used in this experiment ranged from 77% to 91% for the ordered regions and from 56% to 78% for the disordered segments. The average of the order and disorder predictions ranged from 73% to 77%. The prediction of disorder in the shorter segments was poor, from 25% to 66% correct, while the prediction of disorder in the longer segments was better, from 75% to 95% correct. Four of the predictors were composed of ensembles of neural networks. This enabled them to deal more efficiently with the large asymmetry in the training data through diversified sampling from the significantly larger ordered set and achieve better accuracy on ordered and long disordered regions. The exclusive use of long disordered regions for predictor training likely contributed to the disparity of the predictions on long versus short disordered regions, while averaging the output values over 61-residue windows to eliminate short predictions of order or disorder probably contributed to the even greater disparity for three of the predictors. This experiment supports the predictability of intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence. PMID:14579347

  4. RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with an internal standard enables reliable detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical scrapings and urine samples.

    PubMed Central

    Morré, S A; Sillekens, P; Jacobs, M V; van Aarle, P; de Blok, S; van Gemen, B; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J; van den Brule, A J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the suitability of RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated. When comparing different primer sets for their sensitivities in NASBA, use of both the plasmid and omp1 targets resulted in a detection limit of 1 inclusion-forming unit (IFU), while the 16S rRNA appeared to be the most sensitive RNA target for amplification (10(-3) IFU). In contrast, for DNA amplification by PCR, the plasmid target was optimal (10(-2) IFU), which is 10 times less sensitive than rRNA NASBA. To exclude false negativity in NASBA detection because of inhibition of amplification and/or inefficient sample preparation, an internal standard was developed. The internal control was added prior to sample preparation. This 16S rRNA NASBA with an internal control was compared with a plasmid DNA PCR by using a group of C. trachomatis-negative (n = 41) and -positive (n = 37) cervical scrapings, as determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In addition, urine samples from the EIA-positive women were tested (n = 17). Both NASBA and PCR assays were able to detect C. trachomatis in all EIA-positive cervical scrapings, the corresponding urine samples, and two samples from the EIA-negative group. The internal NASBA standard was found clearly in all EIA-negative samples. In conclusion, these results indicate that detection of C. trachomatis by RNA amplification by NASBA with an internal standard is a suitable and highly sensitive detection method, with potential use in the diagnosis of urogenital C. trachomatis infections with cervical scrapings as well as urine specimens. PMID:8940456

  5. Unifying bacteria from decaying wood with various ubiquitous Gibbsiella species as G. acetica sp. nov. based on nucleotide sequence similarities and their acetic acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Geider, Klaus; Gernold, Marina; Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate; Gross, Jürgen; Spiteller, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from necrotic apple and pear tree tissue and from dead wood in Germany and Austria as well as from pear tree exudate in China. They were selected for growth at 37 °C, screened for levan production and then characterized as Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. Nucleotide sequences from 16S rRNA genes, the housekeeping genes dnaJ, gyrB, recA and rpoB alignments, BLAST searches and phenotypic data confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis showed that these bacteria belong to the genus Gibbsiella and resembled strains isolated from diseased oaks in Britain and Spain. Gibbsiella-specific PCR primers were designed from the proline isomerase and the levansucrase genes. Acid secretion was investigated by screening for halo formation on calcium carbonate agar and the compound identified by NMR as acetic acid. Its production by Gibbsiella spp. strains was also determined in culture supernatants by GC/MS analysis after derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide. Some strains were differentiated by the PFGE patterns of SpeI digests and by sequence analyses of the lsc and the ppiD genes, and the Chinese Gibbsiella strain was most divergent. The newly investigated bacteria as well as Gibbsiella querinecans, Gibbsiella dentisursi and Gibbsiella papilionis, isolated in Britain, Spain, Korea and Japan, are taxonomically related Enterobacteriaceae, tolerate and secrete acetic acid. We therefore propose to unify them in the species Gibbsiella acetica sp. nov. PMID:26071988

  6. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  7. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  8. Quantum-Sequencing: Biophysics of quantum tunneling through nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy has extensively been used in physical surface sciences to study quantum tunneling to measure electronic local density of states of nanomaterials and to characterize adsorbed species. Quantum-Sequencing (Q-Seq) is a new method based on tunneling microscopy for electronic sequencing of single molecule of nucleic acids. A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the unique ``electronic fingerprints'' for all nucleotides on DNA and RNA using Q-Seq along their intrinsic biophysical parameters. We have analyzed tunneling spectra for the nucleotides at different pH conditions and analyzed the HOMO, LUMO and energy gap for all of them. In addition we show a number of biophysical parameters to further characterize all nucleobases (electron and hole transition voltage and energy barriers). These results highlight the robustness of Q-Seq as a technique for next-generation sequencing.

  9. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Cantor, Charles R.; Koster, Hubert; Smith, Cassandra L.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  10. Analysis and Annotation of Nucleic Acid Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    States, David J.

    2004-07-28

    The aims of this project were to develop improved methods for computational genome annotation and to apply these methods to improve the annotation of genomic sequence data with a specific focus on human genome sequencing. The project resulted in a substantial body of published work. Notable contributions of this project were the identification of basecalling and lane tracking as error processes in genome sequencing and contributions to improved methods for these steps in genome sequencing. This technology improved the accuracy and throughput of genome sequence analysis. Probabilistic methods for physical map construction were developed. Improved methods for sequence alignment, alternative splicing analysis, promoter identification and NF kappa B response gene prediction were also developed.

  11. Analysis and Annotation of Nucleic Acid Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    David J. States

    1998-08-01

    The aims of this project were to develop improved methods for computational genome annotation and to apply these methods to improve the annotation of genomic sequence data with a specific focus on human genome sequencing. The project resulted in a substantial body of published work. Notable contributions of this project were the identification of basecalling and lane tracking as error processes in genome sequencing and contributions to improved methods for these steps in genome sequencing. This technology improved the accuracy and throughput of genome sequence analysis. Probabilistic methods for physical map construction were developed. Improved methods for sequence alignment, alternative splicing analysis, promoter identification and NF kappa B response gene prediction were also developed.

  12. Electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid biosensor based on electrodeposited graphene and nickel oxide nanoparticle modified electrode for the detection of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Yongxi; Gong, Shixing; Qi, Xiaowei; Lei, Bingxin; Sun, Zhenfan; Li, Guangjiu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a new electrochemical DNA biosensor was prepared by using graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. GR and NiO nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the CILE surface step-by-step to get the nanocomposite. Due to the strong affinity of NiO with phosphate groups of ssDNA, oligonucleotide probe with a terminal 5'-phosphate group could be attached on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE, which could further hybridize with the target ssDNA sequence. Methylene blue (MB) was used as the electrochemical indicator for monitoring the hybridization reaction. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current of MB was proportional to the concentration of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) with a detection limit as 3.12×10(-14)molL(-1). This electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good discrimination ability to one-base and three-base mismatched ssDNA sequences, and the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of salmonella enteritidis gene sequences were further detected with satisfactory results. PMID:25686924

  13. From Artificial Amino Acids to Sequence-Defined Targeted Oligoaminoamides.

    PubMed

    Morys, Stephan; Wagner, Ernst; Lächelt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Artificial oligoamino acids with appropriate protecting groups can be used for the sequential assembly of oligoaminoamides on solid-phase. With the help of these oligoamino acids multifunctional nucleic acid (NA) carriers can be designed and produced in highly defined topologies. Here we describe the synthesis of the artificial oligoamino acid Fmoc-Stp(Boc3)-OH, the subsequent assembly into sequence-defined oligomers and the formulation of tumor-targeted plasmid DNA (pDNA) polyplexes. PMID:27436323

  14. Predicting protein disorder by analyzing amino acid sequence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jack Y; Yang, Mary Qu

    2008-01-01

    Background Many protein regions and some entire proteins have no definite tertiary structure, presenting instead as dynamic, disorder ensembles under different physiochemical circumstances. These proteins and regions are known as Intrinsically Unstructured Proteins (IUP). IUP have been associated with a wide range of protein functions, along with roles in diseases characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Results Identifying IUP is important task in structural and functional genomics. We exact useful features from sequences and develop machine learning algorithms for the above task. We compare our IUP predictor with PONDRs (mainly neural-network-based predictors), disEMBL (also based on neural networks) and Globplot (based on disorder propensity). Conclusion We find that augmenting features derived from physiochemical properties of amino acids (such as hydrophobicity, complexity etc.) and using ensemble method proved beneficial. The IUP predictor is a viable alternative software tool for identifying IUP protein regions and proteins. PMID:18831799

  15. Detecting frame shifts by amino acid sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Claverie, J M

    1993-12-20

    Various amino acid substitution scoring matrices are used in conjunction with local alignments programs to detect regions of similarity and infer potential common ancestry between proteins. The usual scoring schemes derive from the implicit hypothesis that related proteins evolve from a common ancestor by the accumulation of point mutations and that amino acids tend to be progressively substituted by others with similar properties. However, other frequent single mutation events, like nucleotide insertion or deletion and gene inversion, change the translation reading frame and cause previously encoded amino acid sequences to become unrecognizable at once. Here, I derive five new types of scoring matrix, each capable of detecting a specific frame shift (deletion, insertion and inversion in 3 frames) and use them with a regular local alignments program to detect amino acid sequences that may have derived from alternative reading frames of the same nucleotide sequence. Frame shifts are inferred from the sole comparison of the protein sequences. The five scoring matrices were used with the BLASTP program to compare all the protein sequences in the Swissprot database. Surprisingly, the searches revealed hundreds of highly significant frame shift matches, of which many are likely to represent sequencing errors. Others provide some evidence that frame shift mutations might be used in protein evolution as a way to create new amino acid sequences from pre-existing coding regions. PMID:7903399

  16. Segments of amino acid sequence similarity in beta-amylases.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, F; Rhodes, C

    1988-01-01

    In alpha-amylases from animals, plants and bacteria and in beta-amylases from plants and bacteria a number of segments exhibit amino acid sequence similarity specific to the alpha or to the beta type, respectively. In the case of the beta-amylases the similar sequence regions are extensive and they are disrupted only by short interspersed dissimilar regions. Close to the C terminus, however, no such sequence similarity exist. PMID:2464171

  17. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated... sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides....

  18. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated... sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides....

  19. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated... sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides....

  20. Accuracy of sequence alignment and fold assessment using reduced amino acid alphabets.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco; Marti-Renom, Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Reduced or simplified amino acid alphabets group the 20 naturally occurring amino acids into a smaller number of representative protein residues. To date, several reduced amino acid alphabets have been proposed, which have been derived and optimized by a variety of methods. The resulting reduced amino acid alphabets have been applied to pattern recognition, generation of consensus sequences from multiple alignments, protein folding, and protein structure prediction. In this work, amino acid substitution matrices and statistical potentials were derived based on several reduced amino acid alphabets and their performance assessed in a large benchmark for the tasks of sequence alignment and fold assessment of protein structure models, using as a reference frame the standard alphabet of 20 amino acids. The results showed that a large reduction in the total number of residue types does not necessarily translate into a significant loss of discriminative power for sequence alignment and fold assessment. Therefore, some definitions of a few residue types are able to encode most of the relevant sequence/structure information that is present in the 20 standard amino acids. Based on these results, we suggest that the use of reduced amino acid alphabets may allow to increasing the accuracy of current substitution matrices and statistical potentials for the prediction of protein structure of remote homologs. PMID:16506243

  1. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... base or modified or unusual amino acid may be presented in a given sequence as the corresponding unmodified base or amino acid if the modified base or modified or unusual amino acid is one of those...

  2. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... base or modified or unusual amino acid may be presented in a given sequence as the corresponding unmodified base or amino acid if the modified base or modified or unusual amino acid is one of those...

  3. Amino acid sequence repertoire of the bacterial proteome and the occurrence of untranslatable sequences.

    PubMed

    Navon, Sharon Penias; Kornberg, Guy; Chen, Jin; Schwartzman, Tali; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Puglisi, Joseph D; Adir, Noam

    2016-06-28

    Bioinformatic analysis of Escherichia coli proteomes revealed that all possible amino acid triplet sequences occur at their expected frequencies, with four exceptions. Two of the four underrepresented sequences (URSs) were shown to interfere with translation in vivo and in vitro. Enlarging the URS by a single amino acid resulted in increased translational inhibition. Single-molecule methods revealed stalling of translation at the entrance of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, adjacent to ribosomal nucleotides A2062 and U2585. Interaction with these same ribosomal residues is involved in regulation of translation by longer, naturally occurring protein sequences. The E. coli exit tunnel has evidently evolved to minimize interaction with the exit tunnel and maximize the sequence diversity of the proteome, although allowing some interactions for regulatory purposes. Bioinformatic analysis of the human proteome revealed no underrepresented triplet sequences, possibly reflecting an absence of regulation by interaction with the exit tunnel. PMID:27307442

  4. tax and rex Sequences of bovine leukaemia virus from globally diverse isolates: rex amino acid sequence more variable than tax.

    PubMed

    McGirr, K M; Buehring, G C

    2005-02-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is an important agricultural problem with high costs to the dairy industry. Here, we examine the variation of the tax and rex genes of BLV. The tax and rex genes share 420 bases and have overlapping reading frames. The tax gene encodes a protein that functions as a transactivator of the BLV promoter, is required for viral replication, acts on cellular promoters, and is responsible for oncogenesis. The rex facilitates the export of viral mRNAs from the nucleus and regulates transcription. We have sequenced five new isolates of the tax/rex gene. We examined the five new and three previously published tax/rex DNA and predicted amino acid sequences of BLV isolates from cattle in representative regions worldwide. The highest variation among nucleic acid sequences for tax and rex was 7% and 5%, respectively; among predicted amino acid sequences for Tax and Rex, 9% and 11%, respectively. Significantly more nucleotide changes resulted in predicted amino acid changes in the rex gene than in the tax gene (P < or = 0.0006). This variability is higher than previously reported for any region of the viral genome. This research may also have implications for the development of Tax-based vaccines. PMID:15702995

  5. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  6. The amino-acid sequence of kangaroo pancreatic ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Gaastra, W; Welling, G W; Beintema, J J

    1978-05-01

    Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue by affinity chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by automatic sequencing of overlapping large fragments and by analysis of shorter peptides obtained by digestion with a number of proteolytic enzymes. The polypeptide chain consists of 122 amino acid residues. Compared to other ribonucleases, the N-terminal residue and residue 114 are deleted. In other pancreatic ribonucleases position 114 is occupied by a cis proline residue in an external loop at the surface of the molecule. Other remarkable substitutions are the presence of a tyrosine residue at position 123 instead of a serine which forms a hydrogen bond with the pyrimidine ring of a nucleotide substrate, and a number of hydrophobichydrophilic interchanges in the sequence 51-55, which forms part of an alpha-helix in bovine ribonuclease and exhibits few substitutions in the placental mammals. Kangaroo ribonuclease contains no carbohydrate, although the enzyme possesses a recognition site for carbohydrate attachment in the sequence Asn-Val-Thr (62-64). The enzyme differs at about 35-40% of the positions from all other mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases sequenced to date, which is in agreement with the early divergence between the marsupials and the placental mammals. From fragmentary data a tentative sequence of red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) pancreatic ribonuclease has been derived. Eight differences with the kangaroo sequence were found. PMID:658039

  7. Studies on monotreme proteins. VII. Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from the platypus, Ornithoryhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1976-03-01

    Myoglobin isolated from skeletal muscle of the platypus contains 153 amino acid residues. The complete amino acid sequence has been determined following cleavage with cyanogen bromide and further digestion of the four fragments with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin and thermolysin. Sequences of the purified peptides were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The amino acid sequence showed 25 differences from human myoglobin and 24 from kangaroo myoglobin. Amino acid sequences in myoglobins are more conserved than sequences in the alpha- and beta-globin chains, and platypus myoglobin shows a similar number of variations in sequence to kangaroo myoglobin when compared with myoglobin of other species. The date of divergence of the platypus from other mammals was estimated at 102 +/- 31 million years, based on the number of amino acid differences between species and allowing for mutations during the evolutionary period. This estimate differs widely from the estimate given by similar treatment of the alpha- and beta-chain sequences and a constant rate of mutation of globin chains is not supported. PMID:962722

  8. Characterization of mouse cellular deoxyribonucleic acid homologous to Abelson murine leukemia virus-specific sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, B; Ozanne, B

    1981-01-01

    The genome of Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) consists of sequences derived from both BALB/c mouse deoxyribonucleic acid and the genome of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Using deoxyribonucleic acid linear intermediates as a source of retroviral deoxyribonucleic acid, we isolated a recombinant plasmid which contained 1.9 kilobases of the 3.5-kilobase mouse-derived sequences found in A-MuLV (A-MuLV-specific sequences). We used this clone, designated pSA-17, as a probe restriction enzyme and Southern blot analyses to examine the arrangement of homologous sequences in BALB/c deoxyribonucleic acid (endogenous Abelson sequences). The endogenous Abelson sequences within the mouse genome were interrupted by noncoding regions, suggesting that a rearrangement of the cell sequences was required to produce the sequence found in the virus. Endogenous Abelson sequences were arranged similarly in mice that were susceptible to A-MuLV tumors and in mice that were resistant to A-MuLV tumors. An examination of three BALB/c plasmacytomas and a BALB/c early B-cell tumor likewise revealed no alteration in the arrangement of the endogenous Abelson sequences. Homology to pSA-17 was also observed in deoxyribonucleic acids prepared from rat, hamster, chicken, and human cells. An isolate of A-MuLV which encoded a 160,000-dalton transforming protein (P160) contained 700 more base pairs of mouse sequences than the standard A-MuLV isolate, which encoded a 120,000-dalton transforming protein (P120). Images PMID:9279386

  9. Electrophoresis-Enhanced Detection of Deoxyribonucleic Acids on a Membrane-Based Lateral Flow Strip Using Avian Influenza H5 Genetic Sequence as the Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jui-Chuang; Chen, Chih-Hung; Fu, Ja-Wei; Yang, Huan-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a simple strategy to detect a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on a membrane-based lateral flow (MBLF) strip without tedious gel preparation, gel electrophoresis, and EtBr-staining processes. The method also enhances the detection signal of the genetic sample. A direct electric field was applied over two ends of the MBLF strips to induce an electrophoresis of DNAs through the strips. The signal enhancement was demonstrated by the detection of the H5 subtype of avian influenza virus (H5 AIV). This approach showed an excellent selectivity of H5 AIV from other two control species, Arabidopsis thaliana and human PSMA5. It also showed an effective signal repeatability and sensitivity over a series of analyte concentrations. Its detection limit could be enhanced, from 40 ng to 0.1 ng by applying 12 V. The nano-gold particles for the color development were labeled on the capture antibody, and UV-VIS and TEM were used to check if the labeling was successful. This detection strategy could be further developed to apply on the detection of drug-allergic genes at clinics or detection of infectious substances at incident sites by a simple manipulation with an aid of a mini-PCR machine and auxiliary kits. PMID:24603637

  10. Complete amino acid sequence and structure characterization of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Theerasilp, S; Hitotsuya, H; Nakajo, S; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1989-04-25

    The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of modifying sour taste into sweet taste. The complete amino acid sequence of miraculin purified from miracle fruits by a newly developed method (Theerasilp, S., and Kurihara, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11536-11539) was determined by an automatic Edman degradation method. Miraculin was a single polypeptide with 191 amino acid residues. The calculated molecular weight based on the amino acid sequence and the carbohydrate content (13.9%) was 24,600. Asn-42 and Asn-186 were linked N-glycosidically to carbohydrate chains. High homology was found between the amino acid sequences of miraculin and soybean trypsin inhibitor. PMID:2708331

  11. Amino acid sequence of Salmonella typhimurium branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Feild, M J; Nguyen, D C; Armstrong, F B

    1989-06-13

    The complete amino acid sequence of the subunit of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (transaminase B, EC 2.6.1.42) of Salmonella typhimurium was determined. An Escherichia coli recombinant containing the ilvGEDAY gene cluster of Salmonella was used as the source of the hexameric enzyme. The peptide fragments used for sequencing were generated by treatment with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, endoproteinase Lys-C, and cyanogen bromide. The enzyme subunit contains 308 residues and has a molecular weight of 33,920. To determine the coenzyme-binding site, the pyridoxal 5-phosphate containing enzyme was treated with tritiated sodium borohydride prior to trypsin digestion. Peptide map comparisons with an apoenzyme tryptic digest and monitoring radioactivity incorporation allowed identification of the pyridoxylated peptide, which was then isolated and sequenced. The coenzyme-binding site is the lysyl residue at position 159. The amino acid sequence of Salmonella transaminase B is 97.4% identical with that of Escherichia coli, differing in only eight amino acid positions. Sequence comparisons of transaminase B to other known aminotransferase sequences revealed limited sequence similarity (24-33%) when conserved amino acid substitutions are allowed and alignments were forced to occur on the coenzyme-binding site. PMID:2669973

  12. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Andrew M.; Dawson, John

    1993-01-01

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source.

  13. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: The structural analysis of protein sequences based on the quasi-amino acids code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Tang, Xu-Qing; Xu, Zhen-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics is the study of proteins and their interactions in a cell. With the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, it comes the postgenome era when the proteomics technology is emerging. This paper studies protein molecule from the algebraic point of view. The algebraic system (Σ, +, *) is introduced, where Σ is the set of 64 codons. According to the characteristics of (Σ, +, *), a novel quasi-amino acids code classification method is introduced and the corresponding algebraic operation table over the set ZU of the 16 kinds of quasi-amino acids is established. The internal relation is revealed about quasi-amino acids. The results show that there exist some very close correlations between the properties of the quasi-amino acids and the codon. All these correlation relationships may play an important part in establishing the logic relationship between codons and the quasi-amino acids during the course of life origination. According to Ma F et al (2003 J. Anhui Agricultural University 30 439), the corresponding relation and the excellent properties about amino acids code are very difficult to observe. The present paper shows that (ZU, ⊕, otimes) is a field. Furthermore, the operational results display that the codon tga has different property from other stop codons. In fact, in the mitochondrion from human and ox genomic codon, tga is just tryptophane, is not the stop codon like in other genetic code, it is the case of the Chen W C et al (2002 Acta Biophysica Sinica 18(1) 87). The present theory avoids some inexplicable events of the 20 kinds of amino acids code, in other words it solves the problem of 'the 64 codon assignments of mRNA to amino acids is probably completely wrong' proposed by Yang (2006 Progress in Modern Biomedicine 6 3).

  14. Conceptual Change and Science Achievement Related to a Lesson Sequence on Acids and Bases Among African American Alternative High School Students: A Teacher's Practical Arguments and the Voice of the "Other"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Lynda Charese

    The study of teaching and learning during the period of translating ideals of reform into classroom practice enables us to understand student-teacher-researcher symbiotic learning. In line with this assumption, the purpose of this study is threefold:(1) observe effects of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM), a conceptual change inquiry model of teaching and learning, on African American students' conceptual change and achievement; (2) observe the shift in teacher's practical arguments; and (3) narrate the voice of "the Other" about teacher professional learning. This study uses retrospective data from a mixed-method approach consisting of Phenomenography, practical arguments and story-telling. Data sources include audio-recordings of a chemistry teacher's individual interviews of her students' prior- and post-intervention conceptions of acids and bases; results of Acid-Base Achievement Test (ABA-T); video-recordings of a chemistry teacher's enactment of CKCM acid-base lesson sequence; audio-recordings of teacher-researcher reflective discourse using classroom video-clips; teacher interviews; and teacher and researcher personal reflective journals. Students' conceptual changes reflect change in the number of categories of description; shift in language use from everyday talk to chemical talk; and development of a hierarchy of chemical knowledge. ABA-T results indicated 17 students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher scores than 22 students in the control group taught by traditional teaching methods. The teacher-researcher reflective discourse about enactment of the CKCM acid-base lesson sequence reveals three major shifts in teacher practical arguments: teacher inadequate preparedness to adequate preparedness; lack of confidence to gain in confidence; and surface learning to deep learning. The developing story uncovers several aspects about teaching and learning of African American students: teacher caring for the uncared; cultivating

  15. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, R.J.; Pittman, D.D.; Toole, J.J.; Kriz, R.W.; Aldape, R.A.; Hewick, R.M.; Kaufman, R.J.; Mann, K.G.

    1987-07-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A)tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approx. 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approx. 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approx. 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues.

  16. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  17. Method for high-volume sequencing of nucleic acids: random and directed priming with libraries of oligonucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.

    1995-04-18

    Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient. 2 figs.

  18. Method for high-volume sequencing of nucleic acids: random and directed priming with libraries of oligonucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William

    1995-04-18

    Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient.

  19. Conversion of amino-acid sequence in proteins to classical music: search for auditory patterns

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    We have converted genome-encoded protein sequences into musical notes to reveal auditory patterns without compromising musicality. We derived a reduced range of 13 base notes by pairing similar amino acids and distinguishing them using variations of three-note chords and codon distribution to dictate rhythm. The conversion will help make genomic coding sequences more approachable for the general public, young children, and vision-impaired scientists. PMID:17477882

  20. Multimodal phylogeny for taxonomy: integrating information from nucleotide and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Bicego, Manuele; Dellaglio, Franco; Felis, Giovanna E

    2007-10-01

    The crucial role played by the analysis of microbial diversity in biotechnology-based innovations has increased the interest in the microbial taxonomy research area. Phylogenetic sequence analyses have contributed significantly to the advances in this field, also in the view of the large amount of sequence data collected in recent years. Phylogenetic analyses could be realized on the basis of protein-encoding nucleotide sequences or encoded amino acid molecules: these two mechanisms present different peculiarities, still starting from two alternative representations of the same information. This complementarity could be exploited to achieve a multimodal phylogenetic scheme that is able to integrate gene and protein information in order to realize a single final tree. This aspect has been poorly addressed in the literature. In this paper, we propose to integrate the two phylogenetic analyses using basic schemes derived from the multimodality fusion theory (or multiclassifier systems theory), a well-founded and rigorous branch for which its powerfulness has already been demonstrated in other pattern recognition contexts. The proposed approach could be applied to distance matrix-based phylogenetic techniques (like neighbor joining), resulting in a smart and fast method. The proposed methodology has been tested in a real case involving sequences of some species of lactic acid bacteria. With this dataset, both nucleotide sequence- and amino acid sequence-based phylogenetic analyses present some drawbacks, which are overcome with the multimodal analysis. PMID:17933011

  1. Amino acid sequence of the Amur tiger prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changde; Pang, Wanyong; Zhao, Deming

    2006-10-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in human and animal associated with conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathologic isoform (PrP(Sc)). Various data indicate that the polymorphisms within the open reading frame (ORF) of PrP are associated with the susceptibility and control the species barrier in prion diseases. In the present study, partial Prnp from 25 Amur tigers (tPrnp) were cloned and screened for polymorphisms. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (T423C, A501G, C511A, A610G) were found; the C511A and A610G nucleotide substitutions resulted in the amino acid changes Lysine171Glutamine and Alanine204Threoine, respectively. The tPrnp amino acid sequence is similar to house cat (Felis catus ) and sheep, but differs significantly from other two cat Prnp sequences that were previously deposited in GenBank. PMID:16780982

  2. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  3. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties.

    PubMed

    Fedic, Robert; Zurovec, Michal; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2003-09-12

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were sequenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). The amino acid repeats are species-specific, evidently a diversification of an ancestral region of 43 residues, and include three types of regularly dispersed motifs: modifications of GSSAASAA sequence, stretches of tripeptides GXZ where X and Z represent bulky residues, and sequences similar to PVIVIEE. No concatenations of GX dipeptide or alanine, which are typical for Bombyx silkworms and Antheraea silk moths, respectively, were found. Despite different repeat structure, the silks of G. mellonella and E. kuehniella exhibit similar tensile strength as the Bombyx and Antheraea silks. We suggest that in these latter two species, variations in the repeat length obstruct repeat alignment, but sufficiently long stretches of iterated residues get superposed to interact. In the pyralid H-fibroins, interactions of the widely separated and diverse motifs depend on the precision of repeat matching; silk is strong in G. mellonella and E. kuehniella, with 2-3 types of long homogeneous repeats, and nearly 10 times weaker in P. interpunctella, with seven types of shorter erratic repeats. The high proportion of large amino acids in the H-fibroin of pyralids has probably evolved in connection with the spinning habit of caterpillars that live in protective silk tubes and spin continuously, enlarging the tubes on one end and partly devouring the other one. The silk serves as a depot of energetically rich and essential amino acids that may be scarce in the diet. PMID:12816957

  4. Amino acid sequence of the nonsecretory ribonuclease of human urine.

    PubMed

    Beintema, J J; Hofsteenge, J; Iwama, M; Morita, T; Ohgi, K; Irie, M; Sugiyama, R H; Schieven, G L; Dekker, C A; Glitz, D G

    1988-06-14

    The amino acid sequence of a nonsecretory ribonuclease isolated from human urine was determined except for the identity of the residue at position 7. Sequence information indicates that the ribonucleases of human liver and spleen and an eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are identical or very closely related gene products. The sequence is identical at about 30% of the amino acid positions with those of all of the secreted mammalian ribonucleases for which information is available. Identical residues include active-site residues histidine-12, histidine-119, and lysine-41, other residues known to be important for substrate binding and catalytic activity, and all eight half-cystine residues common to these enzymes. Major differences include a deletion of six residues in the (so-called) S-peptide loop, insertions of two, and nine residues, respectively, in three other external loops of the molecule, and an addition of three residues at the amino terminus. The sequence shows the human nonsecretory ribonuclease to belong to the same ribonuclease superfamily as the mammalian secretory ribonucleases, turtle pancreatic ribonuclease, and human angiogenin. Sequence data suggest that a gene duplication occurred in an ancient vertebrate ancestor; one branch led to the nonsecretory ribonuclease, while the other branch led to a second duplication, with one line leading to the secretory ribonucleases (in mammals) and the second line leading to pancreatic ribonuclease in turtle and an angiogenic factor in mammals (human angiogenin). The nonsecretory ribonuclease has five short carbohydrate chains attached via asparagine residues at the surface of the molecule; these chains may have been shortened by exoglycosidase action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3166997

  5. Characterization and amino acid sequence of a fatty acid-binding protein from human heart.

    PubMed

    Offner, G D; Brecher, P; Sawlivich, W B; Costello, C E; Troxler, R F

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of a fatty acid-binding protein from human heart was determined by automated Edman degradation of CNBr, BNPS-skatole [3'-bromo-3-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulphenyl)indolenine], hydroxylamine, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, tryptic and chymotryptic peptides, and by digestion of the protein with carboxypeptidase A. The sequence of the blocked N-terminal tryptic peptide from citraconylated protein was determined by collisionally induced decomposition mass spectrometry. The protein contains 132 amino acid residues, is enriched with respect to threonine and lysine, lacks cysteine, has an acetylated valine residue at the N-terminus, and has an Mr of 14768 and an isoelectric point of 5.25. This protein contains two short internal repeated sequences from residues 48-54 and from residues 114-119 located within regions of predicted beta-structure and decreasing hydrophobicity. These short repeats are contained within two longer repeated regions from residues 48-60 and residues 114-125, which display 62% sequence similarity. These regions could accommodate the charged and uncharged moieties of long-chain fatty acids and may represent fatty acid-binding domains consistent with the finding that human heart fatty acid-binding protein binds 2 mol of oleate or palmitate/mol of protein. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the peptides has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50143 (23 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1988) 249, 5. PMID:3421901

  6. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Funk, C.D.; Radmark, O.; Hoeoeg, J.O.; Joernvall, H.; Samuelsson, B.

    1988-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.34), a Ca/sup 2 +/- and ATP-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of the peptidoleukotrienes and the chemotactic factor leukotriene B/sub 4/. A cDNA clone corresponding to 5-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody. Additional clones from a human placenta lambda gt11 cDNA library were obtained by plaque hybridization with the /sup 32/P-labeled lung cDNA clone. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicate that the composite DNAs contain the complete coding region for the enzyme. From the deduced primary structure, 5-lipoxygenase encodes a 673 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 77,839. Direct analysis of the native protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the deduced composition, the amino-terminal amino acid sequence, and the structure of many internal segments. 5-Lipoxygenase has no apparent sequence homology with leukotriene A/sub 4/ hydrolase or Ca/sup 2 +/-binding proteins. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of an mRNA species of approx. = 2700 nucleotides in leukocytes, lung, and placenta.

  7. Nucleic acid sequence detection using multiplexed oligonucleotide PCR

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott

    2006-12-26

    Methods for rapidly detecting single or multiple sequence alleles in a sample nucleic acid are described. Provided are all of the oligonucleotide pairs capable of annealing specifically to a target allele and discriminating among possible sequences thereof, and ligating to each other to form an oligonucleotide complex when a particular sequence feature is present (or, alternatively, absent) in the sample nucleic acid. The design of each oligonucleotide pair permits the subsequent high-level PCR amplification of a specific amplicon when the oligonucleotide complex is formed, but not when the oligonucleotide complex is not formed. The presence or absence of the specific amplicon is used to detect the allele. Detection of the specific amplicon may be achieved using a variety of methods well known in the art, including without limitation, oligonucleotide capture onto DNA chips or microarrays, oligonucleotide capture onto beads or microspheres, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Various labels and address-capture tags may be employed in the amplicon detection step of multiplexed assays, as further described herein.

  8. The amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Corran, P H; Waley, S G

    1975-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase was deduced by characterizing peptides that overlap the tryptic peptides. Thiol groups were modified by oxidation, carboxymethylation or aminoen. About 50 peptides that provided information about overlaps were isolated; the peptides were mostly characterized by their compositions and N-terminal residues. The peptide chains contain 248 amino acid residues, and no evidence for dissimilarity of the two subunits that comprise the native enzyme was found. The sequence of the rabbit muscle enzyme may be compared with that of the coelacanth enzyme (Kolb et al., 1974): 84% of the residues are in identical positions. Similarly, comparison of the sequence with that inferred for the chicken enzyme (Furth et al., 1974) shows that 87% of the residues are in identical positions. Limited though these comparisons are, they suggest that triose phosphate isomerase has one of the lowest rates of evolutionary change. An extended version of the present paper has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50040 (42 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division) (formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1171682

  9. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, A.M.; Dawson, J.

    1993-12-14

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source. 6 figures.

  10. Protein location prediction using atomic composition and global features of the amino acid sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Cherian, Betsy Sheena; Nair, Achuthsankar S.

    2010-01-22

    Subcellular location of protein is constructive information in determining its function, screening for drug candidates, vaccine design, annotation of gene products and in selecting relevant proteins for further studies. Computational prediction of subcellular localization deals with predicting the location of a protein from its amino acid sequence. For a computational localization prediction method to be more accurate, it should exploit all possible relevant biological features that contribute to the subcellular localization. In this work, we extracted the biological features from the full length protein sequence to incorporate more biological information. A new biological feature, distribution of atomic composition is effectively used with, multiple physiochemical properties, amino acid composition, three part amino acid composition, and sequence similarity for predicting the subcellular location of the protein. Support Vector Machines are designed for four modules and prediction is made by a weighted voting system. Our system makes prediction with an accuracy of 100, 82.47, 88.81 for self-consistency test, jackknife test and independent data test respectively. Our results provide evidence that the prediction based on the biological features derived from the full length amino acid sequence gives better accuracy than those derived from N-terminal alone. Considering the features as a distribution within the entire sequence will bring out underlying property distribution to a greater detail to enhance the prediction accuracy.

  11. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  12. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-02-15

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  13. Ab initio detection of fuzzy amino acid tandem repeats in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tandem repetitions within protein amino acid sequences often correspond to regular secondary structures and form multi-repeat 3D assemblies of varied size and function. Developing internal repetitions is one of the evolutionary mechanisms that proteins employ to adapt their structure and function under evolutionary pressure. While there is keen interest in understanding such phenomena, detection of repeating structures based only on sequence analysis is considered an arduous task, since structure and function is often preserved even under considerable sequence divergence (fuzzy tandem repeats). Results In this paper we present PTRStalker, a new algorithm for ab-initio detection of fuzzy tandem repeats in protein amino acid sequences. In the reported results we show that by feeding PTRStalker with amino acid sequences from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database we detect novel tandemly repeated structures not captured by other state-of-the-art tools. Experiments with membrane proteins indicate that PTRStalker can detect global symmetries in the primary structure which are then reflected in the tertiary structure. Conclusions PTRStalker is able to detect fuzzy tandem repeating structures in protein sequences, with performance beyond the current state-of-the art. Such a tool may be a valuable support to investigating protein structural properties when tertiary X-ray data is not available. PMID:22536906

  14. Amino acid sequence prerequisites for the formation of cn ions.

    PubMed

    Downard, K M; Biemann, K

    1993-11-01

    Ammo acid sequence prerequisites are described for the formation of c, ions observed in high-energy collision-induced decomposition spectra of peptides. It is shown that the formation of cn ions is promoted by the nature of the amino acid C-terminal to the cleavage site. A propensity for cn cleavage preceding threonine, and to a lesser extent tryptophan, lysine, and serine, is demonstrated where fragmentation is directed N-terminally at these residues. In addition, the nature of the residue N-terminal to the cleavage site is shown to have little effect on cn ion formation. A mechanism for cn ion formation is proposed and its applicability to the results observed is discussed. PMID:24227531

  15. Ultrasensitive nucleic acid sequence detection by single-molecule electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A; Shera, E.B.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year laboratory-directed research and development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There has been considerable interest in the development of very sensitive clinical diagnostic techniques over the last few years. Many pathogenic agents are often present in extremely small concentrations in clinical samples, especially at the initial stages of infection, making their detection very difficult. This project sought to develop a new technique for the detection and accurate quantification of specific bacterial and viral nucleic acid sequences in clinical samples. The scheme involved the use of novel hybridization probes for the detection of nucleic acids combined with our recently developed technique of single-molecule electrophoresis. This project is directly relevant to the DOE`s Defense Programs strategic directions in the area of biological warfare counter-proliferation.

  16. Multiple Sequence Alignment Based on Chaotic PSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiu-Juan; Sun, Jing-Jing; Ma, Qian-Zhi

    This paper introduces a new improved algorithm called chaotic PSO (CPSO) based on the thought of chaos optimization to solve multiple sequence alignment. For one thing, the chaotic variables are generated between 0 and 1 when initializing the population so that the particles are distributed uniformly in the solution space. For another thing, the chaotic sequences are generated using the Logistic mapping function in order to make chaotic search and strengthen the diversity of the population. The simulation results of several benchmark data sets of BAliBase show that the improved algorithm is effective and has good performances for the data sets with different similarity.

  17. Protein sequence analysis by incorporating modified chaos game and physicochemical properties into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunrui; Sun, Dandan; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Yusen

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution we introduced a novel graphical method to compare protein sequences. By mapping a protein sequence into 3D space based on codons and physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids, we are able to get a unique P-vector from the 3D curve. This approach is consistent with wobble theory of amino acids. We compute the distance between sequences by their P-vectors to measure similarities/dissimilarities among protein sequences. Finally, we use our method to analyze four datasets and get better results compared with previous approaches. PMID:27375218

  18. Human liver type pyruvate kinase: complete amino acid sequence and the expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tani, K; Fujii, H; Nagata, S; Miwa, S

    1988-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) has four isozymes (L, R, M1, M2) that are encoded by two different genes. Among these isozymes, abnormalities of liver (L)-type PK is considered to be associated with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in humans. We isolated and determined the full-length sequence of human L-type PK cDNA. The cDNA contains 1629 base pairs encoding 543 amino acids, 68 base pairs of 5'-noncoding sequence, and 734 base pairs of 3'-noncoding sequence. The similarity between human and rat L-type PK was 86.9% at the nucleotide sequence level and 92.4% at the amino acid sequence level. The full-length L-type PK cDNA was placed under the promoter of simian virus 40 and introduced into monkey COS cells. Human L-type PK activity was detected in the extract of COS cells by the classical PK electrophoresis method. Images PMID:3126495

  19. Human liver type pyruvate kinase: Complete amino acid sequence and the expression in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Kenzaburo; Nagata, Shigekazu ); Fujii, Hisaichi ); Miwa, Shiro )

    1988-03-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) has four isozymes (L, R, M{sub 1}, M{sub 2}) that are encoded by two different genes. Among these isozymes, abnormalities of liver (L)-type PK is considered to be associated with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in humans. The authors isolated and determined the full-length sequence of human L-type PK cDNA. The cDNA contains 1,629 base pairs encoding 543 amino acids, 68 base pairs of 5{prime}-noncoding sequence, and 734 base pairs of 3{prime}-noncoding sequence. The similarity between human and rat L-type PK was 86.9% at the nucleotide sequence level and 92.4% at the amino acid sequence level. The full-length L-type PK cDNA was placed under the promoter of simian virus 40 and introduced into monkey COS cells. Human L-type PK activity was detected in the extract of COS cells by the classical PK electrophoresis method.

  20. Evaluation of the NucliSens Basic Kit for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Genital Tract Specimens Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, J. B.; Song, X.; Chong, S.; Faught, M.; Salonga, T.; Kapala, J.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated a new RNA amplification and detection kit, the NucliSens Basic Kit (Organon Teknika), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genitourinary specimens. The Basic Kit provides an open platform for RNA amplification and detection and contains isolation reagents for nucleic acid extraction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reagents (enzymes and buffers), and a generic ruthenium-labeled probe for electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of amplified product. Using freshly purified and titrated stocks of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae and in vitro-generated RNA transcripts for sensitivity determinations, the Basic Kit detected 1 inclusion-forming unit of C. trachomatis, 1 CFU of N. gonorrhoeae, and 100 RNA molecules of 16S rRNA for both bacteria. The clinical performance of the Basic Kit was evaluated by testing a total of 250 specimens for N. gonorrhoeae by culture and NASBA and a total of 96 specimens for C. trachomatis by PCR and NASBA. The Basic Kit detected 139 of 142 N. gonorrhoeae culture-positive specimens and gave a negative result for 73 of 74 culture-negative specimens, for a sensitivity and specificity of 97.9 and 98.7%, respectively. For C. trachomatis, the Basic Kit detected 24 of 24 PCR-positive specimens and gave a negative result for 71 of 72 PCR-negative specimens, for a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 98.6%, respectively. The Basic Kit also detected specimens containing both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, using a multiplex NASBA assay using primers for both bacteria. The NucliSens Basic Kit offers a versatile platform for the development of sensitive RNA detection assays for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11283067

  1. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  2. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the sequence. (4) The enumeration of amino acids may start at the first amino acid of the first..., counting backwards starting with the amino acid next to number 1. Otherwise, the enumeration of amino acids... sequence every 5 amino acids. The enumeration method for amino acid sequences that is set forth......

  3. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the sequence. (4) The enumeration of amino acids may start at the first amino acid of the first..., counting backwards starting with the amino acid next to number 1. Otherwise, the enumeration of amino acids... sequence every 5 amino acids. The enumeration method for amino acid sequences that is set forth......

  4. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in the sequence. (4) The enumeration of amino acids may start at the first amino acid of the first..., counting backwards starting with the amino acid next to number 1. Otherwise, the enumeration of amino acids... sequence every 5 amino acids. The enumeration method for amino acid sequences that is set forth......

  5. ANTICALIgN: visualizing, editing and analyzing combined nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments for combinatorial protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Jarasch, Alexander; Kopp, Melanie; Eggenstein, Evelyn; Richter, Antonia; Gebauer, Michaela; Skerra, Arne

    2016-07-01

    ANTIC ALIGN: is an interactive software developed to simultaneously visualize, analyze and modify alignments of DNA and/or protein sequences that arise during combinatorial protein engineering, design and selection. ANTIC ALIGN: combines powerful functions known from currently available sequence analysis tools with unique features for protein engineering, in particular the possibility to display and manipulate nucleotide sequences and their translated amino acid sequences at the same time. ANTIC ALIGN: offers both template-based multiple sequence alignment (MSA), using the unmutated protein as reference, and conventional global alignment, to compare sequences that share an evolutionary relationship. The application of similarity-based clustering algorithms facilitates the identification of duplicates or of conserved sequence features among a set of selected clones. Imported nucleotide sequences from DNA sequence analysis are automatically translated into the corresponding amino acid sequences and displayed, offering numerous options for selecting reading frames, highlighting of sequence features and graphical layout of the MSA. The MSA complexity can be reduced by hiding the conserved nucleotide and/or amino acid residues, thus putting emphasis on the relevant mutated positions. ANTIC ALIGN: is also able to handle suppressed stop codons or even to incorporate non-natural amino acids into a coding sequence. We demonstrate crucial functions of ANTIC ALIGN: in an example of Anticalins selected from a lipocalin random library against the fibronectin extradomain B (ED-B), an established marker of tumor vasculature. Apart from engineered protein scaffolds, ANTIC ALIGN: provides a powerful tool in the area of antibody engineering and for directed enzyme evolution. PMID:27261456

  6. Characterization of the microbial acid mine drainage microbial community using culturing and direct sequencing techniques.

    PubMed

    Auld, Ryan R; Myre, Maxine; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Leduc, Leo G; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2013-05-01

    We characterized the bacterial community from an AMD tailings pond using both classical culturing and modern direct sequencing techniques and compared the two methods. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is produced by the environmental and microbial oxidation of minerals dissolved from mining waste. Surprisingly, we know little about the microbial communities associated with AMD, despite the fundamental ecological roles of these organisms and large-scale economic impact of these waste sites. AMD microbial communities have classically been characterized by laboratory culturing-based techniques and more recently by direct sequencing of marker gene sequences, primarily the 16S rRNA gene. In our comparison of the techniques, we find that their results are complementary, overall indicating very similar community structure with similar dominant species, but with each method identifying some species that were missed by the other. We were able to culture the majority of species that our direct sequencing results indicated were present, primarily species within the Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium genera, although estimates of relative species abundance were only obtained from direct sequencing. Interestingly, our culture-based methods recovered four species that had been overlooked from our sequencing results because of the rarity of the marker gene sequences, likely members of the rare biosphere. Further, direct sequencing indicated that a single genus, completely missed in our culture-based study, Legionella, was a dominant member of the microbial community. Our results suggest that while either method does a reasonable job of identifying the dominant members of the AMD microbial community, together the methods combine to give a more complete picture of the true diversity of this environment. PMID:23485423

  7. Nucleotide sequence of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of the mesophilic yeast phosphoglycerate kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, D; Littlechild, J A; Fothergill, J E; Watson, H C; Hall, L

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide probes derived from amino acid sequencing information, the structural gene for phosphoglycerate kinase from the extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus, was cloned in Escherichia coli and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. The gene consists of an open reading frame corresponding to a protein of 390 amino acid residues (calculated Mr 41,791) with an extreme bias for G or C (93.1%) in the codon third base position. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of the corresponding mesophilic yeast enzyme indicated a number of significant differences. These are discussed in terms of the unusual codon bias and their possible role in enhanced protein thermal stability. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3052437

  8. Partition enrichment of nucleotide sequences (PINS)--a generally applicable, sequence based method for enrichment of complex DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Thomas; Sondt-Marcussen, Line; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2014-01-01

    The dwindling cost of DNA sequencing is driving transformative changes in various biological disciplines including medicine, thus resulting in an increased need for routine sequencing. Preparation of samples suitable for sequencing is the starting point of any practical application, but enrichment of the target sequence over background DNA is often laborious and of limited sensitivity thereby limiting the usefulness of sequencing. The present paper describes a new method, Probability directed Isolation of Nucleic acid Sequences (PINS), for enrichment of DNA, enabling the sequencing of a large DNA region surrounding a small known sequence. A 275,000 fold enrichment of a target DNA sample containing integrated human papilloma virus is demonstrated. Specifically, a sample containing 0.0028 copies of target sequence per ng of total DNA was enriched to 786 copies per ng. The starting concentration of 0.0028 target copies per ng corresponds to one copy of target in a background of 100,000 complete human genomes. The enriched sample was subsequently amplified using rapid genome walking and the resulting DNA sequence revealed not only the sequence of a the truncated virus, but also 1026 base pairs 5' and 50 base pairs 3' to the integration site in chromosome 8. The demonstrated enrichment method is extremely sensitive and selective and requires only minimal knowledge of the sequence to be enriched and will therefore enable sequencing where the target concentration relative to background is too low to allow the use of other sample preparation methods or where significant parts of the target sequence is unknown. PMID:25203653

  9. Partition Enrichment of Nucleotide Sequences (PINS) - A Generally Applicable, Sequence Based Method for Enrichment of Complex DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, Thomas; Sondt-Marcussen, Line; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2014-01-01

    The dwindling cost of DNA sequencing is driving transformative changes in various biological disciplines including medicine, thus resulting in an increased need for routine sequencing. Preparation of samples suitable for sequencing is the starting point of any practical application, but enrichment of the target sequence over background DNA is often laborious and of limited sensitivity thereby limiting the usefulness of sequencing. The present paper describes a new method, Probability directed Isolation of Nucleic acid Sequences (PINS), for enrichment of DNA, enabling the sequencing of a large DNA region surrounding a small known sequence. A 275,000 fold enrichment of a target DNA sample containing integrated human papilloma virus is demonstrated. Specifically, a sample containing 0.0028 copies of target sequence per ng of total DNA was enriched to 786 copies per ng. The starting concentration of 0.0028 target copies per ng corresponds to one copy of target in a background of 100,000 complete human genomes. The enriched sample was subsequently amplified using rapid genome walking and the resulting DNA sequence revealed not only the sequence of a the truncated virus, but also 1026 base pairs 5′ and 50 base pairs 3′ to the integration site in chromosome 8. The demonstrated enrichment method is extremely sensitive and selective and requires only minimal knowledge of the sequence to be enriched and will therefore enable sequencing where the target concentration relative to background is too low to allow the use of other sample preparation methods or where significant parts of the target sequence is unknown. PMID:25203653

  10. A repetitive sequence assembler based on next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lian, S; Tu, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive sequences of variable length are common in almost all eukaryotic genomes, and most of them are presumed to have important biomedical functions and can cause genomic instability. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide the possibility of identifying capturing these repetitive sequences directly from the NGS data. In this study, we assessed the performances in identifying capturing repeats of leading assemblers, such as Velvet, SOAPdenovo, SGA, MSR-CA, Bambus2, ALLPATHS-LG, and AByss using three real NGS datasets. Our results indicated that most of them performed poorly in capturing the repeats. Consequently, we proposed a repetitive sequence assembler, named NGSReper, for capturing repeats from NGS data. Simulated datasets were used to validate the feasibility of NGSReper. The results indicate that the completeness of capturing repeat is up to 99%. Cross validation was performed in three real NGS datasets, and extensive comparisons indicate that NGSReper performed best in terms of completeness and accuracy in capturing repeats. In conclusion, NGSReper is an appropriate and suitable tool for capturing repeats directly from NGS data. PMID:27525861

  11. Structural gene and complete amino acid sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, J; Yamamoto, S; Morihara, K; Atsumi, Y; Takeuchi, H; Kawamoto, S; Okuda, K

    1989-01-01

    The DNA encoding the elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. When the cloned gene was ligated to pUC18, the Escherichia coli expression vector, bacteria carrying the gene exhibited high levels of both elastase activity and elastase antigens. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature elastase consisted of 301 amino acids with a relative molecular mass of 32,926 daltons. The amino acid composition predicted from the DNA sequence was quite similar to the chemically determined composition of purified elastase reported previously. We also observed nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide and "pro" sequence consisting of 197 amino acids upstream from the mature elastase protein gene. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that both the N-terminal sequence of the purified elastase and the N-terminal side sequences of the C-terminal tryptic peptide as well as the internal lysyl peptide fragment were completely identical to the deduced amino acid sequences. The pattern of identity of amino acid sequences was quite evident in the regions that include structurally and functionally important residues of Bacillus subtilis thermolysin. PMID:2493453

  12. Repeat-based Sequence Typing of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Abdur; El Kheir, Sara M; Back, Alexandre; Mangavel, Cécile; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Borges, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a Lactic Acid Bacterium (LAB) of technological interest for the food industry, especially the dairy as bioprotection and ripening flora. The industrial use of this LAB requires accurate and resolutive typing tools. A new typing method for C. maltaromaticum inspired from MLVA analysis and called Repeat-based Sequence Typing (RST) is described. Rather than electrophoresis analysis, our RST method is based on sequence analysis of multiple loci containing Variable-Number Tandem-Repeats (VNTRs). The method described here for C. maltaromaticum relies on the analysis of three VNTR loci, and was applied to a collection of 24 strains. For each strain, a PCR product corresponding to the amplification of each VNTR loci was sequenced. Sequence analysis allowed delineating 11, 11, and 12 alleles for loci VNTR-A, VNTR-B, and VNTR-C, respectively. Considering the allele combination exhibited by each strain allowed defining 15 genotypes, ending in a discriminatory index of 0.94. Comparison with MLST revealed that both methods were complementary for strain typing in C. maltaromaticum. PMID:26998709

  13. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1996. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Foley, B.; Korber, B.; Mellors, J.W.; Jeang, K.T.; Wain-Hobson, S.

    1997-04-01

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) Nuclear Acid Alignments and Sequences; (2) Amino Acid Alignments; (3) Analysis; (4) Related Sequences; and (5) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. In addition to the general descriptions of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  14. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Alexander; Wincker, Patrick; Mauger, Stéphane; Jaillon, Olivier; Malarme, Karine; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2001-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire genome and a shotgun polishing step. The genome contains 2,365,589 base pairs and encodes 2310 proteins, including 293 protein-coding genes belonging to six prophages and 43 insertion sequence (IS) elements. Nonrandom distribution of IS elements indicates that the chromosome of the sequenced strain may be a product of recent recombination between two closely related genomes. A complete set of late competence genes is present, indicating the ability of L. lactis to undergo DNA transformation. Genomic sequence revealed new possibilities for fermentation pathways and for aerobic respiration. It also indicated a horizontal transfer of genetic information from Lactococcus to gram-negative enteric bacteria of Salmonella-Escherichia group. [The sequence data described in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AE005176.] PMID:11337471

  15. Quick identification of acetic acid bacteria based on nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and of the PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Trcek, Janja

    2005-10-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known for oxidizing different ethanol-containing substrates into various types of vinegar. They are also used for production of some biotechnologically important products, such as sorbose and gluconic acids. However, their presence is not always appreciated since certain species also spoil wine, juice, beer and fruits. To be able to follow AAB in all these processes, the species involved must be identified accurately and quickly. Because of inaccuracy and very time-consuming phenotypic analysis of AAB, the application of molecular methods is necessary. Since the pairwise comparison among the 16S rRNA gene sequences of AAB shows very high similarity (up to 99.9%) other DNA-targets should be used. Our previous studies showed that the restriction analysis of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer region is a suitable approach for quick affiliation of an acetic acid bacterium to a distinct group of restriction types and also for quick identification of a potentially novel species of acetic acid bacterium (Trcek & Teuber 2002; Trcek 2002). However, with the exception of two conserved genes, encoding tRNAIle and tRNAAla, the sequences of 16S-23S rDNA are highly divergent among AAB species. For this reason we analyzed in this study a gene encoding PQQ-dependent ADH as a possible DNA-target. First we confirmed the expression of subunit I of PQQ-dependent ADH (AdhA) also in Asaia, the only genus of AAB which exhibits little or no ADH-activity. Further we analyzed the partial sequences of adhA among some representative species of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The conserved and variable regions in these sequences made possible the construction of A. acetispecific oligonucleotide the specificity of which was confirmed in PCR-reaction using 45 well-defined strains of AAB as DNA-templates. The primer was also successfully used in direct identification of A. aceti from home made cider vinegar as well as for

  16. Natural vs. random protein sequences: Discovering combinatorics properties on amino acid words.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Daniele; Felici, Giovanni; Vergni, Davide

    2016-02-21

    Casual mutations and natural selection have driven the evolution of protein amino acid sequences that we observe at present in nature. The question about which is the dominant force of proteins evolution is still lacking of an unambiguous answer. Casual mutations tend to randomize protein sequences while, in order to have the correct functionality, one expects that selection mechanisms impose rigid constraints on amino acid sequences. Moreover, one also has to consider that the space of all possible amino acid sequences is so astonishingly large that it could be reasonable to have a well tuned amino acid sequence indistinguishable from a random one. In order to study the possibility to discriminate between random and natural amino acid sequences, we introduce different measures of association between pairs of amino acids in a sequence, and apply them to a dataset of 1047 natural protein sequences and 10,470 random sequences, carefully generated in order to preserve the relative length and amino acid distribution of the natural proteins. We analyze the multidimensional measures with machine learning techniques and show that, to a reasonable extent, natural protein sequences can be differentiated from random ones. PMID:26656109

  17. Entamoeba histolytica: observations on metabolism based on thegenome sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain J.; Loftus, Brendan J.

    2005-07-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Entamoeba histolytica has allowed a reconstruction of its metabolic pathways, many of which are unusual for a eukaryote. Based on the genome sequence, it appears that amino acids may play a larger role than previously thought in energy metabolism, with roles in both ATP synthesis and NAD regeneration. Arginine decarboxylase may be involved in survival of E. histolytica during its passage through the stomach. The usual pyrimidine synthesis pathway is absent, but a partial pyrimidine degradation pathway could be part of a novel pyrimidine synthesis pathway. Ribonucleotide reductase was not found in the E. histolytica genome, but it was found in the close relatives Entamoeba invadens and Entamoeba moshkovskii, suggesting a recent loss from E. histolytica. The usual eukaryotic glucose transporters are not present, but members of a prokaryotic monosaccharide transporter family are present.

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  20. Nanopore-Based Target Sequence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Trevor J.; Shropshire, Tyler; Liu, Xu; Briggs, Kyle; Huynh, Cindy; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Wang, Hongyun; Dunbar, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of portable diagnostic devices relies on three basic requirements: comparable sensitivity to established platforms, inexpensive manufacturing and cost of operations, and the ability to survive rugged field conditions. Solid state nanopores can meet all these requirements, but to achieve high manufacturing yields at low costs, assays must be tolerant to fabrication imperfections and to nanopore enlargement during operation. This paper presents a model for molecular engineering techniques that meets these goals with the aim of detecting target sequences within DNA. In contrast to methods that require precise geometries, we demonstrate detection using a range of pore geometries. As a result, our assay model tolerates any pore-forming method and in-situ pore enlargement. Using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes modified for conjugation with synthetic bulk-adding molecules, pores ranging 15-50 nm in diameter are shown to detect individual PNA-bound DNA. Detection of the CFTRΔF508 gene mutation, a codon deletion responsible for ∼66% of all cystic fibrosis chromosomes, is demonstrated with a 26-36 nm pore size range by using a size-enhanced PNA probe. A mathematical framework for assessing the statistical significance of detection is also presented. PMID:27149679

  1. Matrix genes of measles virus and canine distemper virus: cloning, nucleotide sequences, and deduced amino acid sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, W J; Englund, G; Richardson, C D; Rozenblatt, S; Lazzarini, R A

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences encoding the matrix (M) proteins of measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) were determined from cDNA clones containing these genes in their entirety. In both cases, single open reading frames specifying basic proteins of 335 amino acid residues were predicted from the nucleotide sequences. Both viral messages were composed of approximately 1,450 nucleotides and contained 400 nucleotides of presumptive noncoding sequences at their respective 3' ends. MV and CDV M-protein-coding regions were 67% homologous at the nucleotide level and 76% homologous at the amino acid level. Only chance homology was observed in the 400-nucleotide trailer sequences. Comparisons of the M protein sequences of MV and CDV with the sequence reported for Sendai virus (B. M. Blumberg, K. Rose, M. G. Simona, L. Roux, C. Giorgi, and D. Kolakofsky, J. Virol. 52:656-663; Y. Hidaka, T. Kanda, K. Iwasaki, A. Nomoto, T. Shioda, and H. Shibuta, Nucleic Acids Res. 12:7965-7973) indicated the greatest homology among these M proteins in the carboxyterminal third of the molecule. Secondary-structure analyses of this shared region indicated a structurally conserved, hydrophobic sequence which possibly interacted with the lipid bilayer. Images PMID:3754588

  2. Use of an Acid-Base Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Grover; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identifies several ways in which an acid-base table can provide students with information about chemical reactions. Cites examples of the chart's use and includes a table which indicates the strengths of some common acids and bases. (ML)

  3. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using a bifunctional hybridization probe

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detecting and isolating a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids is provided using a bifunctional hybridization probe capable of hybridizing to the target sequence that includes a detectable marker and a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent. A kit is also provided for detecting a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids using a bifunctional hybridization probe according to this method.

  4. Predicting protein-protein interactions based only on sequences information.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juwen; Zhang, Jian; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Yu, Kunqian; Chen, Kaixian; Li, Yixue; Jiang, Hualiang

    2007-03-13

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are central to most biological processes. Although efforts have been devoted to the development of methodology for predicting PPIs and protein interaction networks, the application of most existing methods is limited because they need information about protein homology or the interaction marks of the protein partners. In the present work, we propose a method for PPI prediction using only the information of protein sequences. This method was developed based on a learning algorithm-support vector machine combined with a kernel function and a conjoint triad feature for describing amino acids. More than 16,000 diverse PPI pairs were used to construct the universal model. The prediction ability of our approach is better than that of other sequence-based PPI prediction methods because it is able to predict PPI networks. Different types of PPI networks have been effectively mapped with our method, suggesting that, even with only sequence information, this method could be applied to the exploration of networks for any newly discovered protein with unknown biological relativity. In addition, such supplementary experimental information can enhance the prediction ability of the method. PMID:17360525

  5. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  6. Mining frequent biological sequences based on bitmap without candidate sequence generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Davis, Darryl N; Ren, Jiadong

    2016-02-01

    Biological sequences carry a lot of important genetic information of organisms. Furthermore, there is an inheritance law related to protein function and structure which is useful for applications such as disease prediction. Frequent sequence mining is a core technique for association rule discovery, but existing algorithms suffer from low efficiency or poor error rate because biological sequences differ from general sequences with more characteristics. In this paper, an algorithm for mining Frequent Biological Sequence based on Bitmap, FBSB, is proposed. FBSB uses bitmaps as the simple data structure and transforms each row into a quicksort list QS-list for sequence growth. For the continuity and accuracy requirement of biological sequence mining, tested sequences used during the mining process of FBSB are real ones instead of generated candidates, and all the frequent sequences can be mined without any errors. Comparing with other algorithms, the experimental results show that FBSB can achieve a better performance on both run time and scalability. PMID:26773937

  7. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  8. Will my protein crystallize? A sequence-based predictor.

    PubMed

    Smialowski, Pawel; Schmidt, Thorsten; Cox, Jürgen; Kirschner, Andreas; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2006-02-01

    We propose a machine-learning approach to sequence-based prediction of protein crystallizability in which we exploit subtle differences between proteins whose structures were solved by X-ray analysis [or by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy] and those proteins whose structures were solved by NMR spectroscopy alone. Because the NMR technique is usually applied on relatively small proteins, sequence length distributions of the X-ray and NMR datasets were adjusted to avoid predictions biased by protein size. As feature space for classification, we used frequencies of mono-, di-, and tripeptides represented by the original 20-letter amino acid alphabet as well as by several reduced alphabets in which amino acids were grouped by their physicochemical and structural properties. The classification algorithm was constructed as a two-layered structure in which the output of primary support vector machine classifiers operating on peptide frequencies was combined by a second-level Naive Bayes classifier. Due to the application of metamethods for cost sensitivity, our method is able to handle real datasets with unbalanced class representation. An overall prediction accuracy of 67% [65% on the positive (crystallizable) and 69% on the negative (noncrystallizable) class] was achieved in a 10-fold cross-validation experiment, indicating that the proposed algorithm may be a valuable tool for more efficient target selection in structural genomics. A Web server for protein crystallizability prediction called SECRET is available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de:8080/secret. PMID:16315316

  9. Detection of Nucleic Acids with Graphene Nanopores: Ab Initio Characterization of a Novel Sequencing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Tammie; Zhang, Bo; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2010-03-01

    We report an ab initio study of the interaction of two nucleobases, cytosine and adenine, with a novel graphene nanopore device for detecting the base sequence of a single-stranded nucleic acid (ssDNA or RNA). The nucleobases were inserted into a pore in a graphene nanoribbon, and the electrical current and conductance spectra were calculated as functions of voltage applied across the nanoribbon. The conductance spectra and charge densities were analyzed in the presence of each nucleobase in the graphene nanopore. The results indicate that, due to significant differences in the conductance spectra, the proposed device has adequate sensitivity to discriminate between different nucleotides. Moreover, we show that the nucleotide conductance spectra is not affected by its orientation inside the graphene nanopore. The proposed technique may be extremely useful for real applications in developing ultrafast, low cost DNA sequencing methods.

  10. Partial amino acid sequence of human factor D:homology with serine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Volanakis, J E; Bhown, A; Bennett, J C; Mole, J E

    1980-01-01

    Human factor D purified to homogeneity by a modified procedure was subjected to NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis by using a modified automated Beckman sequencer. We identified 48 of the first 57 NH2-terminal amino acids in a single sequencer run, using microgram quantities of factor D. The deduced amino acid sequence represents approximately 25% of the primary structure of factor D. This extended NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of factor D was compared to that of other trypsin-related serine proteases. By visual inspection, strong homologies (33--50% identity) were observed with all the serine proteases included in the comparison. Interestingly, factor D showed a higher degree of homology to serine proteases of pancreatic origin than to those of serum origin. Images PMID:6987665

  11. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  12. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

    PubMed

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G; Baylis, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  13. Amino acid sequence of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Goodson, John; Beckstead, Robert B; Payne, Jason; Singh, Rakesh K; Mohan, Anand

    2015-08-15

    Myoglobin has an important physiological role in vertebrates, and as the primary sarcoplasmic pigment in meat, influences quality perception and consumer acceptability. In this study, the amino acid sequences of Japanese quail and northern bobwhite myoglobin were deduced by cDNA cloning of the coding sequence from mRNA. Japanese quail myoglobin was isolated from quail cardiac muscles, purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel-filtration, and subjected to multiple enzymatic digestions. Mass spectrometry corroborated the deduced protein amino acid sequence at the protein level. Sequence analysis revealed both species' myoglobin structures consist of 153 amino acids, differing at only three positions. When compared with chicken myoglobin, Japanese quail showed 98% sequence identity, and northern bobwhite 97% sequence identity. The myoglobin in both quail species contained eight histidine residues instead of the nine present in chicken and turkey. PMID:25794748

  14. Semiconductor-based DNA sequencing of histone modification states.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christine S; Rai, Kunal; Garber, Manuel; Hollinger, Andrew; Robbins, Dana; Anderson, Scott; Macbeth, Alyssa; Tzou, Austin; Carneiro, Mauricio O; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Russ, Carsten; Hacohen, Nir; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Lennon, Niall; Nusbaum, Chad; Chin, Lynda; Regev, Aviv; Amit, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of a semiconductor-based, non-optical DNA sequencing technology promises scalable, low-cost and rapid sequence data production. The technology has previously been applied mainly to genomic sequencing and targeted re-sequencing. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ion Torrent semiconductor-based sequencing for sensitive, efficient and rapid chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) through the application of sample preparation methods that are optimized for ChIP-seq on the Ion Torrent platform. We leverage this method for epigenetic profiling of tumour tissues. PMID:24157732

  15. Semiconductor-based DNA sequencing of histone modification states

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christine S.; Rai, Kunal; Garber, Manuel; Hollinger, Andrew; Robbins, Dana; Anderson, Scott; Macbeth, Alyssa; Tzou, Austin; Carneiro, Mauricio O.; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Russ, Carsten; Hacohen, Nir; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Lennon, Niall; Nusbaum, Chad; Chin, Lynda; Regev, Aviv; Amit, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of a semiconductor-based, non-optical DNA sequencing technology promises scalable, low-cost and rapid sequence data production. The technology has previously been applied mainly to genomic sequencing and targeted re-sequencing. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ion Torrent semiconductor-based sequencing for sensitive, efficient and rapid chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) through the application of sample preparation methods that are optimized for ChIP-seq on the Ion Torrent platform. We leverage this method for epigenetic profiling of tumour tissues. PMID:24157732

  16. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W

    1995-01-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793937

  17. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration.

  18. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-03-24

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. 14 figs.

  19. Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Lange, Bernd Markus; McCaskill, David G.

    2001-01-01

    cDNAs encoding 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7) are provided which code for the expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from plants. In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, or its derivatives such as isopentenyl diphosphate (BP), or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase, or the production of its products.

  20. The amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J

    1985-01-01

    Protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It comprises 65 amino acids including eight half-cystines. The complete amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 has been elucidated. The sequence (residues 1-50) resembles that of the N-terminal sequence of the subunits of a synergistic type protein and residues 51-65 that of the C-terminal sequence of an angusticeps type protein. Mixtures of protein CM-3 and angusticeps type proteins showed no apparent synergistic effect, in that their toxicity in combination was no greater than the sum of their individual toxicities. PMID:4029488

  1. Local alignment of two-base encoded DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Nils; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stanley F

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA sequence comparison is based on optimal local alignment of two sequences using a similarity score. However, some new DNA sequencing technologies do not directly measure the base sequence, but rather an encoded form, such as the two-base encoding considered here. In order to compare such data to a reference sequence, the data must be decoded into sequence. The decoding is deterministic, but the possibility of measurement errors requires searching among all possible error modes and resulting alignments to achieve an optimal balance of fewer errors versus greater sequence similarity. Results We present an extension of the standard dynamic programming method for local alignment, which simultaneously decodes the data and performs the alignment, maximizing a similarity score based on a weighted combination of errors and edits, and allowing an affine gap penalty. We also present simulations that demonstrate the performance characteristics of our two base encoded alignment method and contrast those with standard DNA sequence alignment under the same conditions. Conclusion The new local alignment algorithm for two-base encoded data has substantial power to properly detect and correct measurement errors while identifying underlying sequence variants, and facilitating genome re-sequencing efforts based on this form of sequence data. PMID:19508732

  2. Multiple Amino Acid Sequence Alignment Nitrogenase Component 1: Insights into Phylogenetics and Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Howard, James B.; Kechris, Katerina J.; Rees, Douglas C.; Glazer, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid residues critical for a protein's structure-function are retained by natural selection and these residues are identified by the level of variance in co-aligned homologous protein sequences. The relevant residues in the nitrogen fixation Component 1 α- and β-subunits were identified by the alignment of 95 protein sequences. Proteins were included from species encompassing multiple microbial phyla and diverse ecological niches as well as the nitrogen fixation genotypes, anf, nif, and vnf, which encode proteins associated with cofactors differing at one metal site. After adjusting for differences in sequence length, insertions, and deletions, the remaining >85% of the sequence co-aligned the subunits from the three genotypes. Six Groups, designated Anf, Vnf , and Nif I-IV, were assigned based upon genetic origin, sequence adjustments, and conserved residues. Both subunits subdivided into the same groups. Invariant and single variant residues were identified and were defined as “core” for nitrogenase function. Three species in Group Nif-III, Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii, and Thermodesulfatator indicus, were found to have a seleno-cysteine that replaces one cysteinyl ligand of the 8Fe:7S, P-cluster. Subsets of invariant residues, limited to individual groups, were identified; these unique residues help identify the gene of origin (anf, nif, or vnf) yet should not be considered diagnostic of the metal content of associated cofactors. Fourteen of the 19 residues that compose the cofactor pocket are invariant or single variant; the other five residues are highly variable but do not correlate with the putative metal content of the cofactor. The variable residues are clustered on one side of the cofactor, away from other functional centers in the three dimensional structure. Many of the invariant and single variant residues were not previously recognized as potentially critical and their identification provides the bases

  3. The Chinese hamster Alu-equivalent sequence: a conserved highly repetitious, interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in mammals has a structure suggestive of a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Toomey, T P; Leinwand, L; Jelinek, W R

    1981-01-01

    A consensus sequence has been determined for a major interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid repeat in the genome of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells). This sequence is extensively homologous to (i) the human Alu sequence (P. L. Deininger et al., J. Mol. Biol., in press), (ii) the mouse B1 interspersed repetitious sequence (Krayev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1201-1215, 1980) (iii) an interspersed repetitious sequence from African green monkey deoxyribonucleic acid (Dhruva et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:4514-4518, 1980) and (iv) the CHO and mouse 4.5S ribonucleic acid (this report; F. Harada and N. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1273-1285, 1980). Because the CHO consensus sequence shows significant homology to the human Alu sequence it is termed the CHO Alu-equivalent sequence. A conserved structure surrounding CHO Alu-equivalent family members can be recognized. It is similar to that surrounding the human Alu and the mouse B1 sequences, and is represented as follows: direct repeat-CHO-Alu-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. A composite interspersed repetitious sequence has been identified. Its structure is represented as follows: direct repeat-residue 47 to 107 of CHO-Alu-non-Alu repetitious sequence-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. Because the Alu flanking sequences resemble those that flank known transposable elements, we think it likely that the Alu sequence dispersed throughout the mammalian genome by transposition. Images PMID:9279371

  4. PLAN-IT - Knowledge-based mission sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.

    1987-01-01

    PLAN-IT (Plan-Integrated Timelines), a knowledge-based approach to assist in mission sequencing, is discussed. PLAN-IT uses a large set of scheduling techniques known as strategies to develop and maintain a mission sequence. The approach implemented by PLAN-IT and the current applications of PLAN-IT for sequencing at NASA are reported.

  5. Simulation-Based Evaluation of Learning Sequences for Instructional Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Instructional technologies critically depend on systematic design, and learning hierarchies are a commonly advocated tool for designing instructional sequences. But hierarchies routinely allow numerous sequences and choosing an optimal sequence remains an unsolved problem. This study explores a simulation-based approach to modeling learning…

  6. Integrating alignment-based and alignment-free sequence similarity measures for biological sequence classification

    PubMed Central

    Borozan, Ivan; Watt, Stuart; Ferretti, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Alignment-based sequence similarity searches, while accurate for some type of sequences, can produce incorrect results when used on more divergent but functionally related sequences that have undergone the sequence rearrangements observed in many bacterial and viral genomes. Here, we propose a classification model that exploits the complementary nature of alignment-based and alignment-free similarity measures with the aim to improve the accuracy with which DNA and protein sequences are characterized. Results: Our model classifies sequences using a combined sequence similarity score calculated by adaptively weighting the contribution of different sequence similarity measures. Weights are determined independently for each sequence in the test set and reflect the discriminatory ability of individual similarity measures in the training set. Because the similarity between some sequences is determined more accurately with one type of measure rather than another, our classifier allows different sets of weights to be associated with different sequences. Using five different similarity measures, we show that our model significantly improves the classification accuracy over the current composition- and alignment-based models, when predicting the taxonomic lineage for both short viral sequence fragments and complete viral sequences. We also show that our model can be used effectively for the classification of reads from a real metagenome dataset as well as protein sequences. Availability and implementation: All the datasets and the code used in this study are freely available at https://collaborators.oicr.on.ca/vferretti/borozan_csss/csss.html. Contact: ivan.borozan@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25573913

  7. Computer Simulation of the Determination of Amino Acid Sequences in Polypeptides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubert, Stephen D.; Sontum, Stephen F.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a computer program that generates a random string of amino acids and guides the student in determining the correct sequence of a given protein by using experimental analytic data for that protein. (MLH)

  8. The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Matsumoto, T; Torikata, T

    1998-10-01

    The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity were analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had one amino acid substitution at position 102 (Arg to Gly) comparing with Indian peafowl lysozyme and four amino acid substitutions at positions 3 (Phe to Tyr), 15 (His to Leu), 41 (Gln to His), and 121 (Gln to His) with chicken lysozyme. Analysis of the time-courses of reaction using N-acetylglucosamine pentamer as a substrate showed a difference of binding free energy change (-0.4 kcal/mol) at subsites A between monal pheasant and Indian peafowl lysozyme. This was assumed to be caused by the amino acid substitution at subsite A with loss of a positive charge at position 102 (Arg102 to Gly). PMID:9836434

  9. cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of myoglobins from nine species of whales and dolphins.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, Kentaro; Mita, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Tadasu; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2006-10-01

    We determined the myoglobin (Mb) cDNA sequences of nine cetaceans, of which six are the first reports of Mb sequences: sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri), Longman's beaked whale (Indopacetus pacificus), and melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), and three confirm the previously determined chemical amino acid sequences: sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). We found two types of Mb in the skeletal muscle of pantropical spotted dolphin: Mb I with the same amino acid sequence as that deposited in the protein database, and Mb II, which differs at two amino acid residues compared with Mb I. Using an alignment of the amino acid or cDNA sequences of cetacean Mb, we constructed a phylogenetic tree by the NJ method. Clustering of cetacean Mb amino acid and cDNA sequences essentially follows the classical taxonomy of cetaceans, suggesting that Mb sequence data is valid for classification of cetaceans at least to the family level. PMID:16962803

  10. Swfoldrate: predicting protein folding rates from amino acid sequence with sliding window method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Xuan; Wu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Pu; Lin, Wei-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding is the process by which a protein processes from its denatured state to its specific biologically active conformation. Understanding the relationship between sequences and the folding rates of proteins remains an important challenge. Most previous methods of predicting protein folding rate require the tertiary structure of a protein as an input. In this study, the long-range and short-range contact in protein were used to derive extended version of the pseudo amino acid composition based on sliding window method. This method is capable of predicting the protein folding rates just from the amino acid sequence without the aid of any structural class information. We systematically studied the contributions of individual features to folding rate prediction. The optimal feature selection procedures are adopted by means of combining the forward feature selection and sequential backward selection method. Using the jackknife cross validation test, the method was demonstrated on the large dataset. The predictor was achieved on the basis of multitudinous physicochemical features and statistical features from protein using nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) regression model, the method obtained an excellent agreement between predicted and experimentally observed folding rates of proteins. The correlation coefficient is 0.9313 and the standard error is 2.2692. The prediction server is freely available at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/swfrate/input.jsp. PMID:22933332

  11. Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jean Baldus; Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Taylor, Tony; Imperatrice, Carol; Leonard, Deborah G. B.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Jost, Kenneth C.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying clinically significant species of aerobic actinomycetes. A total of 28 reference strains and 71 clinical isolates that included members of the genera Streptomyces, Gordonia, and Tsukamurella and 10 taxa of Nocardia were studied. Methods of nonsequencing analyses included growth and biochemical analysis, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the 439-bp Telenti fragment of the 65 hsp gene, susceptibility testing, and, for selected isolates, high-performance liquid chromatography. Many of the isolates were included in prior taxonomic studies. Sequencing of Nocardia species revealed that members of the group were generally most closely related to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains. However, the sequences of Nocardia transvalensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. nova isolates were highly variable; and it is likely that each of these species contains multiple species. We propose that these three species be designated complexes until they are more taxonomically defined. The sequences of several taxa did not match any recognized species. Among other aerobic actinomycetes, each group most closely resembled the associated reference strain, but with some divergence. The study demonstrates the ability of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify members of the aerobic actinomycetes, but the study also shows that a high degree of sequence divergence exists within many species and that many taxa within the Nocardia spp. are unnamed at present. A major unresolved issue is the type strain of N. asteroides, as the present one (ATCC 19247), chosen before the availability of molecular analysis, does not represent any of the common taxa associated with clinical nocardiosis. PMID:15184431

  12. Sequence-Specific Recognition of MicroRNAs and Other Short Nucleic Acids with Solid-State Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Osama K; Wang, Fanny; Ruzicka, Jan A; Taylor, Ethan W; Hall, Adam R

    2016-03-01

    The detection and quantification of short nucleic acid sequences has many potential applications in studying biological processes, monitoring disease initiation and progression, and evaluating environmental systems, but is challenging by nature. We present here an assay based on the solid-state nanopore platform for the identification of specific sequences in solution. We demonstrate that hybridization of a target nucleic acid with a synthetic probe molecule enables discrimination between duplex and single-stranded molecules with high efficacy. Our approach requires limited preparation of samples and yields an unambiguous translocation event rate enhancement that can be used to determine the presence and abundance of a single sequence within a background of nontarget oligonucleotides. PMID:26824296

  13. Binding site discovery from nucleic acid sequences by discriminative learning of hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Maaskola, Jonas; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    We present a discriminative learning method for pattern discovery of binding sites in nucleic acid sequences based on hidden Markov models. Sets of positive and negative example sequences are mined for sequence motifs whose occurrence frequency varies between the sets. The method offers several objective functions, but we concentrate on mutual information of condition and motif occurrence. We perform a systematic comparison of our method and numerous published motif-finding tools. Our method achieves the highest motif discovery performance, while being faster than most published methods. We present case studies of data from various technologies, including ChIP-Seq, RIP-Chip and PAR-CLIP, of embryonic stem cell transcription factors and of RNA-binding proteins, demonstrating practicality and utility of the method. For the alternative splicing factor RBM10, our analysis finds motifs known to be splicing-relevant. The motif discovery method is implemented in the free software package Discrover. It is applicable to genome- and transcriptome-scale data, makes use of available repeat experiments and aside from binary contrasts also more complex data configurations can be utilized. PMID:25389269

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Acidimicrobiaceae Members from an Acid Mine Drainage Biofilm Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ameet J; Sharp, Jonathan O; Yoder, Michael J; Almstrand, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the family Acidimicrobiaceae are frequently encountered in heavy metal-contaminated acidic environments. However, their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is poorly resolved. We present draft genome sequences of two novel and phylogenetically distinct Acidimicrobiaceae members assembled from an acid mine drainage biofilm metagenome. PMID:26769942

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Acidimicrobiaceae Members from an Acid Mine Drainage Biofilm Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ameet J.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Yoder, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the family Acidimicrobiaceae are frequently encountered in heavy metal-contaminated acidic environments. However, their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is poorly resolved. We present draft genome sequences of two novel and phylogenetically distinct Acidimicrobiaceae members assembled from an acid mine drainage biofilm metagenome. PMID:26769942

  16. Function-Based Algorithms for Biological Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Pragyan Sheela P.

    2015-01-01

    Two problems at two different abstraction levels of computational biology are studied. At the molecular level, efficient pattern matching algorithms in DNA sequences are presented. For gene order data, an efficient data structure is presented capable of storing all gene re-orderings in a systematic manner. A common characteristic of presented…

  17. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  18. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  19. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  20. Two distinct ferredoxins from Rhodobacter capsulatus: complete amino acid sequences and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Saeki, K; Suetsugu, Y; Yao, Y; Horio, T; Marrs, B L; Matsubara, H

    1990-09-01

    Two distinct ferredoxins were purified from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Their complete amino acid sequences were determined by a combination of protease digestion, BrCN cleavage and Edman degradation. Ferredoxins I and II were composed of 64 and 111 amino acids, respectively, with molecular weights of 6,728 and 12,549 excluding iron and sulfur atoms. Both contained two Cys clusters in their amino acid sequences. The first cluster of ferredoxin I and the second cluster of ferredoxin II had a sequence, CxxCxxCxxxCP, in common with the ferredoxins found in Clostridia. The second cluster of ferredoxin I had a sequence, CxxCxxxxxxxxCxxxCM, with extra amino acids between the second and third Cys, which has been reported for other photosynthetic bacterial ferredoxins and putative ferredoxins (nif-gene products) from nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and with a unique occurrence of Met. The first cluster of ferredoxin II had a CxxCxxxxCxxxCP sequence, with two additional amino acids between the second and third Cys, a characteristics feature of Azotobacter-[3Fe-4S] [4Fe-4S]-ferredoxin. Ferredoxin II was also similar to Azotobacter-type ferredoxins with an extended carboxyl (C-) terminal sequence compared to the common Clostridium-type. The evolutionary relationship of the two together with a putative one recently found to be encoded in nifENXQ region in this bacterium [Moreno-Vivian et al. (1989) J. Bacteriol. 171, 2591-2598] is discussed. PMID:2277040

  1. Amino Acid Sequence of Anionic Peroxidase from the Windmill Palm Tree Trachycarpus fortunei

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Palm peroxidases are extremely stable and have uncommon substrate specificity. This study was designed to fill in the knowledge gap about the structures of a peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei. The complete amino acid sequence and partial glycosylation were determined by MALDI-top-down sequencing of native windmill palm tree peroxidase (WPTP), MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS of WPTP tryptic peptides, and cDNA sequencing. The propeptide of WPTP contained N- and C-terminal signal sequences which contained 21 and 17 amino acid residues, respectively. Mature WPTP was 306 amino acids in length, and its carbohydrate content ranged from 21% to 29%. Comparison to closely related royal palm tree peroxidase revealed structural features that may explain differences in their substrate specificity. The results can be used to guide engineering of WPTP and its novel applications. PMID:25383699

  2. Persisting Viral Sequences Shape Microbial CRISPR-based Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Ariel D.; Sun, Christine L.; Pluciński, Mateusz M.; Denef, Vincent J.; Thomas, Brian C.; Horvath, Philippe; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gilmore, Michael S.; Getz, Wayne M.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2012-01-01

    Well-studied innate immune systems exist throughout bacteria and archaea, but a more recently discovered genomic locus may offer prokaryotes surprising immunological adaptability. Mediated by a cassette-like genomic locus termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), the microbial adaptive immune system differs from its eukaryotic immune analogues by incorporating new immunities unidirectionally. CRISPR thus stores genomically recoverable timelines of virus-host coevolution in natural organisms refractory to laboratory cultivation. Here we combined a population genetic mathematical model of CRISPR-virus coevolution with six years of metagenomic sequencing to link the recoverable genomic dynamics of CRISPR loci to the unknown population dynamics of virus and host in natural communities. Metagenomic reconstructions in an acid-mine drainage system document CRISPR loci conserving ancestral immune elements to the base-pair across thousands of microbial generations. This ‘trailer-end conservation’ occurs despite rapid viral mutation and despite rapid prokaryotic genomic deletion. The trailer-ends of many reconstructed CRISPR loci are also largely identical across a population. ‘Trailer-end clonality’ occurs despite predictions of host immunological diversity due to negative frequency dependent selection (kill the winner dynamics). Statistical clustering and model simulations explain this lack of diversity by capturing rapid selective sweeps by highly immune CRISPR lineages. Potentially explaining ‘trailer-end conservation,’ we record the first example of a viral bloom overwhelming a CRISPR system. The polyclonal viruses bloom even though they share sequences previously targeted by host CRISPR loci. Simulations show how increasing random genomic deletions in CRISPR loci purges immunological controls on long-lived viral sequences, allowing polyclonal viruses to bloom and depressing host fitness. Our results thus link documented

  3. Protein chemotaxonomy. XIII. Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Mino, Yoshiki

    2006-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl protein and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. This ferredoxin has a unique amino acid sequence, which includes an insertion of Tyr at the 3rd position from the amino-terminus and a deletion of two amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus. This ferredoxin had 18 differences in its amino acid sequence compared to that of Petroselinum sativum (Umbelliferae). In contrast, 23-33 differences were observed compared to other dicotyledonous plants. This suggests that Panax ginseng is related taxonomically to umbelliferous plants. PMID:16880642

  4. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  5. Students' Alternate Conceptions on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Hanqing; Henriques, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Knowing what students bring to the classroom can and should influence how we teach them. This study is a review of the literature associated with secondary and postsecondary students' ideas about acids and bases. It was found that there are six types of alternate ideas about acids and bases that students hold. These are: macroscopic properties of…

  6. The Conjugate Acid-Base Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that beginning chemistry students have in understanding acid-base chemistry. Describes the use of conjugate acid-base charts in helping students visualize the conjugate relationship. Addresses chart construction, metal ions, buffers and pH titrations, and the organic functional groups and nonaqueous solvents. (TW)

  7. Image-based temporal alignment of echocardiographic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danudibroto, Adriyana; Bersvendsen, Jørn; Mirea, Oana; Gerard, Olivier; D'hooge, Jan; Samset, Eigil

    2016-04-01

    Temporal alignment of echocardiographic sequences enables fair comparisons of multiple cardiac sequences by showing corresponding frames at given time points in the cardiac cycle. It is also essential for spatial registration of echo volumes where several acquisitions are combined for enhancement of image quality or forming larger field of view. In this study, three different image-based temporal alignment methods were investigated. First, a method based on dynamic time warping (DTW). Second, a spline-based method that optimized the similarity between temporal characteristic curves of the cardiac cycle using 1D cubic B-spline interpolation. Third, a method based on the spline-based method with piecewise modification. These methods were tested on in-vivo data sets of 19 echo sequences. For each sequence, the mitral valve opening (MVO) time was manually annotated. The results showed that the average MVO timing error for all methods are well under the time resolution of the sequences.

  8. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding part of human transketolase.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, M; Layfield, R; Jones, S M; Nixon, P F; Mattick, J S

    1992-03-31

    Transketolase is a key enzyme in the pentose-phosphate pathway which has been implicated in the latent human genetic disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Here we report the cloning and partial characterisation of the coding sequences encoding human transketolase from a human brain cDNA library. The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes based on the amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the purified protein. Northern blots showed that the transketolase mRNA is approximately 2.2 kb, close to the minimum expected, of which approximately 60% was represented in the largest cDNA clone. Sequence analysis of the transketolase coding sequences reveals a number of homologies with related enzymes from other species. PMID:1567394

  9. 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences in Bacteroides and Fusobacterium: evolutionary relationships within these genera and among eubacteria in general

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van den Eynde, H.; De Baere, R.; Shah, H. N.; Gharbia, S. E.; Fox, G. E.; Michalik, J.; Van de Peer, Y.; De Wachter, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences were determined for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides capillosus, Bacteroides veroralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Anaerorhabdus furcosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Fusobacterium varium. A dendrogram constructed by a clustering algorithm from these sequences, which were aligned with all other hitherto known eubacterial 5S rRNA sequences, showed differences as well as similarities with respect to results derived from 16S rRNA analyses. In the 5S rRNA dendrogram, Bacteroides clustered together with Cytophaga and Fusobacterium, as in 16S rRNA analyses. Intraphylum relationships deduced from 5S rRNAs suggested that Bacteroides is specifically related to Cytophaga rather than to Fusobacterium, as was suggested by 16S rRNA analyses. Previous taxonomic considerations concerning the genus Bacteroides, based on biochemical and physiological data, were confirmed by the 5S rRNA sequence analysis.

  10. N-terminal sequence of amino acids and some properties of an acid-stable alpha-amylase from citric acid-koji (Aspergillus usamii var.).

    PubMed

    Suganuma, T; Tahara, N; Kitahara, K; Nagahama, T; Inuzuka, K

    1996-01-01

    An acid-stable alpha-amylase (AA) was purified from an acidic extract of citric acid-koji (A. usamii var.). The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids of the enzyme was identical with that of AA from A. niger, but the two enzymes differed in molecular weight. HPLC analysis for identifying the anomers of products indicated that the AA hydrolyzed maltopentaose (G5) at the third glycoside bond predominantly, which differed from Taka-amylase A and the neutral alpha-amylase (NA) from the citric acid-koji. PMID:8824843

  11. Probe kit for identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  12. Method of Identifying a Base in a Nucleic Acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    1999-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  13. Property-based sequence representations do not adequately encode local protein folding information.

    PubMed

    Solis, A D; Rackovsky, S

    2007-06-01

    We examine the informatic characteristics of amino acid representations based on physical properties. We demonstrate that sequences rewritten using contracted alphabets based on physical properties do not encode local folding information well. The best four-character alphabet can only encode approximately 57% of the maximum possible amount of structural information. This result suggests that property-based representations that operate on a local length scale are not likely to be useful in homology searches and fold-recognition exercises. PMID:17387739

  14. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample is provided using hybridization probes which competitively hybridize to a target nucleic acid. According to the method, a target nucleic acid sequence is hybridized to first and second hybridization probes which are complementary to overlapping portions of the target nucleic acid sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent and the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker. The first complexing agent attached to the first hybridization probe is contacted with a second complexing agent, the second complexing agent being attached to a solid support such that when the first and second complexing agents are attached, target nucleic acid sequences hybridized to the first hybridization probe become immobilized on to the solid support. The immobilized target nucleic acids are then separated and detected by detecting the detectable marker attached to the second hybridization probe. A kit for performing the method is also provided.

  15. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1997-04-01

    A method for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample is provided using hybridization probes which competitively hybridize to a target nucleic acid. According to the method, a target nucleic acid sequence is hybridized to first and second hybridization probes which are complementary to overlapping portions of the target nucleic acid sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent and the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker. The first complexing agent attached to the first hybridization probe is contacted with a second complexing agent, the second complexing agent being attached to a solid support such that when the first and second complexing agents are attached, target nucleic acid sequences hybridized to the first hybridization probe become immobilized on to the solid support. The immobilized target nucleic acids are then separated and detected by detecting the detectable marker attached to the second hybridization probe. A kit for performing the method is also provided. 7 figs.

  16. First draft genome sequencing of indole acetic acid producing and plant growth promoting fungus Preussia sp. BSL10.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-05-10

    Preussia sp. BSL10, family Sporormiaceae, was actively producing phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid) and extra-cellular enzymes (phosphatases and glucosidases). The fungus was also promoting the growth of arid-land tree-Boswellia sacra. Looking at such prospects of this fungus, we sequenced its draft genome for the first time. The Illumina based sequence analysis reveals an approximate genome size of 31.4Mbp for Preussia sp. BSL10. Based on ab initio gene prediction, total 32,312 coding sequences were annotated consisting of 11,967 coding genes, pseudogenes, and 221 tRNA genes. Furthermore, 321 carbohydrate-active enzymes were predicted and classified into many functional families. PMID:26995610

  17. Fluorescent sensors based on boronic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Christopher R.; James, Tony D.

    1999-05-01

    Sensor systems have long been needed for detecting the presence in solution of certain chemically or biologically important species. Sensors are used in a wide range of applications from simple litmus paper that shows a single color change in acidic or basic environments to complex biological assays that use enzymes, antibodies and antigens to display binding events. With this work the use of boronic acids in the design and synthesis of sensors for saccharides (diols) will be presented. The fluorescent sensory systems rely on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) to modulate the observed fluorescence. When saccharides form cyclic boronate esters with boronic acids, the Lewis acidity of the boronic acid is enhanced and therefore the Lewis acid-base interaction between the boronic acid and a neighboring amine is strengthened. The strength of this acid-base interaction modulates the PET from the amine (acting as a quencher) to anthracene (acting as a fluorophore). These compounds show increased fluorescence at neutral pH through suppression of the PET from nitrogen to anthracene on saccharide binding. The general strategy for the development of saccharide selective systems will be discussed. The potential of the boronic acid based systems will be illustrated using the development of glucose and glucosamine selective fluorescent sensors as examples.

  18. A Sequence Based Synteny Map Between Soybean and Arabidopis Thaliana.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to identify conserved sequences between soybean (Glycine max, L. Merr.) and the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), a series of JAVA-based programs were created that processed and compared 341,619 soybean DNA sequences against A. thaliana chromosomal DNA. A. thaliana DNA ...

  19. Acquisition and Maintenance of Time-Based Task Change Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To examine use of antecedent cues to complete a sequence of vocational tasks, five mildly to moderately mentally retarded students (aged 16-19) served as subjects. Written and pictorial prompts, introduced in a least intrusive manner, enabled the students to learn and maintain a sequenced time-based schedule that changed daily. (Author/JDD)

  20. Similarity/Dissimilarity Analysis of Protein Sequences Based on a New Spectrum-Like Graphical Representation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuhua; Yan, Shoujiang; Xu, Huimin; Han, Jianning; Nan, Xuying; He, Ping-an; Dai, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Sequence comparison is one of the foundations in bioinformatics, which can be used to study evolutionary relations among the sequences. In this study, a 2D spectrum-like graphical representation of protein sequences is presented based on the hydrophobicity scale of amino acids. The frequencies of amplitudes of 4-subsequences are adopted to characterize a spectrum-like graph, and a 17D vector is used as the descriptor of protein sequence. The χ2 value of compatibility test is performed. New similarity analysis approach is illustrated on the all protein sequences, which are encoded by the mitochondrion genome of 20 different species. Finally, comparison with the ClustalW method shows the utility of our method. PMID:25002811

  1. Conservation of Shannon's redundancy for proteins. [information theory applied to amino acid sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Concepts of information theory are applied to examine various proteins in terms of their redundancy in natural originators such as animals and plants. The Monte Carlo method is used to derive information parameters for random protein sequences. Real protein sequence parameters are compared with the standard parameters of protein sequences having a specific length. The tendency of a chain to contain some amino acids more frequently than others and the tendency of a chain to contain certain amino acid pairs more frequently than other pairs are used as randomness measures of individual protein sequences. Non-periodic proteins are generally found to have random Shannon redundancies except in cases of constraints due to short chain length and genetic codes. Redundant characteristics of highly periodic proteins are discussed. A degree of periodicity parameter is derived.

  2. Base-acid hybrid water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Fei; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-02-21

    A base-acid hybrid electrolytic system with a low onset voltage of 0.78 V for water electrolysis was developed by using a ceramic Li-ion exchange membrane to separate the oxygen-evolving reaction (OER) in a basic electrolyte solution containing the Li-ion and hydrogen-evolving reaction (HER) in an acidic electrolyte solution. PMID:26804323

  3. Sequence-Specific Electrical Purification of Nucleic Acids with Nanoporous Gold Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Daggumati, Pallavi; Appelt, Sandra; Matharu, Zimple; Marco, Maria L; Seker, Erkin

    2016-06-22

    Nucleic-acid-based biosensors have enabled rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic targets; however, these devices often require purified nucleic acids for analysis since the constituents of complex biological fluids adversely affect sensor performance. This purification step is typically performed outside the device, thereby increasing sample-to-answer time and introducing contaminants. We report a novel approach using a multifunctional matrix, nanoporous gold (np-Au), which enables both detection of specific target sequences in a complex biological sample and their subsequent purification. The np-Au electrodes modified with 26-mer DNA probes (via thiol-gold chemistry) enabled sensitive detection and capture of complementary DNA targets in the presence of complex media (fetal bovine serum) and other interfering DNA fragments in the range of 50-1500 base pairs. Upon capture, the noncomplementary DNA fragments and serum constituents of varying sizes were washed away. Finally, the surface-bound DNA-DNA hybrids were released by electrochemically cleaving the thiol-gold linkage, and the hybrids were iontophoretically eluted from the nanoporous matrix. The optical and electrophoretic characterization of the analytes before and after the detection-purification process revealed that low target DNA concentrations (80 pg/μL) can be successfully detected in complex biological fluids and subsequently released to yield pure hybrids free of polydisperse digested DNA fragments and serum biomolecules. Taken together, this multifunctional platform is expected to enable seamless integration of detection and purification of nucleic acid biomarkers of pathogens and diseases in miniaturized diagnostic devices. PMID:27244455

  4. Jack bean α-mannosidase: amino acid sequencing and N-glycosylation analysis of a valuable glycomics tool.

    PubMed

    Gnanesh Kumar, B S; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Schulte, Mona; Mormann, Michael; Siva Kumar, Nadimpalli

    2014-03-01

    Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) seeds contain several biologically important proteins among which α-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24) has been purified, its biochemical properties studied and widely used in glycan analysis. In the present study, we have used the purified enzyme and derived its amino acid sequence covering both the known subunits (molecular mass of ∼66,000 and ∼44,000 Da) hitherto not known in its entirety. Peptide de novo sequencing and structural elucidation of N-glycopeptides obtained either directly from proteolytic digestion or after zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography solid phase extraction-based separation were performed by use of nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and low-energy collision-induced dissociation experiments. De novo sequencing provided new insights into the disulfide linkage organization, intersection of subunits and complete N-glycan structures along with site specificities. The primary sequence suggests that the enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 38 and the N-glycan sequence analysis revealed high-mannose oligosaccharides, which were found to be heterogeneous with varying number of hexoses viz, Man8-9GlcNAc2 and Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 in an evolutionarily conserved N-glycosylation site. This site with two proximal cysteines is present in all the acidic α-mannosidases reported so far in eukaryotes. Further, a truncated paucimannose type was identified to be lacking terminal two mannose, Man1(Xyl)GlcNAc2 (Fuc). PMID:24295789

  5. The amino-acid sequence of leghemoglobin component a from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean).

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, P; Ellfolk, N

    1975-06-01

    1. Leghemoglobin component a from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was digested with trypsin; 15 tryptic peptides and free lysine were purified and the amino acid sequences of the peptides determined. 2. The internal order of the tryptic peptides was determined by the bridge peptides obtained from the thermolytic digest and the dilute acid hydrolyzate of kidney bean leghemoglobin a; 12 thermolytic peptides and two acid hydrolysis peptides were purified and the sequences were partially or completely determined. 3. The complete amino acid sequence of kidney bean leghemoglobin a is compared to that of leghemoglobin a from soybean (Glycine max) and to some animal globins. As regards sequence, the kidney bean globin has 79% identity with the soybean globin and 21% identity with human hemoglobin gamma-chain. Seven of the 14 amino acid residues common to most globins are found in the kidney bean globin. Trp-15 and Tyr-145 are evolutionarily conserved in this globin, which confirms the concept of a common origin of animal and plant globins. PMID:809270

  6. Mass spectrometric detection of the amino acid sequence polymorphism of the hepatitis C virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Kaysheva, A L; Ivanov, Yu D; Frantsuzov, P A; Krohin, N V; Pavlova, T I; Uchaikin, V F; Konev, V А; Kovalev, O B; Ziborov, V S; Archakov, A I

    2016-03-01

    A method for detection and identification of the hepatitis C virus antigen (HCVcoreAg) in human serum with consideration for possible amino acid substitutions is proposed. The method is based on a combination of biospecific capturing and concentrating of the target protein on the surface of the chip for atomic force microscope (AFM chip) with subsequent protein identification by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Biospecific AFM-capturing of viral particles containing HCVcoreAg from serum samples was performed by use of AFM chips with monoclonal antibodies (anti-HCVcore) covalently immobilized on the surface. Biospecific complexes were registered and counted by AFM. Further MS/MS analysis allowed to reliably identify the HCVcoreAg in the complexes formed on the AFM chip surface. Analysis of MS/MS spectra, with the account taken of the possible polymorphisms in the amino acid sequence of the HCVcoreAg, enabled us to increase the number of identified peptides. PMID:26773170

  7. Direct Detection and Sequencing of Damaged DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Products of various forms of DNA damage have been implicated in a variety of important biological processes, such as aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, there exists great interest to develop methods for interrogating damaged DNA in the context of sequencing. Here, we demonstrate that single-molecule, real-time (SMRT®) DNA sequencing can directly detect damaged DNA bases in the DNA template - as a by-product of the sequencing method - through an analysis of the DNA polymerase kinetics that are altered by the presence of a modified base. We demonstrate the sequencing of several DNA templates containing products of DNA damage, including 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoadenine, O6-methylguanine, 1-methyladenine, O4-methylthymine, 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, or thymine dimers, and show that these base modifications can be readily detected with single-modification resolution and DNA strand specificity. We characterize the distinct kinetic signatures generated by these DNA base modifications. PMID:22185597

  8. Draft genome sequence of the docosahexaenoic acid producing thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. T66.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Ertesvåg, Helga; Aasen, Inga Marie; Vadstein, Olav; Brautaset, Trygve; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan

    2016-06-01

    Thraustochytrids are unicellular, marine protists, and there is a growing industrial interest in these organisms, particularly because some species, including strains belonging to the genus Aurantiochytrium, accumulate high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 (ATCC PRA-276), with a size of 43 Mbp, and 11,683 predicted protein-coding sequences. The data has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank under the accession LNGJ00000000. The genome sequence will contribute new insight into DHA biosynthesis and regulation, providing a basis for metabolic engineering of thraustochytrids. PMID:27222814

  9. Sequence-specific purification of nucleic acids by PNA-controlled hybrid selection.

    PubMed

    Orum, H; Nielsen, P E; Jørgensen, M; Larsson, C; Stanley, C; Koch, T

    1995-09-01

    Using an oligohistidine peptide nucleic acids (oligohistidine-PNA) chimera, we have developed a rapid hybrid selection method that allows efficient, sequence-specific purification of a target nucleic acid. The method exploits two fundamental features of PNA. First, that PNA binds with high affinity and specificity to its complementary nucleic acid. Second, that amino acids are easily attached to the PNA oligomer during synthesis. We show that a (His)6-PNA chimera exhibits strong binding to chelated Ni2+ ions without compromising its native PNA hybridization properties. We further show that these characteristics allow the (His)6-PNA/DNA complex to be purified by the well-established method of metal ion affinity chromatography using a Ni(2+)-NTA (nitrilotriactic acid) resin. Specificity and efficiency are the touchstones of any nucleic acid purification scheme. We show that the specificity of the (His)6-PNA selection approach is such that oligonucleotides differing by only a single nucleotide can be selectively purified. We also show that large RNAs (2224 nucleotides) can be captured with high efficiency by using multiple (His)6-PNA probes. PNA can hybridize to nucleic acids in low-salt concentrations that destabilize native nucleic acid structures. We demonstrate that this property of PNA can be utilized to purify an oligonucleotide in which the target sequence forms part of an intramolecular stem/loop structure. PMID:7495562

  10. In silico comparative analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences for prion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Lee, J; Lee, C

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variability might contribute to species specificity of prion diseases in various organisms. In this study, structures of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and its amino acids were compared among species of which sequence data were available. Comparisons of PRNP DNA sequences among 12 species including human, chimpanzee, monkey, bovine, ovine, dog, mouse, rat, wallaby, opossum, chicken and zebrafish allowed us to identify candidate regulatory regions in intron 1 and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in addition to the coding region. Highly conserved putative binding sites for transcription factors, such as heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) and myocite enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), were discovered in the intron 1. In 3'-UTR, the functional sequence (ATTAAA) for nucleus-specific polyadenylation was found in all the analysed species. The functional sequence (TTTTTAT) for maturation-specific polyadenylation was identically observed only in ovine, and one or two nucleotide mismatches in the other species. A comparison of the amino acid sequences in 53 species revealed a large sequence identity. Especially the octapeptide repeat region was observed in all the species but frog and zebrafish. Functional changes and susceptibility to prion diseases with various isoforms of prion protein could be caused by numeric variability and conformational changes discovered in the repeat sequences. PMID:18397498

  11. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences. PMID:21096556

  12. DNA sequence analysis with droplet-based microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Adam R.; Hung, Tony; Sperling, Ralph A.; Mary, Pascaline; Rotem, Assaf; Agresti, Jeremy J.; Weiner, Michael A.; Weitz, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Droplet-based microfluidic techniques can form and process micrometer scale droplets at thousands per second. Each droplet can house an individual biochemical reaction, allowing millions of reactions to be performed in minutes with small amounts of total reagent. This versatile approach has been used for engineering enzymes, quantifying concentrations of DNA in solution, and screening protein crystallization conditions. Here, we use it to read the sequences of DNA molecules with a FRET-based assay. Using probes of different sequences, we interrogate a target DNA molecule for polymorphisms. With a larger probe set, additional polymorphisms can be interrogated as well as targets of arbitrary sequence. PMID:24185402

  13. Antibody-specific model of amino acid substitution for immunological inferences from alignments of antibody sequences.

    PubMed

    Mirsky, Alexander; Kazandjian, Linda; Anisimova, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Antibodies are glycoproteins produced by the immune system as a dynamically adaptive line of defense against invading pathogens. Very elegant and specific mutational mechanisms allow B lymphocytes to produce a large and diversified repertoire of antibodies, which is modified and enhanced throughout all adulthood. One of these mechanisms is somatic hypermutation, which stochastically mutates nucleotides in the antibody genes, forming new sequences with different properties and, eventually, higher affinity and selectivity to the pathogenic target. As somatic hypermutation involves fast mutation of antibody sequences, this process can be described using a Markov substitution model of molecular evolution. Here, using large sets of antibody sequences from mice and humans, we infer an empirical amino acid substitution model AB, which is specific to antibody sequences. Compared with existing general amino acid models, we show that the AB model provides significantly better description for the somatic evolution of mice and human antibody sequences, as demonstrated on large next generation sequencing (NGS) antibody data. General amino acid models are reflective of conservation at the protein level due to functional constraints, with most frequent amino acids exchanges taking place between residues with the same or similar physicochemical properties. In contrast, within the variable part of antibody sequences we observed an elevated frequency of exchanges between amino acids with distinct physicochemical properties. This is indicative of a sui generis mutational mechanism, specific to antibody somatic hypermutation. We illustrate this property of antibody sequences by a comparative analysis of the network modularity implied by the AB model and general amino acid substitution models. We recommend using the new model for computational studies of antibody sequence maturation, including inference of alignments and phylogenetic trees describing antibody somatic hypermutation in

  14. Progress in ion torrent semiconductor chip based sequencing.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Barry; Rothberg, Jonathan M

    2012-12-01

    In order for next-generation sequencing to become widely used as a diagnostic in the healthcare industry, sequencing instrumentation will need to be mass produced with a high degree of quality and economy. One way to achieve this is to recast DNA sequencing in a format that fully leverages the manufacturing base created for computer chips, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip fabrication, which is the current pinnacle of large scale, high quality, low-cost manufacturing of high technology. To achieve this, ideally the entire sensory apparatus of the sequencer would be embodied in a standard semiconductor chip, manufactured in the same fab facilities used for logic and memory chips. Recently, such a sequencing chip, and the associated sequencing platform, has been developed and commercialized by Ion Torrent, a division of Life Technologies, Inc. Here we provide an overview of this semiconductor chip based sequencing technology, and summarize the progress made since its commercial introduction. We described in detail the progress in chip scaling, sequencing throughput, read length, and accuracy. We also summarize the enhancements in the associated platform, including sample preparation, data processing, and engagement of the broader development community through open source and crowdsourcing initiatives. PMID:23208921

  15. Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta.

    PubMed

    Klonisch, T; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Froehlich, C; Kauffold, J; Steger, K; Steinetz, B G; Fischer, B

    1999-03-01

    Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta. PMID:10026098

  16. Purification and partial amino acid sequence of the chloroplast cytochrome b-559.

    PubMed

    Widger, W R; Cramer, W A; Hermodson, M; Meyer, D; Gullifor, M

    1984-03-25

    The hydrophobic cytochrome b-559, purified from unstacked, ethanol-washed spinach thylakoid membranes, using extraction with 2% Triton X-100 in 4 M urea and three chromatographic steps in the presence of protease inhibitors, has a dominant band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea gels corresponding to Mr = 10,000. The yield of this preparation is 30-50% (5-10 mg) starting with 600 mg of chlorophyll. The heme content yields a calculated molecular weight of no more than 17,500/heme, and perhaps somewhat smaller after correction for impurities. The Mr = 10,000 band is stained by the tetramethylbenzidine-H2O2 heme reagent on lithium dodecyl sulfate gels run at 0 degrees C. The Mr = 10,000 protein, further separated by high performance liquid chromatography, contains a unique NH2 terminus that is not blocked, and the amino acid sequence for the first 27 residues is NH2-Ser-Gly-Ser-Thr-Gly-Glu-Arg-Ser-Phe-Ala-Asp-Ile-Ile-Thr-Ser-Ile-Arg-Tyr-Trp -Val-Ile-X-Ser-Ile-Thr-Ile-Pro. . . COOH. Approximately 55% of the amino acids are hydrophobic, based on amino acid analysis of the Mr = 10,000 peptide, which also indicated the presence of at least one histidine. Only one cytochrome b-559 component could be identified, whose yield indicated that it arises from a single b-559 protein in chloroplasts corresponding to the in situ high potential cytochrome of the chloroplast photosystem II. PMID:6706983

  17. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  18. Amino acid sequence of a vitamin K-dependent Ca2+-binding peptide from bovine prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Howard, J B; Fausch, M D

    1975-08-10

    The amino acid sequence of a 31-residue peptide from bovine prothrombin has been determined. This peptide has been shown to contain the vitamin K-dependent modification required for Ca2+ binding (Nelsestuen, G. L., and Suttie, J. W. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70, 3366-3370) and the modified amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Nelsestuen, G. L., Zytkovicz, T., and Howard, J. B. (1974) J. Biol. Chem. 249, 6347-6350). The peptide was shown to correspond to residues 12 to 42 of prothrombin. PMID:807581

  19. Amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janet C.; Waley, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    1. The nature of the subunits in rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase has been investigated. 2. Amino acid analyses show that there are five cysteine residues and two methionine residues/subunit. 3. The amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues have been determined; these account for about 75 residues. 4. Cleavage at the methionine residues with cyanogen bromide gave three fragments. 5. These results show that the subunits correspond to polypeptide chains, containing about 230 amino acid residues. The chains in triose phosphate isomerase seem to be shorter than those of other glycolytic enzymes. PMID:5165707

  20. High-affinity homologous peptide nucleic acid probes for targeting a quadruplex-forming sequence from a MYC promoter element.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhadeep; Tanious, Farial A; Wilson, W David; Ly, Danith H; Armitage, Bruce A

    2007-09-18

    Guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences are known to fold into secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. Recent biochemical evidence along with the discovery of an increasing number of sequences in functionally important regions of the genome capable of forming G-quadruplexes strongly indicates important biological roles for these structures. Thus, molecular probes that can selectively target quadruplex-forming sequences (QFSs) are envisioned as tools to delineate biological functions of quadruplexes as well as potential therapeutic agents. Guanine-rich peptide nucleic acids have been previously shown to hybridize to homologous DNA or RNA sequences forming PNA-DNA (or RNA) quadruplexes. For this paper we studied the hybridization of an eight-mer G-rich PNA to a quadruplex-forming sequence derived from the promoter region of the MYC proto-oncogene. UV melting analysis, fluorescence assays, and surface plasmon resonance experiments reveal that this PNA binds to the MYC QFS in a 2:1 stoichiometry and with an average binding constant Ka = (2.0 +/- 0.2) x 10(8) M(-1) or Kd = 5.0 nM. In addition, experiments carried out with short DNA targets revealed a dependence of the affinity on the sequence of bases in the loop region of the DNA. A structural model for the hybrid quadruplex is proposed, and implications for gene targeting by G-rich PNAs are discussed. PMID:17718513

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of the Mu heavy chain of a human IgM immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Putnam, F W; Florent, G; Paul, C; Shinoda, T; Shimizu, A

    1973-10-19

    The amino acid sequence of the micro, chain of a human IgM immunoglobulin, including the location of all disulfide bridges and oligosaccharides, has been determined. The homology of the constant regions of immunoglobulin micro, gamma, alpha, and epsilon heavy chains reveals evolutionary relationships and suggests that two genes code for each heavy chain. PMID:4742735

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923)

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. PMID:26941139

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Perfluorooctane Acid-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chongjian; Peng, Qingjing; Peng, Qingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1, isolated from perfluorinated compound-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) compound. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the PFOA-degrading bacterium P. parafulva YAB-1. The data provide the basis to investigate the molecular mechanism of PFOA metabolism. PMID:26337877

  4. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c-555 from the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R P; Dalton, H; Meyer, T E; Bartsch, R G; Kamen, M D

    1986-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the cytochrome c-555 from the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath (N.C.I.B. 11132) was determined. It is a single polypeptide chain of 96 residues, binding a haem group through the cysteine residues at positions 19 and 22, and the only methionine residue is a position 59. The sequence does not closely resemble that of any other cytochrome c that has yet been characterized. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the protein has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50131 (12 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies are available on prepayment. PMID:3006666

  5. RAD Capture (Rapture): Flexible and Efficient Sequence-Based Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Ali, Omar A; O'Rourke, Sean M; Amish, Stephen J; Meek, Mariah H; Luikart, Gordon; Jeffres, Carson; Miller, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has revolutionized many areas of biology, but sequencing large amounts of DNA in many individuals is cost-prohibitive and unnecessary for many studies. Genomic complexity reduction techniques such as sequence capture and restriction enzyme-based methods enable the analysis of many more individuals per unit cost. Despite their utility, current complexity reduction methods have limitations, especially when large numbers of individuals are analyzed. Here we develop a much improved restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing protocol and a new method called Rapture ( R: AD c APTURE: ). The new RAD protocol improves versatility by separating RAD tag isolation and sequencing library preparation into two distinct steps. This protocol also recovers more unique (nonclonal) RAD fragments, which improves both standard RAD and Rapture analysis. Rapture then uses an in-solution capture of chosen RAD tags to target sequencing reads to desired loci. Rapture combines the benefits of both RAD and sequence capture, i.e., very inexpensive and rapid library preparation for many individuals as well as high specificity in the number and location of genomic loci analyzed. Our results demonstrate that Rapture is a rapid and flexible technology capable of analyzing a very large number of individuals with minimal sequencing and library preparation cost. The methods presented here should improve the efficiency of genetic analysis for many aspects of agricultural, environmental, and biomedical science. PMID:26715661

  6. Evolution of vertebrate IgM: complete amino acid sequence of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum mu chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Wiles, M V; Charlemagne, J; Schwager, J

    1992-10-01

    cDNA clones coding for the constant region of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) mu heavy immunoglobulin chain were selected from total spleen RNA, using a cDNA polymerase chain reaction technique. The specific 5'-end primer was an oligonucleotide homologous to the JH segment of Xenopus laevis mu chain. One of the clones, JHA/3, corresponded to the complete constant region of the axolotl mu chain, consisting of a 1362-nucleotide sequence coding for a polypeptide of 454 amino acids followed in 3' direction by a 179-nucleotide untranslated region and a polyA+ tail. The axolotl C mu is divided into four typical domains (C mu 1-C mu 4) and can be aligned with the Xenopus C mu with an overall identity of 56% at the nucleotide level. Percent identities were particularly high between C mu 1 (59%) and C mu 4 (71%). The C-terminal 20-amino acid segment which constitutes the secretory part of the mu chain is strongly homologous to the equivalent sequences of chondrichthyans and of other tetrapods, including a conserved N-linked oligosaccharide, the penultimate cysteine and the C-terminal lysine. The four C mu domains of 13 vertebrate species ranging from chondrichthyans to mammals were aligned and compared at the amino acid level. The significant number of mu-specific residues which are conserved into each of the four C mu domains argues for a continuous line of evolution of the vertebrate mu chain. This notion was confirmed by the ability to reconstitute a consistent vertebrate evolution tree based on the phylogenic parsimony analysis of the C mu 4 sequences. PMID:1382992

  7. Allelic polymorphism in arabian camel ribonuclease and the amino acid sequence of bactrian camel ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Welling, G W; Mulder, H; Beintema, J J

    1976-04-01

    Pancreatic ribonucleases from several species (whitetail deer, roe deer, guinea pig, and arabian camel) exhibit more than one amino acid at particular positions in their amino acid sequences. Since these enzymes were isolated from pooled pancreas, the origin of this heterogeneity is not clear. The pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 individual arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) have been investigated with respect to the lysine-glutamine heterogeneity at position 103 (Welling et al., 1975). Six ribonucleases showed only one basic band and five showed two bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting a gene frequency of about 0.75 for the Lys gene and about 0.25 for the Gln gene. The amino acid sequence of bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) ribonuclease isolated from individual pancreatic tissue was determined and compared with that of arabian camel ribonuclease. The only difference was observed at position 103. In the ribonucleases from two unrelated bactrian camels, only glutamine was observed at that position. PMID:962846

  8. cDNA-derived amino-acid sequence of a land turtle (Geochelone carbonaria) beta-chain hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Bordin, S; Meza, A N; Saad, S T; Ogo, S H; Costa, F F

    1997-06-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding the turtle Geochelone carbonaria beta-chain was determinated. The isolation of hemoglobin mRNA was based on degenerate primers' PCR in combination with 5'- and 3'-RACE protocol. The full length cDNA is 615 bp with the ATG start codon at position 53 and TGA stop codon at position 495; The AATAAA polyadenylation signal is found at position 599. The deduced polypeptyde contains 146 amino-acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shares 83% identity with the beta-globin of a related specie, the aquatic turtle C. p. belli. Otherwise, identity is higher when compared with chicken beta-Hb (80%) than with other reptilian orders (Squamata, 69%, and Crocodilia, 61%). Compared with human HbA, there is 67% identity, and at least three amino acid substitutions could be of some functional significance (Glu43 beta-->Ser, His116 beta-->Thr and His143 beta-->Leu). To our knowledge this represents the first cDNA sequence of a reptile globin gene described. PMID:9238523

  9. Amino acid sequence of the serine-repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum determined from cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1988-09-01

    We report the isolation of cDNA clones for a Plasmodium falciparum gene that encodes the complete amino acid sequence of a previously identified exported blood stage antigen. The Mr of this antigen protein had been determined by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, by different workers, to be 113,000, 126,000, and 140,000. We show, by cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, that this antigen gene encodes a 989 amino acid protein (111 kDa) that contains a potential signal peptide, but not a membrane anchor domain. In the FCR3 strain the serine content of the protein was 11%, of which 57% of the serine residues were localized within a 201 amino acid sequence that included 35 consecutive serine residues. The protein also contained three possible N-linked glycosylation sites and numerous possible O-linked glycosylation sites. The mRNA was abundant during late trophozoite-schizont parasite stages. We propose to identity this antigen, which had been called p126, by the acronym SERA, serine-repeat antigen, based on its complete structure. The usefulness of the cloned cDNA as a source of a possible malaria vaccine is considered in view of the previously demonstrated ability of the antigen to induce parasite-inhibitory antibodies and a protective immune response in Saimiri monkeys. PMID:2847041

  10. Use of a structural alphabet to find compatible folds for amino acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Swapnil; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Offmann, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The structural annotation of proteins with no detectable homologs of known 3D structure identified using sequence-search methods is a major challenge today. We propose an original method that computes the conditional probabilities for the amino-acid sequence of a protein to fit to known protein 3D structures using a structural alphabet, known as “Protein Blocks” (PBs). PBs constitute a library of 16 local structural prototypes that approximate every part of protein backbone structures. It is used to encode 3D protein structures into 1D PB sequences and to capture sequence to structure relationships. Our method relies on amino acid occurrence matrices, one for each PB, to score global and local threading of query amino acid sequences to protein folds encoded into PB sequences. It does not use any information from residue contacts or sequence-search methods or explicit incorporation of hydrophobic effect. The performance of the method was assessed with independent test datasets derived from SCOP 1.75A. With a Z-score cutoff that achieved 95% specificity (i.e., less than 5% false positives), global and local threading showed sensitivity of 64.1% and 34.2%, respectively. We further tested its performance on 57 difficult CASP10 targets that had no known homologs in PDB: 38 compatible templates were identified by our approach and 66% of these hits yielded correctly predicted structures. This method scales-up well and offers promising perspectives for structural annotations at genomic level. It has been implemented in the form of a web-server that is freely available at http://www.bo-protscience.fr/forsa. PMID:25297700

  11. Use of a structural alphabet to find compatible folds for amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Swapnil; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Offmann, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The structural annotation of proteins with no detectable homologs of known 3D structure identified using sequence-search methods is a major challenge today. We propose an original method that computes the conditional probabilities for the amino-acid sequence of a protein to fit to known protein 3D structures using a structural alphabet, known as "Protein Blocks" (PBs). PBs constitute a library of 16 local structural prototypes that approximate every part of protein backbone structures. It is used to encode 3D protein structures into 1D PB sequences and to capture sequence to structure relationships. Our method relies on amino acid occurrence matrices, one for each PB, to score global and local threading of query amino acid sequences to protein folds encoded into PB sequences. It does not use any information from residue contacts or sequence-search methods or explicit incorporation of hydrophobic effect. The performance of the method was assessed with independent test datasets derived from SCOP 1.75A. With a Z-score cutoff that achieved 95% specificity (i.e., less than 5% false positives), global and local threading showed sensitivity of 64.1% and 34.2%, respectively. We further tested its performance on 57 difficult CASP10 targets that had no known homologs in PDB: 38 compatible templates were identified by our approach and 66% of these hits yielded correctly predicted structures. This method scales-up well and offers promising perspectives for structural annotations at genomic level. It has been implemented in the form of a web-server that is freely available at http://www.bo-protscience.fr/forsa. PMID:25297700

  12. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  13. An Optimal Seed Based Compression Algorithm for DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Karunakaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a seed based lossless compression algorithm to compress a DNA sequence which uses a substitution method that is similar to the LempelZiv compression scheme. The proposed method exploits the repetition structures that are inherent in DNA sequences by creating an offline dictionary which contains all such repeats along with the details of mismatches. By ensuring that only promising mismatches are allowed, the method achieves a compression ratio that is at par or better than the existing lossless DNA sequence compression algorithms. PMID:27555868

  14. A Bead-Based Method for Multiplexed Identification and Quantitation of DNA Sequences Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Alexander; Lowe, Mary; Brown, Drew

    2000-01-01

    A new multiplexed, bead-based method which utilizes nucleic acid hybridizations on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences is described. The method consists of three elements: beads (5.6-μm diameter) with oligomer capture probes attached to the surface, three fluorophores for multiplexed detection, and flow cytometry instrumentation. Two fluorophores are impregnated within each bead in varying amounts to create different bead types, each associated with a unique probe. The third fluorophore is a reporter. Following capture of fluorescent cDNA sequences from environmental samples, the beads are analyzed by flow cytometric techniques which yield a signal intensity for each capture probe proportional to the amount of target sequences in the analyte. In this study, a direct hybrid capture assay was developed and evaluated with regard to sequence discrimination and quantitation of abundances. The target sequences (628 to 728 bp in length) were obtained from the 16S/23S intergenic spacer region of microorganisms collected from polluted groundwater at the nuclear waste site in Hanford, Wash. A fluorescence standard consisting of beads with a known number of fluorescent DNA molecules on the surface was developed, and the resolution, sensitivity, and lower detection limit for measuring abundances were determined. The results were compared with those of a DNA microarray using the same sequences. The bead method exhibited far superior sequence discrimination and possesses features which facilitate accurate quantitation. PMID:11010868

  15. Reassociation kinetics-based approach for partial genome sequencing of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence fiscally and technically problematic. To selectively obtain gene-enriched regions of this tick's genome, Cot filtration was performed, and Cot-filtered DNA was sequenced via 454 FLX pyrosequencing. Results The sequenced Cot-filtered genomic DNA was assembled with an EST-based gene index of 14,586 unique entries where each EST served as a potential "seed" for scaffold formation. The new sequence assembly extended the lengths of 3,913 of the 14,586 gene index entries. Over half of the extensions corresponded to extensions of over 30 amino acids. To survey the repetitive elements in the tick genome, the complete sequences of five BAC clones were determined. Both Class I and II transposable elements were found. Comparison of the BAC and Cot filtration data indicates that Cot filtration was highly successful in filtering repetitive DNA out of the genomic DNA used in 454 sequencing. Conclusion Cot filtration is a very useful strategy to incorporate into genome sequencing projects on organisms with large genome sizes and which contain high percentages of repetitive, difficult to assemble, genomic DNA. Combining the Cot selection approach with 454 sequencing and assembly with a pre-existing EST database as seeds resulted in extensions of 27% of the members of the EST database. PMID:20540747

  16. Defining the sequence requirements for the positioning of base J in DNA using SMRT sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Genest, Paul-Andre; Baugh, Loren; Taipale, Alex; Zhao, Wanqi; Jan, Sabrina; van Luenen, Henri G.A.M.; Korlach, Jonas; Clark, Tyson; Luong, Khai; Boitano, Matthew; Turner, Steve; Myler, Peter J.; Borst, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Base J (β-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil) replaces 1% of T in the Leishmania genome and is only found in telomeric repeats (99%) and in regions where transcription starts and stops. This highly restricted distribution must be co-determined by the thymidine hydroxylases (JBP1 and JBP2) that catalyze the initial step in J synthesis. To determine the DNA sequences recognized by JBP1/2, we used SMRT sequencing of DNA segments inserted into plasmids grown in Leishmania tarentolae. We show that SMRT sequencing recognizes base J in DNA. Leishmania DNA segments that normally contain J also picked up J when present in the plasmid, whereas control sequences did not. Even a segment of only 10 telomeric (GGGTTA) repeats was modified in the plasmid. We show that J modification usually occurs at pairs of Ts on opposite DNA strands, separated by 12 nucleotides. Modifications occur near G-rich sequences capable of forming G-quadruplexes and JBP2 is needed, as it does not occur in JBP2-null cells. We propose a model whereby de novo J insertion is mediated by JBP2. JBP1 then binds to J and hydroxylates another T 13 bp downstream (but not upstream) on the complementary strand, allowing JBP1 to maintain existing J following DNA replication. PMID:25662217

  17. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    PubMed

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients. PMID:27319095

  18. Software scripts for quality checking of high-throughput nucleic acid sequencers.

    PubMed

    Lazo, G R; Tong, J; Miller, R; Hsia, C; Rausch, C; Kang, Y; Anderson, O D

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a graphical interface to allow the researcher to view and assess the quality of sequencing results using a series of program scripts developed to process data generated by automated sequencers. The scripts are written in Perl programming language and are executable under the cgibin directory of a Web server environment. The scripts direct nucleic acid sequencing trace file data output from automated sequencers to be analyzed by the phred molecular biology program and are displayed as graphical hypertext mark-up language (HTML) pages. The scripts are mainly designed to handle 96-well microtiter dish samples, but the scripts are also able to read data from 384-well microtiter dishes 96 samples at a time. The scripts may be customized for different laboratory environments and computer configurations. Web links to the sources and discussion page are provided. PMID:11414222

  19. Recent Developments in Peptide-Based Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Veldhoen, Sandra; Laufer, Sandra D.; Restle, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. Among these synthetic vectors are cationic polymers, branched dendrimers, cationic liposomes and cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10–30 residues. CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a variety of different cargos into mammalian cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that endocytosis is a major route of internalisation even though the mechanisms underlying the cellular translocation of CPPs are poorly understood and still subject to controversial discussions. In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will discuss different mechanisms of entry, the intracellular fate of the cargo, correlation studies of uptake versus biological activity of the cargo as well as technical problems and pitfalls. PMID:19325804

  20. Recent developments in peptide-based nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Sandra; Laufer, Sandra D; Restle, Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. Among these synthetic vectors are cationic polymers, branched dendrimers, cationic liposomes and cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a variety of different cargos into mammalian cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that endocytosis is a major route of internalisation even though the mechanisms underlying the cellular translocation of CPPs are poorly understood and still subject to controversial discussions. In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will discuss different mechanisms of entry, the intracellular fate of the cargo, correlation studies of uptake versus biological activity of the cargo as well as technical problems and pitfalls. PMID:19325804

  1. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  2. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  3. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  4. Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Jewell, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

  5. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cloned human and mouse preprocathepsin B cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S J; San Segundo, B; McCormick, M B; Steiner, D F

    1986-01-01

    Cathepsin B is a lysosomal thiol proteinase that may have additional extralysosomal functions. To further our investigations on the structure, mode of biosynthesis, and intracellular sorting of this enzyme, we have determined the complete coding sequences for human and mouse preprocathepsin B by using cDNA clones isolated from human hepatoma and kidney phage libraries. The nucleotide sequences predict that the primary structure of preprocathepsin B contains 339 amino acids organized as follows: a 17-residue NH2-terminal prepeptide sequence followed by a 62-residue propeptide region, 254 residues in mature (single chain) cathepsin B, and a 6-residue extension at the COOH terminus. A comparison of procathepsin B sequences from three species (human, mouse, and rat) reveals that the homology between the propeptides is relatively conserved with a minimum of 68% sequence identity. In particular, two conserved sequences in the propeptide that may be functionally significant include a potential glycosylation site and the presence of a single cysteine at position 59. Comparative analysis of the three sequences also suggests that processing of procathepsin B is a multistep process, during which enzymatically active intermediate forms may be generated. The availability of the cDNA clones will facilitate the identification of possible active or inactive intermediate processive forms as well as studies on the transcriptional regulation of the cathepsin B gene. PMID:3463996

  6. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization.

    PubMed

    Anahtar, Melis N; Bowman, Brittany A; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  7. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  8. The developmental transcriptome landscape of bovine skeletal muscle defined by Ribo-Zero ribonucleic acid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Li, M; Sun, Y; Cai, H; Li, R; Wei, X; Lan, X; Huang, Y; Lei, C; Chen, H

    2015-12-01

    Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) libraries are normally prepared with oligo(dT) selection of poly(A)+ mRNA, but it depends on intact total RNA samples. Recent studies have described Ribo-Zero technology, a novel method that can capture both poly(A)+ and poly(A)- transcripts from intact or fragmented RNA samples. We report here the first application of Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq for the analysis of the bovine embryonic, neonatal, and adult skeletal muscle whole transcriptome at an unprecedented depth. Overall, 19,893 genes were found to be expressed, with a high correlation of expression levels between the calf and the adult. Hundreds of genes were found to be highly expressed in the embryo and decreased at least 10-fold after birth, indicating their potential roles in embryonic muscle development. In addition, we present for the first time the analysis of global transcript isoform discovery in bovine skeletal muscle and identified 36,694 transcript isoforms. Transcriptomic data were also analyzed to unravel sequence variations; 185,036 putative SNP and 12,428 putative short insertions-deletions (InDel) were detected. Specifically, many stop-gain, stop-loss, and frameshift mutations were identified that probably change the relative protein production and sequentially affect the gene function. Notably, the numbers of stage-specific transcripts, alternative splicing events, SNP, and InDel were greater in the embryo than in the calf and the adult, suggesting that gene expression is most active in the embryo. The resulting view of the transcriptome at a single-base resolution greatly enhances the comprehensive transcript catalog and uncovers the global trends in gene expression during bovine skeletal muscle development. PMID:26641174

  9. Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Kamlesh D [Ken]; SNL,

    2013-01-25

    Kamlesh (Ken) Patel from Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, California) presents "Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology " at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  10. The amino acid sequence of ribonuclease U2 from Ustilago sphaerogena.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, S; Uchida, T

    1975-01-01

    1. RNAase (ribonuclease) U2, a purine-specific RNAase, was reduced, aminoethylated and hydrolysed with trypsin, chymotrypsin and thermolysin. On the basis of the analyses of the resulting peptides, the complete amino acid sequence of RNAase U2 was determined, 2. When the sequence was compared with the amino acid sequence of RNAase T1 (EC 3.1.4.8), the following regions were found to be similar in the two enzymes; Tyr-Pro-His-Gln-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase U2 and Tyr-Pro-His-Lys-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase T1, Glu-Phe-Pro-Leu-Val (61-65) in RNAase U2 and Glu-Trp-Pro-Ile-Leu (58-62) in RNAase T1, Asp-Arg-Val-Ile-Tyr-Gln (83-88) in RNAase U2 and Asp-Arg-Val-Phe-Asn (76-81) in RNAase T1 and Val-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (98-103) in RNAase U2 and Ile-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (90-95) in RNAase T1. All of the amino acid residues, histidine-40, glutamate-58, arginine-77 and histidine-92, which were found to play a crucial role in the biological activity of RNAase T1, were included in the regions cited here. 3. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the sequence of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50041 (33 PAGES) AT THE British Library (Lending Division)(formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1975), 145, 5. PMID:1156364

  11. Deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid: SPL(pVal)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.A.; Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Hydrophobic, proteolipid-like protein of Mr 6500 was isolated from ether/ethanol extracts of human, canine and bovine pulmonary surfactant. Amino acid composition of the protein demonstrated a remarkable abundance of hydrophobic residues, particularly valine and leucine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human protein was determined: N-Leu-Ile-Pro-Cys-Cys-Pro-Val-Asn-Leu-Lys-Arg-Leu-Leu-Ile-Val4... An oligonucleotide probe was used to screen an adult human lung cDNA library and resulted in detection of cDNA clones with predicted amino acid sequence with close identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human peptide. SPL(pVal) was found within the reading frame of a larger peptide. SPL(pVal) results from proteolytic processing of a larger preprotein. Northern blot analysis detected in a single 1.0 kilobase SPL(pVal) RNA which was less abundant in fetal than in adult lung. Mixtures of purified canine and bovine SPL(pVal) and synthetic phospholipids display properties of rapid adsorption and surface tension lowering activity characteristic of surfactant. Human SPL(pVal) is a pulmonary surfactant proteolipid which may therefore be useful in combination with phospholipids and/or other surfactant proteins for the treatment of surfactant deficiency such as hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants.

  12. Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) from India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2011-06-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp, recently been classified as Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). The complete nucleic acid sequence of PstDNV from India was obtained by cloning and sequencing of different DNA fragment of the virus. The genome organisation of PstDNV revealed that there were three major coding domains: a left ORF (NS1) of 2001 bp, a mid ORF (NS2) of 1092 bp and a right ORF (VP) of 990 bp. The complete genome and amino acid sequences of three proteins viz., NS1, NS2 and VP were compared with the genomes of the virus reported from Hawaii, China and Mexico and with partial sequence available from isolates from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis of shrimp, insect and vertebrate parvovirus sequences showed that the Indian PstDNV isolate is phylogenetically more closely related to one of the three isolates from Taiwan (AY355307), and two isolates (AY362547 and AY102034) from Thailand. PMID:21402111

  13. Site-directed gene mutation at mixed sequence targets by psoralen-conjugated pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Nielsen, Peter E; Glazer, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules such as triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) provide a means for inducing site-specific mutagenesis and recombination at chromosomal sites in mammalian cells. However, the utility of TFOs is limited by the requirement for homopurine stretches in the target duplex DNA. Here, we report the use of pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids (pcPNAs) for intracellular gene targeting at mixed sequence sites. Due to steric hindrance, pcPNAs are unable to form pcPNA-pcPNA duplexes but can bind to complementary DNA sequences by Watson-Crick pairing via double duplex-invasion complex formation. We show that psoralen-conjugated pcPNAs can deliver site-specific photoadducts and mediate targeted gene modification within both episomal and chromosomal DNA in mammalian cells without detectable off-target effects. Most of the induced psoralen-pcPNA mutations were single-base substitutions and deletions at the predicted pcPNA-binding sites. The pcPNA-directed mutagenesis was found to be dependent on PNA concentration and UVA dose and required matched pairs of pcPNAs. Neither of the individual pcPNAs alone had any effect nor did complementary PNA pairs of the same sequence. These results identify pcPNAs as new tools for site-specific gene modification in mammalian cells without purine sequence restriction, thereby providing a general strategy for designing gene targeting molecules. PMID:17977869

  14. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the RsrI and EcoRI restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, F H; Ballard, B T; Boyer, H W; Rosenberg, J M; Greene, P J

    1989-12-21

    The RsrI endonuclease, a type-II restriction endonuclease (ENase) found in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, is an isoschizomer of the EcoRI ENase. A clone containing an 11-kb BamHI fragment was isolated from an R. sphaeroides genomic DNA library by hybridization with synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on the N-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence of RsrI. Extracts of E. coli containing a subclone of the 11-kb fragment display RsrI activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals an 831-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 277 aa. A 50% identity exists within a 266-aa overlap between the deduced aa sequences of RsrI and EcoRI. Regions of 75-100% aa sequence identity correspond to key structural and functional regions of EcoRI. The type-II ENases have many common properties, and a common origin might have been expected. Nevertheless, this is the first demonstration of aa sequence similarity between ENases produced by different organisms. PMID:2695392

  15. Molecular cytogenetics by polymerase catalyzed amplification or in situ labelling of specific nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bolund, L.; Brandt, C.; Hindkjaer, J.; Koch, J.; Koelvraa, S.; Pedersen, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can be performed on isolated cells or chromosomes and the product can be analyzed by DNA technology or by FISH to test metaphases. The authors have good experiences analyzing aberrant chromosomes by FACS sorting, PCR with degenerated primers and painting of test metaphases with the PCR product. They also utilize polymerases for PRimed IN Situ labelling (PRINS) of specific nucleic acid sequences. In PRINS oligonucleotides are hybridized to their target sequences and labeled nucleotides are incorporated at the site of hybridization with the oligonucleotide as primer. PRINS may eventually allow the study of individual genes, gene expression and even somatic mutations (in mRNA) in single cells.

  16. DNA Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Gene: Amino Acid Sequence of Repetitive Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea, Vincenzo; Ellis, Joan; Zavala, Fidel; Arnot, David E.; Asavanich, Achara; Masuda, Aoi; Quakyi, Isabella; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1984-08-01

    A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS β -lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  17. Partial amino acid sequence of apolipoprotein(a) shows that it is homologous to plasminogen

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.L.; Fless, G.M.; Kohr, W.J.; McLean, J.W.; Xu, Q.T.; Miller, C.G.; Lawn, R.M.; Scanu, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) is a glycoprotein with M/sub r/ approx. 280,000 that is disulfide linked to apolipoprotein B in lipoprotein(a) particles. Elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) are correlated with atherosclerosis. Partial amino acid sequence of apo(a) shows that it has striking homology to plasminogen. Plasminogen is a plasma serine protease zymogen that consists of five homologous and tandemly repeated domains called kringles and a trypsin-like protease domain. The amino-terminal sequence obtained for apo(a) is homologous to the beginning of kringle 4 but not the amino terminus of plasminogen. Apo(a) was subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin or V8 protease, and fragments generated were isolated and sequenced. Sequences obtained from several of these fragments are highly (77-100%) homologous to plasminogen residues 391-421, which reside within kringle 4. Analysis of these internal apo(a) sequences revealed that apo(a) may contain at least two kringle 4-like domains. A sequence obtained from another tryptic fragment also shows homology to the end of kringle 4 and the beginning of kringle 5. Sequence data obtained from the two tryptic fragments shows homology with the protease domain of plasminogen. One of these sequences is homologous to the sequences surrounding the activation site of plasminogen. Plasminogen is activated by the cleavage of a specific arginine residue by urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator; however, the corresponding site in apo(a) is a serine that would not be cleaved by tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase. Using a plasmin-specific assay, no proteolytic activity could be demonstrated for lipoprotein(a) particles. These results suggest that apo(a) contains kringle-like domains and an inactive protease domain.

  18. Rapid and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-acid Sequence by Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Ma, Ai-Jing; Li, Dong-Xun; Luo, Li-Juan; Liu, Dong-Xin; Jin, Dong; Liu, Kai; Ye, Chang-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We have devised a novel amplification strategy based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which was termed multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA). The approach employed a set of ten specially designed primers spanning ten distinct regions of target sequence and was preceded at a constant temperature (61–65 °C). At the assay temperature, the double-stranded DNAs were at dynamic reaction environment of primer-template hybrid, thus the high concentration of primers annealed to the template strands without a denaturing step to initiate the synthesis. For the subsequent isothermal amplification step, a series of primer binding and extension events yielded several single-stranded DNAs and single-stranded single stem-loop DNA structures. Then, these DNA products enabled the strand-displacement reaction to enter into the exponential amplification. Three mainstream methods, including colorimetric indicators, agarose gel electrophoresis and real-time turbidity, were selected for monitoring the MCDA reaction. Moreover, the practical application of the MCDA assay was successfully evaluated by detecting the target pathogen nucleic acid in pork samples, which offered advantages on quick results, modest equipment requirements, easiness in operation, and high specificity and sensitivity. Here we expounded the basic MCDA mechanism and also provided details on an alternative (Single-MCDA assay, S-MCDA) to MCDA technique. PMID:26154567

  19. A 265-base DNA sequencing read by capillary electrophoresis with no separation matrix.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Lin, Jennifer S; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-01-15

    Electrophoretic DNA sequencing without a polymer matrix is currently possible only with the use of some kind of "drag-tag" as a mobility modifier. In free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE), a drag-tag attached to each DNA fragment breaks linear charge-to-friction scaling, enabling size-based separation in aqueous buffer alone. Here we report a 265-base read for free-solution DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis using a random-coil protein drag-tag of unprecedented length and purity. We identified certain methods of protein expression and purification that allow the production of highly monodisperse drag-tags as long as 516 amino acids, which are almost charge neutral (+1 to +6) and yet highly water-soluble. Using a four-color LIF detector, 265 bases could be read in 30 min with a 267-amino acid drag-tag, on par with the average read of current next-gen sequencing systems. New types of multichannel systems that allow much higher throughput electrophoretic sequencing should be much more accessible in the absence of a requirement for viscous separation matrix. PMID:21182303

  20. Sequence-based protein stabilization in the absence of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nikki Y; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Jamaluddin, M Fairuz; Mahmud, S Halimah Binte; Raman, Suresh C; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine-linked N-glycosylation is a common modification of proteins that promotes productive protein folding and increases protein stability. Although N-glycosylation is important for glycoprotein folding, the precise sites of glycosylation are often not conserved between protein homologues. Here we show that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteins upregulated during sporulation under nutrient deprivation have few N-glycosylation sequons and in their place tend to contain clusters of like-charged amino-acid residues. Incorporation of such sequences complements loss of in vivo protein function in the absence of glycosylation. Targeted point mutation to create such sequence stretches at glycosylation sequons in model glycoproteins increases in vitro protein stability and activity. A dependence on glycosylation for protein stability or activity can therefore be rescued with a small number of local point mutations, providing evolutionary flexibility in the precise location of N-glycans, allowing protein expression under nutrient-limiting conditions, and improving recombinant protein production. PMID:24434425

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of human plasma Zn-. cap alpha. /sub 2/-glycoprotein and its homology to histocompatibility antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Gejyo, F.; Takagaki, K.; Haupt, H.; Schwick, H.G.; Buergi, W.; Marti, T.; Schaller, J.; Rickli, E.; Brossmer, R.

    1988-02-01

    In the present study the complete amino acid sequence of human plasma Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein was determined. This protein whose biological function is unknown consists of a single polypeptide chain of 276 amino acid residues including 8 tryptophan residues and has a pyroglutamyl residue at the amino terminus. The location of the two disulfide bonds in the polypeptide chain was also established. The three glycans, whose structure was elucidated with the aid of 500 MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy, were sialylated N-biantennas. The molecular weight calculated from the polypeptide and carbohydrate structure is 38,478, which is close to the reported value of approx. = 41,000 based on physicochemical measurements. The predicted secondary structure appeared to comprised of 23% ..cap alpha..-helix, 27% ..beta..-sheet, and 22% ..beta..-turns. The three N-glycans were found to be located in ..beta..-turn regions. An unexpected finding was made by computer analysis of the sequence data; this revealed that Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein is closely related to antigens of the major histocompatibility complex in amino acid sequence and in domain structure. There was an unusually high degree of sequence homology with the ..cap alpha.. chains of class I histocompatibility antigens. Moreover, this plasma protein was shown to be a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein appears to be truncated secretory major histocompatibility complex-related molecule, and it may have a role in the expression of the immune response.

  2. On human disease-causing amino acid variants: statistical study of sequence and structural patterns

    PubMed Central

    Alexov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Statistical analysis was carried out on large set of naturally occurring human amino acid variations and it was demonstrated that there is a preference for some amino acid substitutions to be associated with diseases. At an amino acid sequence level, it was shown that the disease-causing variants frequently involve drastic changes of amino acid physico-chemical properties of proteins such as charge, hydrophobicity and geometry. Structural analysis of variants involved in diseases and being frequently observed in human population showed similar trends: disease-causing variants tend to cause more changes of hydrogen bond network and salt bridges as compared with harmless amino acid mutations. Analysis of thermodynamics data reported in literature, both experimental and computational, indicated that disease-causing variants tend to destabilize proteins and their interactions, which prompted us to investigate the effects of amino acid mutations on large databases of experimentally measured energy changes in unrelated proteins. Although the experimental datasets were linked neither to diseases nor exclusory to human proteins, the observed trends were the same: amino acid mutations tend to destabilize proteins and their interactions. Having in mind that structural and thermodynamics properties are interrelated, it is pointed out that any large change of any of them is anticipated to cause a disease. PMID:25689729

  3. Self-sequencing of amino acids and origins of polyfunctional protocells.

    PubMed

    Fox, S W

    1984-01-01

    The primal role of the origins of proteins in molecular evolution is discussed. On the basis of this premise, the significance of the experimentally established self-sequencing of amino acids under simulated geological conditions is explained as due to the fact that the products are highly nonrandom and accordingly contain many kinds of information. When such thermal proteins are aggregated into laboratory protocells, an action that occurs readily, the resultant protocells also contain many kinds of information. Residue-by-residue order, enzymic activities, and lipid quality accordingly occur within each preparation of proteinoid (thermal protein). In this paper are reviewed briefly the phenomenon of self-sequencing of amino acids, its relationship to evolutionary processes, other significance of such self-ordering, and the experimental evidence for original polyfunctional protocells. PMID:6462684

  4. Self-Sequencing of Amino Acids and Origins of Polyfunctional Protocells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1984-12-01

    The primal role of the origins of proteins in molecular evolution is discussed. On the basis of this premise, the significance of the experimentally established self-sequencing of amino acids under simulated geological conditions is explained as due to the fact that the products are highly nonrandom and accordingly contain many kinds of information. When such thermal proteins are aggregated into laboratory protocells, an action that occurs readily, the resultant protocells also contain many kinds of information. Residue-by-residue order, enzymic activities, and lipid quality accordingly occur within each preparation of proteinoid (thermal protein). In this paper are reviewed briefly the phenomenon of self-sequencing of amino acids, its relationship to evolutionary processes, other significance of such self-ordering, and the experimental evidence for original polyfunctional protocells.

  5. Student Concept Changes in Acids and Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Renmin; Wells, Raymond R.

    This study focuses on student concept changes in acids and bases. Variables include field dependent level, personal independence level, interest in science or chemistry, teaching strategy, and student gender. This study of Grade 10 students (N=81) provides information relevant to secondary school chemistry learning, teaching, and concept change.…

  6. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  7. Repeat Sequences and Base Correlations in Human Y Chromosome Palindromes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Neng-zhi; Liu, Zi-xian; Qi, Yan-jiao; Qiu, Wen-yuan

    2009-06-01

    On the basis of information theory and statistical methods, we use mutual information, n-tuple entropy and conditional entropy, combined with biological characteristics, to analyze the long range correlation and short range correlation in human Y chromosome palindromes. The magnitude distribution of the long range correlation which can be reflected by the mutual information is P5>P5a>P5b (P5a and P5b are the sequences that replace solely Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats with random uncorrelated sequences in human Y chromosome palindrome 5, respectively); and the magnitude distribution of the short range correlation which can be reflected by the n-tuple entropy and the conditional entropy is P5>P5a>P5b>random uncorrelated sequence. In other words, when the Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats replace with random uncorrelated sequence, the long range and short range correlation decrease gradually. However, the random uncorrelated sequence has no correlation. This research indicates that more repeat sequences result in stronger correlation between bases in human Y chromosome. The analyses may be helpful to understand the special structures of human Y chromosome palindromes profoundly.

  8. SDT: A Virus Classification Tool Based on Pairwise Sequence Alignment and Identity Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Muhire, Brejnev Muhizi; Varsani, Arvind; Martin, Darren Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The perpetually increasing rate at which viral full-genome sequences are being determined is creating a pressing demand for computational tools that will aid the objective classification of these genome sequences. Taxonomic classification approaches that are based on pairwise genetic identity measures are potentially highly automatable and are progressively gaining favour with the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). There are, however, various issues with the calculation of such measures that could potentially undermine the accuracy and consistency with which they can be applied to virus classification. Firstly, pairwise sequence identities computed based on multiple sequence alignments rather than on multiple independent pairwise alignments can lead to the deflation of identity scores with increasing dataset sizes. Also, when gap-characters need to be introduced during sequence alignments to account for insertions and deletions, methodological variations in the way that these characters are introduced and handled during pairwise genetic identity calculations can cause high degrees of inconsistency in the way that different methods classify the same sets of sequences. Here we present Sequence Demarcation Tool (SDT), a free user-friendly computer program that aims to provide a robust and highly reproducible means of objectively using pairwise genetic identity calculations to classify any set of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. SDT can produce publication quality pairwise identity plots and colour-coded distance matrices to further aid the classification of sequences according to ICTV approved taxonomic demarcation criteria. Besides a graphical interface version of the program for Windows computers, command-line versions of the program are available for a variety of different operating systems (including a parallel version for cluster computing platforms). PMID:25259891

  9. Sequence of morphological transitions in two-dimensional pattern growth from aqueous ascorbic Acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, A S

    2002-08-12

    A sequence of morphological transitions in two-dimensional dehydration patterns of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid is observed with humidity as a control parameter. Change in morphology occurs due to humidity induced variation in the concentration of the metastable supersaturated solution phase formed after initial solvent evaporation. As percent humidity is varied from 40 to 80, patterns change from compact circular --> radial --> density modulated radial (a new morphology) --> density modulated circular --> density modulated dendritic (a new morphology) --> dense branching. PMID:12190528

  10. Self-sequencing of amino acids and origins of polyfunctional protocells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The role of proteins in the origin of living things is discussed. It has been experimentally established that amino acids can sequence themselves under simulated geological conditions with highly nonrandom products which accordingly contain diverse information. Multiple copies of each type of macromolecule are formed, resulting in greater power for any protoenzymic molecule than would accrue from a single copy of each type. Thermal proteins are readily incorporated into laboratory protocells. The experimental evidence for original polyfunctional protocells is discussed.

  11. Snake venom. The amino acid sequence of protein A from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Strydom, D J

    1980-12-01

    Protein A from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom comprises 81 amino acids, including ten half-cystine residues. The complete primary structures of protein A and its variant A' were elucidated. The sequences of proteins A and A', which differ in a single position, show no homology with various neurotoxins and non-neurotoxic proteins and represent a new type of elapid venom protein. PMID:7461607

  12. Predicting Salmonella enterica serotypes by repetitive sequence-based PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) utilizing a semi-automated system, was evaluated as a method to determine Salmonella serotypes. A group of 216 Salmonella isolates belonging to 13 frequently isolated serotypes and one rarer serotype from poultry were used to create a D...

  13. Which Microbial Communities Are Present? Sequence-Based Metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffrey, Sean M.

    The use of metagenomic methods that directly sequence environmental samples has revealed the extraordinary microbial diversity missed by traditional culture-based methodologies. Therefore, to develop a complete and representative model of an environment's microbial community and activities, metagenomic analysis is an essential tool.

  14. The amino acid sequence of protein SCMK-B2C from the high-sulphur fraction of wool keratin

    PubMed Central

    Elleman, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    1. The amino acid sequence of a protein from the reduced and carboxymethylated high-sulphur fraction of wool has been determined. 2. The sequence of this S-carboxymethylkerateine (SCMK-B2C) of 151 amino acid residues displays much internal homology and an unusual residue distribution. Thus a ten-residue sequence occurs four times near the N-terminus and five times near the C-terminus with few changes. These regions contain much of the molecule's half-cystine, whereas between them there is a region of 19 residues that are mainly small and devoid of cystine and proline. 3. Certain models of the wool fibre based on its mechanical and physical properties propose a matrix of small compact globular units linked together to form beaded chains. The unusual distribution of the component residues of protein SCMK-B2C suggests structures in the wool-fibre matrix compatible with certain features of the proposed models. PMID:4678578

  15. Analyses of mitochondrial amino acid sequence datasets support the proposal that specimens of Hypodontus macropi from three species of macropodid hosts represent distinct species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypodontus macropi is a common intestinal nematode of a range of kangaroos and wallabies (macropodid marsupials). Based on previous multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence data sets, H. macropi has been proposed to be complex of species. To test this proposal using independent molecular data, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial (mt) genomes of individuals of H. macropi from three different species of hosts (Macropus robustus robustus, Thylogale billardierii and Macropus [Wallabia] bicolor) as well as that of Macropicola ocydromi (a related nematode), and undertook a comparative analysis of the amino acid sequence datasets derived from these genomes. Results The mt genomes sequenced by next-generation (454) technology from H. macropi from the three host species varied from 13,634 bp to 13,699 bp in size. Pairwise comparisons of the amino acid sequences predicted from these three mt genomes revealed differences of 5.8% to 18%. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence data sets using Bayesian Inference (BI) showed that H. macropi from the three different host species formed distinct, well-supported clades. In addition, sliding window analysis of the mt genomes defined variable regions for future population genetic studies of H. macropi in different macropodid hosts and geographical regions around Australia. Conclusions The present analyses of inferred mt protein sequence datasets clearly supported the hypothesis that H. macropi from M. robustus robustus, M. bicolor and T. billardierii represent distinct species. PMID:24261823

  16. A Possible Mechanism of Zika Virus Associated Microcephaly: Imperative Role of Retinoic Acid Response Element (RARE) Consensus Sequence Repeats in the Viral Genome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, Himanshu N; Pareek, Vikas; Raza, Khursheed; Dantham, Subrahamanyam; Kumar, Pavan; Mochan, Sankat; Faiq, Muneeb A

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the reports of microcephaly as a consistent outcome in the fetuses of pregnant women infected with ZIKV in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV)-microcephaly etiomechanistic relationship has recently been implicated. Researchers, however, are still struggling to establish an embryological basis for this interesting causal handcuff. The present study reveals robust evidence in favor of a plausible ZIKV-microcephaly cause-effect liaison. The rationale is based on: (1) sequence homology between ZIKV genome and the response element of an early neural tube developmental marker "retinoic acid" in human DNA and (2) comprehensive similarities between the details of brain defects in ZIKV-microcephaly and retinoic acid embryopathy. Retinoic acid is considered as the earliest factor for regulating anteroposterior axis of neural tube and positioning of structures in developing brain through retinoic acid response elements (RARE) consensus sequence (5'-AGGTCA-3') in promoter regions of retinoic acid-dependent genes. We screened genomic sequences of already reported virulent ZIKV strains (including those linked to microcephaly) and other viruses available in National Institute of Health genetic sequence database (GenBank) for the RARE consensus repeats and obtained results strongly bolstering our hypothesis that ZIKV strains associated with microcephaly may act through precipitation of dysregulation in retinoic acid-dependent genes by introducing extra stretches of RARE consensus sequence repeats in the genome of developing brain cells. Additional support to our hypothesis comes from our findings that screening of other viruses for RARE consensus sequence repeats is positive only for those known to display neurotropism and cause fetal brain defects (for which maternal-fetal transmission during developing stage may be required). The numbers of RARE sequence repeats appeared to match with the virulence of screened positive viruses. Although, bioinformatic evidence and embryological

  17. Multiple Base Substitution Corrections in DNA Sequence Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczuk, M.; Mackiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, D.; Nowicka, A.; Dudkiewicz, M.; Dudek, M. R.; Cebrat, S.

    We discuss the Jukes and Cantor's one-parameter model and Kimura's two-parameter model unability to describe evolution of asymmetric DNA molecules. The standard distance measure between two DNA sequences, which is the number of substitutions per site, should include the effect of multiple base substitutions separately for each type of the base. Otherwise, the respective tables of substitutions cannot reconstruct the asymmetric DNA molecule with respect to the composition. Basing on Kimura's neutral theory, we have derived a linear law for the correlation of the mean survival time of nucleotides under constant mutation pressure and their fraction in the genome. According to the law, the corrections to Kimura's theory have been discussed to describe evolution of genomes with asymmetric nucleotide composition. We consider the particular case of the strongly asymmetric Borrelia burgdorferi genome and we discuss in detail the corrections, which should be introduced into the distance measure between two DNA sequences to include multiple base substitutions.

  18. Cationic Lipid-Based Nucleic Acid Vectors.

    PubMed

    Jubeli, Emile; Goldring, William P D; Pungente, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of nucleic acids into cells remains an important laboratory cell culture technique and potential clinical therapy, based upon the initial cellular uptake, then translation into protein (in the case of DNA), or gene deletion by RNA interference (RNAi). Although viral delivery vectors are more efficient, the high production costs, limited cargo capacity, and the potential for clinical adverse events make nonviral strategies attractive. Cationic lipids are the most widely applied and studied nonviral vectors; however, much remains to be solved to overcome limitations of these systems. Advances in the field of cationic lipid-based nucleic acid (lipoplex) delivery rely upon the development of robust and reproducible lipoplex formulations, together with the use of cell culture assays. This chapter provides detailed protocols towards the formulation, delivery, and assessment of in vitro cationic lipid-based delivery of DNA. PMID:27436310

  19. Complete amino acid sequence of a histidine-rich proteolytic fragment of human ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Kingston, I B; Kingston, B L; Putnam, F W

    1979-04-01

    The complete amino acid sequence has been determined for a fragment of human ceruloplasmin [ferroxidase; iron(II):oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.16.3.1]. The fragment (designated Cp F5) contains 159 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 18,650; it lacks carbohydrate, is rich in histidine, and contains one free cysteine that may be part of a copper-binding site. This fragment is present in most commercial preparations of ceruloplasmin, probably owing to proteolytic degradation, but can also be obtained by limited cleavage of single-chain ceruloplasmin with plasmin. Cp F5 probably is an intact domain attached to the COOH-terminal end of single-chain ceruloplasmin via a labile interdomain peptide bond. A model of the secondary structure predicted by empirical methods suggests that almost one-third of the amino acid residues are distributed in alpha helices, about a third in beta-sheet structure, and the remainder in beta turns and unidentified structures. Computer analysis of the amino acid sequence has not demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between this ceruloplasmin fragment and any other protein, but there is some evidence for an internal duplication. PMID:287005

  20. The amino acid sequence of Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) and golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) egg-white lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kuramoto, M; Torikata, T

    1990-09-01

    The amino acids of Lady Amherst's pheasant and golden pheasant egg-white lysozymes have been sequenced. The carboxymethylated lysozymes were digested with trypsin followed by sequencing of the tryptic peptides. Lady Amherst's pheasant lysozyme proved to consist of 129 amino acid residues, and a relative molecular mass of 14,423 Da was calculated. This lysozyme had 6 amino acids substitutions when compared with hen egg-white lysozyme: Phe3 to Tyr, His15 to Leu, Gln41 to His, Asn77 to His, Gln 121 to Asn, and a newly found substitution of Ile124 to Thr. The amino acid sequence of golden pheasant lysozyme was identical to that of Lady Amherst's phesant lysozyme. The phylogenetic tree constructured by the comparison of amino acid sequences of phasianoid birds lysozymes revealed a minimum genetic distance between these pheasants and the turkey-peafowl group. PMID:1368578

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  2. Complete amino acid sequence of globin chains and biological activity of fragmented crocodile hemoglobin (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Srihongthong, Saowaluck; Pakdeesuwan, Anawat; Daduang, Sakda; Araki, Tomohiro; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2012-08-01

    Hemoglobin, α-chain, β-chain and fragmented hemoglobin of Crocodylus siamensis demonstrated both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the hemoglobin did not depend on the heme structure but could result from the compositions of amino acid residues and structures present in their primary structure. Furthermore, thirteen purified active peptides were obtained by RP-HPLC analyses, corresponding to fragments in the α-globin chain and the β-globin chain which are mostly located at the N-terminal and C-terminal parts. These active peptides operate on the bacterial cell membrane. The globin chains of Crocodylus siamensis showed similar amino acids to the sequences of Crocodylus niloticus. The novel amino acid substitutions of α-chain and β-chain are not associated with the heme binding site or the bicarbonate ion binding site, but could be important through their interactions with membranes of bacteria. PMID:22648692

  3. [Partial sequence homology of FtsZ in phylogenetics analysis of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Xiu-zhu

    2005-10-01

    FtsZ is a structurally conserved protein, which is universal among the prokaryotes. It plays a key role in prokaryote cell division. A partial fragment of the ftsZ gene about 800bp in length was amplified and sequenced and a partial FtsZ protein phylogenetic tree for the lactic acid bacteria was constructed. By comparing the FtsZ phylogenetic tree with the 16S rDNA tree, it was shown that the two trees were similar in topology. Both trees revealed that Pediococcus spp. were closely related with L. casei group of Lactobacillus spp. , but less related with other lactic acid cocci such as Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The results also showed that the discriminative power of FtsZ was higher than that of 16S rDNA for either inter-species or inter-genus and could be a very useful tool in species identification of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16342751

  4. An Evolution Based Biosensor Receptor DNA Sequence Generation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Malrey; Gatton, Thomas M.; Lee, Jaewan; Zang, Yupeng

    2010-01-01

    A biosensor is composed of a bioreceptor, an associated recognition molecule, and a signal transducer that can selectively detect target substances for analysis. DNA based biosensors utilize receptor molecules that allow hybridization with the target analyte. However, most DNA biosensor research uses oligonucleotides as the target analytes and does not address the potential problems of real samples. The identification of recognition molecules suitable for real target analyte samples is an important step towards further development of DNA biosensors. This study examines the characteristics of DNA used as bioreceptors and proposes a hybrid evolution-based DNA sequence generating algorithm, based on DNA computing, to identify suitable DNA bioreceptor recognition molecules for stable hybridization with real target substances. The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) approach is applied in the proposed algorithm to evaluate the safety and fitness of the generated DNA sequences. This approach improves efficiency and stability for enhanced and variable-length DNA sequence generation and allows extension to generation of variable-length DNA sequences with diverse receptor recognition requirements. PMID:22315543

  5. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  6. Skeleton-based human action recognition using multiple sequence alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenwen; Liu, Kai; Cheng, Fei; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2015-05-01

    Human action recognition and analysis is an active research topic in computer vision for many years. This paper presents a method to represent human actions based on trajectories consisting of 3D joint positions. This method first decompose action into a sequence of meaningful atomic actions (actionlets), and then label actionlets with English alphabets according to the Davies-Bouldin index value. Therefore, an action can be represented using a sequence of actionlet symbols, which will preserve the temporal order of occurrence of each of the actionlets. Finally, we employ sequence comparison to classify multiple actions through using string matching algorithms (Needleman-Wunsch). The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on datasets captured by commodity depth cameras. Experiments of the proposed method on three challenging 3D action datasets show promising results.

  7. Nanopore-based fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  8. 5S rRNA sequences from four marine invertebrates and implications for base pairing models of metazoan sequences.

    PubMed

    Walker, W F; Doolittle, W F

    1983-08-11

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from the starfish Asterias vulgaris, the squid Illex illecebrosus, the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii and the jellyfish Aurelia aurita were determined. The sequence from Asterias lends support for one of two previous base pairing models for helix E in metazoan sequences. The Aurelia sequence differs by five nucleotides from that previously reported and does not violate the consensus secondary structure model for eukaryotic 5S rRNA. PMID:6136024

  9. Comparative characterization of random-sequence proteins consisting of 5, 12, and 20 kinds of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Junko; Doi, Nobuhide; Takashima, Hideaki; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    Screening of functional proteins from a random-sequence library has been used to evolve novel proteins in the field of evolutionary protein engineering. However, random-sequence proteins consisting of the 20 natural amino acids tend to aggregate, and the occurrence rate of functional proteins in a random-sequence library is low. From the viewpoint of the origin of life, it has been proposed that primordial proteins consisted of a limited set of amino acids that could have been abundantly formed early during chemical evolution. We have previously found that members of a random-sequence protein library constructed with five primitive amino acids show high solubility (Doi et al., Protein Eng Des Sel 2005;18:279-284). Although such a library is expected to be appropriate for finding functional proteins, the functionality may be limited, because they have no positively charged amino acid. Here, we constructed three libraries of 120-amino acid, random-sequence proteins using alphabets of 5, 12, and 20 amino acids by preselection using mRNA display (to eliminate sequences containing stop codons and frameshifts) and characterized and compared the structural properties of random-sequence proteins arbitrarily chosen from these libraries. We found that random-sequence proteins constructed with the 12-member alphabet (including five primitive amino acids and positively charged amino acids) have higher solubility than those constructed with the 20-member alphabet, though other biophysical properties are very similar in the two libraries. Thus, a library of moderate complexity constructed from 12 amino acids may be a more appropriate resource for functional screening than one constructed from 20 amino acids. PMID:20162614

  10. The first proton sponge-based amino acids: synthesis, acid-base properties and some reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Gorbacheva, Anastasia Yu; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Vlasenko, Marina P; Tereznikov, Alexander Yu; Chernov'yants, Margarita S

    2015-08-21

    The first hybrid base constructed from 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (proton sponge or DMAN) and glycine, N-methyl-N-(8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl)aminoacetic acid, was synthesised in high yield and its hydrobromide was structurally characterised and used to determine the acid-base properties via potentiometric titration. It was found that the basic strength of the DMAN-glycine base (pKa = 11.57, H2O) is on the level of amidine amino acids like arginine and creatine and its structure, zwitterionic vs. neutral, based on the spectroscopic (IR, NMR, mass) and theoretical (DFT) approaches has a strong preference to the zwitterionic form. Unlike glycine, the DMAN-glycine zwitterion is N-chiral and is hydrolytically cleaved with the loss of glycolic acid on heating in DMSO. This reaction together with the mild decarboxylative conversion of proton sponge-based amino acids into 2,3-dihydroperimidinium salts under air-oxygen was monitored with the help of the DMAN-alanine amino acid. The newly devised amino acids are unique as they combine fluorescence, strongly basic and redox-active properties. PMID:26159785

  11. QGRS Mapper: a web-based server for predicting G-quadruplexes in nucleotide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kikin, Oleg; D'Antonio, Lawrence; Bagga, Paramjeet S

    2006-01-01

    The quadruplex structures formed by guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences have received significant attention recently because of growing evidence for their role in important biological processes and as therapeutic targets. G-quadruplex DNA has been suggested to regulate DNA replication and may control cellular proliferation. Sequences capable of forming G-quadruplexes in the RNA have been shown to play significant roles in regulation of polyadenylation and splicing events in mammalian transcripts. Whether quadruplex structure directly plays a role in regulating RNA processing requires investigation. Computational approaches to study G-quadruplexes allow detailed analysis of mammalian genomes. There are no known easily accessible user-friendly tools that can compute G-quadruplexes in the nucleotide sequences. We have developed a web-based server, QGRS Mapper, that predicts quadruplex forming G-rich sequences (QGRS) in nucleotide sequences. It is a user-friendly application that provides many options for defining and studying G-quadruplexes. It performs analysis of the user provided genomic sequences, e.g. promoter and telomeric regions, as well as RNA sequences. It is also useful for predicting G-quadruplex structures in oligonucleotides. The program provides options to search and retrieve desired gene/nucleotide sequence entries from NCBI databases for mapping G-quadruplexes in the context of RNA processing sites. This feature is very useful for investigating the functional relevance of G-quadruplex structure, in particular its role in regulating the gene expression by alternative processing. In addition to providing data on composition and locations of QGRS relative to the processing sites in the pre-mRNA sequence, QGRS Mapper features interactive graphic representation of the data. The user can also use the graphics module to visualize QGRS distribution patterns among all the alternative RNA products of a gene simultaneously on a single screen. QGRS Mapper can be

  12. DUK - A Fast and Efficient Kmer Based Sequence Matching Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingkun; Copeland, Alex; Han, James

    2011-03-21

    A new tool, DUK, is developed to perform matching task. Matching is to find whether a query sequence partially or totally matches given reference sequences or not. Matching is similar to alignment. Indeed many traditional analysis tasks like contaminant removal use alignment tools. But for matching, there is no need to know which bases of a query sequence matches which position of a reference sequence, it only need know whether there exists a match or not. This subtle difference can make matching task much faster than alignment. DUK is accurate, versatile, fast, and has efficient memory usage. It uses Kmer hashing method to index reference sequences and Poisson model to calculate p-value. DUK is carefully implemented in C++ in object oriented design. The resulted classes can also be used to develop other tools quickly. DUK have been widely used in JGI for a wide range of applications such as contaminant removal, organelle genome separation, and assembly refinement. Many real applications and simulated dataset demonstrate its power.

  13. antaRNA: ant colony-based RNA sequence design

    PubMed Central

    Kleinkauf, Robert; Mann, Martin; Backofen, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: RNA sequence design is studied at least as long as the classical folding problem. Although for the latter the functional fold of an RNA molecule is to be found, inverse folding tries to identify RNA sequences that fold into a function-specific target structure. In combination with RNA-based biotechnology and synthetic biology, reliable RNA sequence design becomes a crucial step to generate novel biochemical components. Results: In this article, the computational tool antaRNA is presented. It is capable of compiling RNA sequences for a given structure that comply in addition with an adjustable full range objective GC-content distribution, specific sequence constraints and additional fuzzy structure constraints. antaRNA applies ant colony optimization meta-heuristics and its superior performance is shown on a biological datasets. Availability and implementation: http://www.bioinf.uni-freiburg.de/Software/antaRNA Contact: backofen@informatik.uni-freiburg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26023105

  14. N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Proteins by N-Terminal Dimethyl Labeling: Pitfalls and Advantages When Compared with Edman Degradation Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Elizabeth; Pourmal, Sergei; Zhou, Chun; Kumar, Rupesh; Teplova, Marianna; Pavletich, Nikola P; Marians, Kenneth J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye

    2016-07-01

    In recent history, alternative approaches to Edman sequencing have been investigated, and to this end, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Protein Sequencing Research Group (PSRG) initiated studies in 2014 and 2015, looking into bottom-up and top-down N-terminal (Nt) dimethyl derivatization of standard quantities of intact proteins with the aim to determine Nt sequence information. We have expanded this initiative and used low picomole amounts of myoglobin to determine the efficiency of Nt-dimethylation. Application of this approach on protein domains, generated by limited proteolysis of overexpressed proteins, confirms that it is a universal labeling technique and is very sensitive when compared with Edman sequencing. Finally, we compared Edman sequencing and Nt-dimethylation of the same polypeptide fragments; results confirm that there is agreement in the identity of the Nt amino acid sequence between these 2 methods. PMID:27006647

  15. N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Proteins by N-Terminal Dimethyl Labeling: Pitfalls and Advantages When Compared with Edman Degradation Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Elizabeth; Pourmal, Sergei; Zhou, Chun; Kumar, Rupesh; Teplova, Marianna; Pavletich, Nikola P.; Marians, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, alternative approaches to Edman sequencing have been investigated, and to this end, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Protein Sequencing Research Group (PSRG) initiated studies in 2014 and 2015, looking into bottom-up and top-down N-terminal (Nt) dimethyl derivatization of standard quantities of intact proteins with the aim to determine Nt sequence information. We have expanded this initiative and used low picomole amounts of myoglobin to determine the efficiency of Nt-dimethylation. Application of this approach on protein domains, generated by limited proteolysis of overexpressed proteins, confirms that it is a universal labeling technique and is very sensitive when compared with Edman sequencing. Finally, we compared Edman sequencing and Nt-dimethylation of the same polypeptide fragments; results confirm that there is agreement in the identity of the Nt amino acid sequence between these 2 methods. PMID:27006647

  16. Application of combined mass spectrometry and partial amino acid sequence to the identification of gel-separated proteins.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S D; Thomas, D; Bradshaw, R A

    1996-05-01

    The combined use of peptide mass information with amino acid sequence information derived by chemical sequencing or mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches provides a powerful means of protein identification. We have used a two-part strategy to identify proteins from nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 cell lysates that associate with the adaptor protein Shc (Shc homologous and collagen protein). Initial experiments with metabolically radiolabeled cell extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a number of proteins that coimmunoprecipitated with anti-Shc antibody compared with control (unstimulated) cell extracts. The experiment was scaled up and cell lysate from NGF-stimulated PC-12 cells was applied to a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-Shc affinity column, eluted, separated by SDS-PAGE and blotted to Immobilon-CD. The blotted proteins were proteolytically digested in situ, and the masses obtained from the extracted peptides were used in a peptide-mass search program in an attempt to identify the protein. Even if a strong candidate was found using this search, an additional step was performed to confirm the identification. The mixtures were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and subjected to chemical sequencing to obtain (partial) sequence information, or post-source decay (PSD-) matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS to obtain sequence-specific fragment ions. This data was used in a peptide-sequence tag search to confirm the identity of the proteins. This combined approach allowed identification of four proteins of M(r) 43,000 to 200,000. In one case the identified protein clearly did not correspond to the radiolabeled band, but to a protein contaminant from the column. The advantages and pitfalls of the approach are discussed. PMID:8783013

  17. Partial amino acid sequence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from the blue-green algae Synechococcus leopoliensis.

    PubMed

    Marcus, F; Latshaw, S P; Steup, M; Gerbling, K P

    1989-08-01

    Purified fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis was S-carboxymethylated and cleaved with trypsin. The resulting peptides were purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and the amino acid sequence of six of the purified peptides was determined by gas-phase microsequencing. The results revealed sequence homology with other fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases. The obtained sequence data provides information required for the design of oligonucleotide hybridization probes to screen existing libraries of cyanobacterial DNA. The determination of the amino acid sequence of cyanobacterial proteins may yield important information with respect to the endosymbiotic theory of evolution. PMID:2550924

  18. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Posner, R.G.; Marrone, B.L.; Hammond, M.L.; Simpson, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    A method is described for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand. 4 figures.

  19. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Posner, Richard G.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Hammond, Mark L.; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand.

  20. Base sequence effects on interactions of aromatic mutagens with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.

    1992-09-30

    The chemical binding of bulky, mutagenic and carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic compounds to certain base-sequences in genomic DNA is known to inhibit DNA replication, and to induce mutations and cancer. In particular, sequences that contain multiple consecutive guanines appear to be hot spots of mutation. The objectives of this research are to determine how the base sequence around the mutagen-modified target bases influences the local DNA conformation and gives rise to mispairing of bases, or deletions, near the lesion. Oligonucleotides containing one, two, or three guanines were synthesized and chemically reacted with the mutagen anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-benzo(a)pyrene (BPDE), one of the most mutagenic and tumorigenic metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene. Adducts are formed in which only one of the guanines is modified by trans or cis addition to the exocyclic amino group. The BPDE-oligonucleotides are separated chromatographically, and the site of modification is established by Maxam-Gilbert high resolution gel electrophoresis techniques. The thermodynamic properties of duplexes using complementary, or partially complementary strands were examined. In the latter, the base opposite the modified guanine was varied in order to investigate the probability of mispairing of the modified G with A,T and G. The successful synthesis of stereospecific and site-specific mutagen-oligonucleotide adducts opens new possibilities for correlating adduct structure-biological activity relationships, and thus lead to a better understanding of base-sequence effects in mutagenesis induced by energy-related bulky polynuclear aromatic chemicals.

  1. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  2. Automating the Photogrammetric Bridging Based on MMS Image Sequence Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. F. C.; Lemes Neto, M. C.; Blasechi, V.

    2014-11-01

    The photogrammetric bridging or traverse is a special bundle block adjustment (BBA) for connecting a sequence of stereo-pairs and of determining the exterior orientation parameters (EOP). An object point must be imaged in more than one stereo-pair. In each stereo-pair the distance ratio between an object and its corresponding image point varies significantly. We propose to automate the photogrammetric bridging based on a fully automatic extraction of homologous points in stereo-pairs and on an arbitrary Cartesian datum to refer the EOP and tie points. The technique uses SIFT algorithm and the keypoint matching is given by similarity descriptors of each keypoint based on the smallest distance. All the matched points are used as tie points. The technique was applied initially to two pairs. The block formed by four images was treated by BBA. The process follows up to the end of the sequence and it is semiautomatic because each block is processed independently and the transition from one block to the next depends on the operator. Besides four image blocks (two pairs), we experimented other arrangements with block sizes of six, eight, and up to twenty images (respectively, three, four, five and up to ten bases). After the whole image pairs sequence had sequentially been adjusted in each experiment, a simultaneous BBA was run so to estimate the EOP set of each image. The results for classical ("normal case") pairs were analyzed based on standard statistics regularly applied to phototriangulation, and they show figures to validate the process.

  3. Chem I Supplement: Emphasis on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education Staff

    1977-01-01

    Provides supplementary notes on acids and bases suitable for secondary school chemistry instruction, including acidity in solid and natural waters, acidity balance in body chemistry, acid and basic foods, pH values of common fluids, examples of drugs, and commercial preparation of nitric acid. (SL)

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the Haplosporidia based on two independent gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Reece, Kimberly S; Siddall, Mark E; Stokes, Nancy A; Burreson, Eugene M

    2004-10-01

    The phylogenetic position of the Haplosporidia has confounded taxonomists for more than a century because of the unique morphology of these parasites. We collected DNA sequence data for small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and actin genes from haplosporidians and other protists for conducting molecular phylogenetic analyses to help elucidate relationships of taxa within the group, as well as placement of this group among Eukaryota. Analyses were conducted using DNA sequence data from more than 100 eukaryotic taxa with various combinations of data sets including nucleotide sequence data for each gene separately and combined, as well as SSU ribosomal DNA data combined with translated actin amino acids. In almost all analyses, the Haplosporidia was sister to the Cercozoa with moderate bootstrap and jackknife support. Analysis with actin amino acid sequences alone grouped haplosporidians with the foraminiferans and cercozoans. The haplosporidians Minchinia and Urosporidium were found to be monophyletic, whereas Haplosporidium was paraphyletic. "Microcell" parasites, Bonamia spp. and Mikrocytos roughleyi, were sister to Minchinia, the most derived genus, with Haplosporidium falling between the "microcells" and the more basal Urosporidium. Two recently discovered parasites, one from abalone in New Zealand and another from spot prawns in British Columbia, fell at the base of the Haplosporidia with very strong support, indicating a taxonomic affinity to this group. PMID:15562612

  5. Novel method for PIK3CA mutation analysis: locked nucleic acid--PCR sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ang, Daphne; O'Gara, Rebecca; Schilling, Amy; Beadling, Carol; Warrick, Andrea; Troxell, Megan L; Corless, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    Somatic mutations in PIK3CA are commonly seen in invasive breast cancer and several other carcinomas, occurring in three hotspots: codons 542 and 545 of exon 9 and in codon 1047 of exon 20. We designed a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-PCR sequencing assay to detect low levels of mutant PIK3CA DNA with attention to avoiding amplification of a pseudogene on chromosome 22 that has >95% homology to exon 9 of PIK3CA. We tested 60 FFPE breast DNA samples with known PIK3CA mutation status (48 cases had one or more PIK3CA mutations, and 12 were wild type) as identified by PCR-mass spectrometry. PIK3CA exons 9 and 20 were amplified in the presence or absence of LNA-oligonucleotides designed to bind to the wild-type sequences for codons 542, 545, and 1047, and partially suppress their amplification. LNA-PCR sequencing confirmed all 51 PIK3CA mutations; however, the mutation detection rate by standard Sanger sequencing was only 69% (35 of 51). Of the 12 PIK3CA wild-type cases, LNA-PCR sequencing detected three additional H1047R mutations in "normal" breast tissue and one E545K in usual ductal hyperplasia. Histopathological review of these three normal breast specimens showed columnar cell change in two (both with known H1047R mutations) and apocrine metaplasia in one. The novel LNA-PCR shows higher sensitivity than standard Sanger sequencing and did not amplify the known pseudogene. PMID:23541593

  6. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Meili; Xiao, Jingfa; Hao, Lirui; Crowley, David E; Zhang, Zhewen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Ning; Huo, Mingxin; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:26301592

  7. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jingfa; Hao, Lirui; Crowley, David E.; Zhang, Zhewen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Ning; Huo, Mingxin; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:26301592

  8. Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes

    PubMed Central

    Storhoff, James J; Lucas, Adam D; Garimella, Viswanadham; Bao, Y Paul; Müller, Uwe R

    2005-01-01

    Nucleic acid diagnostics is dominated by fluorescence-based assays that use complex and expensive enzyme-based target or signal-amplification procedures1–6. Many clinical diagnostic applications will require simpler, inexpensive assays that can be done in a screening mode. We have developed a ‘spot-and-read’ colorimetric detection method for identifying nucleic acid sequences based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In this assay, nucleic acid targets are recognized by DNA-modified gold probes, which undergo a color change that is visually detectable when the solutions are spotted onto an illuminated glass waveguide. This scatter-based method enables detection of zeptomole quantities of nucleic acid targets without target or signal amplification when coupled to an improved hybridization method that facilitates probe-target binding in a homogeneous format. In comparison to a previously reported absorbance-based method7, this method increases detection sensitivity by over four orders of magnitude. We have applied this method to the rapid detection of mecA in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genomic DNA samples. PMID:15170215

  9. From Amino Acid to Glucosinolate Biosynthesis: Protein Sequence Changes in the Evolution of Methylthioalkylmalate Synthase in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    de Kraker, Jan-Willem; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Methylthioalkylmalate synthase (MAM) catalyzes the committed step in the side chain elongation of Met, yielding important precursors for glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species. MAM is believed to have evolved from isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS), an enzyme involved in Leu biosynthesis, based on phylogenetic analyses and an overlap of catalytic abilities. Here, we investigated the changes in protein structure that have occurred during the recruitment of IPMS from amino acid to glucosinolate metabolism. The major sequence difference between IPMS and MAM is the absence of 120 amino acids at the C-terminal end of MAM that constitute a regulatory domain for Leu-mediated feedback inhibition. Truncation of this domain in Arabidopsis IPMS2 results in loss of Leu feedback inhibition and quaternary structure, two features common to MAM enzymes, plus an 8.4-fold increase in the kcat/Km for a MAM substrate. Additional exchange of two amino acids in the active site resulted in a MAM-like enzyme that had little residual IPMS activity. Hence, combination of the loss of the regulatory domain and a few additional amino acid exchanges can explain the evolution of MAM from IPMS during its recruitment from primary to secondary metabolism. PMID:21205930

  10. Bile acid sulfotransferase I from rat liver sulfates bile acids and 3-hydroxy steroids: purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S; Buchina, E S; King, R J; McBurnett, T; Taylor, K B

    1989-04-01

    A bile acid:3'phosphoadenosine-5'phosphosulfate:sulfotransferase (BAST I) from adult female rat liver cytosol has been purified 157-fold by a two-step isolation procedure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 30,000 subunit has been determined for the first 35 residues. The Vmax of purified BAST I is 18.7 nmol/min per mg protein with N-(3-hydroxy-5 beta-cholanoyl)glycine (glycolithocholic acid) as substrate, comparable to that of the corresponding purified human BAST (Chen, L-J., and I. H. Segel, 1985. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 241: 371-379). BAST I activity has a broad pH optimum from 5.5-7.5. Although maximum activity occurs with 5 mM MgCl2, Mg2+ is not essential for BAST I activity. The greatest sulfotransferase activity and the highest substrate affinity is observed with bile acids or steroids that have a steroid nucleus containing a 3 beta-hydroxy group and a 5-6 double bond or a trans A-B ring junction. These substrates have normal hyperbolic initial velocity curves with substrate inhibition occurring above 5 microM. Of the saturated 5 beta-bile acids, those with a single 3-hydroxy group are the most active. The addition of a second hydroxy group at the 6- or 7-position eliminates more than 99% of the activity. In contrast, 3 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (deoxycholic acid) is an excellent substrate. The initial velocity curves for glycolithocholic and deoxycholic acid conjugates are sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic, suggestive of an allosteric effect. Maximum activity is observed at 80 microM for glycolithocholic acid. All substrates, bile acids and steroids, are inhibited by the 5 beta-bile acid, 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid. The data suggest that BAST I is the same protein as hydrosteroid sulfotransferase 2 (Marcus, C. J., et al. 1980. Anal. Biochem. 107: 296-304). PMID:2754334

  11. Sequence-defined bioactive macrocycles via an acid-catalysed cascade reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porel, Mintu; Thornlow, Dana N.; Phan, Ngoc N.; Alabi, Christopher A.

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic macrocycles derived from sequence-defined oligomers are a unique structural class whose ring size, sequence and structure can be tuned via precise organization of the primary sequence. Similar to peptides and other peptidomimetics, these well-defined synthetic macromolecules become pharmacologically relevant when bioactive side chains are incorporated into their primary sequence. In this article, we report the synthesis of oligothioetheramide (oligoTEA) macrocycles via a one-pot acid-catalysed cascade reaction. The versatility of the cyclization chemistry and modularity of the assembly process was demonstrated via the synthesis of >20 diverse oligoTEA macrocycles. Structural characterization via NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of conformational isomers, which enabled the determination of local chain dynamics within the macromolecular structure. Finally, we demonstrate the biological activity of oligoTEA macrocycles designed to mimic facially amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides. The preliminary results indicate that macrocyclic oligoTEAs with just two-to-three cationic charge centres can elicit potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Unconventional amino acid sequence of the sun anemone (Stoichactis helianthus) polypeptide neurotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Kem, W.; Dunn, B.; Parten, B.; Pennington, M.; Price, D.

    1986-05-01

    A 5000 dalton polypeptide neurotoxin (Sh-NI) purified by G50 Sephadex, P-cellulose, and SP-Sephadex chromatography was homogeneous by isoelectric focusing. Sh-NI was highly toxic to crayfish (LD/sub 50/ 0.6 ..mu..g/kg) but without effect upon mice at 15,000 ..mu..g/kg (i.p. injection). The reduced, /sup 3/H-carboxymethylated toxin and its fragments were subjected to automatic Edman degradation and the resulting PTH-amino acids were identified by HPLC, back hydrolysis, and scintillation counting. Peptides resulting from proteolytic (clostripain, staphylococcal protease) and chemical (tryptophan) cleavage were sequenced. The sequence is: AACKCDDEGPDIRTAPLTGTVDLGSCNAGWEKCASYYTIIADCCRKKK. This sequence differs considerably from the homologous Anemonia and Anthopleura toxins; many of the identical residues (6 half-cystines, G9, P10, R13, G19, G29, W30) are probably critical for folding rather than receptor recognition. However, the Sh-NI sequence closely resembles Radioanthus macrodactylus neurotoxin III and r. paumotensis II. The authors propose that Sh-NI and related Radioanthus toxins act upon a different site on the sodium channel.

  13. Repeat sequence chromosome specific nucleic acid probes and methods of preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Weier, H.U.G.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-06-27

    A primer directed DNA amplification method to isolate efficiently chromosome-specific repeated DNA wherein degenerate oligonucleotide primers are used is disclosed. The probes produced are a heterogeneous mixture that can be used with blocking DNA as a chromosome-specific staining reagent, and/or the elements of the mixture can be screened for high specificity, size and/or high degree of repetition among other parameters. The degenerate primers are sets of primers that vary in sequence but are substantially complementary to highly repeated nucleic acid sequences, preferably clustered within the template DNA, for example, pericentromeric alpha satellite repeat sequences. The template DNA is preferably chromosome-specific. Exemplary primers and probes are disclosed. The probes of this invention can be used to determine the number of chromosomes of a specific type in metaphase spreads, in germ line and/or somatic cell interphase nuclei, micronuclei and/or in tissue sections. Also provided is a method to select arbitrarily repeat sequence probes that can be screened for chromosome-specificity. 18 figs.

  14. Repeat sequence chromosome specific nucleic acid probes and methods of preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Gray, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    A primer directed DNA amplification method to isolate efficiently chromosome-specific repeated DNA wherein degenerate oligonucleotide primers are used is disclosed. The probes produced are a heterogeneous mixture that can be used with blocking DNA as a chromosome-specific staining reagent, and/or the elements of the mixture can be screened for high specificity, size and/or high degree of repetition among other parameters. The degenerate primers are sets of primers that vary in sequence but are substantially complementary to highly repeated nucleic acid sequences, preferably clustered within the template DNA, for example, pericentromeric alpha satellite repeat sequences. The template DNA is preferably chromosome-specific. Exemplary primers ard probes are disclosed. The probes of this invention can be used to determine the number of chromosomes of a specific type in metaphase spreads, in germ line and/or somatic cell interphase nuclei, micronuclei and/or in tissue sections. Also provided is a method to select arbitrarily repeat sequence probes that can be screened for chromosome-specificity.

  15. Spike-Based Bayesian-Hebbian Learning of Temporal Sequences.

    PubMed

    Tully, Philip J; Lindén, Henrik; Hennig, Matthias H; Lansner, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Many cognitive and motor functions are enabled by the temporal representation and processing of stimuli, but it remains an open issue how neocortical microcircuits can reliably encode and replay such sequences of information. To better understand this, a modular attractor memory network is proposed in which meta-stable sequential attractor transitions are learned through changes to synaptic weights and intrinsic excitabilities via the spike-based Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) learning rule. We find that the formation of distributed memories, embodied by increased periods of firing in pools of excitatory neurons, together with asymmetrical associations between these distinct network states, can be acquired through plasticity. The model's feasibility is demonstrated using simulations of adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model neurons (AdEx). We show that the learning and speed of sequence replay depends on a confluence of biophysically relevant parameters including stimulus duration, level of background noise, ratio of synaptic currents, and strengths of short-term depression and adaptation. Moreover, sequence elements are shown to flexibly participate multiple times in the sequence, suggesting that spiking attractor networks of this type can support an efficient combinatorial code. The model provides a principled approach towards understanding how multiple interacting plasticity mechanisms can coordinate hetero-associative learning in unison. PMID:27213810

  16. Spike-Based Bayesian-Hebbian Learning of Temporal Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Henrik; Lansner, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many cognitive and motor functions are enabled by the temporal representation and processing of stimuli, but it remains an open issue how neocortical microcircuits can reliably encode and replay such sequences of information. To better understand this, a modular attractor memory network is proposed in which meta-stable sequential attractor transitions are learned through changes to synaptic weights and intrinsic excitabilities via the spike-based Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) learning rule. We find that the formation of distributed memories, embodied by increased periods of firing in pools of excitatory neurons, together with asymmetrical associations between these distinct network states, can be acquired through plasticity. The model’s feasibility is demonstrated using simulations of adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model neurons (AdEx). We show that the learning and speed of sequence replay depends on a confluence of biophysically relevant parameters including stimulus duration, level of background noise, ratio of synaptic currents, and strengths of short-term depression and adaptation. Moreover, sequence elements are shown to flexibly participate multiple times in the sequence, suggesting that spiking attractor networks of this type can support an efficient combinatorial code. The model provides a principled approach towards understanding how multiple interacting plasticity mechanisms can coordinate hetero-associative learning in unison. PMID:27213810

  17. Morphological tranformation of calcite crystal growth by prismatic "acidic" polypeptide sequences.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I; Giocondi, J L; Orme, C A; Collino, J; Evans, J S

    2007-02-13

    Many of the interesting mechanical and materials properties of the mollusk shell are thought to stem from the prismatic calcite crystal assemblies within this composite structure. It is now evident that proteins play a major role in the formation of these assemblies. Recently, a superfamily of 7 conserved prismatic layer-specific mollusk shell proteins, Asprich, were sequenced, and the 42 AA C-terminal sequence region of this protein superfamily was found to introduce surface voids or porosities on calcite crystals in vitro. Using AFM imaging techniques, we further investigate the effect that this 42 AA domain (Fragment-2) and its constituent subdomains, DEAD-17 and Acidic-2, have on the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite dislocation hillocks. We find that Fragment-2 adsorbs on terrace surfaces and pins acute steps, accelerates then decelerates the growth of obtuse steps, forms clusters and voids on terrace surfaces, and transforms calcite hillock morphology from a rhombohedral form to a rounded one. These results mirror yet are distinct from some of the earlier findings obtained for nacreous polypeptides. The subdomains Acidic-2 and DEAD-17 were found to accelerate then decelerate obtuse steps and induce oval rather than rounded hillock morphologies. Unlike DEAD-17, Acidic-2 does form clusters on terrace surfaces and exhibits stronger obtuse velocity inhibition effects than either DEAD-17 or Fragment-2. Interestingly, a 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces an irregular polygonal morphology to hillocks, and exhibits the highest degree of acute step pinning and obtuse step velocity inhibition. This suggests that there is some interplay between subdomains within an intra (Fragment-2) or intermolecular (1:1 mixture) context, and sequence interplay phenomena may be employed by biomineralization proteins to exert net effects on crystal growth and morphology.

  18. Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from primary amino acid sequence

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pratul Kumar

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a method utilizing primary amino acid sequence of a protein, energy minimization, molecular dynamics and protein vibrational modes to predict three-dimensional structure of a protein. The present invention also determines possible intermediates in the protein folding pathway. The present invention has important applications to the design of novel drugs as well as protein engineering. The present invention predicts the three-dimensional structure of a protein independent of size of the protein, overcoming a significant limitation in the prior art.

  19. Amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the major structural polypeptides of avian retroviruses: sequence homology between reticuloendotheliosis virus p30 and p30s of mammalian retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, E; Bhown, A S; Bennett, J C

    1978-01-01

    The major structural polypeptides, p30 of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) (strain T) and p27 of avian sarcoma virus B77, have been compared with regard to amino acid composition. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, and immunological crossreactions. The amino acid composition of the two polypeptides is distinct, and a comparison of the first 30 NH2-terminal amino acids of REV p30 with that for the first 25 of B77 p27 yields only three homologous residues. In competition radioimmunoassays the polypeptides show no crossreactivity. A comparison of the amino acid composition and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of REV p30 with those reported for several mammalian retrovirus p30s shows remarkable similarities. Both REV and mammalian p30s contain a large number of polar residues in their amino acid composition and show approximately 40% homology in the first 30 NH2-terminal amino acids. No crossreactivity could be observed, however, in competition radioimmunoassays between Rauscher murine leukemia virus p30 and that of REV. The observations reported here suggest a close evolutionary relationship between REV and the mammalian retroviruses. Images PMID:208072

  20. Purification and amino acid sequence of aminopeptidase P from pig kidney.

    PubMed

    Vergas Romero, C; Neudorfer, I; Mann, K; Schäfer, W

    1995-04-01

    Aminopeptidase P from kidney cortex was purified in high yield (recovery greater than or equal to 20%) by a series of column chromatographic steps after solubilization of the membrane-bound glycoprotein with n-butanol. A coupled enzymic assay, using Gly-Pro-Pro-NH-Nap as substrate and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV as auxilliary enzyme, was used to monitor the purification. The purification procedure yielded two forms of aminopeptidase P differing in their carbohydrate composition (glycoforms). Both enzyme preparations were homogeneous as assessed by SDS/PAGE silver staining, and isoelectric focusing. Both forms possessed the same substrate specificity, catalysed the same reaction, and consisted of identical protein chains. The amino acid sequence determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry consisted of 623 amino acids. Six N-glycosylation sites, all contained in the N-terminal half of the protein, were characterized. PMID:7744038

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus sp. Strain SK-3, a 4-Chlorobiphenyl- and 4-Clorobenzoic Acid-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Vilo, Claudia; Benedik, Michael J.; Ilori, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, which can use 4-chlorobiphenyl and 4-clorobenzoic acid as the sole carbon source for growth. The draft genome sequence allowed the study of the polychlorinated biphenyl degradation mechanism and the recharacterization of the strain SK-3 as a Cupriavidus species. PMID:24994805

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. PMID:27231363

  3. New monoclonal antibodies to the Ebola virus glycoprotein: Identification and analysis of the amino acid sequence of the variable domains.

    PubMed

    Panina, A A; Aliev, T K; Shemchukova, O B; Dement'yeva, I G; Varlamov, N E; Pozdnyakova, L P; Bokov, M N; Dolgikh, D A; Sveshnikov, P G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-03-01

    We determined the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of variable domains of three new monoclonal antibodies to the glycoprotein of Ebola virus capsid. The framework and hypervariable regions of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains were identified. The primary structures were confirmed using massspectrometry analysis. Immunoglobulin database search showed the uniqueness of the sequences obtained. PMID:27193713

  4. Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, Isolated from a Nonscalded Curd Pressed Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Velly, H.; Abraham, A.-L.; Loux, V.; Delacroix-Buchet, A.; Fonseca, F.; Bouix, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the production of many fermented foods, such as dairy products. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, isolated from nonscalded curd pressed cheese. This genome sequence provides information in relation to dairy environment adaptation. PMID:25377704

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siyuan; Meng, Yonghong; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. PMID:27231363

  6. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  7. Rapid Nucleic Acid Sequencing Methods--Alternative Approaches to Facilitating Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Charles F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Because advanced students had difficulty in interpreting cleavage patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis related to rapid sequencing techniques for DNA and RNA, several formats were developed to aid in understanding this topic. Formats included print, print plus scrambled print, interactive computer-based instruction, and high-resolution…

  8. Improving the prospects of cleavage-based nanopore sequencing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Kyle T.; Reiner, Joseph E.

    2015-08-01

    Recently proposed methods for DNA sequencing involve the use of cleavage-based enzymes attached to the opening of a nanopore. The idea is that DNA interacting with either an exonuclease or polymerase protein will lead to a small molecule being cleaved near the mouth of the nanopore, and subsequent entry into the pore will yield information about the DNA sequence. The prospects for this approach seem promising, but it has been shown that diffusion related effects impose a limit on the capture probability of molecules by the pore, which limits the efficacy of the technique. Here, we revisit the problem with the goal of optimizing the capture probability via a step decrease in the nucleotide diffusion coefficient between the pore and bulk solutions. It is shown through random walk simulations and a simplified analytical model that decreasing the molecule's diffusion coefficient in the bulk relative to its value in the pore increases the nucleotide capture probability. Specifically, we show that at sufficiently high applied transmembrane potentials (≥100 mV), increasing the potential by a factor f is equivalent to decreasing the diffusion coefficient ratio Dbulk/Dpore by the same factor f. This suggests a promising route toward implementation of cleavage-based sequencing protocols. We also discuss the feasibility of forming a step function in the diffusion coefficient across the pore-bulk interface.

  9. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  10. An Introductory Laboratory Exercise for Acids and Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Discusses an acid-base neutralization exercise requiring groups of students to determine: (1) combinations of solutions giving neutralization; (2) grouping solutions as acids or bases; and (3) ranking groups in order of concentration. (JM)

  11. Mathematical modeling of acid-base physiology

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    pH is one of the most important parameters in life, influencing virtually every biological process at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body level. Thus, for cells, it is critical to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and, for multicellular organisms, to regulate extracellular pH (pHo). pHi regulation depends on the opposing actions of plasma-membrane transporters that tend to increase pHi, and others that tend to decrease pHi. In addition, passive fluxes of uncharged species (e.g., CO2, NH3) and charged species (e.g., HCO3− , NH4+) perturb pHi. These movements not only influence one another, but also perturb the equilibria of a multitude of intracellular and extracellular buffers. Thus, even at the level of a single cell, perturbations in acid-base reactions, diffusion, and transport are so complex that it is impossible to understand them without a quantitative model. Here we summarize some mathematical models developed to shed light onto the complex interconnected events triggered by acids-base movements. We then describe a mathematical model of a spherical cell–which to our knowledge is the first one capable of handling a multitude of buffer reaction–that our team has recently developed to simulate changes in pHi and pHo caused by movements of acid-base equivalents across the plasma membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Finally, we extend our work to a consideration of the effects of simultaneous CO2 and HCO3− influx into a cell, and envision how future models might extend to other cell types (e.g., erythrocytes) or tissues (e.g., renal proximal-tubule epithelium) important for whole-body pH homeostasis. PMID:25617697

  12. Photocurable bioadhesive based on lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Marques, D S; Santos, J M C; Ferreira, P; Correia, T R; Correia, I J; Gil, M H; Baptista, C M S G

    2016-01-01

    Novel photocurable and low molecular weight oligomers based on l-lactic acid with proven interest to be used as bioadhesive were successfully manufactured. Preparation of lactic acid oligomers with methacrylic end functionalizations was carried out in the absence of catalyst or solvents by self-esterification in two reaction steps: telechelic lactic acid oligomerization with OH end groups and further functionalization with methacrylic anhydride. The final adhesive composition was achieved by the addition of a reported biocompatible photoinitiator (Irgacure® 2959). Preliminary in vitro biodegradability was investigated by hydrolytic degradation in PBS (pH=7.4) at 37 °C. The adhesion performance was evaluated using glued aminated substrates (gelatine pieces) subjected to pull-to-break test. Surface energy measured by contact angles is lower than the reported values of the skin and blood. The absence of cytoxicity was evaluated using human fibroblasts. A notable antimicrobial behaviour was observed using two bacterial models (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). The cured material exhibited a strong thrombogenic character when placed in contact with blood, which can be predicted as a haemostatic effect for bleeding control. This novel material was subjected to an extensive characterization showing great potential for bioadhesive or other biomedical applications where biodegradable and biocompatible photocurable materials are required. PMID:26478350

  13. Bipolar Membranes for Acid Base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Roddecha, Supacharee; Jorne, Jacob; Coughlan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries can provide grid-scale electricity storage to match power generation with consumption and promote renewable energy sources. Flow batteries offer modular and flexible design, low cost per kWh and high efficiencies. A novel flow battery concept will be presented based on acid-base neutralization where protons (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions react electrochemically to produce water. The large free energy of this highly reversible reaction can be stored chemically, and, upon discharge, can be harvested as usable electricity. The acid-base flow battery concept avoids the use of a sluggish oxygen electrode and utilizes the highly reversible hydrogen electrode, thus eliminating the need for expensive noble metal catalysts. The proposed flow battery is a hybrid of a battery and a fuel cell---hydrogen gas storing chemical energy is produced at one electrode and is immediately consumed at the other electrode. The two electrodes are exposed to low and high pH solutions, and these solutions are separated by a hybrid membrane containing a hybrid cation and anion exchange membrane (CEM/AEM). Membrane design will be discussed, along with ion-transport data for synthesized membranes.

  14. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    PubMed

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus CECT 9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443, Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Grape Must

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CECT9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT8443, acetic acid bacteria isolated from grape must. Gluconobacter species are well known for their ability to oxidize sugar alcohols into the corresponding acids. Our objective was to select strains to oxidize effectively d-glucose. PMID:27365351

  16. Extremely Acidophilic Protists from Acid Mine Drainage Host Rickettsiales-Lineage Endosymbionts That Have Intervening Sequences in Their 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Dawson, Scott C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2003-01-01

    During a molecular phylogenetic survey of extremely acidic (pH < 1), metal-rich acid mine drainage habitats in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif., we detected 16S rRNA gene sequences of a novel bacterial group belonging to the order Rickettsiales in the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest known relatives of this group (92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity) are endosymbionts of the protist Acanthamoeba. Oligonucleotide 16S rRNA probes were designed and used to observe members of this group within acidophilic protists. To improve visualization of eukaryotic populations in the acid mine drainage samples, broad-specificity probes for eukaryotes were redesigned and combined to highlight this component of the acid mine drainage community. Approximately 4% of protists in the acid mine drainage samples contained endosymbionts. Measurements of internal pH of the protists showed that their cytosol is close to neutral, indicating that the endosymbionts may be neutrophilic. The endosymbionts had a conserved 273-nucleotide intervening sequence (IVS) in variable region V1 of their 16S rRNA genes. The IVS does not match any sequence in current databases, but the predicted secondary structure forms well-defined stem loops. IVSs are uncommon in rRNA genes and appear to be confined to bacteria living in close association with eukaryotes. Based on the phylogenetic novelty of the endosymbiont sequences and initial culture-independent characterization, we propose the name “Candidatus Captivus acidiprotistae.” To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endosymbiotic relationship in an extremely acidic habitat. PMID:12957940

  17. From amino acid sequence to bioactivity: The biomedical potential of antitumor peptides.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Gutiérrez-Jácome, Alberto; Pérez-Pérez, Martín; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Catalán-García, Sandra; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália; Sánchez, Borja

    2016-06-01

    Chemoprevention is the use of natural and/or synthetic substances to block, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. In this field, the use of antitumor peptides is of interest as, (i) these molecules are small in size, (ii) they show good cell diffusion and permeability, (iii) they affect one or more specific molecular pathways involved in carcinogenesis, and (iv) they are not usually genotoxic. We have checked the Web of Science Database (23/11/2015) in order to collect papers reporting on bioactive peptide (1691 registers), which was further filtered searching terms such as "antiproliferative," "antitumoral," or "apoptosis" among others. Works reporting the amino acid sequence of an antiproliferative peptide were kept (60 registers), and this was complemented with the peptides included in CancerPPD, an extensive resource for antiproliferative peptides and proteins. Peptides were grouped according to one of the following mechanism of action: inhibition of cell migration, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, antioxidative mechanisms, inhibition of gene transcription/cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, disorganization of tubulin structure, cytotoxicity, or unknown mechanisms. The main mechanisms of action of those antiproliferative peptides with known amino acid sequences are presented and finally, their potential clinical usefulness and future challenges on their application is discussed. PMID:27010507

  18. The amino acid sequences and activities of synergistic hemolysins from Staphylococcus cohnii.

    PubMed

    Mak, Pawel; Maszewska, Agnieszka; Rozalska, Malgorzata

    2008-10-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus are a coagulase-negative staphylococci considered for a long time as unable to cause infections. This situation changed recently and pathogenic strains of these bacteria were isolated from hospital environments, patients and medical staff. Most of the isolated strains were resistant to many antibiotics. The present work describes isolation and characterization of several synergistic peptide hemolysins produced by these bacteria and acting as virulence factors responsible for hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Amino acid sequences of respective hemolysins from S. cohnii ssp. cohnii (named as H1C, H2C and H3C) and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus (H1U, H2U and H3U) were identical. Peptides H1 and H3 possessed significant amino acid homology to three synergistic hemolysins secreted by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to putative antibacterial peptide produced by Staphylococcus saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus. On the other hand, hemolysin H2 had a unique sequence. All isolated peptides lysed red cells from different mammalian species and exerted a cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts. PMID:18752624

  19. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/. PMID:26424080

  20. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/ PMID:26424080

  1. Teaching Acid/Base Physiology in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Ulla G.; Plovsing, Ronni; Hansen, Klaus; Laursen, Bent G.; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    Acid/base homeostasis is one of the most difficult subdisciplines of physiology for medical students to master. A different approach, where theory and practice are linked, might help students develop a deeper understanding of acid/base homeostasis. We therefore set out to develop a laboratory exercise in acid/base physiology that would provide…

  2. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  3. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  4. Clostridium sticklandii, a specialist in amino acid degradation:revisiting its metabolism through its genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clostridium sticklandii belongs to a cluster of non-pathogenic proteolytic clostridia which utilize amino acids as carbon and energy sources. Isolated by T.C. Stadtman in 1954, it has been generally regarded as a "gold mine" for novel biochemical reactions and is used as a model organism for studying metabolic aspects such as the Stickland reaction, coenzyme-B12- and selenium-dependent reactions of amino acids. With the goal of revisiting its carbon, nitrogen, and energy metabolism, and comparing studies with other clostridia, its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. Results C. sticklandii is one of the best biochemically studied proteolytic clostridial species. Useful additional information has been obtained from the sequencing and annotation of its genome, which is presented in this paper. Besides, experimental procedures reveal that C. sticklandii degrades amino acids in a preferential and sequential way. The organism prefers threonine, arginine, serine, cysteine, proline, and glycine, whereas glutamate, aspartate and alanine are excreted. Energy conservation is primarily obtained by substrate-level phosphorylation in fermentative pathways. The reactions catalyzed by different ferredoxin oxidoreductases and the exergonic NADH-dependent reduction of crotonyl-CoA point to a possible chemiosmotic energy conservation via the Rnf complex. C. sticklandii possesses both the F-type and V-type ATPases. The discovery of an as yet unrecognized selenoprotein in the D-proline reductase operon suggests a more detailed mechanism for NADH-dependent D-proline reduction. A rather unusual metabolic feature is the presence of genes for all the enzymes involved in two different CO2-fixation pathways: C. sticklandii harbours both the glycine synthase/glycine reductase and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathways. This unusual pathway combination has retrospectively been observed in only four other sequenced microorganisms. Conclusions Analysis of the C. sticklandii genome and

  5. Complete amino acid sequence of the myoglobin from the Pacific spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani.

    PubMed

    Jones, B N; Wang, C C; Dwulet, F E; Lehman, L D; Meuth, J L; Bogardt, R A; Gurd, F R

    1979-04-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the Pacific spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani, was determined by the automated Edman degradation of several large peptides obtained by specific cleavage of the protein. The acetimidated apomyoglobin was selectively cleaved at its two methionyl residues with cyanogen bromide and at its three arginyl residues by trypsin. By subjecting four of these peptides and the apomyoglobin to automated Edman degradation, over 80% of the primary structure of the protein was obtained. The remainder of the covalent structure was determined by the sequence analysis of peptides that resulted from further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide fragment. This fragment was cleaved at its glutamyl residues with staphylococcal protease and its lysyl residues with trypsin. The action of trypsin was restricted to the lysyl residues by chemical modification of the single arginyl residue of the fragment with 1,2-cyclohexanedione. The primary structure of this myoglobin proved to be identical with that from the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin and Pacific common dolphin but differs from the myoglobins of the killer whale and pilot whale at two positions. The above sequence identities and differences reflect the close taxonomic relationship of these five species of Cetacea. PMID:454657

  6. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J H; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1990-01-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled pork insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report we describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. We demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in our immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. Squirrel monkey glucagon is identical with the usual glucagon found in Old World mammals, which predicts that the glucagons of other New World monkeys would not differ from the usual Old World mammalian glucagon. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species. PMID:2263627

  7. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jinghua ); Eng, J.; Yalow, R.S. City Univ. of New York, NY )

    1990-12-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species.

  8. Nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of the major porin of Comamonas acidovorans and comparison of porin primary structures.

    PubMed Central

    Gerbl-Rieger, S; Peters, J; Kellermann, J; Lottspeich, F; Baumeister, W

    1991-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the gene which codes for the major outer membrane porin (Omp32) of Comamonas acidovorans has been determined. The structural gene encodes a precursor consisting of 351 amino acid residues with a signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues. Comparisons with amino acid sequences of outer membrane proteins and porins from several other members of the class Proteobacteria and of the Chlamydia trachomatis porin and the Neurospora crassa mitochondrial porin revealed a motif of eight regions of local homology. The results of this analysis are discussed with regard to common structural features of porins. PMID:1848840

  9. Nucleic acid-based tissue biomarkers of urologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Dimo; Meller, Sebastian; Uhl, Barbara; Ralla, Bernhard; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Ellinger, Jörg; Kristiansen, Glen

    2014-08-01

    Molecular biomarkers play an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Biomarkers allow estimation of the risk of developing cancer; help to diagnose a tumor, ideally at an early stage when cure is still possible; and aid in monitoring disease progression. Furthermore, they hold the potential to predict the outcome of the disease (prognostic biomarkers) and the response to therapy (predictive biomarkers). Altogether, biomarkers will help to avoid tumor-related deaths and reduce overtreatment, and will contribute to increased survival and quality of life in cancer patients due to personalized treatments. It is well established that the process of carcinogenesis is a complex interplay between genomic predisposition, acquired somatic mutations, epigenetic changes and genomic aberrations. Within this complex interplay, nucleic acids, i.e. RNA and DNA, play a fundamental role and therefore represent ideal candidates for biomarkers. They are particularly promising candidates because sequence-specific hybridization and amplification technologies allow highly accurate and sensitive assessment of these biomarker levels over a broad dynamic range. This article provides an overview of nucleic acid-based biomarkers in tissues for the management of urologic malignancies, i.e. tumors of the prostate, testis, kidney, penis, urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureter and other urinary organs. Special emphasis is put on genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic biomarkers (SNPs, mutations [genomic and mitochondrial], microsatellite instabilities, viral and bacterial DNA, DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, mRNA expression, and non-coding RNAs [lncRNA, miRNA, siRNA, piRNA, snRNA, snoRNA]). Due to the multitude of published biomarker candidates, special focus is given to the general applicability of different molecular classes as biomarkers and some particularly promising nucleic acid biomarkers. Furthermore, specific challenges regarding the development and clinical

  10. FFBSKAT: fast family-based sequence kernel association test.

    PubMed

    Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2014-01-01

    The kernel machine-based regression is an efficient approach to region-based association analysis aimed at identification of rare genetic variants. However, this method is computationally complex. The running time of kernel-based association analysis becomes especially long for samples with genetic (sub) structures, thus increasing the need to develop new and effective methods, algorithms, and software packages. We have developed a new R-package called fast family-based sequence kernel association test (FFBSKAT) for analysis of quantitative traits in samples of related individuals. This software implements a score-based variance component test to assess the association of a given set of single nucleotide polymorphisms with a continuous phenotype. We compared the performance of our software with that of two existing software for family-based sequence kernel association testing, namely, ASKAT and famSKAT, using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 family sample. Results demonstrate that FFBSKAT is several times faster than other available programs. In addition, the calculations of the three-compared software were similarly accurate. With respect to the available analysis modes, we combined the advantages of both ASKAT and famSKAT and added new options to empower FFBSKAT users. The FFBSKAT package is fast, user-friendly, and provides an easy-to-use method to perform whole-exome kernel machine-based regression association analysis of quantitative traits in samples of related individuals. The FFBSKAT package, along with its manual, is available for free download at http://mga.bionet.nsc.ru/soft/FFBSKAT/. PMID:24905468

  11. Multifunctional hybrid networks based on self assembling peptide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Sameer

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to achieve a comprehensive correlation between the molecular level changes in primary amino acid sequences of amphiphilic beta-hairpin peptides and their consequent solution-assembly properties and bulk network hydrogel behavior. This has been accomplished using two broad approaches. In the first approach, amino acid substitutions were made to peptide sequence MAX1 such that the hydrophobic surfaces of the folded beta-hairpins from the peptides demonstrate shape specificity in hydrophobic interactions with other beta-hairpins during the assembly process, thereby causing changes to the peptide nanostructure and bulk rheological properties of hydrogels formed from the peptides. Steric lock and key complementary hydrophobic interactions were designed to occur between two beta-hairpin molecules of a single molecule, LNK1 during beta-sheet fibrillar assembly of LNK1. Experimental results from circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy and oscillatory rheology collectively indicate that the molecular design of the LNK1 peptide can be assigned the cause of the drastically different behavior of the networks relative to MAX1. The results indicate elimination or significant reduction of fibrillar branching due to steric complementarity in LNK1 that does not exist in MAX1, thus supporting the original hypothesis. As an extension of the designed steric lock and key complementarity between two beta-hairpin molecules of the same peptide molecule. LNK1, three new pairs of peptide molecules LP1-KP1, LP2-KP2 and LP3-KP3 that resemble complementary 'wedge' and 'trough' shapes when folded into beta-hairpins were designed and studied. All six peptides individually and when blended with their corresponding shape complement formed fibrillar nanostructures with non-uniform thickness values. Loose packing in the assembled structures was observed in all the new peptides as compared to the uniform tight packing in MAX1 by SANS analysis. This

  12. Multifunctional hybrid networks based on self assembling peptide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Sameer

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to achieve a comprehensive correlation between the molecular level changes in primary amino acid sequences of amphiphilic beta-hairpin peptides and their consequent solution-assembly properties and bulk network hydrogel behavior. This has been accomplished using two broad approaches. In the first approach, amino acid substitutions were made to peptide sequence MAX1 such that the hydrophobic surfaces of the folded beta-hairpins from the peptides demonstrate shape specificity in hydrophobic interactions with other beta-hairpins during the assembly process, thereby causing changes to the peptide nanostructure and bulk rheological properties of hydrogels formed from the peptides. Steric lock and key complementary hydrophobic interactions were designed to occur between two beta-hairpin molecules of a single molecule, LNK1 during beta-sheet fibrillar assembly of LNK1. Experimental results from circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy and oscillatory rheology collectively indicate that the molecular design of the LNK1 peptide can be assigned the cause of the drastically different behavior of the networks relative to MAX1. The results indicate elimination or significant reduction of fibrillar branching due to steric complementarity in LNK1 that does not exist in MAX1, thus supporting the original hypothesis. As an extension of the designed steric lock and key complementarity between two beta-hairpin molecules of the same peptide molecule. LNK1, three new pairs of peptide molecules LP1-KP1, LP2-KP2 and LP3-KP3 that resemble complementary 'wedge' and 'trough' shapes when folded into beta-hairpins were designed and studied. All six peptides individually and when blended with their corresponding shape complement formed fibrillar nanostructures with non-uniform thickness values. Loose packing in the assembled structures was observed in all the new peptides as compared to the uniform tight packing in MAX1 by SANS analysis. This

  13. Unique graphical representation of protein sequences based on nucleotide triplet codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Zupan, Jure; Balaban, Alexandru T.

    2004-10-01

    We consider a graphical representation of proteins as an alternative to the usual representation of proteins as a sequence listing the natural amino acids. The approach is based on a graphical representation of triplets of DNA in which the interior of a square or the interior of a tetrahedron is used to accommodate 64 sites for the 64 codons. By associating a zigzag curve and various matrices with a protein, just as was the case with graphical representation of DNA, one can construct selected invariants to serve as protein descriptors. The approach is illustrated on the A-chain of human insulin.

  14. [Progress in biotransformation of bio-based lactic acid ].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-10-01

    Fermentative production of lactic acid, an important bio-based chemicals, has made considerable progress. In addition to the food industry and production of polylactic acid, lactic acid also can be used as an important platform chemical for the production of acrylic acid, pyruvic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and lactic acid esters. This article summarizes the recent progress in biocatalytic production of lactic acid derivatives by dehydration, dehydrogenation, reduction, and esterification. Trends in the biotransformation of lactic acid are also discussed. PMID:24432656

  15. Generalization of Entropy Based Divergence Measures for Symbolic Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ré, Miguel A.; Azad, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Entropy based measures have been frequently used in symbolic sequence analysis. A symmetrized and smoothed form of Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy, the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD), is of particular interest because of its sharing properties with families of other divergence measures and its interpretability in different domains including statistical physics, information theory and mathematical statistics. The uniqueness and versatility of this measure arise because of a number of attributes including generalization to any number of probability distributions and association of weights to the distributions. Furthermore, its entropic formulation allows its generalization in different statistical frameworks, such as, non-extensive Tsallis statistics and higher order Markovian statistics. We revisit these generalizations and propose a new generalization of JSD in the integrated Tsallis and Markovian statistical framework. We show that this generalization can be interpreted in terms of mutual information. We also investigate the performance of different JSD generalizations in deconstructing chimeric DNA sequences assembled from bacterial genomes including that of E. coli, S. enterica typhi, Y. pestis and H. influenzae. Our results show that the JSD generalizations bring in more pronounced improvements when the sequences being compared are from phylogenetically proximal organisms, which are often difficult to distinguish because of their compositional similarity. While small but noticeable improvements were observed with the Tsallis statistical JSD generalization, relatively large improvements were observed with the Markovian generalization. In contrast, the proposed Tsallis-Markovian generalization yielded more pronounced improvements relative to the Tsallis and Markovian generalizations, specifically when the sequences being compared arose from phylogenetically proximal organisms. PMID:24728338

  16. Generalization of entropy based divergence measures for symbolic sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Ré, Miguel A; Azad, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Entropy based measures have been frequently used in symbolic sequence analysis. A symmetrized and smoothed form of Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy, the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD), is of particular interest because of its sharing properties with families of other divergence measures and its interpretability in different domains including statistical physics, information theory and mathematical statistics. The uniqueness and versatility of this measure arise because of a number of attributes including generalization to any number of probability distributions and association of weights to the distributions. Furthermore, its entropic formulation allows its generalization in different statistical frameworks, such as, non-extensive Tsallis statistics and higher order Markovian statistics. We revisit these generalizations and propose a new generalization of JSD in the integrated Tsallis and Markovian statistical framework. We show that this generalization can be interpreted in terms of mutual information. We also investigate the performance of different JSD generalizations in deconstructing chimeric DNA sequences assembled from bacterial genomes including that of E. coli, S. enterica typhi, Y. pestis and H. influenzae. Our results show that the JSD generalizations bring in more pronounced improvements when the sequences being compared are from phylogenetically proximal organisms, which are often difficult to distinguish because of their compositional similarity. While small but noticeable improvements were observed with the Tsallis statistical JSD generalization, relatively large improvements were observed with the Markovian generalization. In contrast, the proposed Tsallis-Markovian generalization yielded more pronounced improvements relative to the Tsallis and Markovian generalizations, specifically when the sequences being compared arose from phylogenetically proximal organisms. PMID:24728338

  17. Species specific amino acid sequence-protein local structure relationships: An analysis in the light of a structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Joseph, Agnel Praveen

    2011-05-01

    Protein structure analysis and prediction methods are based on non-redundant data extracted from the available protein structures, regardless of the species from which the protein originates. Hence, these datasets represent the global knowledge on protein folds, which constitutes a generic distribution of amino acid sequence-protein structure (AAS-PS) relationships. In this study, we try to elucidate whether the AAS-PS relationship could possess specificities depending on the specie. For this purpose, we have chosen three different species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Plasmodium falciparum and Arabidopsis thaliana. We analyzed the AAS-PS behaviors of the proteins from these three species and compared it to the "expected" distribution of a classical non-redundant databank. With the classical secondary structure description, only slight differences in amino acid preferences could be observed. With a more precise description of local protein structures (Protein Blocks), significant changes could be highlighted. S. cerevisiae's AAS-PS relationship is close to the general distribution, while striking differences are observed in the case of A. thaliana. P. falciparum is the most distant one. This study presents some interesting view-points on AAS-PS relationship. Certain species exhibit unique preferences for amino acids to be associated with protein local structural elements. Thus, AAS-PS relationships are species dependent. These results can give useful insights for improving prediction methodologies which take the species specific information into account. PMID:21333657

  18. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  19. LEU3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates multiple genes for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by binding to a common decanucleotide core sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Friden, P.; Schimmel, P.

    1988-07-01

    LEU3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an 886-amino-acid polypeptide that regulates transcription of a group of genes involved in leucine biosynthesis and has been shown to bind specifically to a 114-base-pair DNA fragment of the LEU2 upstream region. The authors show here that, in addition to LEU2, LEU3 binds in vitro to sequences in the promoter regions of LEU1, LEU4, ILV2, and, by inference, ILV5. The largely conserved decanucleotide core sequence shared by the binding sites in these genes is CCGGNNCCGG. Methylation interference footprinting experiements show that LEU 3 makes symmetrical contacts with the conserved bases that lie in the major groove. Synthetic oligonucleides (19 to 29 base pairs) which contain the core decanucleotide and flanking sequences of LEU1, LEU2, LEU4, and ILV2 have individually been placed upstream of a LEU3-insensitive test promoter. The expression of each construction is activated by LEU3, although the degree of activation varies considerably according to the specific oligonucleotide which is introduced. A promoter construction with substitutions in the core sequence remains LEU3 insensitive, however. One of the oligonucleotides (based on a LEU2 sequence) was also tested and shown to confer leucine-sensitive expression on the test promoter. The results demonstrate that only a short sequence element is necessary for LEU3-dependent promoter binding and activation and provide direct evidence for an expanded repertoire of genes that are activated by LEU3.

  20. Amino acid sequence analysis and characterization of a ribonuclease from starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Itagaki, Tadashi; Inokuchi, Norio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to phylogenetically characterize the location of the RNase T2 enzyme in the starfish (Asterias amurensis). We isolated an RNase T2 ribonuclease (RNase Aa) from the ovaries of starfish and determined its amino acid sequence by protein chemistry and cloning cDNA encoding RNase Aa. The isolated protein had 231 amino acid residues, a predicted molecular mass of 25,906 Da, and an optimal pH of 5.0. RNase Aa preferentially released guanylic acid from the RNA. The catalytic sites of the RNase T2 family are conserved in RNase Aa; furthermore, the distribution of the cysteine residues in RNase Aa is similar to that in other animal and plant T2 RNases. RNase Aa is cleaved at two points: 21 residues from the N-terminus and 29 residues from the C-terminus; however, both fragments may remain attached to the protein via disulfide bridges, leading to the maintenance of its conformation, as suggested by circular dichroism spectrum analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that starfish RNase Aa is evolutionarily an intermediate between protozoan and oyster RNases. PMID:26920046

  1. Semisynthetic DNA-protein conjugates for fabrication of nucleic acid based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Kersten S.; Feldkamp, Udo; Niemeyer, Christof M.

    2008-10-01

    We here report on the developments of semisynthetic DNA-protein conjugates and their assembly into multi-component nanostructures. We describe the improvement of the DNA sequences embedded in such nanostructures by computational and analytical methods. Moreover, we report on the exploration of novel DNA conjugates of streptavidin or redox proteins with improved properties for the assembly of nucleic acid based nanostructures.

  2. Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison Based on Next-Generation Sequencing Reads

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Ren, Jie; Zhai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have generated enormous amounts of shotgun read data, and assembly of the reads can be challenging, especially for organisms without template sequences. We study the power of genome comparison based on shotgun read data without assembly using three alignment-free sequence comparison statistics, D2, \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document} $$\\textbf{\\textit{D}}_{\\bf 2}^{\\bf *}$$ \\end{document}, and \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document} $$\\textbf{\\textit{D}}_{\\bf 2}^S$$ \\end{document}, both theoretically and by simulations. Theoretical formulas for the power of detecting the relationship between two sequences related through a common motif model are derived. It is shown that both \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document} $$\\textbf{\\textit{D}}_{\\bf 2}^{\\bf *}$$ \\end{document} and \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin

  3. Comparison of sequencing-based methods to profile DNA methylation and identification of monoallelic epigenetic modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of DNA methylation patterns relies increasingly on sequencing-based profiling methods. The four most frequently used sequencing-based technologies are the bisulfite-based methods MethylC-seq and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), and the enrichment-based techniques methylat...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among insect orders based on three nuclear protein-coding gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Keisuke; Sasaki, Go; Ogawa, Jiro; Miyata, Takashi; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Many attempts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of higher groups of insects have been made based on both morphological and molecular evidence; nonetheless, most of the interordinal relationships of insects remain unclear or are controversial. As a new approach, in this study we sequenced three nuclear genes encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta and the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II from all insect orders. The predicted amino acid sequences (In total, approx. 3500 amino acid sites) of these proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis methods with various models. The resulting trees strongly support the monophyly of Palaeoptera, Neoptera, Polyneoptera, and Holometabola, while within Polyneoptera, the groupings of Isoptera/"Blattaria"/Mantodea (Superorder Dictyoptera), Dictyoptera/Zoraptera, Dermaptera/Plecoptera, Mantophasmatodea/Grylloblattodea, and Embioptera/Phasmatodea are supported. Although Paraneoptera is not supported as a monophyletic group, the grouping of Phthiraptera/Psocoptera is robustly supported. The interordinal relationships within Holometabola are well resolved and strongly supported that the order Hymenoptera is the sister lineage to all other holometabolous insects. The other orders of Holometabola are separated into two large groups, and the interordinal relationships of each group are (((Siphonaptera, Mecoptera), Diptera), (Trichoptera, Lepidoptera)) and ((Coleoptera, Strepsiptera), (Neuroptera, Raphidioptera, Megaloptera)). The sister relationship between Strepsiptera and Diptera are significantly rejected by all the statistical tests (AU, KH and wSH), while the affinity between Hymenoptera and Mecopterida are significantly rejected only by AU and KH tests. Our results show that the use of amino acid sequences of these three nuclear genes is an effective approach for resolving the relationships of higher groups of insects. PMID:21075208

  5. Sequence-structure based phylogeny of GPCR Class A Rhodopsin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2014-05-01

    Current methods of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) phylogenetic classification are sequence based and therefore inappropriate for highly divergent sequences, sharing low sequence identity. In this study, sequence structure profile based alignment generated by PROMALS3D was used to understand the GPCR Class A Rhodopsin superfamily evolution using the MEGA 5 software. Phylogenetic analysis included a combination of Neighbor-Joining method and Maximum Likelihood method, with 1000 bootstrap replicates. Our study was able to identify potential ligand association for Class A Orphans and putative/unclassified Class A receptors with no cognate ligand information: GPR21 and GPR52 with fatty acids; GPR75 with Neuropeptide Y; GPR82, GPR18, GPR141 with N-arachidonylglycine; GPR176 with Free fatty acids, GPR10 with Tachykinin & Neuropeptide Y; GPR85 with ATP, ADP & UDP glucose; GPR151 with Galanin; GPR153 and GPR162 with Adrenalin, Noradrenalin; GPR146, GPR139, GPR142 with Neuromedin, Ghrelin, Neuromedin U-25 & Thyrotropin-releasing hormone; GPR171 with ATP, ADP & UDP Glucose; GPR88, GPR135, GPR161, GPR101with 11-cis-retinal; GPR83 with Tackykinin; GPR148 with Prostanoids, GPR109b, GPR81, GPR31with ATP & UTP and GPR150 with GnRH I & GnRHII. Furthermore, we suggest that this study would prove useful in re-classification of receptors, selecting templates for homology modeling and identifying ligands which may show cross reactivity with other GPCRs as signaling via multiple ligands play a significant role in disease modulation. PMID:24503482

  6. Streaming Support for Data Intensive Cloud-Based Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Shadi A.; Kienzler, Romeo; El-Kalioby, Mohamed; Tonellato, Peter J.; Wall, Dennis; Bruggmann, Rémy; Abouelhoda, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing provides a promising solution to the genomics data deluge problem resulting from the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Based on the concepts of “resources-on-demand” and “pay-as-you-go”, scientists with no or limited infrastructure can have access to scalable and cost-effective computational resources. However, the large size of NGS data causes a significant data transfer latency from the client's site to the cloud, which presents a bottleneck for using cloud computing services. In this paper, we provide a streaming-based scheme to overcome this problem, where the NGS data is processed while being transferred to the cloud. Our scheme targets the wide class of NGS data analysis tasks, where the NGS sequences can be processed independently from one another. We also provide the elastream package that supports the use of this scheme with individual analysis programs or with workflow systems. Experiments presented in this paper show that our solution mitigates the effect of data transfer latency and saves both time and cost of computation. PMID:23710461

  7. Full Genome Virus Detection in Fecal Samples Using Sensitive Nucleic Acid Preparation, Deep Sequencing, and a Novel Iterative Sequence Classification Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, Matthew; Oude Munnink, Bas; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Watson, Simon J.; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a full genome virus detection process that combines sensitive nucleic acid preparation optimised for virus identification in fecal material with Illumina MiSeq sequencing and a novel post-sequencing virus identification algorithm. Enriched viral nucleic acid was converted to double-stranded DNA and subjected to Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The resulting short reads were processed with a novel iterative Python algorithm SLIM for the identification of sequences with homology to known viruses. De novo assembly was then used to generate full viral genomes. The sensitivity of this process was demonstrated with a set of fecal samples from HIV-1 infected patients. A quantitative assessment of the mammalian, plant, and bacterial virus content of this compartment was generated and the deep sequencing data were sufficient to assembly 12 complete viral genomes from 6 virus families. The method detected high levels of enteropathic viruses that are normally controlled in healthy adults, but may be involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and will provide a powerful tool for virus detection and for analyzing changes in the fecal virome associated with HIV-1 progression and pathogenesis. PMID:24695106

  8. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase. PMID:25340964

  9. Polymer gel dosimeter based on itaconic acid.

    PubMed

    Mattea, Facundo; Chacón, David; Vedelago, José; Valente, Mauro; Strumia, Miriam C

    2015-11-01

    A new polymeric dosimeter based on itaconic acid and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide was studied. The preparation method, compositions of monomer and crosslinking agent and the presence of oxygen in the dosimetric system were analyzed. The resulting materials were irradiated with an X-ray tube at 158cGy/min, 226cGymin and 298cGy/min with doses up to 1000Gy. The dosimeters presented a linear response in the dose range 75-1000Gy, sensitivities of 0.037 1/Gyat 298cGy/min and an increase in the sensitivity with lower dose rates. One of the most relevant outcomes in this study was obtaining different monomer to crosslinker inclusion in the formed gel for the dosimeters where oxygen was purged during the preparation method. This effect has not been reported in other typical dosimeters and could be attributed to the large differences in the reactivity among these species. PMID:26275817

  10. EASE-MM: Sequence-Based Prediction of Mutation-Induced Stability Changes with Feature-Based Multiple Models.

    PubMed

    Folkman, Lukas; Stantic, Bela; Sattar, Abdul; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-03-27

    Protein engineering and characterisation of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) require accurate prediction of protein stability changes (ΔΔGu) induced by single amino acid substitutions. Here, we have developed a new prediction method called Evolutionary, Amino acid, and Structural Encodings with Multiple Models (EASE-MM), which comprises five specialised support vector machine (SVM) models and makes the final prediction from a consensus of two models selected based on the predicted secondary structure and accessible surface area of the mutated residue. The new method is applicable to single-domain monomeric proteins and can predict ΔΔGu with a protein sequence and mutation as the only inputs. EASE-MM yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.53-0.59 in 10-fold cross-validation and independent testing and was able to outperform other sequence-based methods. When compared to structure-based energy functions, EASE-MM achieved a comparable or better performance. The application to a large dataset of human germline non-synonymous SNVs showed that the disease-causing variants tend to be associated with larger magnitudes of ΔΔGu predicted with EASE-MM. The EASE-MM web-server is available at http://sparks-lab.org/server/ease. PMID:26804571

  11. Hybridization properties of long nucleic acid probes for detection of variable target sequences, and development of a hybridization prediction algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Öhrmalm, Christina; Jobs, Magnus; Eriksson, Ronnie; Golbob, Sultan; Elfaitouri, Amal; Benachenhou, Farid; Strømme, Maria; Blomberg, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in nucleic acid-based techniques for detection of infectious agents, such as influenza viruses, is that of nucleic acid sequence variation. DNA probes, 70-nt long, some including the nucleotide analog deoxyribose-Inosine (dInosine), were analyzed for hybridization tolerance to different amounts and distributions of mismatching bases, e.g. synonymous mutations, in target DNA. Microsphere-linked 70-mer probes were hybridized in 3M TMAC buffer to biotinylated single-stranded (ss) DNA for subsequent analysis in a Luminex® system. When mismatches interrupted contiguous matching stretches of 6 nt or longer, it had a strong impact on hybridization. Contiguous matching stretches are more important than the same number of matching nucleotides separated by mismatches into several regions. dInosine, but not 5-nitroindole, substitutions at mismatching positions stabilized hybridization remarkably well, comparable to N (4-fold) wobbles in the same positions. In contrast to shorter probes, 70-nt probes with judiciously placed dInosine substitutions and/or wobble positions were remarkably mismatch tolerant, with preserved specificity. An algorithm, NucZip, was constructed to model the nucleation and zipping phases of hybridization, integrating both local and distant binding contributions. It predicted hybridization more exactly than previous algorithms, and has the potential to guide the design of variation-tolerant yet specific probes. PMID:20864443

  12. Mutation-selection models of coding sequence evolution with site-heterogeneous amino acid fitness profiles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    Modeling the interplay between mutation and selection at the molecular level is key to evolutionary studies. To this end, codon-based evolutionary models have been proposed as pertinent means of studying long-range evolutionary patterns and are widely used. However, these approaches have not yet consolidated results from amino acid level phylogenetic studies showing that selection acting on proteins displays strong site-specific effects, which translate into heterogeneous amino acid propensities across the columns of alignments; related codon-level studies have instead focused on either modeling a single selective context for all codon columns, or a separate selective context for each codon column, with the former strategy deemed too simplistic and the latter deemed overparameterized. Here, we integrate recent developments in nonparametric statistical approaches to propose a probabilistic model that accounts for the heterogeneity of amino acid fitness profiles across the coding positions of a gene. We apply the model to a dozen real protein-coding gene alignments and find it to produce biologically plausible inferences, for instance, as pertaining to site-specific amino acid constraints, as well as distributions of scaled selection coefficients. In their account of mutational features as well as the heterogeneous regimes of selection at the amino acid level, the modeling approaches studied here can form a backdrop for several extensions, accounting for other selective features, for variable population size, or for subtleties of mutational features, all with parameterizations couched within population-genetic theory. PMID:20176949

  13. The amino acid alphabet and the architecture of the protein sequence-structure map. I. Binary alphabets.

    PubMed

    Ferrada, Evandro

    2014-12-01

    The correspondence between protein sequences and structures, or sequence-structure map, relates to fundamental aspects of structural, evolutionary and synthetic biology. The specifics of the mapping, such as the fraction of accessible sequences and structures, or the sequences' ability to fold fast, are dictated by the type of interactions between the monomers that compose the sequences. The set of possible interactions between monomers is encapsulated by the potential energy function. In this study, I explore the impact of the relative forces of the potential on the architecture of the sequence-structure map. My observations rely on simple exact models of proteins and random samples of the space of potential energy functions of binary alphabets. I adopt a graph perspective and study the distribution of viable sequences and the structures they produce, as networks of sequences connected by point mutations. I observe that the relative proportion of attractive, neutral and repulsive forces defines types of potentials, that induce sequence-structure maps of vastly different architectures. I characterize the properties underlying these differences and relate them to the structure of the potential. Among these properties are the expected number and relative distribution of sequences associated to specific structures and the diversity of structures as a function of sequence divergence. I study the types of binary potentials observed in natural amino acids and show that there is a strong bias towards only some types of potentials, a bias that seems to characterize the folding code of natural proteins. I discuss implications of these observations for the architecture of the sequence-structure map of natural proteins, the construction of random libraries of peptides, and the early evolution of the natural amino acid alphabet. PMID:25473967

  14. The Amino Acid Alphabet and the Architecture of the Protein Sequence-Structure Map. I. Binary Alphabets

    PubMed Central

    Ferrada, Evandro

    2014-01-01

    The correspondence between protein sequences and structures, or sequence-structure map, relates to fundamental aspects of structural, evolutionary and synthetic biology. The specifics of the mapping, such as the fraction of accessible sequences and structures, or the sequences' ability to fold fast, are dictated by the type of interactions between the monomers that compose the sequences. The set of possible interactions between monomers is encapsulated by the potential energy function. In this study, I explore the impact of the relative forces of the potential on the architecture of the sequence-structure map. My observations rely on simple exact models of proteins and random samples of the space of potential energy functions of binary alphabets. I adopt a graph perspective and study the distribution of viable sequences and the structures they produce, as networks of sequences connected by point mutations. I observe that the relative proportion of attractive, neutral and repulsive forces defines types of potentials, that induce sequence-structure maps of vastly different architectures. I characterize the properties underlying these differences and relate them to the structure of the potential. Among these properties are the expected number and relative distribution of sequences associated to specific structures and the diversity of structures as a function of sequence divergence. I study the types of binary potentials observed in natural amino acids and show that there is a strong bias towards only some types of potentials, a bias that seems to characterize the folding code of natural proteins. I discuss implications of these observations for the architecture of the sequence-structure map of natural proteins, the construction of random libraries of peptides, and the early evolution of the natural amino acid alphabet. PMID:25473967

  15. Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

    1996-02-01

    Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

  16. Microfluidic platform for isolating nucleic acid targets using sequence specific hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Morabito, Kenneth; Tang, Jay X.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-01-01

    The separation of target nucleic acid sequences from biological samples has emerged as a significant process in today's diagnostics and detection strategies. In addition to the possible clinical applications, the fundamental understanding of target and sequence specific hybridization on surface modified magnetic beads is of high value. In this paper, we describe a novel microfluidic platform that utilizes a mobile magnetic field in static microfluidic channels, where single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules are isolated via nucleic acid hybridization. We first established efficient isolation of biotinylated capture probe (BP) using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. Subsequently, we investigated the hybridization of target ssDNA with BP bound to beads and explained these hybridization kinetics using a dual-species kinetic model. The number of hybridized target ssDNA molecules was determined to be about 6.5 times less than that of BP on the bead surface, due to steric hindrance effects. The hybridization of target ssDNA with non-complementary BP bound to bead was also examined, and non-specific hybridization was found to be insignificant. Finally, we demonstrated highly efficient capture and isolation of target ssDNA in the presence of non-target ssDNA, where as low as 1% target ssDNA can be detected from mixture. The microfluidic method described in this paper is significantly relevant and is broadly applicable, especially towards point-of-care biological diagnostic platforms that require binding and separation of known target biomolecules, such as RNA, ssDNA, or protein. PMID:24404041

  17. Sequence-Based Classification Using Discriminatory Motif Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Sen, Śaunak; Segal, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Most existing methods for sequence-based classification use exhaustive feature generation, employing, for example, all -mer patterns. The motivation behind such (enumerative) approaches is to minimize the potential for overlooking important features. However, there are shortcomings to this strategy. First, practical constraints limit the scope of exhaustive feature generation to patterns of length , such that potentially important, longer () predictors are not considered. Second, features so generated exhibit strong dependencies, which can complicate understanding of derived classification rules. Third, and most importantly, numerous irrelevant features are created. These concerns can compromise prediction and interpretation. While remedies have been proposed, they tend to be problem-specific and not broadly applicable. Here, we develop a generally applicable methodology, and an attendant software pipeline, that is predicated on discriminatory motif finding. In addition to the traditional training and validation partitions, our framework entails a third level of data partitioning, a discovery partition. A discriminatory motif finder is used on sequences and associated class labels in the discovery partition to yield a (small) set of features. These features are then used as inputs to a classifier in the training partition. Finally, performance assessment occurs on the validation partition. Important attributes of our approach are its modularity (any discriminatory motif finder and any classifier can be deployed) and its universality (all data, including sequences that are unaligned and/or of unequal length, can be accommodated). We illustrate our approach on two nucleosome occupancy datasets and a protein solubility dataset, previously analyzed using enumerative feature generation. Our method achieves excellent performance results, with and without optimization of classifier tuning parameters. A Python pipeline implementing the approach is available at http

  18. Characterization of N-glycosylation and amino acid sequence features of immunoglobulins from swine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Paul G; Girard, Lauren; Buist, Marjorie; de Oliveira, Andrey Giovanni Gomes; Bodnar, Edward; Salama, Apolline; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Perreault, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The primary goal of this study was to develop a method to study the N-glycosylation of IgG from swine in order to detect epitopes containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and/or terminal galactose residues linked in α1-3 susceptible to cause xenograft-related problems. Samples of immunoglobulin were isolated from porcine serum using protein-A affinity chromatography. The eluate was then separated on electrophoretic gel, and bands corresponding to the N-glycosylated heavy chains were cut off the gel and subjected to tryptic digestion. Peptides and glycopeptides were separated by reversed phase liquid chromatography and fractions were collected for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Overall no α1-3 galactose was detected, as demonstrated by complete susceptibility of terminal galactose residues to β-galactosidase digestion. Neu5Gc was detected on singly sialylated structures. Two major N-glycopeptides were found, EEQFNSTYR and EAQFNSTYR as determined by tandem MS (MS/MS), as previously reported by Butler et al. (Immunogenetics, 61, 2009, 209-230), who found 11 subclasses for porcine IgG. Out of the 11, ten include the sequence corresponding to EEQFNSTYR, and only one codes for EAQFNSTYR. In this study, glycosylation patterns associated with both chains were slightly different, in that EEQFNSTYR had a higher content of galactose. The last step of this study consisted of peptide-mapping the 11 reported porcine IgG sequences. Although there was considerable overlap, at least one unique tryptic peptide was found per IgG sequence. The workflow presented in this manuscript constitutes the first study to use MALDI-TOF-MS in the investigation of porcine IgG structural features. PMID:26586247

  19. Human Retroviruses and AIDS. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences: I--II; III--V

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Korber, B.; Wain-Hobson, S.; Smith, R.F.; Pavlakis, G.N.

    1993-12-31

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (I) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium.

  20. Protein Sequence Annotation Tool (PSAT): A centralized web-based meta-server for high-throughput sequence annotations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leung, Elo; Huang, Amy; Cadag, Eithon; Montana, Aldrin; Soliman, Jan Lorenz; Zhou, Carol L. Ecale

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we introduce the Protein Sequence Annotation Tool (PSAT), a web-based, sequence annotation meta-server for performing integrated, high-throughput, genome-wide sequence analyses. Our goals in building PSAT were to (1) create an extensible platform for integration of multiple sequence-based bioinformatics tools, (2) enable functional annotations and enzyme predictions over large input protein fasta data sets, and (3) provide a web interface for convenient execution of the tools. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of PSAT by annotating the predicted peptide gene products of Herbaspirillum sp. strain RV1423, importing the results of PSAT into EC2KEGG, and using the resultingmore » functional comparisons to identify a putative catabolic pathway, thereby distinguishing RV1423 from a well annotated Herbaspirillum species. This analysis demonstrates that high-throughput enzyme predictions, provided by PSAT processing, can be used to identify metabolic potential in an otherwise poorly annotated genome. Lastly, PSAT is a meta server that combines the results from several sequence-based annotation and function prediction codes, and is available at http://psat.llnl.gov/psat/. PSAT stands apart from other sequencebased genome annotation systems in providing a high-throughput platform for rapid de novo enzyme predictions and sequence annotations over large input protein sequence data sets in FASTA. PSAT is most appropriately applied in annotation of large protein FASTA sets that may or may not be associated with a single genome.« less

  1. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. PMID:25708409

  2. Bacterial community compositions in sediment polluted by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using Illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yajun; Wang, Tieyu; Peng, Xiawei; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-06-01

    The characterization of bacterial community compositions and the change in perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along a natural river distribution system were explored in the present study. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to explore bacterial community diversity and structure in sediment polluted by PFAAs from the Xiaoqing River, the area with concentrated fluorochemical facilities in China. The concentration of PFAAs was in the range of 8.44-465.60 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFAA in all samples, which accounted for 94.2 % of total PFAAs. High-level PFOA could lead to an obvious increase in relative abundance of Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria, Thiobacillus, and Sulfurimonas and the decrease in relative abundance of other bacteria. Redundancy analysis revealed that PFOA played an important role in the formation of bacterial community, and PFOA at higher concentration could reduce the diversity of bacterial community. When the concentration of PFOA was below 100 ng/g dw in sediment, no significant effect on microbial community structure was observed. Thiobacillus and Sulfurimonas were positively correlated with the concentration of PFOA, suggesting that both genera were resistant to PFOA contamination. PMID:26780047

  3. Renal acid-base metabolism after ischemia.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J C; Phifer, T; Henderson, R; Welbourne, T C

    1986-05-01

    The response of the kidney to ischemia-induced cellular acidosis was followed over the immediate one hr post-ischemia reflow period. Clearance and extraction experiments as well as measurement of cortical intracellular pH (pHi) were performed on Inactin-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Arteriovenous concentration differences and para-aminohippurate extraction were obtained by cannulating the left renal vein. Base production was monitored as bicarbonate released into the renal vein and urine; net base production was related to the renal handling of glutamine and ammonia as well as to renal oxygen consumption and pHi. After a 15 min control period, the left renal artery was snared for one-half hr followed by release and four consecutive 15 min reflow periods. During the control period, cortical cell pHi measured by [14C]-5,5-Dimethyl-2,4-Oxazolidinedione distribution was 7.07 +/- 0.08, and Q-O2 was 14.1 +/- 2.2 micromoles/min; neither net glutamine utilization nor net bicarbonate generation occurred. After 30 min of ischemia, renal tissue pH fell to 6.6 +/- 0.15. However, within 45 min of reflow, cortical cell pH returned and exceeded the control value, 7.33 +/- 0.06 vs. 7.15 +/- 0.08. This increase in pHi was associated with a significant rise in cellular metabolic rate, Q-O2 increased to 20.3 +/- 6.4 micromoles/min. Corresponding with cellular alkalosis was a net production of bicarbonate and a net ammonia uptake and glutamine release; urinary acidification was abolished. These results are consistent with a nonexcretory renal metabolic base generating mechanism governing cellular acid base homeostasis following ischemia. PMID:3723929

  4. Peptide sequencing by using a combination of partial acid hydrolysis and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, F; Botta, M; Ceccarelli, S; Nicoletti, R

    1986-01-01

    To overcome the limit of the intensity of ions carrying sequence information in structural determinations of peptides by fast-atom-bombardment m.s., we have developed a method that consists in taking spectra of the peptide acid hydrolysates at different hydrolysis times. Peaks correspond to the oligomers arising from the peptide partial hydrolysis. The sequence can then be identified from the structurally overlapping fragments. PMID:2428356

  5. Sequence-based evidence for major histocompatibility complex-disassortative mating in a colonial seabird

    PubMed Central

    Juola, Frans A.; Dearborn, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a polymorphic gene family associated with immune defence, and it can play a role in mate choice. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, females choose mates that differ genetically from their own MHC genotypes, avoiding inbreeding and/or enhancing the immunocompetence of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis of disassortative mating based on MHC genotypes in a population of great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) by sequencing the second exon of MHC class II B. Extensive haploid cloning yielded two to four alleles per individual, suggesting the amplification of two genes. MHC similarity between mates was not significantly different between pairs that did (n = 4) or did not (n = 42) exhibit extra-pair paternity. Comparing all 46 mated pairs to a distribution based on randomized re-pairings, we observed the following (i): no evidence for mate choice based on maximal or intermediate levels of MHC allele sharing (ii), significantly disassortative mating based on similarity of MHC amino acid sequences, and (iii) no evidence for mate choice based on microsatellite alleles, as measured by either allele sharing or similarity in allele size. This suggests that females choose mates that differ genetically from themselves at MHC loci, but not as an inbreeding-avoidance mechanism. PMID:21613297

  6. Gnome--an Internet-based sequence analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Nakai, K; Tokimori, T; Ogiwara, A; Uchiyama, I; Niiyama, T

    1994-09-01

    Gnome (GenomeNet Open Mail-service Environment) is a sequence analysis tool that enables an end-user to make use of several Internet- (mainly e-mail) based services with an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Users can conduct homology and motif searches, and database-entry retrieval against the latest databases by emitting search requests to and receiving their results form a search-server by e-mail. The search results are viewed and managed efficiently with this system. The Macintosh and X (Motif) versions of the Gnome client and the UNIX version of the Gnome server are available to academic users free of charge. PMID:7828072

  7. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  8. Microgel Tethering For Microarray-Based Nucleic Acid Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoguang

    Molecular diagnostics (MDx) have radically changed the process of clinical microbial identification based on identifying genetic information, MDx approaches are both specific and fast. They can identify microbes to the species and strain level over a time scale that can be as short as one hour. With such information clinicians can administer the most effective and appropriate antimicrobial treatment at an early time point with substantial implications both for patient well-being and for easing the burden on the health-care system. Among the different MDx approaches, such as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, microarrays, next-generation sequencing, and mass spectrometry, point-of-care MDx platforms are drawing particular interest due to their low cost, robustness, and wide application. This dissertation develops a novel MDx technology platform capable of high target amplification and detection performance. For nucleic acid target detection, we fabricate an array of electron-beam-patterned microgels on a standard glass microscope slide. The microgels can be as small as a few hundred nanometers. The unique way of energy deposition during electron-beam lithography provides the microgels with a very diffuse water -gel interface that enables them to not only serve as substrates to immobilize DNA probes but do so while preserving them in a highly hydrated environment that optimizes their performance. Benefiting from the high spatial resolution provided by such techniques as position-sensitive microspotting and dip-pen nanolithography, multiple oligonucleotide probes known as molecular beacons (MBs) can be patterned on microgels. Furthermore, nucleic acid target amplification can be conducted in direct contact with the microgel-tethered detection array. Specifically, we use an isothermal RNA amplification reaction - nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). ssRNA amplicons of from the NASBA reaction can directly hybridize with microgel-tethered MBs, and the

  9. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo-Ik ); Hammes, G.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the {beta}-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution.

  10. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activity: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosylation factor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S R; Nightingale, M; Tsai, S C; Williamson, K C; Adamik, R; Chen, H C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1988-01-01

    Three (two soluble and one membrane) guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that enhance ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha stimulatory subunit of the adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) complex by choleragen have recently been purified from bovine brain. To further define the structure and function of these ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), we isolated a cDNA clone (lambda ARF2B) from a bovine retinal library by screening with a mixed heptadecanucleotide probe whose sequence was based on the partial amino acid sequence of one of the soluble ARFs from bovine brain. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of lambda ARF2B with sequences of peptides from the ARF protein (total of 60 amino acids) revealed only two differences. Whether these are cloning artifacts or reflect the existence of more than one ARF protein remains to be determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of ARF, Go alpha (the alpha subunit of a G protein that may be involved in regulation of ion fluxes), and c-Ha-ras gene product p21 show similarities in regions believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding and GTP hydrolysis. ARF apparently lacks a site analogous to that ADP-ribosylated by choleragen in G-protein alpha subunits. Although both the ARF proteins and the alpha subunits bind guanine nucleotides and serve as choleragen substrates, they must interact with the toxin A1 peptide in different ways. In addition to serving as an ADP-ribose acceptor, ARF interacts with the toxin in a manner that modifies its catalytic properties. PMID:3135549

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the nifH gene coding for nitrogen reductase in the acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, A C; Sly, L I

    1998-01-01

    The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was determined with the use of the polymerase chain reaction and universal degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The gene shows highest pair-wise similarity to the nifH gene of Azospirillum brasilense. The phylogenetic relationships of the nifH gene sequences were compared with those inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Knowledge of the sequence of the nifH gene contributes to the growing database of nifH gene sequences, and will allow the detection of Acet. diazotrophicus from environmental samples with nifH gene-based primers. PMID:9489028

  12. Sequence-Dependent Elasticity and Electrostatics of Single-Stranded DNA: Signatures of Base-Stacking

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Dustin B.; Duggan, Gina; Gouil, Quentin; Saleh, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-stacking is a key factor in the energetics that determines nucleic acid structure. We measure the tensile response of single-stranded DNA as a function of sequence and monovalent salt concentration to examine the effects of base-stacking on the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of single-stranded DNA. By comparing the elastic response of highly stacked poly(dA) and that of a polypyrimidine sequence with minimal stacking, we find that base-stacking in poly(dA) significantly enhances the polymer’s rigidity. The unstacking transition of poly(dA) at high force reveals that the intrinsic electrostatic tension on the molecule varies significantly more weakly on salt concentration than mean-field predictions. Further, we provide a model-independent estimate of the free energy difference between stacked poly(dA) and unstacked polypyrimidine, finding it to be ∼−0.25 kBT/base and nearly constant over three orders of magnitude in salt concentration. PMID:24507606

  13. Complete amino acid sequence of the medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase from rat mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Randhawa, Z.I.; Smith, S.

    1987-03-10

    The complete amino acid sequence of the medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase (thioesterase II) from rat mammary gland is presented. Most of the sequence was derived by analysis of (/sup 14/C)-labelled peptide fragments produced by cleavage at methionyl, glutamyl, lysyl, arginyl, and tryptophanyl residues. A small section of the sequence was deduced from a previously analyzed cDNA clone. The protein consists of 260 residues and has a blocked amino-terminal methionine and calculated M/sub r/ of 29,212. The carboxy-terminal sequence, verified by Edman degradation of the carboxy-terminal cyanogen bromide fragment and carboxypeptidase Y digestion of the intact thioesterase II, terminates with a serine residue and lacks three additional residues predicted by the cDNA sequence. The native enzyme contains three cysteine residues but no disulfide bridges. The active site serine residue is located at position 101. The rat mammary gland thioesterase II exhibits approximately 40% homology with a thioesterase from mallard uropygial gland, the sequence of which was recently determined by cDNA analysis. Thus the two enzymes may share similar structural features and a common evolutionary origin. The location of the active site in these thioesterases differs from that of other serine active site esterases; indeed, the enzymes do not exhibit any significant homology with other serine esterases, suggesting that they may constitute a separate new family of serine active site enzymes.

  14. The complete amino acid sequence of the A-chain of human plasma alpha 2HS-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Y; Gejyo, F; Marti, T; Rickli, E E; Bürgi, W; Offner, G D; Troxler, R F; Schmid, K

    1986-02-01

    Normal human plasma alpha 2HS-glycoprotein has earlier been shown to be comprised of two polypeptide chains. Recently, the amino acid and carbohydrate sequences of the short chain were elucidated (Gejyo, F., Chang, J.-L., Bürgi, W., Schmid, K., Offner, G. D., Troxler, R.F., van Halbeck, H., Dorland, L., Gerwig, G. J., and Vliegenthart, J.F.G. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4966-4971). In the present study, the amino acid sequence of the long chain of this protein, designated A-chain, was determined and found to consist of 282 amino acid residues. Twenty-four amino acid doublets were found; the most abundant of these are Pro-Pro and Ala-Ala which each occur five times. Of particular interest is the presence of three Gly-X-Pro and one Gly-Pro-X sequences that are characteristic of the repeating sequences of collagens. Chou-Fasman evaluation of the secondary structure suggested that the A-chain contains 29% alpha-helix, 24% beta-pleated sheet, and 26% reverse turns and, thus, approximately 80% of the polypeptide chain may display ordered structure. Four glycosylation sites were identified. The two N-glycosidic oligosaccharides were found in the center region (residues 138 and 158), whereas the two O-glycosidic heterosaccharides, both linked to threonine (residues 238 and 252), occur within the carboxyl-terminal region. The N-glycans are linked to Asn residues in beta-turns, while the O-glycans are located in short random segments. Comparison of the sequence of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal 30 residues with protein sequences in a data bank demonstrated that the A-chain is not significantly related to any known proteins. However, the proline-rich carboxyl-terminal region of the A-chain displays some sequence similarity to collagens and the collagen-like domains of complement subcomponent C1q. PMID:3944104

  15. Analysis of the functional domains of biosynthetic threonine deaminase by comparison of the amino acid sequences of three wild-type alleles to the amino acid sequence of biodegradative threonine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Taillon, B E; Little, R; Lawther, R P

    1988-03-31

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene, ilvA, for biosynthetic threonine deaminase (Tda) from Salmonella typhimurium was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared with the deduced amino acid sequences of the biosynthetic Tda from Escherichia coli K-12 (ilvA) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ILV1) and the biodegradative Tda from E. coli K-12 (tdc). The comparison indicated the presence of two types of blocks of homologous amino acids. The first type of homology is in the N-terminal portion of all four isozymes of Tda and probably indicates amino acids involved in catalysis. The second type of homology is found in the C-terminal portion of the three biosynthetic isozymes and presumably is involved in either (i) the binding or interaction of the allosteric effector isoleucine with the enzyme, or (ii) subunit interactions. The sites of amino acid changes of two E. coli K-12 ilvA alleles with altered response to isoleucine are consistent with the conclusion that the C-terminal portion of biosynthetic Tda is involved in allosteric regulation. PMID:3290055

  16. A Possible Mechanism of Zika Virus Associated Microcephaly: Imperative Role of Retinoic Acid Response Element (RARE) Consensus Sequence Repeats in the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, Himanshu N.; Pareek, Vikas; Raza, Khursheed; Dantham, Subrahamanyam; Kumar, Pavan; Mochan, Sankat; Faiq, Muneeb A.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the reports of microcephaly as a consistent outcome in the fetuses of pregnant women infected with ZIKV in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV)—microcephaly etiomechanistic relationship has recently been implicated. Researchers, however, are still struggling to establish an embryological basis for this interesting causal handcuff. The present study reveals robust evidence in favor of a plausible ZIKV-microcephaly cause-effect liaison. The rationale is based on: (1) sequence homology between ZIKV genome and the response element of an early neural tube developmental marker “retinoic acid” in human DNA and (2) comprehensive similarities between the details of brain defects in ZIKV-microcephaly and retinoic acid embryopathy. Retinoic acid is considered as the earliest factor for regulating anteroposterior axis of neural tube and positioning of structures in developing brain through retinoic acid response elements (RARE) consensus sequence (5′–AGGTCA–3′) in promoter regions of retinoic acid-dependent genes. We screened genomic sequences of already reported virulent ZIKV strains (including those linked to microcephaly) and other viruses available in National Institute of Health genetic sequence database (GenBank) for the RARE consensus repeats and obtained results strongly bolstering our hypothesis that ZIKV strains associated with microcephaly may act through precipitation of dysregulation in retinoic acid-dependent genes by introducing extra stretches of RARE consensus sequence repeats in the genome of developing brain cells. Additional support to our hypothesis comes from our findings that screening of other viruses for RARE consensus sequence repeats is positive only for those known to display neurotropism and cause fetal brain defects (for which maternal-fetal transmission during developing stage may be required). The numbers of RARE sequence repeats appeared to match with the virulence of screened positive viruses. Although, bioinformatic evidence and

  17. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Mioko; Komatsu, Miéko; Araki, Takeyoshi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Wada, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    One of the most important issues in asteroid phylogeny is the phylogenetic status of Paxillosida. This group lacks an anus and suckers on the tube feet in adults and does not develop the brachiolaria stage in early development. Two controversial hypotheses have been proposed for the phylogenetic status of Paxillosida, i.e., Paxillosida is primitive or rather specialized in asteroids. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences from two paxillosidans (Astropecten polyacanthus and Luidia quinaria) and one forcipulatidan (Asterias amurensis). The mitochondrial genomes of the three asteroids were identical with respect to gene order and transcription direction, and were identical to the previously reported mitochondrial genomes of Asterina pectinifera (Valvatida) and Pisaster ochraceus (Forcipulatida) in this respect. Therefore, the comparison of genome structures was uninformative for the purposes of asteroid phylogeny. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences and the nucleotide sequences from the five asteroids supported the monophyly of the clade that included the two paxillosidans and Asterina. This suggests that the paxillosidan characters are secondarily derived ones. PMID:15878829

  18. Origin and evolution of retroelements based upon their reverse transcriptase sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Y; Eickbush, T H

    1990-01-01

    To study the evolutionary relationship of reverse transcriptase (RT) containing genetic elements, a phylogenetic tree of 82 retroelements from animals, plants, protozoans and bacteria was constructed. The tree was based on seven amino acid domains totalling 178 residues identified in all RTs. We have also identified these seven domains in the RNA-directed RNA polymerases from various plus-strand RNA viruses. The sequence similarity of these RNA polymerases to RT suggests that these two enzymes evolved from a common ancestor, and thus RNA polymerase can be used as an outgroup to root the RT tree. A comparison of the genetic organization of the various RT containing elements and their position on the tree allows several inferences concerning the origin and evolution of these elements. The most probable ancestor of current retroelements was a retrotransposable element with both gag-like and pol-like genes. On one major branch of the tree, organelle and bacterial sequences (e.g. group II introns and bacterial msDNA) appear to have captured the RT sequences from retrotransposons which lack long terminal repeats (LTRs). On the other major branch, acquisition of LTRs gave rise to two distinct groups of LTR retrotransposons and three groups of viruses: retroviruses, hepadnaviruses and caulimoviruses. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1698615

  19. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-06-01

    An innovative course sequence for the teaching of biochemistry is offered, which more truly reflects the common philosophy found in biochemistry texts: that the foundation of biological phenomena can best be understood through the logic of chemistry. Topic order is chosen to develop an emerging understanding that is based on chemical principles. Preeminent biological questions serve as a framework for the course. Lipid and lipid-aggregate structures are introduced first, since it is more logical to discuss the intermolecular association of simple amphiphiles to form micelle and bilayer formations than to discuss the complexities of protein structure/folding. Protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structures are studied next. Binding, a noncovalent process and the simplest expression of macromolecular function, follows. The physical (noncovalent) transport of solute molecules across a biological membrane is studied next, followed by the chemical transformation of substrates by enzymes. These are logical extensions of the expression of molecular function, first involving a simpler (physical transport) and second, a more complex (covalent transformation) process. The final sequence involves energy and signal transduction. This unique course sequence emerges naturally when chemical logic is used as an organizing paradigm for structuring a biochemistry course. Traditional order, which seems to reflect historic trends in research, or even an order derived from the central dogma of biology can not provide this logical framework.

  20. Method for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences by polymerase nucleotide incorporation

    DOEpatents

    Castro, Alonso

    2004-06-01

    A method for rapid and efficient detection of a target DNA or RNA sequence is provided. A primer having a 3'-hydroxyl group at one end and having a sequence of nucleotides sufficiently homologous with an identifying sequence of nucleotides in the target DNA is selected. The primer is hybridized to the identifying sequence of nucleotides on the DNA or RNA sequence and a reporter molecule is synthesized on the target sequence by progressively binding complementary nucleotides to the primer, where the complementary nucleotides include nucleotides labeled with a fluorophore. Fluorescence emitted by fluorophores on single reporter molecules is detected to identify the target DNA or RNA sequence.

  1. History of medical understanding and misunderstanding of Acid base balance.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-09-01

    To establish how controversies in understanding acid base balance arose, the literature on acid base balance was reviewed from 1909, when Henderson described how the neutral reaction of blood is determined by carbonic and organic acids being in equilibrium with an excess of mineral bases over mineral acids. From 1914 to 1930, Van Slyke and others established our acid base principles. They recognised that carbonic acid converts into bicarbonate all non-volatile mineral bases not bound by mineral acids and determined therefore that bicarbonate represents the alkaline reserve of the body and should be a physiological constant. They showed that standard bicarbonate is a good measure of acidosis caused by increased production or decreased elimination of organic acids. However, they recognised that bicarbonate improved low plasma bicarbonate but not high urine acid excretion in diabetic ketoacidosis, and that increasing pCO2 caused chloride to shift into cells raising plasma titratable alkali. Both indicate that minerals influence pH. In 1945 Darrow showed that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in preterm infants fed milk with 5.7 mmol of chloride and 2.0 mmol of sodium per 100 kcal was caused by retention of chloride in excess of sodium. Similar findings were made but not recognised in later studies of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. Shohl in 1921 and Kildeberg in 1978 presented the theory that carbonic and organic acids are neutralised by mineral base, where mineral base is the excess of mineral cations over anions and organic acid is the difference between mineral base, bicarbonate and protein anion. The degree of metabolic acidosis measured as base excess is determined by deviation in both mineral base and organic acid from normal. PMID:24179938

  2. Characterization and cDNA sequence of Bothriechis schlegeliil-amino acid oxidase with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Vargas Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Núñez, Vitelbina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-08-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins including l-amino acid oxidase (lAAO). A lAAO (named BslAAO) with a mass of 56kDa and a theoretical Ip of 5.79, was purified from Bothriechis schlegelii venom through size-exclusion, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. The entire protein sequence of 498 amino acids, was determined from cDNA using reverse-transcribed mRNA isolated from venom gland. The enzyme showed dose-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth. BslAAO showed inhibitory effect against S. aureus with a MIC of 4μg/mL and a MBC of 8μg/mL. Against Acinetobacter baumannii, showed a MIC of 2μg/mL and MBC of 4μg/mL, No effect was observed in Escherichia coli. This antibacterial activity was inhibited by catalase, indicating that antimicrobial activity was due to H2O2 production. BslAAO did not show any cytotoxic activity toward mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The enzyme oxidated l-Leu, with a Km of 16.37μM and a Vmax of 0.39μM/min. Snake venoms lAAOs, are potential frames of different therapeutics molecules since these enzymes exhibit low MICs and MBCs and show to be harmless to human cells due to microorganisms being generally several fold more sensitive to reactive oxygen species than human tissues. PMID:24875315

  3. Genome Sequence of Schizochytrium sp. CCTCC M209059, an Effective Producer of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Kai-Qiang; Ren, Lu-Jing; Li, Gan-Lu; Huang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Schizochytrium is an effective species for producing omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here, we report a genome sequence of Schizochytrium sp. CCTCC M209059, which has a genome size of 39.09 Mb. It will provide the genomic basis for further insights into the metabolic and regulatory mechanisms underlying the DHA formation. PMID:26251485

  4. Evolutionary Distance of Amino Acid Sequence Orthologs across Macaque Subspecies: Identifying Candidate Genes for SIV Resistance in Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Cody T.; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We use the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD) algorithm to identify amino acid sequence orthologs in the Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque draft sequences and estimate the evolutionary distance between such orthologs. We then use GOanna to map gene function annotations and human gene identifiers to the rhesus macaque amino acid sequences. We conclude methodologically by cross-tabulating a list of amino acid orthologs with large divergence scores with a list of genes known to be involved in SIV or HIV pathogenesis. We find that many of the amino acid sequences with large evolutionary divergence scores, as calculated by the RSD algorithm, have been shown to be related to HIV pathogenesis in previous laboratory studies. Four of the strongest candidate genes for SIVmac resistance in Chinese rhesus macaques identified in this study are CDK9, CXCL12, TRIM21, and TRIM32. Additionally, ANKRD30A, CTSZ, GORASP2, GTF2H1, IL13RA1, MUC16, NMDAR1, Notch1, NT5M, PDCD5, RAD50, and TM9SF2 were identified as possible candidates, among others. We failed to find many laboratory experiments contrasting the effects of Indian and Chinese orthologs at these sites on SIVmac pathogenesis, but future comparative studies might hold fertile ground for research into the biological mechanisms underlying innate resistance to SIVmac in Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:25884674

  5. Evolutionary distance of amino acid sequence orthologs across macaque subspecies: identifying candidate genes for SIV resistance in Chinese rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Ross, Cody T; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We use the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD) algorithm to identify amino acid sequence orthologs in the Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque draft sequences and estimate the evolutionary distance between such orthologs. We then use GOanna to map gene function annotations and human gene identifiers to the rhesus macaque amino acid sequences. We conclude methodologically by cross-tabulating a list of amino acid orthologs with large divergence scores with a list of genes known to be involved in SIV or HIV pathogenesis. We find that many of the amino acid sequences with large evolutionary divergence scores, as calculated by the RSD algorithm, have been shown to be related to HIV pathogenesis in previous laboratory studies. Four of the strongest candidate genes for SIVmac resistance in Chinese rhesus macaques identified in this study are CDK9, CXCL12, TRIM21, and TRIM32. Additionally, ANKRD30A, CTSZ, GORASP2, GTF2H1, IL13RA1, MUC16, NMDAR1, Notch1, NT5M, PDCD5, RAD50, and TM9SF2 were identified as possible candidates, among others. We failed to find many laboratory experiments contrasting the effects of Indian and Chinese orthologs at these sites on SIVmac pathogenesis, but future comparative studies might hold fertile ground for research into the biological mechanisms underlying innate resistance to SIVmac in Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:25884674

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Julie; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Kabisch, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  8. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, a probiotic strain with high conjugated linoleic acid production ability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Haiqin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-20

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 was isolated from sauerkraut and identified to synthesize the beneficial metabolite conjugated linoleic acid. The genome contains a 319,7363-bp chromosome and three plasmids. The sequence will facilitate identification and characterization of the genetic determinants for its putative biological benefits. PMID:26439428

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, a Trehalose Producer That Uses Levulinic Acid as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Koike, Hideaki; Kondo, Susumu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Kanno, Manabu; Kimura, Nobutada; Morita, Tomotake; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia stabilis LA20W produces trehalose using levulinic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, we report the 7.97-Mb draft genome sequence of B. stabilis LA20W, which will be useful in investigations of the enzymes involved in LA metabolism and the mechanism of LA-induced trehalose production. PMID:27491978

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter tropicalis Type Strain NBRC16470, a Producer of Optically Pure d-Glyceric Acid.

    PubMed

    Koike, Hideaki; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Habe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the 3.7-Mb draft genome sequence of Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470(T), which can produce optically pure d-glyceric acid (d-GA; 99% enantiomeric excess) from raw glycerol feedstock derived from biodiesel fuel production processes. PMID:25523780

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, a Trehalose Producer That Uses Levulinic Acid as a Substrate.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Koike, Hideaki; Kondo, Susumu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Kanno, Manabu; Kimura, Nobutada; Morita, Tomotake; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Habe, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia stabilis LA20W produces trehalose using levulinic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, we report the 7.97-Mb draft genome sequence of B. stabilis LA20W, which will be useful in investigations of the enzymes involved in LA metabolism and the mechanism of LA-induced trehalose production. PMID:27491978

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  13. Ultra high-throughput nucleic acid sequencing as a tool for virus discovery in the turkey gut.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the use of the next generation of nucleic acid sequencing technology (i.e., 454 pyrosequencing, as developed by Roche/454 Life Sciences) has allowed an in-depth look at the uncultivated microorganisms present in complex environmental samples, including samples with agricultural importance....

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk

    PubMed Central

    Meneghel, Julie; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  15. Acid-Base Pairs in Lewis Acidic Zeolites Promote Direct Aldol Reactions by Soft Enolization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-08-17

    Hf-, Sn-, and Zr-Beta zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. PMID:26138135

  16. Prediction of Protein Structural Classes for Low-Similarity Sequences Based on Consensus Sequence and Segmented PSSM

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yunyun; Liu, Sanyang; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences is useful for understanding fold patterns, regulation, functions, and interactions of proteins. It is well known that feature extraction is significant to prediction of protein structural class and it mainly uses protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure sequence, and position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM). Currently, prediction solely based on the PSSM has played a key role in improving the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel method called CSP-SegPseP-SegACP by fusing consensus sequence (CS), segmented PsePSSM, and segmented autocovariance transformation (ACT) based on PSSM. Three widely used low-similarity datasets (1189, 25PDB, and 640) are adopted in this paper. Then a 700-dimensional (700D) feature vector is constructed and the dimension is decreased to 224D by using principal component analysis (PCA). To verify the performance of our method, rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on 1189, 25PDB, and 640 datasets. Comparison of our results with the existing PSSM-based methods demonstrates that our method achieves the favorable and competitive performance. This will offer an important complementary to other PSSM-based methods for prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences. PMID:26788119

  17. Prediction of Protein Structural Classes for Low-Similarity Sequences Based on Consensus Sequence and Segmented PSSM.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yunyun; Liu, Sanyang; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences is useful for understanding fold patterns, regulation, functions, and interactions of proteins. It is well known that feature extraction is significant to prediction of protein structural class and it mainly uses protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure sequence, and position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM). Currently, prediction solely based on the PSSM has played a key role in improving the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel method called CSP-SegPseP-SegACP by fusing consensus sequence (CS), segmented PsePSSM, and segmented autocovariance transformation (ACT) based on PSSM. Three widely used low-similarity datasets (1189, 25PDB, and 640) are adopted in this paper. Then a 700-dimensional (700D) feature vector is constructed and the dimension is decreased to 224D by using principal component analysis (PCA). To verify the performance of our method, rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on 1189, 25PDB, and 640 datasets. Comparison of our results with the existing PSSM-based methods demonstrates that our method achieves the favorable and competitive performance. This will offer an important complementary to other PSSM-based methods for prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences. PMID:26788119

  18. A Comprehensive, Automatically Updated Fungal ITS Sequence Dataset for Reference-Based Chimera Control in Environmental Sequencing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R. Henrik; Tedersoo, Leho; Ryberg, Martin; Kristiansson, Erik; Hartmann, Martin; Unterseher, Martin; Porter, Teresita M.; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Walker, Donald M.; de Sousa, Filipe; Gamper, Hannes Andres; Larsson, Ellen; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kõljalg, Urmas; Edgar, Robert C.; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is the most commonly chosen genetic marker for the molecular identification of fungi in environmental sequencing and molecular ecology studies. Several analytical issues complicate such efforts, one of which is the formation of chimeric—artificially joined—DNA sequences during PCR amplification or sequence assembly. Several software tools are currently available for chimera detection, but rely to various degrees on the presence of a chimera-free reference dataset for optimal performance. However, no such dataset is available for use with the fungal ITS region. This study introduces a comprehensive, automatically updated reference dataset for fungal ITS sequences based on the UNITE database for the molecular identification of fungi. This dataset supports chimera detection throughout the fungal kingdom and for full-length ITS sequences as well as partial (ITS1 or ITS2 only) datasets. The performance of the dataset on a large set of artificial chimeras was above 99.5%, and we subsequently used the dataset to remove nearly 1,000 compromised fungal ITS sequences from public circulation. The dataset is available at http://unite.ut.ee/repository.php and is subject to web-based third-party curation. PMID:25786896

  19. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis based on SMRT Sequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Qiushi; Li, Xiwen; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cough symptoms related to the respiratory system. The chloroplast genome of F. unibracteata var. wabuensis (GenBank accession no. KF769142) was assembled using the PacBio RS platform (Pacific Biosciences, Beverly, MA) as a circle sequence with 151 009 bp. The assembled genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. This genome sequence will provide important resource for further studies on the evolution of Fritillaria genus and molecular identification of Fritillaria herbs and their adulterants. This work suggests that PacBio RS is a powerful tool to sequence and assemble chloroplast genomes. PMID:26370383

  20. Screening for simple sequence repeat markers in Puccinia striiformis tritici based on genomic sequence*

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Gang-ming; Wang, Fu-ping; Luo, Huai-yong; Jiang, Shu-chang; Zheng, Wen-ming; Huang, Li-li; Kang, Zhen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is the obligate biotrophic fungus responsible for stripe rust wheat. In this study, we developed and characterized 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the genomic sequence of an isolate of Chinese Pst race CY32. Polymorphism at each simple sequence repeat (SSR) locus was determined using 32 Pst isolates from 7 countries. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 across isolates, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.33 to 0.97 (mean 0.62) and 0.23 to 0.73 (mean 0.51), respectively. As expected the genomic SSR markers were more polymorphic than the expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR markers developed previously. These markers will be more useful for population genetics and molecular genetics studies in Pst. PMID:26238548

  1. Multiple sequence alignment based on combining genetic algorithm with chaotic sequences.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Wang, B; Zhou, C J; Zhang, Q

    2016-01-01

    In bioinformatics, sequence alignment is one of the most common problems. Multiple sequence alignment is an NP (nondeterministic polynomial time) problem, which requires further study and exploration. The chaos optimization algorithm is a type of chaos theory, and a procedure for combining the genetic algorithm (GA), which uses ergodicity, and inherent randomness of chaotic iteration. It is an efficient method to solve the basic premature phenomenon of the GA. Applying the Logistic map to the GA and using chaotic sequences to carry out the chaotic perturbation can improve the convergence of the basic GA. In addition, the random tournament selection and optimal preservation strategy are used in the GA. Experimental evidence indicates good results for this process. PMID:27420977

  2. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  3. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  4. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  5. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  6. Amino acid sequence of rabbit kidney neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) deduced from a complementary DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Devault, A; Lazure, C; Nault, C; Le Moual, H; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Kahn, P; Powell, J; Mallet, J; Beaumont, A

    1987-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) is a major constituent of kidney brush border membranes. It is also present in the brain where it has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of opioid peptides, methionine- and leucine-enkephalins. For this reason this enzyme is often called 'enkephalinase'. In order to characterize the primary structure of the enzyme, oligonucleotide probes were designed from partial amino acid sequences and used to isolate clones from kidney cDNA libraries. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed the complete primary structure of the enzyme. Neutral endopeptidase consists of 750 amino acids. It contains a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (27 amino acids), a single membrane-spanning segment (23 amino acids) and an extracellular domain that comprises most of the protein mass. The comparison of the primary structure of neutral endopeptidase with that of thermolysin, a bacterial Zn-metallopeptidase, indicates that most of the amino acid residues involved in Zn coordination and catalytic activity in thermolysin are found within highly honmologous sequences in neutral endopeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2440677

  7. Human parainfluenza type 3 virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA and limited amino acid sequence of the purified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Coligan, J E; Jambou, R C; Venkatesan, S

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of mRNA for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 3 virus obtained from the corresponding cDNA clone had a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 64,254 daltons consisting of 572 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence was confirmed by limited N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of CNBr cleavage fragments of native HN that was purified by immunoprecipitation. The HN protein is moderately hydrophobic and has four potential sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) of N-glycosylation in the C-terminal half of the molecule. It is devoid of both the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal membrane anchorage domain characteristic of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus and the fusion (F0) protein of the paramyxoviruses. Instead, it has a single prominent hydrophobic region capable of membrane insertion beginning at 32 residues from the N terminus. This N-terminal membrane insertion is similar to that of influenza virus neuraminidase and the recently reported structures of HN proteins of Sendai virus and simian virus 5. Images PMID:3003381

  8. Sequence of cDNA for rat cystathionine gamma-lyase and comparison of deduced amino acid sequence with related Escherichia coli enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, P F; Maxwell, I H; Su, L J; Baumann, M; Glode, L M

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA clone for cystathionine gamma-lyase was isolated from a rat cDNA library in lambda gt11 by screening with a monospecific antiserum. The identity of this clone, containing 600 bp proximal to the 3'-end of the gene, was confirmed by positive hybridization selection. Northern-blot hybridization showed the expected higher abundance of the corresponding mRNA in liver than in brain. Two further cDNA clones from a plasmid pcD library were isolated by colony hybridization with the first clone and were found to contain inserts of 1600 and 1850 bp. One of these was confirmed as encoding cystathionine gamma-lyase by hybridization with two independent pools of oligodeoxynucleotides corresponding to partial amino acid sequence information for cystathionine gamma-lyase. The other clone (estimated to represent all but 8% of the 5'-end of the mRNA) was sequenced and its deduced amino acid sequence showed similarity to those of the Escherichia coli enzymes cystathionine beta-lyase and cystathionine gamma-synthase throughout its length, especially to that of the latter. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2201285

  9. Moving Away from the Reference Genome: Evaluating a Peptide Sequencing Tagging Approach for Single Amino Acid Polymorphism Identifications in the Genus Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Paul E; Adams, Rachel M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity across natural populations of the model organism, Populus, is extensive, containing a single nucleotide polymorphism roughly every 200 base pairs. When deviations from the reference genome occur in coding regions, they can impact protein sequences. Rather than relying on a static reference database to profile protein expression, we employed a peptide sequence tagging (PST) approach capable of decoding the plasticity of the Populus proteome. Using shotgun proteomics data from two genotypes of P. trichocarpa, a tag-based approach enabled the detection of 6,653 unexpected sequence variants. Through manual validation, our study investigated how the most abundant chemical modification (methionine oxidation) could masquerade as a sequence variant (AlaSer) when few site-determining ions existed. In fact, precise localization of an oxidation site for peptides with more than one potential placement was indeterminate for 70% of the MS/MS spectra. We demonstrate that additional fragment ions made available by high energy collisional dissociation enhances the robustness of the peptide sequence tagging approach (81% of oxidation events could be exclusively localized to a methionine). We are confident that augmenting fragmentation processes for a PST approach will further improve the identification of single amino acid polymorphism in Populus and potentially other species as well.

  10. Sequence dependent N-terminal rearrangement and degradation of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, M.; Christensen, L.; Schmidt, J.; Haaima, G.; Orgel, L.; Nielsen, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of the PNA (peptide nucleic acid) thymine monomer inverted question markN-[2-(thymin-1-ylacetyl)]-N-(2-aminoaminoethyl)glycine inverted question mark and those of various PNA oligomers (5-8-mers) have been measured at room temperature (20 degrees C) as a function of pH. The thymine monomer undergoes N-acyl transfer rearrangement with a half-life of 34 days at pH 11 as analyzed by 1H NMR; and two reactions, the N-acyl transfer and a sequential degradation, are found by HPLC analysis to occur at measurable rates for the oligomers at pH 9 or above. Dependent on the amino-terminal sequence, half-lives of 350 h to 163 days were found at pH 9. At pH 12 the half-lives ranged from 1.5 h to 21 days. The results are discussed in terms of PNA as a gene therapeutic drug as well as a possible prebiotic genetic material.

  11. Structural analysis of complementary DNA and amino acid sequences of human and rat androgen receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Kokontis, J.; Liao, S. )

    1988-10-01

    Structural analysis of cDNAs for human and rat androgen receptors (ARs) indicates that the amino-terminal regions of ARs are rich in oligo- and poly(amino acid) motifs as in some homeotic genes. The human AR has a long stretch of repeated glycines, whereas rat AR has a long stretch of glutamines. There is a considerable sequence similarity among ARs and the receptors for glucocorticoids, progestins, and mineralocorticoids within the steroid-binding domains. The cysteine-rich DNA-binding domains are well conserved. Translation of mRNA transcribed from AR cDNAs yielded 94- and 76-kDa proteins and smaller forms that bind to DNA and have high affinity toward androgens. These rat or human ARs were recognized by human autoantibodies to natural Ars. Molecular hybridization studies, using AR cDNAs as probes, indicated that the ventral prostate and other male accessory organs are rich in AR mRNA and that the production of AR mRNA in the target organs may be autoregulated by androgens.

  12. Snake venoms. The amino acid sequences of two proteinase inhibitor homologues from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Taljaard, N

    1980-05-01

    Toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Whereas C13S1C3 contains 57 amino acids, C13S2C3 contains 59 but each include six half-cystine residues. The complete primary structure of the low toxicity proteins have been elucidated. The sequences and the invariant residues of toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom resemble, respectively, those of the proteinase inhibitor homologues K and I from D. polylepis polylepis venom and they are also homologous to the active proteinase inhibitors from various sources. In C13S1C3 and K the active site lysyl residue of active bovine pancreatic proteinase inhibitor is conserved but the site residue alanine, is replaced by lysine. In C13S2C3 and I the active site residue is replaced by tyrosine. PMID:7429422

  13. STING Millennium: A web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence.

    PubMed

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C; Mancini, Adauto L; Kuser, Paula R; Yamagishi, Michel E B; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V; Fonseca e Campos, Tharsis; Ferreira, Leonardo L; Luna, Fabio M; Oliveira, Adilton G; Miura, Ronald T; Inoue, Marcus K; Horita, Luiz G; de Souza, Dimas F; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Alvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S; Ogawa, Fabio O; Gomes, Gabriel B; Palandrani, Juliana F; dos Santos, Gabriela F; de Freitas, Esther M; Mattiuz, Amanda R; Costa, Ivan C; de Almeida, Celso L; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H

    2003-07-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Calpha-Calpha and Cbeta-Cbeta distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)-amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  14. STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence

    PubMed Central

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

    2003-01-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  15. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid base titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Bhowmik, P.; Zhao, B.; Hamon, M. A.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C.

    2001-09-01

    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) - by simple acid-base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO 3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The total percentage of acidic sites in full length purified SWNTs from TAR, CLI and CSI are about 1-3%.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in Selaginellaceae based on RBCL sequences.

    PubMed

    Korall, Petra; Kenrick, Paul

    2002-03-01

    A phylogenetic framework is developed for the clubmoss family Selaginellaceae based on maximum parsimony analyses of molecular data. The chloroplast gene rbcL was sequenced for 62 species, which represent nearly 10% of living species diversity in the family. Taxa were chosen to reflect morphological, geographical, and ecological diversity. The analyses provide support for monophyly of subgenera Selaginella and Tetragonostachys. Stachygynandrum and Heterostachys are polyphyletic. Monophyly of Ericetorum is uncertain. Results also indicate a large number of new groupings not previously recognized on morphological grounds. Some of these new groups seem to have corresponding morphological synapomorphies, such as the presence of rhizophores (distinctive root-like structures), aspects of rhizophore development, and leaf and stem morphology. Others share distinctive ecological traits (e.g., xerophytism). For many groups, however, no morphological, ecological, or physiological markers are known. This could reflect patchy sampling and a lack of detailed knowledge about many species. Despite a lengthy fossil record dating from the Carboniferous Period, cladogram topology indicates that most of the living tropical species are probably the products of more recent diversifications. Resurrection plants, extreme xerophytes characterized by aridity-driven inrolling of branches and rapid revival on rehydration, have evolved at least three times in quite different clades. PMID:21665649

  17. Global Genomic Diversity of Human Papillomavirus 6 Based on 724 Isolates and 190 Complete Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jelen, Mateja M.; Chen, Zigui; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Burt, Felicity J.; Chan, Paul K. S.; Chouhy, Diego; Combrinck, Catharina E.; Coutlée, François; Estrade, Christine; Ferenczy, Alex; Fiander, Alison; Franco, Eduardo L.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Giri, Adriana A.; González, Joaquín Víctor; Gröning, Arndt; Heidrich, Kerstin; Hibbitts, Sam; Hošnjak, Lea; Luk, Tommy N. M.; Marinic, Karina; Matsukura, Toshihiko; Neumann, Anna; Oštrbenk, Anja; Picconi, Maria Alejandra; Richardson, Harriet; Sagadin, Martin; Sahli, Roland; Seedat, Riaz Y.; Seme, Katja; Severini, Alberto; Sinchi, Jessica L.; Smahelova, Jana; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Tachezy, Ruth; Tohme, Sarah; Uloza, Virgilijus; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Wong, Yong Wee; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and has been included in both the quadrivalent and nonavalent prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study investigated the global genomic diversity of HPV6, using 724 isolates and 190 complete genomes from six continents, and the association of HPV6 genomic variants with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and gender. Initially, a 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment was sequenced from 492/530 (92.8%) HPV6-positive samples collected for this study. Among them, 130 exhibited at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indel, or amino acid change in the E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment and were sequenced in full. A global alignment and maximum likelihood tree of 190 complete HPV6 genomes (130 fully sequenced in this study and 60 obtained from sequence repositories) revealed two variant lineages, A and B, and five B sublineages: B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5. HPV6 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and a 960-bp representative region for whole-genome-based phylogenetic clustering within the L2 open reading frame were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lineage B predominated globally. Sublineage B3 was more common in Africa and North and South America, and lineage A was more common in Asia. Sublineages B1 and B3 were associated with anogenital infections, indicating a potential lesion-specific predilection of some HPV6 sublineages. Females had higher odds for infection with sublineage B3 than males. In conclusion, a global HPV6 phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two variant lineages and five sublineages, showing some degree of ethnogeographic, gender, and/or disease predilection in their distribution. IMPORTANCE This study established the largest database of globally circulating HPV6 genomic variants and contributed a total of 130 new, complete HPV6 genome sequences to available sequence repositories. Two HPV

  18. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Anella, Fabrizio; Wieczorek, Rafal; Stano, Pasquale; Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From the chemical viewpoint, macromolecules are formed by chemical pathways leading to the condensation of building blocks (amino acids, or nucleotides) in long-chain copolymers (proteins and nucleic acids, respectively). The second difficulty deals with a conceptual problem, namely with the emergence of specific sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge “sequence space”, leading to the question “why these macromolecules, and not the others?” We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides, like Ser-His, with respect to peptide- and nucleotides-condensation, as a realistic model of primitive organocatalysis. We have also set up a strategy for exploring the sequence space of random proteins and RNAs (the so-called “never born biopolymer” project) with respect to the production of folded structures. Being still far from solved, the main aspects of these “open questions” are discussed here, by commenting on recent results obtained in our groups and by providing a unifying view on the problem and possible solutions. In particular, we propose a general scenario for macromolecule formation via fragment-condensation, as a scheme for the emergence of specific sequences based on molecular growth and selection. PMID:24757502

  19. Amino acid sequence of the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 predicts sensitivity of wild birds to effects of dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Manning, Gillian E; Crump, Doug; Wu, Dongmei; Mundy, Lukas J; Jones, Stephanie P; Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of avian species to the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) varies up to 1000-fold among species, and this variability has been associated with interspecies differences in aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 ligand-binding domain (AHR1 LBD) sequence. We previously showed that LD(50) values, based on in ovo exposures to DLCs, were significantly correlated with in vitro EC(50) values obtained with a luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay that measures AHR1-mediated induction of cytochrome P4501A in COS-7 cells transfected with avian AHR1 constructs. Those findings suggest that the AHR1 LBD sequence and the LRG assay can be used to predict avian species sensitivity to DLCs. In the present study, the AHR1 LBD sequences of 86 avian species were studied, and differences at amino acid sites 256, 257, 297, 324, 337, and 380 were identified. Site-directed mutagenesis, the LRG assay, and homology modeling highlighted the importance of each amino acid site in AHR1 sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other DLCs. The results of the study revealed that (1) only amino acids at sites 324 and 380 affect the sensitivity of AHR1 expression constructs of the 86 avian species to DLCs and (2) in vitro luciferase activity of AHR1 constructs containing only the LBD of the species of interest is significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.93, p < 0.0001) with in ovo toxicity data for those species. These results indicate promise for the use of AHR1 LBD amino acid sequences independently, or combined with the LRG assay, to predict avian species sensitivity to DLCs. PMID:22923492

  20. Incorporating substrate sequence motifs and spatial amino acid composition to identify kinase-specific phosphorylation sites on protein three-dimensional structures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in cellular processes. Given the high-throughput mass spectrometry-based experiments, the desire to annotate the catalytic kinases for in vivo phosphorylation sites has motivated. Thus, a variety of computational methods have been developed for performing a large-scale prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. However, most of the proposed methods solely rely on the local amino acid sequences surrounding the phosphorylation sites. An increasing number of three-dimensional structures make it possible to physically investigate the structural environment of phosphorylation sites. Results In this work, all of the experimental phosphorylation sites are mapped to the protein entries of Protein Data Bank by sequence identity. It resulted in a total of 4508 phosphorylation sites containing the protein three-dimensional (3D) structures. To identify phosphorylation sites on protein 3D structures, this work incorporates support vector machines (SVMs) with the information of linear motifs and spatial amino acid composition, which is determined for each kinase group by calculating the relative frequencies of 20 amino acid types within a specific radial distance from central phosphorylated amino acid residue. After the cross-validation evaluation, most of the kinase-specific models trained with the consideration of structural information outperform the models considering only the sequence information. Furthermore, the independent testing set which is not included in training set has demonstrated that the proposed method could provide a comparable performance to other popular tools. Conclusion The proposed method is shown to be capable of predicting kinase-specific phosphorylation sites on 3D structures and has been implemented as a web server which is freely accessible at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/PhosK3D/. Due to the difficulty of identifying the kinase-specific phosphorylation

  1. Sequence and structure-based prediction of fructosyltransferase activity for functional subclassification of fungal GH32 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trollope, Kim M; van Wyk, Niël; Kotjomela, Momo A; Volschenk, Heinrich

    2015-12-01

    Sucrolytic enzymes catalyse sucrose hydrolysis or the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), a prebiotic in human and animal nutrition. FOS synthesis capacity differs between sucrolytic enzymes. Amino-acid-sequence-based classification of FOS synthesizing enzymes would greatly facilitate the in silico identification of novel catalysts, as large amounts of sequence data lie untapped. The development of a bioinformatics tool to rapidly distinguish between high-level FOSs synthesizing predominantly sucrose hydrolysing enzymes from fungal genomic data is presented. Sequence comparison of functionally characterized enzymes displaying low- and high-level FOS synthesis revealed conserved motifs unique to each group. New light is shed on the sequence context of active site residues in three previously identified conserved motifs. We characterized two enzymes predicted to possess low- and high-level FOS synthesis activities based on their conserved motif sequences. FOS data for the enzymes confirmed our successful prediction of their FOS synthesis capacity. Structural comparison of enzymes displaying low- and high-level FOS synthesis identified steric hindrance between nystose and a long loop region present only in low-level FOS synthesizers. This loop is proposed to limit the synthesis of FOS species with higher degrees of polymerization, a phenomenon observed among enzymes displaying low-level FOS synthesis. Conserved sequence motifs surrounding catalytic residues and a distant structural determinant were identifiers of FOS synthesis capacity and allow for functional annotation of sucrolytic enzymes directly from amino acid sequence. The tool presented may also be useful to study the structure-function relationships of β-fructofuranosidases by identifying mutations present in a group of closely related enzymes displaying similar function. PMID:26426731

  2. Acid-base properties of titanium-antimony oxides catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zenkovets, G.A.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Tarasova, D.V.; Yurchenko, E.N.

    1982-06-01

    The acid-base properties of titanium-antimony oxide catalysts were studied by the methods of back titration and ir spectroscopy. The interrelationship between the acid-base and catalytic properties in the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene was discussed. 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  4. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  5. The Roles of Acids and Bases in Enzyme Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2007-01-01

    Many organic reactions are catalyzed by strong acids or bases that protonate or deprotonate neutral reactants leading to reactive cations or anions that proceed to products. In enzyme reactions, only weak acids and bases are available to hydrogen bond to reactants and to transfer protons in response to developing charges. Understanding this…

  6. Connecting Acids and Bases with Encapsulation... and Chemistry with Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criswell, Brett

    2007-01-01

    The features and the development of various new acids and bases activity sets that combines chemistry with nanotechnology are being described. These sets lead to the generation of many nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases.

  7. Sample Prep, Workflow Automation and Nucleic Acid Fractionation for Next Generation Sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Roskey, Mark

    2010-06-03

    Mark Roskey of Caliper LifeSciences discusses how the company's technologies fit into the next generation sequencing workflow on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  8. A Computer-Based Simulation of an Acid-Base Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boblick, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the advantages of computer simulated environments for experiments, referring in particular to acid-base titrations. Includes pre-lab instructions and a sample computer printout of a student's use of an acid-base simulation. Ten references. (PR)

  9. A novel chaotic based image encryption using a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid and cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.

  10. Data compression of discrete sequence: A tree based approach using dynamic programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivaram, Gurusrasad; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, T. R. N.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic programming based approach for data compression of a ID sequence is presented. The compression of an input sequence of size N to that of a smaller size k is achieved by dividing the input sequence into k subsequences and replacing the subsequences by their respective average values. The partitioning of the input sequence is carried with the intention of reducing the mean squared error in the reconstructed sequence. The complexity involved in finding the partitions which would result in such an optimal compressed sequence is reduced by using the dynamic programming approach, which is presented.

  11. Critical assessment of sequence-based protein-protein interaction prediction methods that do not require homologous protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions underlie many important biological processes. Computational prediction methods can nicely complement experimental approaches for identifying protein-protein interactions. Recently, a unique category of sequence-based prediction methods has been put forward - unique in the sense that it does not require homologous protein sequences. This enables it to be universally applicable to all protein sequences unlike many of previous sequence-based prediction methods. If effective as claimed, these new sequence-based, universally applicable prediction methods would have far-reaching utilities in many areas of biology research. Results Upon close survey, I realized that many of these new methods were ill-tested. In addition, newer methods were often published without performance comparison with previous ones. Thus, it is not clear how good they are and whether there are significant performance differences among them. In this study, I have implemented and thoroughly tested 4 different methods on large-scale, non-redundant data sets. It reveals several important points. First, significant performance differences are noted among different methods. Second, data sets typically used for training prediction methods appear significantly biased, limiting the general applicability of prediction methods trained with them. Third, there is still ample room for further developments. In addition, my analysis illustrates the importance of complementary performance measures coupled with right-sized data sets for meaningful benchmark tests. Conclusions The current study reveals the potentials and limits of the new category of sequence-based protein-protein interaction prediction methods, which in turn provides a firm ground for future endeavours in this important area of contemporary bioinformatics. PMID:20003442

  12. A systematic study of fundamentals in α-helical coiled coil mimicry by alternating sequences of β- and γ-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Araghi, Raheleh; Baldauf, Carsten; Gerling, Ulla I M; Cadicamo, Cosimo Damiano; Koksch, Beate

    2011-08-01

    Aimed at understanding the crucially important structural features for the integrity of α-helical mimicry by βγ-sequences, an α-amino acid sequence in a native peptide was substituted by differently arranged βγ-sequences. The self- and hetero-assembly of a series of αβγ-chimeric sequences based on a 33-residue GCN4-derived peptide was investigated by means of molecular dynamics, circular dichroism, and a disulfide exchange assay. Despite the native-like behavior of βγ alternating sequences such as retention of α-helix dipole and the formation of 13-membered α-helix turns, the αβγ-chimeras with different βγ substitution patterns do not equally mimic the structural behavior of the native parent peptide in solution. The preservation of the key residue contacts such as van der Waals interactions and intrahelical H-bonding, which can be met only by particular substitution patterns, thermodynamically favor the adoption of coiled coil folding motif. In this study, we show how successfully the destabilizing structural consequences of α → βγ modification can be harnessed by reducing the solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface area and placing of suitably long and bulky helix-forming side chains at the hydrophobic core. The pairing of αβγ-chimeric sequences with the native wild-type are thermodynamically allowed in the case of ideal arrangement of β- and γ-residues. This indicates a similarity in local side chain packing of β- and γ-amino acids at the helical interface of αβγ-chimeras and the native α-peptide. Consequently, the backbone extended residues are able to participate in classical "knob-into-hole" packing with native α-peptide. PMID:21638022

  13. Gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine muscle using next-generation transcriptomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic information based on molecular markers has increasingly being used in cattle breeding improvement programmes, as a mean to improve conventionally phenotypic selection. Advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of several genetic markers associated with genes affecting economic traits. Until recently, the identification of the causative genetic variants involved in the phenotypes of interest has remained a difficult task. The advent of novel sequencing technologies now offers a new opportunity for the identification of such variants. Despite sequencing costs plummeting, sequencing whole-genomes or large targeted regions is still too expensive for most laboratories. A transcriptomic-based sequencing approach offers a cheaper alternative to identify a large number of polymorphisms and possibly to discover causative variants. In the present study, we performed a gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery analysis in bovine Longissimus thoraci, using RNA-Seq. To our knowledge, this represents the first study done in bovine muscle. Results Messenger RNAs from Longissimus thoraci from three Limousin bull calves were subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 36–46 million paired-end reads were obtained per library. A total of 19,752 transcripts were identified and 34,376 different SNPs were detected. Fifty-five percent of the SNPs were found in coding regions and ~22% resulted in an amino acid change. Applying a very stringent SNP quality threshold, we detected 8,407 different high-confidence SNPs, 18% of which are non synonymous coding SNPs. To analyse the accuracy of RNA-Seq technology for SNP detection, 48 SNPs were selected for validation by genotyping. No discrepancies were observed when using the highest SNP probability threshold. To test the usefulness of the identified SNPs, the 48 selected SNPs were assessed by genotyping 93 bovine samples, representing mostly the nine major breeds used in France

  14. Quantitative sequencing of 5-formylcytosine in DNA at single-base resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Michael J.; Marsico, Giovanni; Bachman, Martin; Beraldi, Dario; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the cytosine modifications 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-formylcytosine (5fC) were found to exist in the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a wide range of mammalian cell types. It is now important to understand their role in normal biological function and disease. Here we introduce reduced bisulfite sequencing (redBS-Seq), a quantitative method to decode 5fC in DNA at single-base resolution, based on a selective chemical reduction of 5fC to 5hmC followed by bisulfite treatment. After extensive validation on synthetic and genomic DNA, we combined redBS-Seq and oxidative bisulfite sequencing (oxBS-Seq) to generate the first combined genomic map of 5-methylcytosine, 5hmC and 5fC in mouse embryonic stem cells. Our experiments revealed that in certain genomic locations 5fC is present at comparable levels to 5hmC and 5mC. The combination of these chemical methods can quantify and precisely map these three cytosine derivatives in the genome and will help provide insights into their function.

  15. SFM: A novel sequence-based fusion method for disease genes identification and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Abdulaziz; Moghadam Charkari, Nasrollah

    2015-10-21

    The identification of disease genes from human genome is of great importance to improve diagnosis and treatment of disease. Several machine learning methods have been introduced to identify disease genes. However, these methods mostly differ in the prior knowledge used to construct the feature vector for each instance (gene), the ways of selecting negative data (non-disease genes) where there is no investigational approach to find them and the classification methods used to make the final decision. In this work, a novel Sequence-based fusion method (SFM) is proposed to identify disease genes. In this regard, unlike existing methods, instead of using a noisy and incomplete prior-knowledge, the amino acid sequence of the proteins which is universal data has been carried out to present the genes (proteins) into four different feature vectors. To select more likely negative data from candidate genes, the intersection set of four negative sets which are generated using distance approach is considered. Then, Decision Tree (C4.5) has been applied as a fusion method to combine the results of four independent state-of the-art predictors based on support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, and to make the final decision. The experimental results of the proposed method have been evaluated by some standard measures. The results indicate the precision, recall and F-measure of 82.6%, 85.6% and 84, respectively. These results confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method. PMID:26209022

  16. The Effect of Instructional Presentation Sequence on Student Performance in Computer-Based Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, George F.

    This study compared the effects of several presentation sequences on lesson performance to deterimine whether sequence has a significant effect on performance in computer-based instruction, and whether using the same sequence consistently is more effective than not being consistent. Thirty-six students from the Basic Electricity and Electronics…

  17. Incorporating Inquiry-Based Learning in the Calculus Sequence: A Most Challenging Endeavour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, M. Padraig M. M.

    2009-01-01

    A course in the Calculus sequence is arguably the most difficult course in which inquiry-based learning (IBL) can be achieved with any degree of success within the curriculum in part due to: (1) the plethora of majors taking Calculus to which the sequence relates to their majors in what is considered an "applied" manner; and (2) the sequence is…

  18. Transcriptome sequencing to produce a SNP-based genetic map of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the onion genome is challenging because of its enormous size (16 giga base pairs DNA per haploid genome). Pilot sequencing of onion transcripts showed sufficient numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a detailed genetic map. We sequenced 2.5 Roche-454 plates of norma...

  19. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct

  20. An intronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-binding sequence mediates fatty acid induction of the human carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A.

    PubMed

    Napal, Laura; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego

    2005-12-01

    The liver plays a central role in the response to fasting. The hormonal profile in this condition, low insulin, and high concentrations of glucagon in plasma, induce the release of large amounts of fatty acids from adipose tissue. Prolonged starvation can therefore induce a dramatic change in the fatty acid oxidative capacity of liver metabolism. Modulation of gene expression by PPARalpha plays a crucial role in this response. While a major role for PPARalpha in the liver is to produce ketone bodies as fuel through beta-oxidation for peripheral tissues during fast, its participation in the control of CPT1A, the rate-limiting step of the pathway, remains controversial. Using Web-based software (VISTA) combining transcription factor binding site database searches with comparative sequence analyses, we have localized a conserved functional PPAR responsive element downstream of the transcriptional start site of the human CPT1A gene. We have shown that this sequence is fundamental for fatty acids or PGC1-induced transcriptional activation of the CPT1A gene. These results corroborate the hypothesis that PPARalpha regulates the limiting step in the oxidation of fatty acids in liver mitochondria. PMID:16271724

  1. Low levels of haptoglobin and putative amino acid sequence in Taiwanese Lanyu miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Sunny C H; Wang, Yao Horng; Lin, Kuan Yu; Tseng, Chi Feng; Chu, Hsien Pin; Chen, Kuen Jaw; Wang, Shih Sheng; Lai, I Hsiang; Mao, Simon J T

    2008-04-01

    Porcine haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase protein. Its plasma level increases significantly during inflammation and infection. One of the main functions of Hp is to bind free hemoglobin (Hb) and inhibit its oxidative activity. In the present report, we studied the Hp phenotype of Taiwanese Lanyu miniature pigs (TLY minipigs; n=43) and found their Hp structure to be a homodimer (beta-alpha-alpha-beta) similar to human Hp 1-1. Interestingly, Western blot and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 25% of the TLY minipigs possessed low or no plasma Hp level (<0.05 mg/ml). The Hp cDNA of these TLY minipigs was then cloned, and the translated amino acid sequence was analyzed. No sequences were found to be deficient; they showed a 99.7% identity with domestic pigs (NP_999165). The mean overall Hp level of the TLY minipigs (0.21 +/- 0.25 mg/ml; n=43) determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was markedly lower than that of domestic pigs (0.78 +/- 0.45 mg/ml; p<0.001), while 25% of the TLY minipigs had an Hp level that was extremely low (<0.05 mg/ml). In addition, the initial recovery rate (first 40 min) in the circulation of infused fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Hb was significantly higher in the TLY minipigs with extremely low Hp levels than those with high levels. This data suggests that the low concentration of Hp-Hb complex is responsible for the higher recovery rate of Hb in the circulation. TLY minipigs have been used as an experimental model for cardiovascular diseases; whether they can be used as a model for inflammatory diseases, with Hp as a marker, remains a topic of interest. However, since the Hp level varies significantly among individual TLY minipigs, it is necessary to prescreen the Hp levels of the animals to minimize variation in the experimental baseline. The present study may provide a reference value for future use of the TLY minipig as an animal model for inflammation-associated diseases. PMID:18460833

  2. Nucleic acid duplexes incorporating a dissociable covalent base pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, K.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We have used molecular modeling techniques to design a dissociable covalently bonded base pair that can replace a Watson-Crick base pair in a nucleic acid with minimal distortion of the structure of the double helix. We introduced this base pair into a potential precursor of a nucleic acid double helix by chemical synthesis and have demonstrated efficient nonenzymatic template-directed ligation of the free hydroxyl groups of the base pair with appropriate short oligonucleotides. The nonenzymatic ligation reactions, which are characteristic of base paired nucleic acid structures, are abolished when the covalent base pair is reduced and becomes noncoplanar. This suggests that the covalent base pair linking the two strands in the duplex is compatible with a minimally distorted nucleic acid double-helical structure.

  3. Nucleic acid duplexes incorporating a dissociable covalent base pair.

    PubMed

    Gao, K; Orgel, L E

    1999-12-21

    We have used molecular modeling techniques to design a dissociable covalently bonded base pair that can replace a Watson-Crick base pair in a nucleic acid with minimal distortion of the structure of the double helix. We introduced this base pair into a potential precursor of a nucleic acid double helix by chemical synthesis and have demonstrated efficient nonenzymatic template-directed ligation of the free hydroxyl groups of the base pair with appropriate short oligonucleotides. The nonenzymatic ligation reactions, which are characteristic of base paired nucleic acid structures, are abolished when the covalent base pair is reduced and becomes noncoplanar. This suggests that the covalent base pair linking the two strands in the duplex is compatible with a minimally distorted nucleic acid double-helical structure. PMID:10611299

  4. Sequence Comparison and Phylogeny of Nucleotide Sequence of Coat Protein and Nucleic Acid Binding Protein of a Distinct Isolate of Shallot virus X from India.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2011-06-01

    Shallot virus X (ShVX), a type species in the genus Allexivirus of the family Alfaflexiviridae has been associated with shallot plants in India and other shallot growing countries like Russia, Germany, Netherland, and New Zealand. Coat protein (CP) and nucleic acid binding protein (NB) region of the virus was obtained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from scales leaves of shallot bulbs. The partial cDNA contained two open reading frames encoding proteins of molecular weights of 28.66 and 14.18 kDa belonging to Flexi_CP super-family and viral NB super-family, respectively. The percent identity and phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of CP and NB region of the virus associated with shallot indicated that it was a distinct isolate of ShVX. PMID:23637504

  5. Predicting Secretory Proteins of Malaria Parasite by Incorporating Sequence Evolution Information into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition via Grey System Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The malaria disease has become a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The culprit of the disease is the parasite, which secretes an array of proteins within the host erythrocyte to facilitate its own survival. Accordingly, the secretory proteins of malaria parasite have become a logical target for drug design against malaria. Unfortunately, with the increasing resistance to the drugs thus developed, the situation has become more complicated. To cope with the drug resistance problem, one strategy is to timely identify the secreted proteins by malaria parasite, which can serve as potential drug targets. However, it is both expensive and time-consuming to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite by experiments alone. To expedite the process for developing effective drugs against malaria, a computational predictor called “iSMP-Grey” was developed that can be used to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite based on the protein sequence information alone. During the prediction process a protein sample was formulated with a 60D (dimensional) feature vector formed by incorporating the sequence evolution information into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) via a grey system model, which is particularly useful for solving complicated problems that are lack of sufficient information or need to process uncertain information. It was observed by the jackknife test that iSMP-Grey achieved an overall success rate of 94.8%, remarkably higher than those by the existing predictors in this area. As a user-friendly web-server, iSMP-Grey is freely accessible to the public at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSMP-Grey. Moreover, for the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematical equations involved in this paper. PMID:23189138

  6. Next-generation re-sequencing of genes involved in increased platelet reactivity in diabetic patients on acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Postula, Marek; Janicki, Piotr K; Eyileten, Ceren; Rosiak, Marek; Kaplon-Cieslicka, Agnieszka; Sugino, Shigekazu; Wilimski, Radosław; Kosior, Dariusz A; Opolski, Grzegorz; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether rare missense genetic variants in several genes related to platelet functions and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) response are associated with the platelet reactivity in patients with diabetes type 2 (T2D) on ASA therapy. Fifty eight exons and corresponding introns of eight selected genes, including PTGS1, PTGS2, TXBAS1, PTGIS, ADRA2A, ADRA2B, TXBA2R, and P2RY1 were re-sequenced in 230 DNA samples from T2D patients by using a pooled PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing by Illumina HiSeq2000. The observed non-synonymous variants were confirmed by individual genotyping of 384 DNA samples comprising of the individuals from the original discovery pools and additional verification cohort of 154 ASA-treated T2DM patients. The association between investigated phenotypes (ASA induced changes in platelets reactivity by PFA-100, VerifyNow and serum thromboxane B2 level [sTxB2]), and accumulation of rare missense variants (genetic burden) in investigated genes was tested using statistical collapsing tests. We identified a total of 35 exonic variants, including 3 common missense variants, 15 rare missense variants, and 17 synonymous variants in 8 investigated genes. The rare missense variants exhibited statistically significant difference in the accumulation pattern between a group of patients with increased and normal platelet reactivity based on PFA-100 assay. Our study suggests that genetic burden of the rare functional variants in eight genes may contribute to differences in the platelet reactivity measured with the PFA-100 assay in the T2DM patients treated with ASA. PMID:26599574

  7. Analysis of amino acids network based on distance matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Tazid; Akhtar, Adil; Gohain, Nisha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have constructed a distance matrix of the amino acids. The distance is defined based on the relative evolutionary importance of the base position of the corresponding codons. From this distance matrix a network of the amino acids is obtained. We have argued that this network depicts the evolutionary pattern of the amino acids. To examine the relative importance of the amino acids with respect to this network we have discussed different measures of centrality. We have also investigated the correlation coefficients between different measures of centrality. Further we have explored clustering coefficient as well as degree of distribution.

  8. Characterization of nucleic acids by tandem mass spectrometry - The second decade (2004-2013): From DNA to RNA and modified sequences.

    PubMed

    Schürch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nucleic acids play key roles in the storage and processing of genetic information, as well as in the regulation of cellular processes. Consequently, they represent attractive targets for drugs against gene-related diseases. On the other hand, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues have found application as chemotherapeutic agents targeting cellular DNA and RNA. The development of effective nucleic acid-based chemotherapeutic strategies requires adequate analytical techniques capable of providing detailed information about the nucleotide sequences, the presence of structural modifications, the formation of higher-order structures, as well as the interaction of nucleic acids with other cellular components and chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the impressive technical and methodological developments of the past years, tandem mass spectrometry has evolved to one of the most powerful tools supporting research related to nucleic acids. This review covers the literature of the past decade devoted to the tandem mass spectrometric investigation of nucleic acids, with the main focus on the fundamental mechanistic aspects governing the gas-phase dissociation of DNA, RNA, modified oligonucleotide analogues, and their adducts with metal ions. Additionally, recent findings on the elucidation of nucleic acid higher-order structures by tandem mass spectrometry are reviewed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 35:483-523, 2016. PMID:25288464

  9. Amino acid sequence of mouse nidogen, a multidomain basement membrane protein with binding activity for laminin, collagen IV and cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, K; Deutzmann, R; Aumailley, M; Timpl, R; Raimondi, L; Yamada, Y; Pan, T C; Conway, D; Chu, M L

    1989-01-01

    The whole amino acid sequence of nidogen was deduced from cDNA clones isolated from expression libraries and confirmed to approximately 50% by Edman degradation of peptides. The protein consists of some 1217 amino acid residues and a 28-residue signal peptide. The data support a previously proposed dumb-bell model of nidogen by demonstrating a large N-terminal globular domain (641 residues), five EGF-like repeats constituting the rod-like domain (248 residues) and a smaller C-terminal globule (328 residues). Two more EGF-like repeats interrupt the N-terminal and terminate the C-terminal sequences. Weak sequence homologies (25%) were detected between some regions of nidogen, the LDL receptor, thyroglobulin and the EGF precursor. Nidogen contains two consensus sequences for tyrosine sulfation and for asparagine beta-hydroxylation, two N-linked carbohydrate acceptor sites and, within one of the EGF-like repeats an Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. The latter was shown to be functional in cell attachment to nidogen. Binding sites for laminin and collagen IV are present on the C-terminal globule but not yet precisely localized. Images PMID:2496973

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, an Efficient l-(+)-Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Yanase, Hiroaki; Hirose, Yuu; Satomi, Shohei; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Watanabe, Satoru; Zendo, Takeshi; Chibazakura, Taku; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, a non-dairy bacterial strain of ovine faecal origin, can ferment both cellobiose and xylose to produce l-lactic acid. The use of this strain is highly desirable for economical l-lactate production from renewable biomass substrates. Genome sequence determination is necessary for the genetic improvement of this strain. We report the complete genome sequence of strain QU 25, primarily determined using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology. The E. mundtii QU 25 genome comprises a 3 022 186-bp single circular chromosome (GC content, 38.6%) and five circular plasmids: pQY182, pQY082, pQY039, pQY024, and pQY003. In all, 2900 protein-coding sequences, 63 tRNA genes, and 6 rRNA operons were predicted in the QU 25 chromosome. Plasmid pQY024 harbours genes for mundticin production. We found that strain QU 25 produces a bacteriocin, suggesting that mundticin-encoded genes on plasmid pQY024 were functional. For lactic acid fermentation, two gene clusters were identified—one involved in the initial metabolism of xylose and uptake of pentose and the second containing genes for the pentose phosphate pathway and uptake of related sugars. This is the first complete genome sequence of an E. mundtii strain. The data provide insights into lactate production in this bacterium and its evolution among enterococci. PMID:24568933

  11. Modeling DNA sequence-based cis-regulatory gene networks.

    PubMed

    Bolouri, Hamid; Davidson, Eric H

    2002-06-01

    Gene network analysis requires computationally based models which represent the functional architecture of regulatory interactions, and which provide directly testable predictions. The type of model that is useful is constrained by the particular features of developmentally active cis-regulatory systems. These systems function by processing diverse regulatory inputs, generating novel regulatory outputs. A computational model which explicitly accommodates this basic concept was developed earlier for the cis-regulatory system of the endo16 gene of the sea urchin. This model represents the genetically mandated logic functions that the system executes, but also shows how time-varying kinetic inputs are processed in different circumstances into particular kinetic outputs. The same basic design features can be utilized to construct models that connect the large number of cis-regulatory elements constituting developmental gene networks. The ultimate aim of the network models discussed here is to represent the regulatory relationships among the genomic control systems of the genes in the network, and to state their functional meaning. The target site sequences of the cis-regulatory elements of these genes constitute the physical basis of the network architecture. Useful models for developmental regulatory networks must represent the genetic logic by which the system operates, but must also be capable of explaining the real time dynamics of cis-regulatory response as kinetic input and output data become available. Most importantly, however, such models must display in a direct and transparent manner fundamental network design features such as intra- and intercellular feedback circuitry; the sources of parallel inputs into each cis-regulatory element; gene battery organization; and use of repressive spatial inputs in specification and boundary formation. Successful network models lead to direct tests of key architectural features by targeted cis-regulatory analysis. PMID

  12. Antibiotic Selection Pressure Determination through Sequence-Based Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Huson, Daniel H.; Schütz, Monika; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Peter, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The human gut forms a dynamic reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment with antimicrobial agents has a significant impact on the intestinal resistome and leads to enhanced horizontal transfer and selection of resistance. We have monitored the development of intestinal ARGs over a 6-day course of ciprofloxacin (Cp) treatment in two healthy individuals by using sequenced-based metagenomics and different ARG quantification methods. Fixed- and random-effect models were applied to determine the change in ARG abundance per defined daily dose of Cp as an expression of the respective selection pressure. Among various shifts in the composition of the intestinal resistome, we found in one individual a strong positive selection for class D beta-lactamases which were partly located on a mobile genetic element. Furthermore, a trend to a negative selection has been observed with class A beta-lactamases (−2.66 hits per million sample reads/defined daily dose; P = 0.06). By 4 weeks after the end of treatment, the composition of ARGs returned toward their initial state but to a different degree in both subjects. We present here a novel analysis algorithm for the determination of antibiotic selection pressure which can be applied in clinical settings to compare therapeutic regimens regarding their effect on the intestinal resistome. This information is of critical importance for clinicians to choose antimicrobial agents with a low selective force on their patients' intestinal ARGs, likely resulting in a diminished spread of resistance and a reduced burden of hospital-acquired infections with multidrug-resistant pathogens. PMID:26369961

  13. Gastropod arginine kinases from Cellana grata and Aplysia kurodai. Isolation and cDNA-derived amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Inoue, N; Higashi, T; Mizobuchi, R; Sugimura, N; Yokouchi, K; Furukohri, T

    2000-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) was isolated from the radular muscle of the gastropod molluscs Cellana grata (subclass Prosobranchia) and Aplysia kurodai (subclass Opisthobranchia), respectively, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and DEAE-ion exchange chromatography. The denatured relative molecular mass values were estimated to be 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated enzyme from Aplysia gave a Km value of 0.6 mM for arginine and a Vmax value of 13 micromole Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) for the forward reaction. These values are comparable to other molluscan AKs. The cDNAs encoding Cellana and Aplysia AKs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequences of 1,608 and 1,239 bp, respectively, were determined. The open reading frame for Cellana AK is 1044 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein with 347 amino acid residues, and that for A. kurodai is 1077 nucleotides and 354 residues. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequences were validated by chemical sequencing of internal lysyl endopeptidase peptides. The amino acid sequences of Cellana and Aplysia AKs showed the highest percent identity (66-73%) with those of the abalone Nordotis and turbanshell Battilus belonging to the same class Gastropoda. These AK sequences still have a strong homology (63-71%) with that of the chiton Liolophura (class Polyplacophora), which is believed to be one of the most primitive molluscs. On the other hand, these AK sequences are less homologous (55-57%) with that of the clam Pseudocardium (class Bivalvia), suggesting that the biological position of the class Polyplacophora should be reconsidered. PMID:11281267

  14. Acid-base properties of 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid, an antitumor agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilova, N. E.; Kutina, N. N.; Petukhova, O. A.; Kharitonov, Yu. Ya.

    2013-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid (PET) substance belonging to the class of isothiocyanates and capable of inhibiting the development of tumors on many experimental models were studied. The acidity and hydrolysis constants of the PET substance in ethanol, acetone, aqueous ethanol, and aqueous acetone solutions were determined from the data of potentiometric (pH-metric) titration of ethanol and acetone solutions of PET with aqueous solidum hydroxide at room temperature.

  15. Autonomously generating operations sequences for a Mars Rover using AI-based planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Mishkin, Andrew; Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Cooper, Brian; Maxwell, Scott; Rabideau, Gregg

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from highlevel science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules.

  16. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-10-01

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100-500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO3H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO3H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst.

  17. Studies on the high-sulphur proteins of reduced Merino wool. Amino acid sequence of protein SCMKB-IIIB4

    PubMed Central

    Swart, L. S.; Haylett, T.

    1971-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of protein SCMKB-IIIB4 is presented. It is closely related to the sequence of protein SCMKB-IIIB3 (Haylett, Swart & Parris, 1971) differing in only four positions. The peptic and thermolysin peptides of protein SCMKB-IIIB4 were analysed by the dansyl–Edman method (Gray, 1967) and by tritium-labelling of C-terminal residues (Matsuo, Fujimoto & Tatsuno, 1966). This protein is the third member of a group of high-sulphur wool proteins with molecular weight of about 11400. It consists of 98 residues and has acetylalanine and carboxymethylcysteine as N- and C-terminal residues respectively. PMID:4942536

  18. Carbon nanotube-based lateral flow biosensor for sensitive and rapid detection of DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wanwei; Xu, Hui; Takalkar, Sunitha; Gurung, Anant S; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Yafeng; Guo, Zebin; Baloda, Meenu; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong

    2015-02-15

    In this article, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based lateral flow biosensor (LFB) for rapid and sensitive detection of DNA sequence. Amine-modified DNA detection probe was covalently immobilized on the shortened multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via diimide-activated amidation between the carboxyl groups on the CNT surface and amine groups on the detection DNA probes. Sandwich-type DNA hybridization reactions were performed on the LFB and the captured MWCNTs on test zone and control zone of LFB produced the characteristic black bands, enabling visual detection of DNA sequences. Combining the advantages of lateral flow chromatographic separation with unique physical properties of MWCNT (large surface area), the optimized LFB was capable of detecting of 0.1 nM target DNA without instrumentation. Quantitative detection could be realized by recording the intensity of the test line with the Image J software, and the detection limit of 40 pM was obtained. This detection limit is 12.5 times lower than that of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based LFB (0.5 nM, Mao et al. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 1660-1668). Another important feature is that the preparation of MWCNT-DNA conjugates was robust and the use of MWCNT labels avoided the aggregation of conjugates and tedious preparation time, which were often met in the traditional GNP-based nucleic acid LFB. The applications of MWCNT-based LFB can be extended to visually detect protein biomarkers using MWCNT-antibody conjugates. The MWCNT-based LFB thus open a new door to prepare a new generation of LFB, and shows great promise for in-field and point-of-care diagnosis of genetic diseases and for the detection of infectious agents. PMID:25262062

  19. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  20. A computer program for the estimation of protein and nucleic acid sequence diversity in random point mutagenesis libraries

    PubMed Central

    Volles, Michael J.; Lansbury, Peter T.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program for the generation and analysis of in silico random point mutagenesis libraries is described. The program operates by mutagenizing an input nucleic acid sequence according to mutation parameters specified by the user for each sequence position and type of point mutation. The program can mimic almost any type of random mutagenesis library, including those produced via error-prone PCR (ep-PCR), mutator Escherichia coli strains, chemical mutagenesis, and doped or random oligonucleotide synthesis. The program analyzes the generated nucleic acid sequences and/or the associated protein library to produce several estimates of library diversity (number of unique sequences, point mutations, and single point mutants) and the rate of saturation of these diversities during experimental screening or selection of clones. This information allows one to select the optimal screen size for a given mutagenesis library, necessary to efficiently obtain a certain coverage of the sequence-space. The program also reports the abundance of each specific protein mutation at each sequence position, which is useful as a measure of the level and type of mutation bias in the library. Alternatively, one can use the program to evaluate the relative merits of preexisting libraries, or to examine various hypothetical mutation schemes to determine the optimal method for creating a library that serves the screen/selection of interest. Simulated libraries of at least 109 sequences are accessible by the numerical algorithm with currently available personal computers; an analytical algorithm is also available which can rapidly calculate a subset of the numerical statistics in libraries of arbitrarily large size. A multi-type double-strand stochastic model of ep-PCR is developed in an appendix to demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm to amplifying mutagenesis procedures. Estimators of DNA polymerase mutation-type-specific error rates are derived using the model. Analyses of an

  1. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  2. DNA Sequence and Expression Variation of Hop (Humulus lupulus) Valerophenone Synthase (VPS), a Key Gene in Bitter Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Consuelo B.; Whittock, Lucy D.; Whittock, Simon P.; Leggett, Grey; Koutoulis, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background The hop plant (Humulus lupulus) is a source of many secondary metabolites, with bitter acids essential in the beer brewing industry and others having potential applications for human health. This study investigated variation in DNA sequence and gene expression of valerophenone synthase (VPS), a key gene in the bitter acid biosynthesis pathway of hop. Methods Sequence variation was studied in 12 varieties, and expression was analysed in four of the 12 varieties in a series across the development of the hop cone. Results Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in VPS, seven of which were synonymous. The two non-synonymous polymorphisms did not appear to be related to typical bitter acid profiles of the varieties studied. However, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of VPS expression during hop cone development showed a clear link with the bitter acid content. The highest levels of VPS expression were observed in two triploid varieties, ‘Symphony’ and ‘Ember’, which typically have high bitter acid levels. Conclusions In all hop varieties studied, VPS expression was lowest in the leaves and an increase in expression was consistently observed during the early stages of cone development. PMID:18519445

  3. The amino acid sequence of protein SCMK-B2A from the high-sulphur fraction of wool keratin

    PubMed Central

    Elleman, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    1. The amino acid sequence of protein SCMK-B2A, a reduced and S-carboxymethylated protein from the high-sulphur fraction of wool, has been determined. 2. This protein of 171 amino acid residues displays both a high degree of internal homology and extensive external homology with other members of the SCMK-B2 group of proteins. 3. Evidence is presented which suggests that the SCMK-B2 group of proteins are produced by separate non-allelic genes. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4679226

  4. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-10-15

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  5. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2016-06-01

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  6. Ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase of Cyanophora paradoxa: purification, partial characterization, and N-terminal amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, U B; Maier, T L; Stevanović, S; Bayer, M G; Schenk, H E

    1992-06-01

    The ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase of the protist Cyanophora paradoxa, as a descendant of a former symbiotic consortium, an important model organism in view of the Endosymbiosis Theory, is the first enzyme purified from a formerly original endocytobiont (cyanelle) that is found to be encoded in the nucleus of the host. This cyanoplast enzyme was isolated by FPLC (19% yield) and characterized with respect to the uv-vis spectrum, pH optimum (pH 9), molecular mass of 34 kDa, and an N-terminal amino acid sequence (24 residues). The enzyme shows, as known from other organisms, molecular heterogeneity. The N-terminus of a further ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase polypeptide represents a shorter sequence missing the first four amino acids of the mature enzyme. PMID:1392619

  7. Purification, characterization, and amino acid sequencing of a. delta. /sup 5/-3-oxosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed on the ..delta../sup 5/-3-oxosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B. The studies have involved three broad areas: improvement in the purification of the enzyme, further characterization of the purified enzyme, and completion of the amino acid sequence of the enzyme. For the purification of the enzyme, techniques for removing the isomerase from whole cells were studied, the effects of ionic strength on the binding of the isomerase to steroidal affinity resins was explored, and a new affinity resin was developed. Absorption spectra and the proton NMR spectra of the isomerase were obtained. Amino acid sequencing of the oxosteroid isomerase indicates that the enzyme is a dimeric protein consisting of two identical subunits each consisting of a polypeptide chain of 131 residues and a M/sub r/ = 14,536.

  8. Identification of novel rice low phytic acid mutations via TILLING by sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) accounts for 75-85% of the total phosphorus in seeds. Low phytic acid (lpa) mutants exhibit decreases in seed InsP6 with corresponding increases in inorganic P which, unlike phytic acid P, is readily utilized by humans and monogastric ...

  9. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-02-05

    A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

  10. Identification of the new HLA-DRB1{sup *}0812 allele detected by sequencing based typing

    SciTech Connect

    Versluis, L.F.; Zwan, A.W. van der; Tilanus, M.G.J.; Savelkoul, P.H.M.; Berg-Loonen, E.M. van den

    1996-12-31

    HLA-DRB typing by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing based typing (SBT) was studied within the framework of the Antigen and Haplotype Society 11 and the Sequencing Based Typing Component of the Twelfth International HLA workshop. Sequencing was performed as described by McGinnis and co-workers in 1995 on coded samples, including most DR2 subtypes, resulting in high resolution HLA-DR typing. Sequences were compared with a database containing 107 DRB1, four DRB3, and five DRB5 alleles in a similar way as described for HLA-DPB. One sample showed a new DR8 sequence, indicating the presence of a new allele. This individual (4390) is of Indonesian origin. The specific amplification of the DR8 allele and subsequent sequencing resulted in a sequence which did not match the database and new polymorphism was identified. The complementary strand was sequenced and confirmed the presence of a new DRB1 allele. Cloning and subsequent sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction fragment resulted in confirmation of the direct sequence data. Later this variant was officially named DRB1{sup *}0812. The complete nucleotide sequence of exon 2 of this new allele is shown. This allele differs from DRB1{sup *}0810 by one nucleotide at codon 85, resulting in an alanine (GTT), whereas DRB1{sup *}0810 carries a valine (GCT). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Snake venoms. The amino-acid sequence of trypsin inhibitor E of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black Mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Strydom, D J

    1978-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitor E from black mamba venom comprises 59 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain, cross-linked by three intrachain disulphide bridges. The complete primary structure of inhibitor E was elucidated. The sequence is homologous with trypsin inhibitors from different sources. Unique among this homologous series of proteinase inhibitors, inhibitor E has an affinity for transition metal ions, exemplified here by Cu2 and Co2+. PMID:668688

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain VKPM B-10182, Producing the Enzyme for Synthesis of Cephalosporin Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mardanov, Andrey V.; Eldarov, Mikhail A.; Sklyarenko, Anna V.; Dumina, Maria V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Yarotsky, Sergey V.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain VKPM B-10182, obtained by chemical mutagenesis from E. coli strain ATCC 9637, produces cephalosporin acid synthetase employed in the synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics, such as cefazolin. The draft genome sequence of strain VKPM B-10182 revealed 32 indels and 1,780 point mutations that might account for the improvement in antibiotic synthesis that we observed. PMID:25414512

  13. Deciphering Clostridium tyrobutyricum Metabolism Based on the Whole-Genome Sequence and Proteome Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Han, Mee-Jung; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that efficiently produces butyric acid and is considered a promising host for anaerobic production of bulk chemicals. Due to limited knowledge on the genetic and metabolic characteristics of this strain, however, little progress has been made in metabolic engineering of this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of C. tyrobutyricum KCTC 5387 (ATCC 25755), which consists of a 3.07-Mbp chromosome and a 63-kbp plasmid. The results of genomic analyses suggested that C. tyrobutyricum produces butyrate from butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) through acetate reassimilation by CoA transferase, differently from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which uses the phosphotransbutyrylase-butyrate kinase pathway; this was validated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of related genes, protein expression levels, in vitro CoA transferase assay, and fed-batch fermentation. In addition, the changes in protein expression levels during the course of batch fermentations on glucose were examined by shotgun proteomics. Unlike C. acetobutylicum, the expression levels of proteins involved in glycolytic and fermentative pathways in C. tyrobutyricum did not decrease even at the stationary phase. Proteins related to energy conservation mechanisms, including Rnf complex, NfnAB, and pyruvate-phosphate dikinase that are absent in C. acetobutylicum, were identified. Such features explain why this organism can produce butyric acid to a much higher titer and better tolerate toxic metabolites. This study presenting the complete genome sequence, global protein expression profiles, and genome-based metabolic characteristics during the batch fermentation of C. tyrobutyricum will be valuable in designing strategies for metabolic engineering of this strain. PMID:27302759

  14. Asynchronous symmetry-based sequences for homonuclear dipolar recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Ernst, Matthias E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Rajeswari, M.; Madhu, P. K. E-mail: maer@ethz.ch

    2015-02-14

    We show a theoretical framework, based on triple-mode Floquet theory, to analyze recoupling sequences derived from symmetry-based pulse sequences, which have a non-vanishing effective field and are not rotor synchronized. We analyze the properties of one such sequence, a homonuclear double-quantum recoupling sequence derived from the C7{sub 2}{sup 1} sequence. The new asynchronous sequence outperforms the rotor-synchronized version for spin pairs with small dipolar couplings in the presence of large chemical-shift anisotropy. The resonance condition of the new sequence is analyzed using triple-mode Floquet theory. Analytical calculations of second-order effective Hamiltonian are performed to compare the efficiency in suppressing second-order cross terms. Experiments and numerical simulations are shown to corroborate the results of the theoretical analysis.

  15. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby; Campbell, Purdey J.; Traglia, Michela; Brown, Suzanne J.; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Min, Josine; Walter, Klaudia; Memari, Yasin; Huang, Jie; Barnes, Michael R.; Beilby, John P.; Charoen, Pimphen; Danecek, Petr; Dudbridge, Frank; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Greenwood, Celia; Grundberg, Elin; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hui, Jennie; Lim, Ee M.; McCarthy, Shane; Muddyman, Dawn; Panicker, Vijay; Perry, John R.B.; Bell, Jordana T.; Yuan, Wei; Relton, Caroline; Gaunt, Tom; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Goncalo; Cucca, Francesco; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Toniolo, Daniela; Dayan, Colin M.; Naitza, Silvia; Walsh, John P.; Spector, Tim; Davey Smith, George; Durbin, Richard; Brent Richards, J.; Sanna, Serena; Soranzo, Nicole; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Turki, Saeed Al; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Artigas, Maria Soler; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N.M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S.; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Metrustry, Sarah; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quai, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R.S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Clair, David St; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; Pourcian, Beate St; Sun, Jianping; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Kogelenberg, Margriet Van; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walters, James T.R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10−9) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10−14). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10−9) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10−11). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function. PMID:25743335

  16. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter N; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby; Campbell, Purdey J; Traglia, Michela; Brown, Suzanne J; Mullin, Benjamin H; Shihab, Hashem A; Min, Josine; Walter, Klaudia; Memari, Yasin; Huang, Jie; Barnes, Michael R; Beilby, John P; Charoen, Pimphen; Danecek, Petr; Dudbridge, Frank; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Greenwood, Celia; Grundberg, Elin; Johnson, Andrew D; Hui, Jennie; Lim, Ee M; McCarthy, Shane; Muddyman, Dawn; Panicker, Vijay; Perry, John R B; Bell, Jordana T; Yuan, Wei; Relton, Caroline; Gaunt, Tom; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Goncalo; Cucca, Francesco; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Toniolo, Daniela; Dayan, Colin M; Naitza, Silvia; Walsh, John P; Spector, Tim; Davey Smith, George; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Sanna, Serena; Soranzo, Nicole; Timpson, Nicholas J; Wilson, Scott G

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10(-9)) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10(-14)). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10(-9)) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10(-11)). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function. PMID:25743335

  17. Tentative revision of the global Pliocene-Pleistocene sequences based on the sequence stratigraphy in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wornardt, W.W. Jr. Rice Univ., Houston, TX ); Vail, P.R. )

    1991-08-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence chronostratigraphy presented in this paper is based on a vast amount of data obtained from more than 100 wells drilled over the past eight years in the south additions and deep-water areas in offshore Texas and Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico. This high-resolution biostratigraphic data base consists of individual checklist with the abundance, diversity, occurrences, and ranges of planktonic and benthic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils plotted against depth. The benthic foraminifers have been interpreted largely for their paleobathymetric significance and result in a water-depth curve for each well studied. These wells have been further calibrated by having a portion of the study wells tied to sequence stratigraphic interpretations of seismic record sections through a two-way-time log or synthetic seismogram. The Pliocene and Pleistocene is tentatively divided into 14 fourth-order sequences from 3.0 to 0 Ma and three third-order cycles from 5.5 to 3.0 Ma. Each of the cycles is bounded by a sequence boundary and has an age-dateable maximum flooding surface. Depending on location, each sequence may have lowstand, transgressive, and highstand systems tracts within the basin. The age (Ma) of the sequence boundaries are third-order, 5.5, 4.2, 3.8, fourth-order, 3.0, 2.6, 2.4, 1.86, 1.4., 1.0, 0.82, 0.72, 0.62, 0.52, 0.42., 0.32, 0.22, 0.12, and 0.02. Within these sequence boundaries are the 5.0, 4.0, 3.4, 2.7, 2.45, 2.0, 1.47, 1.3, 0.92, 0.76, 0.66, 0.56, 0.46, 0.36, 0.26, 0.16, and 0.06 Ma maximum flooding surfaces, respectively. All of the condensed sections associated with the maximum flooding surfaces, systems tract boundaries, and sequences boundaries in the Pliocene-Pleistocene can be recognized and traced on well logs and seismic record sections in the offshore Texas and Louisiana areas.

  18. A novel T-cell-defined HLA-DR polymorphism not predicted from the linear amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Termijtelen, A; van den Elsen, P; Koning, F; de Koster, S; Schroeijers, W; Vanderkerckhove, B

    1989-09-01

    Recent investigations have shown that alloreactive T cells are capable of responding to structures defined by specific linear amino acid sequences on class II molecules. In the present study we show that also a polymorphism can be recognized that is not defined by such linear amino acid sequences. Two human T-cell clones, sensitized to DRw13 haplotypes, are described. The description of clone c50 serves to exemplify the first model. This DRB1-specific clone responds to stimulator cells that carry DR molecules, different in their DRB1 first and second hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) but identical in their HV3 regions (i.e., DRw13,Dw18; DRw13,Dw19; DR4,Dw10; and DRw11,LDVII). The second clone, c1443, behaves nonconventionally. It responds to DRw13,Dw18; DRw13,Dw19; and DR4,Dw4 stimulator cells, although no specific amino acid sequence is shared between these specificities. The latter pattern of reactivity suggests the existence of a novel polymorphism recognized by alloreactive T cells. This particular polymorphism may also be biologically significant. PMID:2476425

  19. Amino acid sequences of lysozymes newly purified from invertebrates imply wide distribution of a novel class in the lysozyme family.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Yoshikawa, A; Hotani, T; Fukuda, S; Sugimura, K; Imoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Lysozymes were purified from three invertebrates: a marine bivalve, a marine conch, and an earthworm. The purified lysozymes all showed a similar molecular weight of 13 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Their N-terminal sequences up to the 33rd residue determined here were apparently homologous among them; in addition, they had a homology with a partial sequence of a starfish lysozyme which had been reported before. The complete sequence of the bivalve lysozyme was determined by peptide mapping and subsequent sequence analysis. This was composed of 123 amino acids including as many as 14 cysteine residues and did not show a clear homology with the known types of lysozymes. However, the homology search of this protein on the protein or nucleic acid database revealed two homologous proteins. One of them was a gene product, CELF22 A3.6 of C. elegans, which was a functionally unknown protein. The other was an isopeptidase of a medicinal leech, named destabilase. Thus, a new type of lysozyme found in at least four species across the three classes of the invertebrates demonstrates a novel class of protein/lysozyme family in invertebrates. The bivalve lysozyme, first characterized here, showed extremely high protein stability and hen lysozyme-like enzymatic features. PMID:9914527

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains SRCC 1675 and 28RC, Which Vary in Acid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Reichenberger, Erin R.; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here. PMID:27469964

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains SRCC 1675 and 28RC, Which Vary in Acid Resistance.

    PubMed

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M; Reichenberger, Erin R; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here. PMID:27469964

  2. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains SRCC 1675 and 28RC that vary in acid resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented....

  3. The First Illumina-Based De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Safflower Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Lulin, Huang; Xiao, Yang; Pei, Sun; Wen, Tong; Shangqin, Hu

    2012-01-01

    Background The safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L., is a worldwide oil crop, and its flowers, which have a high flavonoid content, are an important medicinal resource against cardiovascular disease in traditional medicine. Because the safflower has a large and complex genome, the development of its genomic resources has been delayed. Second-generation Illumina sequencing is now an efficient route for generating an enormous volume of sequences that can represent a large number of genes and their expression levels. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the genes and pathways that might control flavonoids and other secondary metabolites in the safflower, we used Illumina sequencing to perform a de novo assembly of the safflower tubular flower tissue transcriptome. We obtained a total of 4.69 Gb in clean nucleotides comprising 52,119,104 clean sequencing reads, 195,320 contigs, and 120,778 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, we annotated 70,342 of the unigenes (about 58% of the identified unigenes) with cut-off E-values of 10−5. In total, 21,943 of the safflower unigenes were found to have COG classifications, and BLAST2GO assigned 26,332 of the unigenes to 1,754 GO term annotations. In addition, we assigned 30,203 of the unigenes to 121 KEGG pathways. When we focused on genes identified as contributing to flavonoid biosynthesis and the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, which are important pathways that control flower and seed quality, respectively, we found that these genes were fairly well conserved in the safflower genome compared to those of other plants. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides abundant genomic data for Carthamus tinctorius L. and offers comprehensive sequence resources for studying the safflower. We believe that these transcriptome datasets will serve as an important public information platform to accelerate studies of the safflower genome, and may help us define the mechanisms of flower tissue

  4. Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-11-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass. PMID:25087936

  5. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  6. The Promise and Pitfalls of Sequence-Based Identification of Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequences of selected marker loci have been widely used for the identification of specific pathogens and the development of sequence-based diagnostic methods. Although such approaches offer several advantages over traditional culture-based methods for pathogen diagnosis and identification, they have...

  7. mPUMA: a computational approach to microbiota analysis by de novo assembly of operational taxonomic units based on protein-coding barcode sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Formation of operational taxonomic units (OTU) is a common approach to data aggregation in microbial ecology studies based on amplification and sequencing of individual gene targets. The de novo assembly of OTU sequences has been recently demonstrated as an alternative to widely used clustering methods, providing robust information from experimental data alone, without any reliance on an external reference database. Results Here we introduce mPUMA (microbial Profiling Using Metagenomic Assembly, http://mpuma.sourceforge.net), a software package for identification and analysis of protein-coding barcode sequence data. It was developed originally for Cpn60 universal target sequences (also known as GroEL or Hsp60). Using an unattended process that is independent of external reference sequences, mPUMA forms OTUs by DNA sequence assembly and is capable of tracking OTU abundance. mPUMA processes microbial profiles both in terms of the direct DNA sequence as well as in the translated amino acid sequence for protein coding barcodes. By forming OTUs and calculating abundance through an assembly approach, mPUMA is capable of generating inputs for several popular microbiota analysis tools. Using SFF data from sequencing of a synthetic community of Cpn60 sequences derived from the human vaginal microbiome, we demonstrate that mPUMA can faithfully reconstruct all expected OTU sequences and produce compositional profiles consistent with actual community structure. Conclusions mPUMA enables analysis of microbial communities while empowering the discovery of novel organisms through OTU assembly. PMID:24451012

  8. Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, James Weifu; Meller, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.

  9. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new higher amino acid Schiff base derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir (nee Güngör), Özlem; Gürkan, Perihan; Özçelik, Berrin; Oyardı, Özlem

    2016-02-01

    Novel β-lactam derivatives (1c-3c) (1d-3d) were produced by using 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and the higher amino acid Schiff bases. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H/13C NMR and UV-vis spectra. Antibacterial activities of all the higher amino acid Schiff bases (1a-3a) (1b-3b) and β-lactam derivatives were screened against three gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Acinetobacter baumannii RSKK 02026), three gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 07005, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and their drug-resistant isolates by using broth microdilution method. Two fungi (Candida albicans and Candida krusei) were used for antifungal activity.

  10. Acid-base homeostasis in the human system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Acid-base regulation is a cooperative phenomena in vivo with body fluids, extracellular and intracellular buffers, lungs, and kidneys all playing important roles. The present account is much too brief to be considered a review of present knowledge of these regulatory systems, and should be viewed, instead, as a guide to the elements necessary to construct a simple model of the mutual interactions of the acid-base regulatory systems of the body.

  11. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  12. Fad7 gene identification and fatty acids phenotypic variation in an olive collection by EcoTILLING and sequencing approaches.

    PubMed

    Sabetta, Wilma; Blanco, Antonio; Zelasco, Samanta; Lombardo, Luca; Perri, Enzo; Mangini, Giacomo; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2013-08-01

    The ω-3 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing the conversion of linoleic acid to α-linolenic acid localized in the plastid or in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this research we report the genotypic and phenotypic variation of Italian Olea europaea L. germoplasm for the fatty acid composition. The phenotypic oil characterization was followed by the molecular analysis of the plastidial-type ω-3 FAD gene (fad7) (EC 1.14.19), whose full-length sequence has been here identified in cultivar Leccino. The gene consisted of 2635 bp with 8 exons and 5'- and 3'-UTRs of 336 and 282 bp respectively, and showed a high level of heterozygousity (1/110 bp). The natural allelic variation was investigated both by a LiCOR EcoTILLING assay and the PCR product direct sequencing. Only three haplotypes were identified among the 96 analysed cultivars, highlighting the strong degree of conservation of this gene. PMID:23685785

  13. Sequence-independent and reversible photocontrol of transcription/expression systems using a photosensitive nucleic acid binder

    PubMed Central

    Estévez-Torres, André; Crozatier, Cécile; Diguet, Antoine; Hara, Tomoaki; Saito, Hirohide; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Baigl, Damien

    2009-01-01

    To understand non-trivial biological functions, it is crucial to develop minimal synthetic models that capture their basic features. Here, we demonstrate a sequence-independent, reversible control of transcription and gene expression using a photosensitive nucleic acid binder (pNAB). By introducing a pNAB whose affinity for nucleic acids is tuned by light, in vitro RNA production, EGFP translation, and GFP expression (a set of reactions including both transcription and translation) were successfully inhibited in the dark and recovered after a short illumination at 365 nm. Our results indicate that the accessibility of the protein machinery to one or several nucleic acid binding sites can be efficiently regulated by changing the conformational/condensation state of the nucleic acid (DNA conformation or mRNA aggregation), thus regulating gene activity in an efficient, reversible, and sequence-independent manner. The possibility offered by our approach to use light to trigger various gene expression systems in a system-independent way opens interesting perspectives to study gene expression dynamics as well as to develop photocontrolled biotechnological procedures. PMID:19617550

  14. Synthesis of polyacrylic-acid-based thermochromic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Alam, Sarfaraz; Mathur, G. N.

    2003-10-01

    Smart materials respond to environmental stimuli with particular changes in some variables (for example temperature, pressure and electric field etc), for that reason they are often called responsive materials. In the present work, we have synthesized thermochromic polymer based on poly acrylic acid cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) that visually and reversibly changes color in the temperature range (70 - 130°C). These thermochromic materials can be used as visual sensors of temperature. Thermochromic polymers are based on polyacrylic acid and CoCl2 complex.

  15. Prokaryotic Phylogeny Based on Complete Genomes Without Sequence Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Bailin; Qi, Ji; Wang, Bin

    We present a brief review of a series of on-going work on bacterial phylogeny. We propose a new method to infer relatedness of prokaryotes from their complete genome data without using sequence alignment, leading to results comparable with the bacteriologist's systematics as reflected in the latest 2001 edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.1 We only touch on the mathematical aspects of the method. The biological implications of our results will be published elsewhere.

  16. Comparison of the Legionella pneumophila population structure as determined by sequence-based typing and whole genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen of humans where the source of infection is usually from contaminated man-made water systems. When an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease caused by L. pneumophila occurs, it is necessary to discover the source of infection. A seven allele sequence-based typing scheme (SBT) has been very successful in providing the means to attribute outbreaks of L. pneumophila to a particular source or sources. Particular sequence types described by this scheme are known to exhibit specific phenotypes. For instance some types are seen often in clinical cases but are rarely isolated from the environment and vice versa. Of those causing human disease some types are thought to be more likely to cause more severe disease. It is possible that the genetic basis for these differences are vertically inherited and associated with particular genetic lineages within the population. In order to provide a framework within which to test this hypothesis and others relating to the population biology of L. pneumophila, a set of genomes covering the known diversity of the organism is required. Results Firstly, this study describes a means to group L. pneumophila strains into pragmatic clusters, using a methodology that takes into consideration the genetic forces operating on the population. These clusters can be used as a standardised nomenclature, so those wishing to describe a group of strains can do so. Secondly, the clusters generated from the first part of the study were used to select strains rationally for whole genome sequencing (WGS). The data generated was used to compare phylogenies derived from SBT and WGS. In general the SBT sequence type (ST) accurately reflects the whole genome-based genotype. Where there are exceptions and recombination has resulted in the ST no longer reflecting the genetic lineage described by the whole genome sequence, the clustering technique employed detects these sequence types as being admixed

  17. The future scalability of pH-based genome sequencers: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Jonghyun; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2013-10-01

    Sequencing of human genome is an essential prerequisite for personalized medicine and early prognosis of various genetic diseases. The state-of-art, high-throughput genome sequencing technologies provide improved sequencing; however, their reliance on relatively expensive optical detection schemes has prevented wide-spread adoption of the technology in routine care. In contrast, the recently announced pH-based electronic genome sequencers achieve fast sequencing at low cost because of the compatibility with the current microelectronics technology. While the progress in technology development has been rapid, the physics of the sequencing chips and the potential for future scaling (and therefore, cost reduction) remain unexplored. In this article, we develop a theoretical framework and a scaling theory to explain the principle of operation of the pH-based sequencing chips and use the framework to explore various perceived scaling limits of the technology related to signal to noise ratio, well-to-well crosstalk, and sequencing accuracy. We also address several limitations inherent to the key steps of pH-based genome sequencers, which are widely shared by many other sequencing platforms in the market but remained unexplained properly so far.

  18. Enzymatic generation of peptides flanked by basic amino acids to obtain MS/MS spectra with 2× sequence coverage

    PubMed Central

    Ebhardt, H Alexander; Nan, Jie; Chaulk, Steven G; Fahlman, Richard P; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra generated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) typically lack redundant peptide sequence information in the form of e.g. b- and y-ion series due to frequent use of sequence-specific endopeptidases cleaving C- or N-terminal to Arg or Lys residues. METHODS Here we introduce arginyl-tRNA protein transferase (ATE, EC 2.3.2.8) for proteomics. ATE recognizes acidic amino acids or oxidized Cys at the N-terminus of a substrate peptide and conjugates an arginine from an aminoacylated tRNAArg onto the N-terminus of the substrate peptide. This enzymatic reaction is carried out under physiological conditions and, in combination with Lys-C/Asp-N double digest, results in arginylated peptides with basic amino acids on both termini. RESULTS We demonstrate that in vitro arginylation of peptides using yeast arginyl tRNA protein transferase 1 (yATE1) is a robust enzymatic reaction, specific to only modifying N-terminal acidic amino acids. Precursors originating from arginylated peptides generally have an increased protonation state compared with their non-arginylated forms. Furthermore, the product ion spectra of arginylated peptides show near complete 2× fragment ladders within the same MS/MS spectrum using commonly available electrospray ionization peptide fragmentation modes. Unexpectedly, arginylated peptides generate complete y- and c-ion series using electron transfer dissociation (ETD) despite having an internal proline residue. CONCLUSIONS We introduce a rapid enzymatic method to generate peptides flanked on either terminus by basic amino acids, resulting in a rich, redundant MS/MS fragment pattern. © 2014 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25380496

  19. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way. PMID:26554401

  20. A Parallel Non-Alignment Based Approach to Efficient Sequence Comparison using Longest Common Subsequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, S.; Shafiullah, M.; Rai, H.; Bastola, D.

    2010-11-01

    Biological sequence comparison programs have revolutionized the practice of biochemistry, and molecular and evolutionary biology. Pairwise comparison of genomic sequences is a popular method of choice for analyzing genetic sequence data. However the quality of results from most sequence comparison methods are significantly affected by small perturbations in the data and furthermore, there is a dearth of computational tools to compare sequences beyond a certain length. In this paper, we describe a parallel algorithm for comparing genetic sequences using an alignment free-method based on computing the Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) between genetic sequences. We validate the quality of our results by comparing the phylogenetic tress obtained from ClustalW and LCS. We also show through complexity analysis of the isoefficiency and by empirical measurement of the running time that our algorithm is very scalable.