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Sample records for acid sequences visualized

  1. Thin-film technology for direct visual detection of nucleic acid sequences: applications in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jenison, Robert D; Bucala, Richard; Maul, Diana; Ward, David C

    2006-01-01

    Certain optical conditions permit the unaided eye to detect thickness changes on surfaces on the order of 20 A, which are of similar dimensions to monomolecular interactions between proteins or hybridization of complementary nucleic acid sequences. Such detection exploits specific interference of reflected white light, wherein thickness changes are perceived as surface color changes. This technology, termed thin-film detection, allows for the visualization of subattomole amounts of nucleic acid targets, even in complex clinical samples. Thin-film technology has been applied to a broad range of clinically relevant indications, including the detection of pathogenic bacterial and viral nucleic acid sequences and the discrimination of sequence variations in human genes causally related to susceptibility or severity of disease.

  2. ANTICALIgN: visualizing, editing and analyzing combined nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments for combinatorial protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Jarasch, Alexander; Kopp, Melanie; Eggenstein, Evelyn; Richter, Antonia; Gebauer, Michaela; Skerra, Arne

    2016-07-01

    ANTIC ALIGN: is an interactive software developed to simultaneously visualize, analyze and modify alignments of DNA and/or protein sequences that arise during combinatorial protein engineering, design and selection. ANTIC ALIGN: combines powerful functions known from currently available sequence analysis tools with unique features for protein engineering, in particular the possibility to display and manipulate nucleotide sequences and their translated amino acid sequences at the same time. ANTIC ALIGN: offers both template-based multiple sequence alignment (MSA), using the unmutated protein as reference, and conventional global alignment, to compare sequences that share an evolutionary relationship. The application of similarity-based clustering algorithms facilitates the identification of duplicates or of conserved sequence features among a set of selected clones. Imported nucleotide sequences from DNA sequence analysis are automatically translated into the corresponding amino acid sequences and displayed, offering numerous options for selecting reading frames, highlighting of sequence features and graphical layout of the MSA. The MSA complexity can be reduced by hiding the conserved nucleotide and/or amino acid residues, thus putting emphasis on the relevant mutated positions. ANTIC ALIGN: is also able to handle suppressed stop codons or even to incorporate non-natural amino acids into a coding sequence. We demonstrate crucial functions of ANTIC ALIGN: in an example of Anticalins selected from a lipocalin random library against the fibronectin extradomain B (ED-B), an established marker of tumor vasculature. Apart from engineered protein scaffolds, ANTIC ALIGN: provides a powerful tool in the area of antibody engineering and for directed enzyme evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Why Visual Sequences Come First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Steven D.

    Visual sequences should be the first visual literacy exercises for reasons that are physio-psychological, semantic, and curricular. In infancy, vision is undifferentiated and undetailed. The number of details a child sees increases with age. Therefore, a series of pictures, rather than one photograph which tells a whole story, is more appropriate…

  4. Why Visual Sequences Come First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Steven D.

    Visual sequences should be the first visual literacy exercises for reasons that are physio-psychological, semantic, and curricular. In infancy, vision is undifferentiated and undetailed. The number of details a child sees increases with age. Therefore, a series of pictures, rather than one photograph which tells a whole story, is more appropriate…

  5. Visual pattern image sequence coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsbee, Peter; Bovik, Alan C.; Chen, Dapang

    1990-01-01

    The visual pattern image coding (VPIC) configurable digital image-coding process is capable of coding with visual fidelity comparable to the best available techniques, at compressions which (at 30-40:1) exceed all other technologies. These capabilities are associated with unprecedented coding efficiencies; coding and decoding operations are entirely linear with respect to image size and entail a complexity that is 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than any previous high-compression technique. The visual pattern image sequence coding to which attention is presently given exploits all the advantages of the static VPIC in the reduction of information from an additional, temporal dimension, to achieve unprecedented image sequence coding performance.

  6. Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Brian; Hartman, Frank; Maxwell, Scott; Yen, Jeng; Wright, John; Balacuit, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP) is the software tool for use in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission for planning rover operations and generating command sequences for accomplishing those operations. RSVP combines three-dimensional (3D) visualization for immersive exploration of the operations area, stereoscopic image display for high-resolution examination of the downlinked imagery, and a sophisticated command-sequence editing tool for analysis and completion of the sequences. RSVP is linked with actual flight-code modules for operations rehearsal to provide feedback on the expected behavior of the rover prior to committing to a particular sequence. Playback tools allow for review of both rehearsed rover behavior and downlinked results of actual rover operations. These can be displayed simultaneously for comparison of rehearsed and actual activities for verification. The primary inputs to RSVP are downlink data products from the Operations Storage Server (OSS) and activity plans generated by the science team. The activity plans are high-level goals for the next day s activities. The downlink data products include imagery, terrain models, and telemetered engineering data on rover activities and state. The Rover Sequence Editor (RoSE) component of RSVP performs activity expansion to command sequences, command creation and editing with setting of command parameters, and viewing and management of rover resources. The HyperDrive component of RSVP performs 2D and 3D visualization of the rover s environment, graphical and animated review of rover-predicted and telemetered state, and creation and editing of command sequences related to mobility and Instrument Deployment Device (IDD) operations. Additionally, RoSE and HyperDrive together evaluate command sequences for potential violations of flight and safety rules. The products of RSVP include command sequences for uplink that are stored in the Distributed Object Manager (DOM) and predicted rover

  7. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed). PMID:22638583

  8. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-07-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

  9. Visual detection and differentiation of Classic Swine Fever Virus strains using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and G-quadruplex DNAzyme assay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaolu; Shi, Xueyao; Wu, Gege; Wu, Tiantian; Qin, Rui; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The split G-quadruplex DNAzyme has emerged as a valuable tool for visual DNA detection. Here, we successfully integrated colorimetric split G-quadruplex DNAzyme assay with nucleic acid sequence-based amplification to generate a novel detection approach, allowing visual and rapid detection for the RNA of Shimen and HCLV strains of Classic Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). CSFV is a RNA virus that causes a highly contagious disease in domestic pigs and wild boar. With this method, we were able to detect as little as 10 copies/ml of CSF viral RNA within 3 h in serum samples taken from the field. No interference was encountered in the amplification and detection of Classic Swine Fever Virus in the presence of non-target RNA or DNA. Moreover, Shimen and HCLV strains of Classic Swine Fever Virus could be easily differentiated using the NASBA-DNAzyme system. These findings indicate the NASBA-DNAzyme system is a rapid and practical technique for detecting and discriminating CSFV strains and may be applied to the detection of other RNA viruses. PMID:28287135

  10. Subcellular localization of low-abundance human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid sequences visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.B.; Marselle, L.M.; Byron, K.S.; Johnson, C.V.; Sullivan, J.L.; Singer, R.H. )

    1990-07-01

    Detection and subcellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were investigated using sensitive high-resolution in situ hybridization methodology. Lymphocytes infected with HIV in vitro or in vivo were detected by fluorescence after hybridization with either biotin or digoxigenin-labeled probes. At 12 hr after infection in vitro, a single intense signal appeared in the nuclei of individual cells. Later in infection, when cytoplasmic fluorescence became intense, multiple nuclear foci frequently appeared. The nuclear focus consisted of newly synthesized HIV RNA as shown by hybridization in the absence of denaturation and by susceptibility to RNase and actinomycin D. Virus was detected in patient lymphocytes and it was shown that a singular nuclear focus also characterizes cells infected in vivo. The cell line 8E5/LAV containing one defective integrated provirus revealed a similar focus of nuclear RNA, and the single integrated HIV genome was unequivocally visualized on a D-group chromosome. This demonstrates an extremely sensitive single-cell assay for the presence of a single site of HIV transcription in vitro and in vivo and suggests that it derives from one (or very few) viral genomes per cell. In contrast, productive Epstein-Barr virus infection exhibited many foci of nuclear RNA per cell.

  11. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  12. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking.

    PubMed

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-04-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. In this study we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence-nonspecific learning during walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 yr,n= 20) could learn a specific sequence of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 yr,n= 8) had lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning were the same compared with those of older children (11-16 yr,n= 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task such as walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during visually guided walking.

  13. Robot Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Brian K.; Maxwell,Scott A.; Hartman, Frank R.; Wright, John R.; Yen, Jeng; Toole, Nicholas T.; Gorjian, Zareh; Morrison, Jack C

    2013-01-01

    The Robot Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP) is being used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission for downlink data visualization and command sequence generation. RSVP reads and writes downlink data products from the operations data server (ODS) and writes uplink data products to the ODS. The primary users of RSVP are members of the Rover Planner team (part of the Integrated Planning and Execution Team (IPE)), who use it to perform traversability/articulation analyses, take activity plan input from the Science and Mission Planning teams, and create a set of rover sequences to be sent to the rover every sol. The primary inputs to RSVP are downlink data products and activity plans in the ODS database. The primary outputs are command sequences to be placed in the ODS for further processing prior to uplink to each rover. RSVP is composed of two main subsystems. The first, called the Robot Sequence Editor (RoSE), understands the MSL activity and command dictionaries and takes care of converting incoming activity level inputs into command sequences. The Rover Planners use the RoSE component of RSVP to put together command sequences and to view and manage command level resources like time, power, temperature, etc. (via a transparent realtime connection to SEQGEN). The second component of RSVP is called HyperDrive, a set of high-fidelity computer graphics displays of the Martian surface in 3D and in stereo. The Rover Planners can explore the environment around the rover, create commands related to motion of all kinds, and see the simulated result of those commands via its underlying tight coupling with flight navigation, motor, and arm software. This software is the evolutionary replacement for the Rover Sequencing and Visualization software used to create command sequences (and visualize the Martian surface) for the Mars Exploration Rover mission.

  14. Update on Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Brian; Hartman, Frank; Maxwell, Scott; Yen, Jeng; Wright, John; Balacuit, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP) has been updated. RSVP was reported in Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (NPO-30845), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 38. To recapitulate: The Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP) is the software tool to be used in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission for planning rover operations and generating command sequences for accomplishing those operations. RSVP combines three-dimensional (3D) visualization for immersive exploration of the operations area, stereoscopic image display for high-resolution examination of the downlinked imagery, and a sophisticated command-sequence editing tool for analysis and completion of the sequences. RSVP is linked with actual flight code modules for operations rehearsal to provide feedback on the expected behavior of the rover prior to committing to a particular sequence. Playback tools allow for review of both rehearsed rover behavior and downlinked results of actual rover operations. These can be displayed simultaneously for comparison of rehearsed and actual activities for verification. The primary inputs to RSVP are downlink data products from the Operations Storage Server (OSS) and activity plans generated by the science team. The activity plans are high-level goals for the next day s activities. The downlink data products include imagery, terrain models, and telemetered engineering data on rover activities and state. The Rover Sequence Editor (RoSE) component of RSVP performs activity expansion to command sequences, command creation and editing with setting of command parameters, and viewing and management of rover resources. The HyperDrive component of RSVP performs 2D and 3D visualization of the rover s environment, graphical and animated review of rover predicted and telemetered state, and creation and editing of command sequences related to mobility and Instrument Deployment Device (robotic arm) operations. Additionally, RoSE and

  15. High speed nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas [Ithaca, NY; Webb, Watt W [Ithaca, NY; Levene, Michael [Ithaca, NY; Turner, Stephen [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY; Foquet, Mathieu [Ithaca, NY

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid. Each type of labeled nucleotide comprises an acceptor fluorophore attached to a phosphate portion of the nucleotide such that the fluorophore is removed upon incorporation into a growing strand. Fluorescent signal is emitted via fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the donor fluorophore and the acceptor fluorophore as each nucleotide is incorporated into the growing strand. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing strand.

  16. Visually lossless compression of digital hologram sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darakis, Emmanouil; Kowiel, Marcin; Näsänen, Risto; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Digital hologram sequences have great potential for the recording of 3D scenes of moving macroscopic objects as their numerical reconstruction can yield a range of perspective views of the scene. Digital holograms inherently have large information content and lossless coding of holographic data is rather inefficient due to the speckled nature of the interference fringes they contain. Lossy coding of still holograms and hologram sequences has shown promising results. By definition, lossy compression introduces errors in the reconstruction. In all of the previous studies, numerical metrics were used to measure the compression error and through it, the coding quality. Digital hologram reconstructions are highly speckled and the speckle pattern is very sensitive to data changes. Hence, numerical quality metrics can be misleading. For example, for low compression ratios, a numerically significant coding error can have visually negligible effects. Yet, in several cases, it is of high interest to know how much lossy compression can be achieved, while maintaining the reconstruction quality at visually lossless levels. Using an experimental threshold estimation method, the staircase algorithm, we determined the highest compression ratio that was not perceptible to human observers for objects compressed with Dirac and MPEG-4 compression methods. This level of compression can be regarded as the point below which compression is perceptually lossless although physically the compression is lossy. It was found that up to 4 to 7.5 fold compression can be obtained with the above methods without any perceptible change in the appearance of video sequences.

  17. Temporal Integration Windows for Naturalistic Visual Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fairhall, Scott L.; Albi, Angela; Melcher, David

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the brain possesses mechanisms to integrate incoming sensory information as it unfolds over time-periods of 2–3 seconds. The ubiquity of this mechanism across modalities, tasks, perception and production has led to the proposal that it may underlie our experience of the subjective present. A critical test of this claim is that this phenomenon should be apparent in naturalistic visual experiences. We tested this using movie-clips as a surrogate for our day-to-day experience, temporally scrambling them to require (re-) integration within and beyond the hypothesized 2–3 second interval. Two independent experiments demonstrate a step-wise increase in the difficulty to follow stimuli at the hypothesized 2–3 second scrambling condition. Moreover, only this difference could not be accounted for by low-level visual properties. This provides the first evidence that this 2–3 second integration window extends to complex, naturalistic visual sequences more consistent with our experience of the subjective present. PMID:25010517

  18. A deeper understanding of sequence in narrative visualization.

    PubMed

    Hullman, Jessica; Drucker, Steven; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Lee, Bongshin; Fisher, Danyel; Adar, Eytan

    2013-12-01

    Conveying a narrative with visualizations often requires choosing an order in which to present visualizations. While evidence exists that narrative sequencing in traditional stories can affect comprehension and memory, little is known about how sequencing choices affect narrative visualization. We consider the forms and reactions to sequencing in narrative visualization presentations to provide a deeper understanding with a focus on linear, 'slideshow-style' presentations. We conduct a qualitative analysis of 42 professional narrative visualizations to gain empirical knowledge on the forms that structure and sequence take. Based on the results of this study we propose a graph-driven approach for automatically identifying effective sequences in a set of visualizations to be presented linearly. Our approach identifies possible transitions in a visualization set and prioritizes local (visualization-to-visualization) transitions based on an objective function that minimizes the cost of transitions from the audience perspective. We conduct two studies to validate this function. We also expand the approach with additional knowledge of user preferences for different types of local transitions and the effects of global sequencing strategies on memory, preference, and comprehension. Our results include a relative ranking of types of visualization transitions by the audience perspective and support for memory and subjective rating benefits of visualization sequences that use parallelism as a structural device. We discuss how these insights can guide the design of narrative visualization and systems that support optimization of visualization sequence.

  19. ALVIS: interactive non-aggregative visualization and explorative analysis of multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Roland F; Tamuri, Asif U; Kultys, Marek; King, James; Godwin, James; Florescu, Ana M; Schultz, Jörg; Goldman, Nick

    2016-05-05

    Sequence Logos and its variants are the most commonly used method for visualization of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and sequence motifs. They provide consensus-based summaries of the sequences in the alignment. Consequently, individual sequences cannot be identified in the visualization and covariant sites are not easily discernible. We recently proposed Sequence Bundles, a motif visualization technique that maintains a one-to-one relationship between sequences and their graphical representation and visualizes covariant sites. We here present Alvis, an open-source platform for the joint explorative analysis of MSAs and phylogenetic trees, employing Sequence Bundles as its main visualization method. Alvis combines the power of the visualization method with an interactive toolkit allowing detection of covariant sites, annotation of trees with synapomorphies and homoplasies, and motif detection. It also offers numerical analysis functionality, such as dimension reduction and classification. Alvis is user-friendly, highly customizable and can export results in publication-quality figures. It is available as a full-featured standalone version (http://www.bitbucket.org/rfs/alvis) and its Sequence Bundles visualization module is further available as a web application (http://science-practice.com/projects/sequence-bundles). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  1. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  3. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  4. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  5. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  6. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  7. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  8. Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  9. The complete amino acid sequence of prochymosin.

    PubMed Central

    Foltmann, B; Pedersen, V B; Jacobsen, H; Kauffman, D; Wybrandt, G

    1977-01-01

    The total sequence of 365 amino acid residues in bovine prochymosin is presented. Alignment with the amino acid sequence of porcine pepsinogen shows that 204 amino acid residues are common to the two zymogens. Further comparison and alignment with the amino acid sequence of penicillopepsin shows that 66 residues are located at identical positions in all three proteases. The three enzymes belong to a large group of proteases with two aspartate residues in the active center. This group forms a family derived from one common ancestor. PMID:329280

  10. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  11. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-05-30

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  12. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  13. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input.

  14. Nucleic acid visualization with UCSF Chimera

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Gregory S.; Hendrix, Donna K.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    With the increase in the number of large, 3D, high-resolution nucleic acid structures, particularly of the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits and the intact bacterial ribosome, advancements in the visualization of nucleic acid structural features are essential. Large molecular structures are complicated and detailed, and one goal of visualization software is to allow the user to simplify the display of some features and accent others. We describe an extension to the UCSF Chimera molecular visualization system for the purpose of displaying and highlighting nucleic acid characteristics, including a new representation of sugar pucker, several options for abstraction of base geometries that emphasize stacking and base pairing, and an adaptation of the ribbon backbone to accommodate the nucleic acid backbone. Molecules are displayed and manipulated interactively, allowing the user to change the representations as desired for small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids. This software is available as part of the UCSF Chimera molecular visualization system and thus is integrated with a suite of existing tools for molecular graphics. PMID:16478715

  15. JVM: Java Visual Mapping tool for next generation sequencing read.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Liu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We developed a program JVM (Java Visual Mapping) for mapping next generation sequencing read to reference sequence. The program is implemented in Java and is designed to deal with millions of short read generated by sequence alignment using the Illumina sequencing technology. It employs seed index strategy and octal encoding operations for sequence alignments. JVM is useful for DNA-Seq, RNA-Seq when dealing with single-end resequencing. JVM is a desktop application, which supports reads capacity from 1 MB to 10 GB.

  16. Learned spatiotemporal sequence recognition and prediction in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gavornik, Jeffrey P.; Bear, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to recognize and predict temporal sequences is fundamental to sensory perception, and is impaired in several neuropsychiatric disorders, but little is known about where and how this occurs in the brain. We discovered that repeated presentations of a visual sequence over a course of days causes evoked response potentiation in mouse V1 that is highly specific for stimulus order and timing. Remarkably, after V1 is trained to recognize a sequence, cortical activity regenerates the full sequence even when individual stimulus elements are omitted. This novel neurophysiological report of sequence learning advances the understanding of how the brain makes “intelligent guesses” based on limited information to form visual percepts and suggests that it is possible to study the mechanistic basis of this high–level cognitive ability by studying low–level sensory systems. PMID:24657967

  17. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence...

  18. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org.

  19. Visual statistical learning of shape sequences: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Abla, Dilshat; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    Behavioral experiments have found that infants and adults learn statistically defined patterns presented in auditory and visual input sequences in the same manner regardless of whether the input was linguistic (syllables) or nonlinguistic (tones and shapes). In order do determine the time course and neural processes involved in online word segmentation and statistical learning of visual sequence, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants were exposed to continuous sequences with elements organized into shape-words randomly connected to each other. After viewing three 6.6min sessions of sequences, the participants performed a behavioral choice test. The participants were divided into two groups (high and low learners) based on their behavioral performance. The overall mean performance was 72.2%, indicating that the shape sequence was segmented and that the participants learned the shape-triplets statistically. Grand-averaged ERPs showed that triplet-onset (the initial shapes of shape-words) elicited larger N400 amplitudes than did middle and final shapes embedded in continuous streams during the early learning sessions of high learners, but no triplet-onset effect was found among low learners. The results suggested that the N400 effect indicated online segmentation of the visual sequence and the degree of statistical learning. Our results also imply that statistical learning represents a common learning device.

  20. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  1. Understanding a sequence of sequences: Visual exploration of categorical states in lake sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Unger, Andrea; Drager, Nadine; Sips, Mike; Lehmann, Dirk J

    2017-08-30

    This design study focuses on the analysis of a time sequence of categorical sequences. Such data is relevant for the geoscientific research field of landscape and climate development. It results from microscopic analysis of lake sediment cores. The goal is to gain hypotheses about landscape evolution and climate conditions in the past. To this end, geoscientists identify which categorical sequences are similar in the sense that they indicate similar conditions. Categorical sequences are similar if they have similar meaning (semantic similarity) and appear in similar time periods (temporal similarity). For data sets with many different categorical sequences, the task to identify similar sequences becomes a challenge. Our contribution is a tailored visual analysis concept that effectively supports the analytical process. Our visual interface comprises coupled visualizations of semantics and temporal context for the exploration and assessment of the similarity of categorical sequences. Integrated automatic methods reduce the analytical effort substantially. They (1) extract unique sequences in the data and (2) rank sequences by a similarity measure during the search for similar sequences. We evaluated our concept by demonstrations of our prototype to a larger audience and hands-on analysis sessions for two different lakes. According to geoscientists, our approach fills an important methodological gap in the application domain.

  2. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  3. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  4. Methods for analyzing nucleic acid sequences

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid. The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The time duration of the signal from labeled nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated is distinguished from freely diffusing labels by a longer retention in the observation volume for the nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated than for the freely diffusing labels.

  5. HapFlow: visualizing haplotypes in sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mitchell J; Bachmann, Nathan L; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-02-01

    HapFlow is a python application for visualizing haplotypes present in sequencing data. It identifies variant profiles present and reads and creates an abstract visual representation of these profiles to make haplotypes easier to identify. HapFlow is freely available (under a GPL license) for download (for Mac OS X, Unix and Microsoft Windows) from github (http://mjsull.github.io/HapFlow). apolking@usc.edu.au. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Graphical visualization of the biologically significant segments in the sequence sets of the relative plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatenko, I S

    2012-01-01

    The author's and collaborators' computational investigations of the conserved biologically significant segments within viral nucleotide and amino acid sequences are considered in the article. The results obtained suggest that the interactive graphical visualization of the short identical or similar sites in the sequence sets of relative viruses allows to reveal various specific elements such as right, inverted tandem, opposite and regular repeals; deletion/insertion; GC/AT-rich sites; contexts of translation initiation and termination codons; transcription initiation signals; spontaneous nucleotide substitutions; codon usage bias etc. To reveal and investigate different biologically significant sequences very short and simple computer programs, based on common sequence scanning algorithm, may be employed. Various graphic objects, which appeared during visualization of similar sites, may be computationally converted into corresponding nucleotide or amino acid sequences followed by writing within a text file. The change of some scanning parameters or slight modification of certain program modules allows to enlarge the program potentialities. A set of little and simplified computer programs obtained by successive modifications of the initial program is a suitable tool for quick revealing and investigating various biologically significant sequence sites.

  7. Sequence alignment visualization in HTML5 without Java.

    PubMed

    Gille, Christoph; Birgit, Weyand; Gille, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Java has been extensively used for the visualization of biological data in the web. However, the Java runtime environment is an additional layer of software with an own set of technical problems and security risks. HTML in its new version 5 provides features that for some tasks may render Java unnecessary. Alignment-To-HTML is the first HTML-based interactive visualization for annotated multiple sequence alignments. The server side script interpreter can perform all tasks like (i) sequence retrieval, (ii) alignment computation, (iii) rendering, (iv) identification of a homologous structural models and (v) communication with BioDAS-servers. The rendered alignment can be included in web pages and is displayed in all browsers on all platforms including touch screen tablets. The functionality of the user interface is similar to legacy Java applets and includes color schemes, highlighting of conserved and variable alignment positions, row reordering by drag and drop, interlinked 3D visualization and sequence groups. Novel features are (i) support for multiple overlapping residue annotations, such as chemical modifications, single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations, (ii) mechanisms to quickly hide residue annotations, (iii) export to MS-Word and (iv) sequence icons. Alignment-To-HTML, the first interactive alignment visualization that runs in web browsers without additional software, confirms that to some extend HTML5 is already sufficient to display complex biological data. The low speed at which programs are executed in browsers is still the main obstacle. Nevertheless, we envision an increased use of HTML and JavaScript for interactive biological software. Under GPL at: http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/toHTML/.

  8. MSAViewer: interactive JavaScript visualization of multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Yachdav, Guy; Wilzbach, Sebastian; Rauscher, Benedikt; Sheridan, Robert; Sillitoe, Ian; Procter, James; Lewis, Suzanna E; Rost, Burkhard; Goldberg, Tatyana

    2016-11-15

    The MSAViewer is a quick and easy visualization and analysis JavaScript component for Multiple Sequence Alignment data of any size. Core features include interactive navigation through the alignment, application of popular color schemes, sorting, selecting and filtering. The MSAViewer is 'web ready': written entirely in JavaScript, compatible with modern web browsers and does not require any specialized software. The MSAViewer is part of the BioJS collection of components.

  9. Porcine proinsulin: characterization and amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Chance, R E; Ellis, R M; Bromer, W W

    1968-07-12

    Proinsulin in nearly homogeneous form has been isolated from a preparation of porcine insulin. A molecular weight close to 9100 was calculated from the amino acid composition and from sedimentation-equilibrium studies. Through the action of trypsin this single-chain protein is transformed to desalanine insulin by cleavage of a polypeptide chain connecting the carboxy-terminus of the B chain to the amino-terminus of the A chain of insulin. The amino acid sequence of this connecting peptide was found to be Arg-Arg-Glu-Ala-Gln-Asn-Pro-Gln-Ala-Gly-Ala-Val-Glu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Gly-Leu-Gly-Gly-Leu-Gln-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-Glu-Gly-Pro-Pro-Gln-Lys-Arg.

  10. Pulse sequence programming in a dynamic visual environment: SequenceTree.

    PubMed

    Magland, Jeremy F; Li, Cheng; Langham, Michael C; Wehrli, Felix W

    2016-01-01

    To describe SequenceTree, an open source, integrated software environment for implementing MRI pulse sequences and, ideally, exporting them to actual MRI scanners. The software is a user-friendly alternative to vendor-supplied pulse sequence design and editing tools and is suited for programmers and nonprogrammers alike. The integrated user interface was programmed using the Qt4/C++ toolkit. As parameters and code are modified, the pulse sequence diagram is automatically updated within the user interface. Several aspects of pulse programming are handled automatically, allowing users to focus on higher-level aspects of sequence design. Sequences can be simulated using a built-in Bloch equation solver and then exported for use on a Siemens MRI scanner. Ideally, other types of scanners will be supported in the future. SequenceTree has been used for 8 years in our laboratory and elsewhere and has contributed to more than 50 peer-reviewed publications in areas such as cardiovascular imaging, solid state and nonproton NMR, MR elastography, and high-resolution structural imaging. SequenceTree is an innovative, open source, visual pulse sequence environment for MRI combining simplicity with flexibility and is ideal both for advanced users and users with limited programming experience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  12. VING: a software for visualization of deep sequencing signals.

    PubMed

    Descrimes, Marc; Ben Zouari, Yousra; Wery, Maxime; Legendre, Rachel; Gautheret, Daniel; Morillon, Antonin

    2015-09-07

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) data treatment often requires mapping sequenced reads onto a reference genome for further analysis. Mapped data are commonly visualized using genome browsers. However, such software are not suited for a publication-ready and versatile representation of NGS data coverage, especially when multiple experiments are simultaneously treated. We developed 'VING', a stand-alone R script that takes as input NGS mapping files and genome annotations to produce accurate snapshots of the NGS coverage signal for any specified genomic region. VING offers multiple viewing options, including strand-specific views and a special heatmap mode for representing multiple experiments in a single figure. VING produces high-quality figures for NGS data representation in a genome region of interest. It is available at http://vm-gb.curie.fr/ving/. We also developed a Galaxy wrapper, available in the Galaxy tool shed with installation and usage instructions.

  13. EEG changes during sequences of visual and kinesthetic motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Stecklow, Marcus Vinicius; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Cagy, Maurício

    2010-08-01

    The evoked cerebral electric response when sequences of complex motor imagery (MI) task are executed several times is still unclear. This work aims at investigating the existence of habituation in the cortical response, more specifically in the alpha band peak of parietal and occipital areas (10-20 international system electroencephalogram, EEG, protocol). The EEG signals were acquired during sequences of MI of volleyball spike movement in kinesthetic and visual modalities and also at control condition. Thirty right-handed male subjects (18 to 40 years) were assigned to either an 'athlete' or a 'non-athlete' group, both containing 15 volunteers. Paired Wilcoxon tests (with alpha=0.05) indicates that sequential MI of complex tasks promotes cortical changes, mainly in the power vicinity of the alpha peak. This finding is more pronounced along the initial trials and also for the athletes during the modality of kinesthetic motor imagery.

  14. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. Findings MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. Conclusions The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org. PMID:21159174

  15. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zackay, Arie; Steinhoff, Christine

    2010-12-15

    Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org.

  16. The influence of visual training on predicting complex action sequences.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Stadler, Waltraud; Parkinson, Jim; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Linking observed and executable actions appears to be achieved by an action observation network (AON), comprising parietal, premotor, and occipitotemporal cortical regions of the human brain. AON engagement during action observation is thought to aid in effortless, efficient prediction of ongoing movements to support action understanding. Here, we investigate how the AON responds when observing and predicting actions we cannot readily reproduce before and after visual training. During pre- and posttraining neuroimaging sessions, participants watched gymnasts and wind-up toys moving behind an occluder and pressed a button when they expected each agent to reappear. Between scanning sessions, participants visually trained to predict when a subset of stimuli would reappear. Posttraining scanning revealed activation of inferior parietal, superior temporal, and cerebellar cortices when predicting occluded actions compared to perceiving them. Greater activity emerged when predicting untrained compared to trained sequences in occipitotemporal cortices and to a lesser degree, premotor cortices. The occipitotemporal responses when predicting untrained agents showed further specialization, with greater responses within body-processing regions when predicting gymnasts' movements and in object-selective cortex when predicting toys' movements. The results suggest that (1) select portions of the AON are recruited to predict the complex movements not easily mapped onto the observer's body and (2) greater recruitment of these AON regions supports prediction of less familiar sequences. We suggest that the findings inform both the premotor model of action prediction and the predictive coding account of AON function.

  17. Pulse Sequence Programming in a Dynamic Visual Environment: SequenceTree

    PubMed Central

    Magland, Jeremy F.; Li, Cheng; Langham, Michael C.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe SequenceTree (ST), an open source. integrated software environment for implementing MRI pulse sequences, and ideally exported them to actual MRI scanners. The software is a user-friendly alternative to vendor-supplied pulse sequence design and editing tools and is suited for non-programmers and programmers alike. Methods The integrated user interface was programmed using the Qt4/C++ toolkit. As parameters and code are modified, the pulse sequence diagram is automatically updated within the user interface. Several aspects of pulse programming are handled automatically allowing users to focus on higher-level aspects of sequence design. Sequences can be simulated using a built-in Bloch equation solver and then exported for use on a Siemens MRI scanner. Ideally other types of scanners will be supported in the future. Results The software has been used for eight years in the authors’ laboratory and elsewhere and has been utilized in more than fifty peer-reviewed publications in areas such as cardiovascular imaging, solid state and non-proton NMR, MR elastography, and high resolution structural imaging. Conclusion ST is an innovative, open source, visual pulse sequence environment for MRI combining simplicity with flexibility and is ideal for both advanced users and those with limited programming experience. PMID:25754837

  18. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  19. Coding of stimulus sequences by population responses in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Benucci, Andrea; Ringach, Dario L; Carandini, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal populations in sensory cortex represent the time-changing sensory input through a spatiotemporal code. What are the rules that govern this code? We measured membrane potentials and spikes from neuronal populations in cat visual cortex (V1), through voltage-sensitive dyes and electrode arrays. We first characterized the population response to a single orientation. As response amplitude grew, population tuning width remained constant for membrane potential responses and became progressively sharper for spike responses. We then asked how these single-orientation responses combine to code for successive orientations. We found that they combine through simple linear summation. Linearity, however, is violated after stimulus offset, when responses exhibit an unexplained persistence. Thanks to linearity, the interactions between responses to successive stimuli are minimal. We demonstrate that higher cortical areas may reconstruct the stimulus sequence from V1 population responses through a simple instantaneous decoder. In area V1, therefore, spatial and temporal coding operate largely independently. PMID:19749748

  20. Analysis and Visualization Tool for Targeted Amplicon Bisulfite Sequencing on Ion Torrent Sequencers

    PubMed Central

    Pabinger, Stephan; Ernst, Karina; Pulverer, Walter; Kallmeyer, Rainer; Valdes, Ana M.; Metrustry, Sarah; Katic, Denis; Nuzzo, Angelo; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequencing of PCR amplicons generated from bisulfite deaminated DNA is a flexible, cost-effective way to study methylation of a sample at single CpG resolution and perform subsequent multi-target, multi-sample comparisons. Currently, no platform specific protocol, support, or analysis solution is provided to perform targeted bisulfite sequencing on a Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Here, we present a novel tool, called TABSAT, for analyzing targeted bisulfite sequencing data generated on Ion Torrent sequencers. The workflow starts with raw sequencing data, performs quality assessment, and uses a tailored version of Bismark to map the reads to a reference genome. The pipeline visualizes results as lollipop plots and is able to deduce specific methylation-patterns present in a sample. The obtained profiles are then summarized and compared between samples. In order to assess the performance of the targeted bisulfite sequencing workflow, 48 samples were used to generate 53 different Bisulfite-Sequencing PCR amplicons from each sample, resulting in 2,544 amplicon targets. We obtained a mean coverage of 282X using 1,196,822 aligned reads. Next, we compared the sequencing results of these targets to the methylation level of the corresponding sites on an Illumina 450k methylation chip. The calculated average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91 confirms the sequencing results with one of the industry-leading CpG methylation platforms and shows that targeted amplicon bisulfite sequencing provides an accurate and cost-efficient method for DNA methylation studies, e.g., to provide platform-independent confirmation of Illumina Infinium 450k methylation data. TABSAT offers a novel way to analyze data generated by Ion Torrent instruments and can also be used with data from the Illumina MiSeq platform. It can be easily accessed via the Platomics platform, which offers a web-based graphical user interface along with sample and parameter storage. TABSAT is freely

  1. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  2. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  3. Visual programming for next-generation sequencing data analytics.

    PubMed

    Milicchio, Franco; Rose, Rebecca; Bian, Jiang; Min, Jae; Prosperi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput or next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have become an established and affordable experimental framework in biological and medical sciences for all basic and translational research. Processing and analyzing NGS data is challenging. NGS data are big, heterogeneous, sparse, and error prone. Although a plethora of tools for NGS data analysis has emerged in the past decade, (i) software development is still lagging behind data generation capabilities, and (ii) there is a 'cultural' gap between the end user and the developer. Generic software template libraries specifically developed for NGS can help in dealing with the former problem, whilst coupling template libraries with visual programming may help with the latter. Here we scrutinize the state-of-the-art low-level software libraries implemented specifically for NGS and graphical tools for NGS analytics. An ideal developing environment for NGS should be modular (with a native library interface), scalable in computational methods (i.e. serial, multithread, distributed), transparent (platform-independent), interoperable (with external software interface), and usable (via an intuitive graphical user interface). These characteristics should facilitate both the run of standardized NGS pipelines and the development of new workflows based on technological advancements or users' needs. We discuss in detail the potential of a computational framework blending generic template programming and visual programming that addresses all of the current limitations. In the long term, a proper, well-developed (although not necessarily unique) software framework will bridge the current gap between data generation and hypothesis testing. This will eventually facilitate the development of novel diagnostic tools embedded in routine healthcare.

  4. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  5. The amino acid sequence of wood duck lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Torikata, T

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of wood duck (Aix sponsa) lysozyme was analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had the highest similarity to duck III lysozyme with four amino acid substitutions, and had eighteen amino acid substitutions from chicken lysozyme. The valine at position 75 was newly detected in chicken-type lysozymes. In the active site, Tyr34 and Glu57 were found at subsites F and D, respectively, when compared with chicken lysozyme.

  6. Analysis and Annotation of Nucleic Acid Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    States, David J.

    2004-07-28

    The aims of this project were to develop improved methods for computational genome annotation and to apply these methods to improve the annotation of genomic sequence data with a specific focus on human genome sequencing. The project resulted in a substantial body of published work. Notable contributions of this project were the identification of basecalling and lane tracking as error processes in genome sequencing and contributions to improved methods for these steps in genome sequencing. This technology improved the accuracy and throughput of genome sequence analysis. Probabilistic methods for physical map construction were developed. Improved methods for sequence alignment, alternative splicing analysis, promoter identification and NF kappa B response gene prediction were also developed.

  7. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Cantor, Charles R.; Koster, Hubert; Smith, Cassandra L.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  8. The complete amino acid sequence of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, R E; Conroy, S C; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, L A; Tuite, M F; Dobson, M J; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase, comprising 415 residues, was determined. The sequence of residues 1-173 was deduced mainly from nucleotide sequence analysis of a series of overlapping fragments derived from the relevant portion of a 2.95-kilobase endonuclease-HindIII-digest fragment containing the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene. The sequence of residues 174-415 was deduced mainly from amino acid sequence analysis of three CNBr-cleavage fragments, and from peptides derived from these fragments after digestion by a number of proteolytic enzymes. Cleavage at the two tryptophan residues with o-iodosobenzoic acid was also used to isolate fragments suitable for amino acid sequence analysis. Determination of the complete sequence now allows a detailed interpretation of the existing high-resolution X-ray-crystallographic structure. The sequence -Ile-Ile-Gly-Gly-Gly- occurs twice in distant parts of the linear sequence (residues 232-236 and 367-371). Both these regions contribute to the nucleoside phosphate-binding site. A comparison of the sequence of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase reported here with the sequences of phosphoglycerate kinase from horse muscle and human erythrocytes shows that the yeast enzyme is 64% identical with the mammalian enzymes. The yeast has strikingly fewer methionine, cysteine and tryptophan residues. PMID:6347186

  9. Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence

    Treesearch

    Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

    2009-01-01

    Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil...

  10. Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

    2000-02-01

    Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

  11. TranslatorX: multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences guided by amino acid translations.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Zardoya, Rafael; Telford, Maximilian J

    2010-07-01

    We present TranslatorX, a web server designed to align protein-coding nucleotide sequences based on their corresponding amino acid translations. Many comparisons between biological sequences (nucleic acids and proteins) involve the construction of multiple alignments. Alignments represent a statement regarding the homology between individual nucleotides or amino acids within homologous genes. As protein-coding DNA sequences evolve as triplets of nucleotides (codons) and it is known that sequence similarity degrades more rapidly at the DNA than at the amino acid level, alignments are generally more accurate when based on amino acids than on their corresponding nucleotides. TranslatorX novelties include: (i) use of all documented genetic codes and the possibility of assigning different genetic codes for each sequence; (ii) a battery of different multiple alignment programs; (iii) translation of ambiguous codons when possible; (iv) an innovative criterion to clean nucleotide alignments with GBlocks based on protein information; and (v) a rich output, including Jalview-powered graphical visualization of the alignments, codon-based alignments coloured according to the corresponding amino acids, measures of compositional bias and first, second and third codon position specific alignments. The TranslatorX server is freely available at http://translatorx.co.uk.

  12. Amino acid sequence of mouse submaxillary gland renin.

    PubMed Central

    Misono, K S; Chang, J J; Inagami, T

    1982-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of the heavy chain and light chain of mouse submaxillary gland renin have been determined. The heavy chain consists of 288 amino acid residues having a Mr of 31,036 calculated from the sequence. The light chain contains 48 amino acid residues with a Mr of 5,458. The sequence of the heavy chain was determined by automated Edman degradations of the cyanogen bromide peptides and tryptic peptides generated after citraconylation, as well as other peptides generated therefrom. The sequence of the light chain was derived from sequence analyses of the peptides generated by cyanogen bromide cleavage or by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease. The sequences in the active site regions in renin containing two catalytically essential aspartyl residues 32 and 215 were found identical with those in pepsin, chymosin, and penicillopepsin. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of renin with that of porcine pepsin indicated a 42% sequence identity of the heavy chain with the amino-terminal and middle regions and a 46% identity of the light chain with the carboxyl-terminal region of the porcine pepsin sequence. Residues identical in renin and pepsin are distributed throughout the length of the molecules, suggesting a similarity in their overall structures. PMID:6812055

  13. Bovine testis acylphosphatase: purification and amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, L; Cappugi, G; Camici, G; Manao, G; Ramponi, G

    1993-10-01

    Two acylphosphatase molecular forms have been isolated from bovine testis. Their amino acid sequence was determined. One (ACY1) consists of 98 amino acid residues, while the other one (ACY2) consists of 100 amino acid residues. Both molecular forms are N-acetylated and differ only in the amino terminus. ACY2 has an additional Ser-Met tail with respect to ACY1. Both ACY1 and ACY2 are organ-common type isoenzymes and thus differ for about half of the amino acid positions from the previously sequenced bovine muscle isoenzyme.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Evaluating the Visual Quality of Processed Digital Video Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A Digital Video Quality (DVQ) apparatus and method that incorporate a model of human visual sensitivity to predict the visibility of artifacts. The DVQ method and apparatus are used for the evaluation of the visual quality of processed digital video sequences and for adaptively controlling the bit rate of the processed digital video sequences without compromising the visual quality. The DVQ apparatus minimizes the required amount of memory and computation. The input to the DVQ apparatus is a pair of color image sequences: an original (R) non-compressed sequence, and a processed (T) sequence. Both sequences (R) and (T) are sampled, cropped, and subjected to color transformations. The sequences are then subjected to blocking and discrete cosine transformation, and the results are transformed to local contrast. The next step is a time filtering operation which implements the human sensitivity to different time frequencies. The results are converted to threshold units by dividing each discrete cosine transform coefficient by its respective visual threshold. At the next stage the two sequences are subtracted to produce an error sequence. The error sequence is subjected to a contrast masking operation, which also depends upon the reference sequence (R). The masked errors can be pooled in various ways to illustrate the perceptual error over various dimensions, and the pooled error can be converted to a visual quality measure.

  15. Artemis: an integrated platform for visualization and analysis of high-throughput sequence-based experimental data.

    PubMed

    Carver, Tim; Harris, Simon R; Berriman, Matthew; Parkhill, Julian; McQuillan, Jacqueline A

    2012-02-15

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have made low-cost sequencing of large numbers of samples commonplace. An explosion in the type, not just number, of sequencing experiments has also taken place including genome re-sequencing, population-scale variation detection, whole transcriptome sequencing and genome-wide analysis of protein-bound nucleic acids. We present Artemis as a tool for integrated visualization and computational analysis of different types of HTS datasets in the context of a reference genome and its corresponding annotation. Artemis is freely available (under a GPL licence) for download (for MacOSX, UNIX and Windows) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute websites: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/software/artemis/.

  16. Agarose gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for visualization of simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James; Wright, Drew; Meksem, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In the modern age of genetic research there is a constant search for ways to improve the efficiency of plant selection. The most recent technology that can result in a highly efficient means of selection and still be done at a low cost is through plant selection directed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites). The molecular markers are used to select for certain desirable plant traits without relying on ambiguous phenotypic data. The best way to detect these is the use of gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is a common technique in laboratory settings which is used to separate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) by size. Loading DNA and RNA onto gels allows for visualization of the size of fragments through the separation of DNA and RNA fragments. This is achieved through the use of the charge in the particles. As the fragments separate, they form into distinct bands at set sizes. We describe the ability to visualize SSRs on slab gels of agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  17. Local Redundancy Governs Infants' Spontaneous Orienting to Visual-Temporal Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addyman, Caspar; Mareschal, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that 5-month-olds are sensitive to local redundancy in visual-temporal sequences. In Experiment 1, 20 infants saw 2 separate sequences of looming colored shapes that possessed the same elements but contrasting transitional probabilities. One sequence was random whereas the other was based on bigrams. Without any prior…

  18. Amino Acid Sequence of Human Cholinesterase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    liquid chromatography (HPLC). Activity testing of the aged, DFP-labeled cholinesterase showed that 99.8% of the active sites had been labeled, since...acids were quantitated by ninhydrin at the AAA Labs, or by derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate at the University of Michigan. The latter method

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid and visual functioning in preterm infants: a review.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Carly; Doyle, Lex W; Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Preterm children are at risk for a number of visual impairments which can be important for a range of other more complex visuocognitive tasks reliant on visual information. Despite the relatively high incidence of visual impairments in this group there are no good predictors that would allow early identification of those at risk for adverse outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation for preterm infants may improve outcomes in this area. For example, diets deficient in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA have been shown to reduce its concentration in the cerebral cortex and retina, which interferes with physiological processes important for cognition and visual functioning. Further, various studies with pregnant and lactating women, as well as formula-fed infants, have demonstrated a general trend that supplementation with dietary DHA is associated with better childhood outcomes on tests of visual and cognitive development over the first year of life. However, research to date has several methodological limitations, including concentrations of DHA supplementation that have been too low to emulate the in utero accretion of DHA, using single measures of visual acuity to make generalised assumptions about the entire visual system, and little attempt to match what we know about inadequate DHA and structural ramifications with how specific functions may be affected. The objective of this review is to consider the role of DHA in the context of visual processing with a specific emphasis on preterm infants and to illustrate how future research may benefit from marrying what we know about structural consequences to inadequate DHA with functional outcomes that likely have far-reaching ramifications. Factors worth considering for clinical neuropsychological evaluation are also discussed.

  20. Cystatin. Amino acid sequence and possible secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, C; Anastasi, A; Crow, H; McDonald, J K; Barrett, A J

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of cystatin, the protein from chicken egg-white that is a tight-binding inhibitor of many cysteine proteinases, is reported. Cystatin is composed of 116 amino acid residues, and the Mr is calculated to be 13 143. No striking similarity to any other known sequence has been detected. The results of computer analysis of the sequence and c.d. spectrometry indicate that the secondary structure includes relatively little alpha-helix (about 20%) and that the remainder is mainly beta-structure. PMID:6712597

  1. Mouse Vk gene classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Strohal, R; Helmberg, A; Kroemer, G; Kofler, R

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region gene usage in the immune response, estimates of V gene germline complexity, and other nucleic acid hybridization-based studies depend on the extent to which such genes are related (i.e., sequence similarity) and their organization in gene families. While mouse Igh heavy chain V region (VH) gene families are relatively well-established, a corresponding systematic classification of Igk light chain V region (Vk) genes has not been reported. The present analysis, in the course of which we reviewed the known extent of the Vk germline gene repertoire and Vk gene usage in a variety of responses to foreign and self antigens, provides a classification of mouse Vk genes in gene families composed of members with greater than 80% overall nucleic acid sequence similarity. This classification differed in several aspects from that of VH genes: only some Vk gene families were as clearly separated (by greater than 25% sequence dissimilarity) as typical VH gene families; most Vk gene families were closely related and, in several instances, members from different families were very similar (greater than 80%) over large sequence portions; frequently, classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity diverged from existing classifications based on amino-terminal protein sequence similarity. Our data have implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and describe potentially important differences in sequence organization between VH and Vk genes.

  2. Amino acid sequence of toxin III from Anemonia sulcata.

    PubMed

    Bĕress, L; Wunderer, G; Wachter, E

    1977-08-01

    Toxin III, the smallest toxin component of the poison of the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata, is a polypeptide with 27 amino acids. Its structure is stabilized by three disulfide bridges. The amino acid sequence was determined by solid-phase Edman degradation of the aminoethylated derivative. The peptide was coupled to the carrier, porous glass, by thiourea bridges between the alpha-amino group of arginine-1 and the epsilon-amino group of lysine-26 and the isothiocyanate groups of the carrier. Another fraction of the polypeptide was bound by an acid-amide condensation of the C-terminal valine-27 with the aminopropyl group of the carrier. The sequence of toxin III has no regions homologous to the 47-residue toxin II. Comparison with the known partial sequence of toxin I, which contains 46 amino acids (Wunderer, G. & Eulitz, M., in preparation) also fails to reveal homologies.

  3. A Java applet for multiple linked visualization of protein structure and sequence.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    The amount of biological data available from experimental techniques is huge, and rapidly expanding. The ability to make sense of this vast amount of data requires that we make correlations between distinct biological disciplines using visualization techniques to highlight the critical information. This article describes the visualization techniques of dynamic data brushing, view context maintenance, fisheye sequence view, and a magic lens that have been developed to display protein structure and sequence information.

  4. Visual Perceptual Echo Reflects Learning of Regularities in Rapid Luminance Sequences.

    PubMed

    Chang, Acer Y-C; Schwartzman, David J; VanRullen, Rufin; Kanai, Ryota; Seth, Anil K

    2017-08-30

    A novel neural signature of active visual processing has recently been described in the form of the "perceptual echo", in which the cross-correlation between a sequence of randomly fluctuating luminance values and occipital electrophysiological signals exhibits a long-lasting periodic (∼100 ms cycle) reverberation of the input stimulus (VanRullen and Macdonald, 2012). As yet, however, the mechanisms underlying the perceptual echo and its function remain unknown. Reasoning that natural visual signals often contain temporally predictable, though nonperiodic features, we hypothesized that the perceptual echo may reflect a periodic process associated with regularity learning. To test this hypothesis, we presented subjects with successive repetitions of a rapid nonperiodic luminance sequence, and examined the effects on the perceptual echo, finding that echo amplitude linearly increased with the number of presentations of a given luminance sequence. These data suggest that the perceptual echo reflects a neural signature of regularity learning.Furthermore, when a set of repeated sequences was followed by a sequence with inverted luminance polarities, the echo amplitude decreased to the same level evoked by a novel stimulus sequence. Crucially, when the original stimulus sequence was re-presented, the echo amplitude returned to a level consistent with the number of presentations of this sequence, indicating that the visual system retained sequence-specific information, for many seconds, even in the presence of intervening visual input. Altogether, our results reveal a previously undiscovered regularity learning mechanism within the human visual system, reflected by the perceptual echo.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the brain encodes and learns fast-changing but nonperiodic visual input remains unknown, even though such visual input characterizes natural scenes. We investigated whether the phenomenon of "perceptual echo" might index such learning. The perceptual echo is a

  5. Amino acid sequence repertoire of the bacterial proteome and the occurrence of untranslatable sequences

    PubMed Central

    Navon, Sharon Penias; Kornberg, Guy; Chen, Jin; Schwartzman, Tali; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Adir, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatic analysis of Escherichia coli proteomes revealed that all possible amino acid triplet sequences occur at their expected frequencies, with four exceptions. Two of the four underrepresented sequences (URSs) were shown to interfere with translation in vivo and in vitro. Enlarging the URS by a single amino acid resulted in increased translational inhibition. Single-molecule methods revealed stalling of translation at the entrance of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, adjacent to ribosomal nucleotides A2062 and U2585. Interaction with these same ribosomal residues is involved in regulation of translation by longer, naturally occurring protein sequences. The E. coli exit tunnel has evidently evolved to minimize interaction with the exit tunnel and maximize the sequence diversity of the proteome, although allowing some interactions for regulatory purposes. Bioinformatic analysis of the human proteome revealed no underrepresented triplet sequences, possibly reflecting an absence of regulation by interaction with the exit tunnel. PMID:27307442

  6. Amino acid sequence repertoire of the bacterial proteome and the occurrence of untranslatable sequences.

    PubMed

    Navon, Sharon Penias; Kornberg, Guy; Chen, Jin; Schwartzman, Tali; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Puglisi, Joseph D; Adir, Noam

    2016-06-28

    Bioinformatic analysis of Escherichia coli proteomes revealed that all possible amino acid triplet sequences occur at their expected frequencies, with four exceptions. Two of the four underrepresented sequences (URSs) were shown to interfere with translation in vivo and in vitro. Enlarging the URS by a single amino acid resulted in increased translational inhibition. Single-molecule methods revealed stalling of translation at the entrance of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, adjacent to ribosomal nucleotides A2062 and U2585. Interaction with these same ribosomal residues is involved in regulation of translation by longer, naturally occurring protein sequences. The E. coli exit tunnel has evidently evolved to minimize interaction with the exit tunnel and maximize the sequence diversity of the proteome, although allowing some interactions for regulatory purposes. Bioinformatic analysis of the human proteome revealed no underrepresented triplet sequences, possibly reflecting an absence of regulation by interaction with the exit tunnel.

  7. Timing of Visual Bodily Behavior in Repair Sequences: Evidence from Three Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Simeon; Manrique, Elizabeth; Rossi, Giovanni; Torreira, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This article expands the study of other-initiated repair in conversation--when one party signals a problem with producing or perceiving another's turn at talk--into the domain of visual bodily behavior. It presents one primary cross-linguistic finding about the timing of visual bodily behavior in repair sequences: if the party who initiates repair…

  8. Performing Movement Sequences with Knowledge of Results under Different Visual Conditions in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Van Gyn, Geraldine

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the learning of movement sequences in 10 adults with Down syndrome (DS) under two visual information conditions. Although DS individuals were significantly slower than neurologically typical participants, mean reaction and movement times were not affected by the visual information condition in either group. DS individuals…

  9. Timing of Visual Bodily Behavior in Repair Sequences: Evidence from Three Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Simeon; Manrique, Elizabeth; Rossi, Giovanni; Torreira, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This article expands the study of other-initiated repair in conversation--when one party signals a problem with producing or perceiving another's turn at talk--into the domain of visual bodily behavior. It presents one primary cross-linguistic finding about the timing of visual bodily behavior in repair sequences: if the party who initiates repair…

  10. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona.

    PubMed

    Alves, S F; Lefebvre, R B; Probert, W

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  11. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.

  12. Amino acid sequence of porcine spleen cathepsin D.

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, J G; Tang, J

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of porcine spleen cathepsin D heavy chain has been determined and, hence, the complete structure of this enzyme is now known. The sequence of heavy chain was constructed by aligning the structures of peptides generated by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, and endo-proteinase Lys C cleavages. The structure of the light chain has been published previously. The cathepsin D molecule contains 339 amino acid residues in two polypeptide chains: a 97-residue light chain and a 242-residue heavy chain, with a combined Mr of 36,779 (without carbohydrate). There are two carbohydrate units linked to asparagine residues 70 and 192. The disulfide bond arrangement in cathepsin D is probably similar to that of pepsin, because the positions of six half-cystine residues are conserved. The active site aspartyl residues, corresponding to aspartic acid-32 and -215 of pepsin, are located at residues 33 and 224 in the cathepsin D molecule. The amino acid sequence around these aspartyl residues is strongly conserved. Cathepsin D shows a strong homology with other acid proteases. When the sequence of cathepsin D, renin, and pepsin are aligned, 32.7% of the residues are identical. The homology is observed throughout the length of the molecules, indicating that three-dimensional structures of all three molecules are similar. PMID:6587385

  13. Visualizing and quantitating sequence-dependent GPCR recycling.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Shanna L; Soohoo, Amanda L; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in direct imaging have given us a new appreciation of the spatial and temporal dynamics of membrane trafficking processes, and have allowed us to ask questions that were difficult to address with traditional methods. A relevant example of this is protein sorting in the endosome, which serves as the primary sorting station for proteins internalized from the cell surface. In this chapter, we discuss fluorescence imaging protocols to directly visualize and quantitate the recycling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-a highly physiologically relevant family of signaling receptors-in real time in living cells. The protocols allow direct visualization and quantitation of both GPCR exit from the endosome and GPCR delivery to the cell surface. The methods may be extended to study the endolysosomal sorting of many proteins that undergoes endocytic cycling, and may be adapted to other organelles and systems where proteins are sorted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  15. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  16. Visualization and enumeration of bacteria carrying a specific gene sequence by in situ rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Fumito; Kenzaka, Takehiko; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Tani, Katsuji; Nasu, Masao

    2005-12-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates large single-stranded and tandem repeats of target DNA as amplicons. This technique was applied to in situ nucleic acid amplification (in situ RCA) to visualize and count single Escherichia coli cells carrying a specific gene sequence. The method features (i) one short target sequence (35 to 39 bp) that allows specific detection; (ii) maintaining constant fluorescent intensity of positive cells permeabilized extensively after amplicon detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization, which facilitates the detection of target bacteria in various physiological states; and (iii) reliable enumeration of target bacteria by concentration on a gelatin-coated membrane filter. To test our approach, the presence of the following genes were visualized by in situ RCA: green fluorescent protein gene, the ampicillin resistance gene and the replication origin region on multicopy pUC19 plasmid, as well as the single-copy Shiga-like toxin gene on chromosomes inside E. coli cells. Fluorescent antibody staining after in situ RCA also simultaneously identified cells harboring target genes and determined the specificity of in situ RCA. E. coli cells in a nonculturable state from a prolonged incubation were periodically sampled and used for plasmid uptake study. The numbers of cells taking up plasmids determined by in situ RCA was up to 10(6)-fold higher than that measured by selective plating. In addition, in situ RCA allowed the detection of cells taking up plasmids even when colony-forming cells were not detected during the incubation period. By optimizing the cell permeabilization condition for in situ RCA, this method can become a valuable tool for studying free DNA uptake, especially in nonculturable bacteria.

  17. Amino acid sequences of bacterial cytochromes c' and c-556.

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R P; Bartsch, R G; Daniel, M; Kamen, M D; McLellan, L; Meyer, T E; Van Beeumen, J

    1981-01-01

    The cytochrome c' are electron transport proteins widely distributed in photosynthetic and aerobic bacteria. We report the amino acid sequences of the proteins from 12 different bacterial species, and we show by sequences that the cytochromes c-556 from 2 different bacteria are structurally related to the cytochromes c'. Unlike the mitochondrial cytochromes c, the heme binding site in the cytochromes c' and c-556 is near the COOH terminus. The cytochromes c-556 probably have a methionine sixth heme ligand located near the NH2 terminus, whereas the cytochromes c' may be pentacoordinate. Quantitative comparison of cytochrome c' and c-556 sequences indicates a relatively low 28% average identity. PMID:6273892

  18. Phylo-VISTA: An Interactive Visualization Tool for Multiple DNA Sequence Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.; Brudno, Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bethel, E. Wes; Rubin, Edward M.; Hamann, Bernd; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-04-01

    We have developed Phylo-VISTA (Shah et al., 2003), an interactive software tool for analyzing multiple alignments by visualizing a similarity measure for DNA sequences of multiple species. The complexity of visual presentation is effectively organized using a framework based upon inter-species phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic organization supports rapid, user-guided inter-species comparison. To aid in navigation through large sequence datasets, Phylo-VISTA provides a user with the ability to select and view data at varying resolutions. The combination of multi-resolution data visualization and analysis, combined with the phylogenetic framework for inter-species comparison, produces a highly flexible and powerful tool for visual data analysis of multiple sequence alignments.

  19. Integrated visual analysis of protein structures, sequences, and feature data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To understand the molecular mechanisms that give rise to a protein's function, biologists often need to (i) find and access all related atomic-resolution 3D structures, and (ii) map sequence-based features (e.g., domains, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, post-translational modifications) onto these structures. Results To streamline these processes we recently developed Aquaria, a resource offering unprecedented access to protein structure information based on an all-against-all comparison of SwissProt and PDB sequences. In this work, we provide a requirements analysis for several frequently occuring tasks in molecular biology and describe how design choices in Aquaria meet these requirements. Finally, we show how the interface can be used to explore features of a protein and gain biologically meaningful insights in two case studies conducted by domain experts. Conclusions The user interface design of Aquaria enables biologists to gain unprecedented access to molecular structures and simplifies the generation of insight. The tasks involved in mapping sequence features onto structures can be conducted easier and faster using Aquaria. PMID:26329268

  20. Active site amino acid sequence of human factor D.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E

    1980-08-01

    Factor D was isolated from human plasma by chromatography on CM-Sephadex C50, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite. Digestion of reduced, S-carboxymethylated factor D with cyanogen bromide resulted in three peptides which were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex G-75 (superfine) equilibrated in 20% formic acid. NH2-Terminal sequences were determined by automated Edman degradation with a Beckman 890C sequencer using a 0.1 M Quadrol program. The smallest peptide (CNBr III) consisted of the NH2-terminal 14 amino acids. The other two peptides had molecular weights of 17,000 (CNBr I) and 7000 (CNBr II). Overlap of the NH2-terminal sequence of factor D with the NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr I established the order of the peptides. The NH2-terminal 53 residues of factor D are somewhat more homologous with the group-specific protease of rat intestine than with other serine proteases. The NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr II revealed the active site serine of factor D. The typical serine protease active site sequence (Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly-Gly-Pro was found at residues 12-17. The region surrounding the active site serine does not appear to be more highly homologous with any one of the other serine proteases. The structural data obtained point out the similarities between factor D and the other proteases. However, complete definition of the degree of relationship between factor D and other proteases will require determination of the remainder of the primary structure.

  1. Hearing what the eyes see: auditory encoding of visual temporal sequences.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Sharon E; Gilroy, Lee A; Blake, Randolph

    2005-03-01

    When the senses deliver conflicting information, vision dominates spatial processing, and audition dominates temporal processing. We asked whether this sensory specialization results in cross-modal encoding of unisensory input into the task-appropriate modality. Specifically, we investigated whether visually portrayed temporal structure receives automatic, obligatory encoding in the auditory domain. In three experiments, observers judged whether the changes in two successive visual sequences followed the same or different rhythms. We assessed temporal representations by measuring the extent to which both task-irrelevant auditory information and task-irrelevant visual information interfered with rhythm discrimination. Incongruent auditory information significantly disrupted task performance, particularly when presented during encoding; by contrast, varying the nature of the rhythm-depicting visual changes had minimal impact on performance. Evidently, the perceptual system automatically and obligatorily abstracts temporal structure from its visual form and represents this structure using an auditory code, resulting in the experience of "hearing visual rhythms."

  2. The amino acid sequence of iguana (Iguana iguana) pancreatic ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Beintema, J J; Hofsteenge, J

    1994-01-15

    The pyrimidine-specific ribonuclease superfamily constitutes a group of homologous proteins so far found only in higher vertebrates. Four separate families are found in mammals, which have resulted from gene duplications in mammalian ancestors. To learn more about the evolutionary history of this superfamily, the primary structure and other characteristics of the pancreatic enzyme from iguana (Iguana iguana), a herbivorous lizard species belonging to the reptiles, have been determined. The polypeptide chain consists of 119 amino acid residues. The positions of insertions and deletions in the sequence are identical to those in the enzyme from snapping turtle. However, the two enzymes differ at 54% of the amino acid positions. Iguana ribonuclease contains no carbohydrate, although the enzyme possesses three recognition sites for carbohydrate attachment, and has a high number of acidic residues in a localized part of the sequence.

  3. DEEP MOTIF DASHBOARD: VISUALIZING AND UNDERSTANDING GENOMIC SEQUENCES USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORKS.

    PubMed

    Lanchantin, Jack; Singh, Ritambhara; Wang, Beilun; Qi, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    Deep neural network (DNN) models have recently obtained state-of-the-art prediction accuracy for the transcription factor binding (TFBS) site classification task. However, it remains unclear how these approaches identify meaningful DNA sequence signals and give insights as to why TFs bind to certain locations. In this paper, we propose a toolkit called the Deep Motif Dashboard (DeMo Dashboard) which provides a suite of visualization strategies to extract motifs, or sequence patterns from deep neural network models for TFBS classification. We demonstrate how to visualize and understand three important DNN models: convolutional, recurrent, and convolutional-recurrent networks. Our first visualization method is finding a test sequence's saliency map which uses first-order derivatives to describe the importance of each nucleotide in making the final prediction. Second, considering recurrent models make predictions in a temporal manner (from one end of a TFBS sequence to the other), we introduce temporal output scores, indicating the prediction score of a model over time for a sequential input. Lastly, a class-specific visualization strategy finds the optimal input sequence for a given TFBS positive class via stochastic gradient optimization. Our experimental results indicate that a convolutional-recurrent architecture performs the best among the three architectures. The visualization techniques indicate that CNN-RNN makes predictions by modeling both motifs as well as dependencies among them.

  4. Diagnostic exome sequencing in 266 Dutch patients with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy Ag; Pfundt, Rolph; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; Klaver, Caroline Cw; Verheij, Joke Bgm; Hoyng, Carel B; Breuning, Martijn H; Boon, Camiel Jf; Kievit, Anneke J; Verhoeven, Virginie Jm; Pott, Jan Wr; Sallevelt, Suzanne Ceh; van Hagen, Johanna M; Plomp, Astrid S; Kroes, Hester Y; Lelieveld, Stefan H; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Castelein, Steven; Nelen, Marcel; Scheffer, Hans; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Cremers, Frans Pm; Hoefsloot, Lies; Yntema, Helger G

    2017-02-22

    Inherited eye disorders have a large clinical and genetic heterogeneity, which makes genetic diagnosis cumbersome. An exome-sequencing approach was developed in which data analysis was divided into two steps: the vision gene panel and exome analysis. In the vision gene panel analysis, variants in genes known to cause inherited eye disorders were assessed for pathogenicity. If no causative variants were detected and when the patient consented, the entire exome data was analyzed. A total of 266 Dutch patients with different types of inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal dystrophies, cataract, developmental eye disorders and optic atrophy, were investigated. In the vision gene panel analysis (likely), causative variants were detected in 49% and in the exome analysis in an additional 2% of the patients. The highest detection rate of (likely) causative variants was in patients with inherited retinal dystrophies, for instance a yield of 63% in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. In patients with developmental eye defects, cataract and optic atrophy, the detection rate was 50, 33 and 17%, respectively. An exome-sequencing approach enables a genetic diagnosis in patients with different types of inherited eye disorders using one test. The exome approach has the same detection rate as targeted panel sequencing tests, but offers a number of advantages. For instance, the vision gene panel can be frequently and easily updated with additional (novel) eye disorder genes. Determination of the genetic diagnosis improved the clinical diagnosis, regarding the assessment of the inheritance pattern as well as future disease perspective.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.9.

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of temporal flow sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cruyningen, I.; Lozano, A.; Mungal, M. G.; Hanson, R. K.

    1991-03-01

    An account is given of a method for the generation of single three-dimensional views which accentuate the temporal correlations of temporally evolving two-dimensional data sets, thereby facilitating accurate interpretation. An improved volume-element-rendering algorithm is used to reduce data volumes on a PIXAR Image Computer; the algorithm operates on slices through the data volume, with the light source direction and observation direction initially selected. Attention is given to the illustrative case of a sequence of cinema frames of a forced jet.

  6. PISMA: A Visual Representation of Motif Distribution in DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara-Silva, Rogelio; Alvarado-Hermida, Moisés; Díaz-Contreras, Gibrán; Sánchez-Barrios, Martha; Carrera, Samantha; Galván, Silvia Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Because the graphical presentation and analysis of motif distribution can provide insights for experimental hypothesis, PISMA aims at identifying motifs on DNA sequences, counting and showing them graphically. The motif length ranges from 2 to 10 bases, and the DNA sequences range up to 10 kb. The motif distribution is shown as a bar-code–like, as a gene-map–like, and as a transcript scheme. Results: We obtained graphical schemes of the CpG site distribution from 91 human papillomavirus genomes. Also, we present 2 analyses: one of DNA motifs associated with either methylation-resistant or methylation-sensitive CpG islands and another analysis of motifs associated with exosome RNA secretion. Availability and Implementation: PISMA is developed in Java; it is executable in any type of hardware and in diverse operating systems. PISMA is freely available to noncommercial users. The English version and the User Manual are provided in Supplementary Files 1 and 2, and a Spanish version is available at www.biomedicas.unam.mx/wp-content/software/pisma.zip and www.biomedicas.unam.mx/wp-content/pdf/manual/pisma.pdf. PMID:28469418

  7. PISMA: A Visual Representation of Motif Distribution in DNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Silva, Rogelio; Alvarado-Hermida, Moisés; Díaz-Contreras, Gibrán; Sánchez-Barrios, Martha; Carrera, Samantha; Galván, Silvia Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Because the graphical presentation and analysis of motif distribution can provide insights for experimental hypothesis, PISMA aims at identifying motifs on DNA sequences, counting and showing them graphically. The motif length ranges from 2 to 10 bases, and the DNA sequences range up to 10 kb. The motif distribution is shown as a bar-code-like, as a gene-map-like, and as a transcript scheme. We obtained graphical schemes of the CpG site distribution from 91 human papillomavirus genomes. Also, we present 2 analyses: one of DNA motifs associated with either methylation-resistant or methylation-sensitive CpG islands and another analysis of motifs associated with exosome RNA secretion. PISMA is developed in Java; it is executable in any type of hardware and in diverse operating systems. PISMA is freely available to noncommercial users. The English version and the User Manual are provided in Supplementary Files 1 and 2, and a Spanish version is available at www.biomedicas.unam.mx/wp-content/software/pisma.zip and www.biomedicas.unam.mx/wp-content/pdf/manual/pisma.pdf.

  8. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking. PMID:27199737

  9. Amino acid sequence of bovine gamma E (IVa) lens crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Kilby, G. W.; Sheil, M. M.; Shaw, D.; Harding, J. J.; Truscott, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    When electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS) was used to analyze purified bovine gamma E (gamma IVa)-crystallin, it yielded a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 20.955 +/- 5. This mass is significantly different from that calculated from the published sequence (M(r) 20.894) (White HE et al., 1989, J Mol Biol 207:217-235). Further, ES-MS analysis of the protein after it had been reduced and carboxymethylated indicated the presence of five cysteine residues, whereas the published sequence contains six (Kilby GW et al., 1995, Eur Mass Spectrom 1:203-208). The entire protein sequence of gamma E crystallin has therefore been studied via a combination of ES-MS, ES-MS/MS, and Edman amino acid sequencing. The corrected sequence gives an M(r) of 20.955.3, which matches that obtained by ES-MS analysis of the purified native protein. The corrected sequence is also in agreement with a recent cDNA sequence obtained for a bovine gamma-crystallin by R. Hay (pers. comm.). PMID:9098901

  10. Amino acid sequence of bovine gamma E (IVa) lens crystallin.

    PubMed

    Kilby, G W; Sheil, M M; Shaw, D; Harding, J J; Truscott, R J

    1997-04-01

    When electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS) was used to analyze purified bovine gamma E (gamma IVa)-crystallin, it yielded a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 20.955 +/- 5. This mass is significantly different from that calculated from the published sequence (M(r) 20.894) (White HE et al., 1989, J Mol Biol 207:217-235). Further, ES-MS analysis of the protein after it had been reduced and carboxymethylated indicated the presence of five cysteine residues, whereas the published sequence contains six (Kilby GW et al., 1995, Eur Mass Spectrom 1:203-208). The entire protein sequence of gamma E crystallin has therefore been studied via a combination of ES-MS, ES-MS/MS, and Edman amino acid sequencing. The corrected sequence gives an M(r) of 20.955.3, which matches that obtained by ES-MS analysis of the purified native protein. The corrected sequence is also in agreement with a recent cDNA sequence obtained for a bovine gamma-crystallin by R. Hay (pers. comm.).

  11. Amino acid sequence and comparative antigenicity of chicken metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Fullmer, C S; Garvey, J S

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of metallothionein (MT) from chicken liver is reported. The primary structure was determined by automated sequence analysis of peptides produced by limited acid hydrolysis and by trypsin digestion. The comparative antigenicity of chicken MT was determined by radioimmunoassay using rabbit anti-rat MT polyclonal antibody. Chicken MT consists of 63 amino acids as compared to 61 found in MTs from mammals. One insertion (and two substitutions) occurs in the amino-terminal region, a region considered invariant among mammalian MTs. Eighteen of the 20 cysteines in chicken MT were aligned with cysteines from other mammalian sequences. Two cysteines near the carboxyl terminus are shifted by one residue due to the insertion of proline in that region. Overall, the chicken protein showed approximately equal to 68% sequence identity in a comparison with various mammalian MTs. The affinity of the polyclonal antibody for chicken MT was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to that of a mammalian MT (rat MT isoforms). This reduced affinity is attributed to major substitutions in chicken MT in the regions of the principal determinants of mammalian MTs. Theoretical analysis of the primary structure predicted the secondary structure to consist of reverse turns and random coils with no stable beta or helix conformations. There is no evidence that chicken MT differs functionally from mammalian MTs. PMID:2448773

  12. Amino acid sequence of bovine heart coupling factor 6.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, J K; Jacobs, J W; Kanner, B I; Racker, E; Bradshaw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of bovine heart mitochondrial coupling factor 6 (F6) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the whole protein and derived peptides. Preparations based on heat precipitation and ethanol extraction showed allotypic variation at three positions while material further purified by HPLC yielded only one sequence that also differed by a Phe-Thr replacement at residue 62. The mature protein contains 76 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 9006 and a pI of approximately equal to 5, in good agreement with experimentally measured values. The charged amino acids are mainly clustered at the termini and in one section in the middle; these three polar segments are separated by two segments relatively rich in nonpolar residues. Chou-Fasman analysis suggests three stretches of alpha-helix coinciding (or within) the high-charge-density sequences with a single beta-turn at the first polar-nonpolar junction. Comparison of the F6 sequence with those of other proteins did not reveal any homologous structures. PMID:6149548

  13. Constrained Multistate Sequence Design for Nucleic Acid Reaction Pathway Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Brian R; Porubsky, Nicholas J; Zadeh, Joseph N; Dirks, Robert M; Pierce, Niles A

    2017-03-01

    We describe a framework for designing the sequences of multiple nucleic acid strands intended to hybridize in solution via a prescribed reaction pathway. Sequence design is formulated as a multistate optimization problem using a set of target test tubes to represent reactant, intermediate, and product states of the system, as well as to model crosstalk between components. Each target test tube contains a set of desired "on-target" complexes, each with a target secondary structure and target concentration, and a set of undesired "off-target" complexes, each with vanishing target concentration. Optimization of the equilibrium ensemble properties of the target test tubes implements both a positive design paradigm, explicitly designing for on-pathway elementary steps, and a negative design paradigm, explicitly designing against off-pathway crosstalk. Sequence design is performed subject to diverse user-specified sequence constraints including composition constraints, complementarity constraints, pattern prevention constraints, and biological constraints. Constrained multistate sequence design facilitates nucleic acid reaction pathway engineering for diverse applications in molecular programming and synthetic biology. Design jobs can be run online via the NUPACK web application.

  14. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  15. SinicView: a visualization environment for comparisons of multiple nucleotide sequence alignment tools.

    PubMed

    Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Lee, D T; Lin, Laurent; Peng, Chin-Lin; Chen, Shiang-Heng; Wu, Yu-Wei; Wong, Chun-Yi; Chou, Meng-Yuan; Shiao, Tze-Chang; Hsieh, Mu-Fen

    2006-03-02

    Deluged by the rate and complexity of completed genomic sequences, the need to align longer sequences becomes more urgent, and many more tools have thus been developed. In the initial stage of genomic sequence analysis, a biologist is usually faced with the questions of how to choose the best tool to align sequences of interest and how to analyze and visualize the alignment results, and then with the question of whether poorly aligned regions produced by the tool are indeed not homologous or are just results due to inappropriate alignment tools or scoring systems used. Although several systematic evaluations of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) programs have been proposed, they may not provide a standard-bearer for most biologists because those poorly aligned regions in these evaluations are never discussed. Thus, a tool that allows cross comparison of the alignment results obtained by different tools simultaneously could help a biologist evaluate their correctness and accuracy. In this paper, we present a versatile alignment visualization system, called SinicView, (for Sequence-aligning INnovative and Interactive Comparison VIEWer), which allows the user to efficiently compare and evaluate assorted nucleotide alignment results obtained by different tools. SinicView calculates similarity of the alignment outputs under a fixed window using the sum-of-pairs method and provides scoring profiles of each set of aligned sequences. The user can visually compare alignment results either in graphic scoring profiles or in plain text format of the aligned nucleotides along with the annotations information. We illustrate the capabilities of our visualization system by comparing alignment results obtained by MLAGAN, MAVID, and MULTIZ, respectively. With SinicView, users can use their own data sequences to compare various alignment tools or scoring systems and select the most suitable one to perform alignment in the initial stage of sequence analysis.

  16. EventThread: Visual Summarization and Stage Analysis of Event Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shunan; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Rongwen; Gotz, David; Zha, Hongyuan; Cao, Nan

    2017-08-29

    Event sequence data such as electronic health records, a person's academic records, or car service records, are ordered series of events which have occurred over a period of time. Analyzing collections of event sequences can reveal common or semantically important sequential patterns. For example, event sequence analysis might reveal frequently used care plans for treating a disease, typical publishing patterns of professors, and the patterns of service that result in a well-maintained car. It is challenging, however, to visually explore large numbers of event sequences, or sequences with large numbers of event types. Existing methods focus on extracting explicitly matching patterns of events using statistical analysis to create stages of event progression over time. However, these methods fail to capture latent clusters of similar but not identical evolutions of event sequences. In this paper, we introduce a novel visualization system named EventThread which clusters event sequences into threads based on tensor analysis and visualizes the latent stage categories and evolution patterns by interactively grouping the threads by similarity into time-specific clusters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of EventThread through usage scenarios in three different application domains and via interviews with an expert user.

  17. Nanopores and nucleic acids: prospects for ultrarapid sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.; Akeson, M.

    2000-01-01

    DNA and RNA molecules can be detected as they are driven through a nanopore by an applied electric field at rates ranging from several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds per molecule. The nanopore can rapidly discriminate between pyrimidine and purine segments along a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. Nanopore detection and characterization of single molecules represents a new method for directly reading information encoded in linear polymers. If single-nucleotide resolution can be achieved, it is possible that nucleic acid sequences can be determined at rates exceeding a thousand bases per second.

  18. Nanopores and nucleic acids: prospects for ultrarapid sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.; Akeson, M.

    2000-01-01

    DNA and RNA molecules can be detected as they are driven through a nanopore by an applied electric field at rates ranging from several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds per molecule. The nanopore can rapidly discriminate between pyrimidine and purine segments along a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. Nanopore detection and characterization of single molecules represents a new method for directly reading information encoded in linear polymers. If single-nucleotide resolution can be achieved, it is possible that nucleic acid sequences can be determined at rates exceeding a thousand bases per second.

  19. Nanopore-based sequencing and detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Gao, Rui; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-12-09

    Nanopore-based techniques, which mimic the functions of natural ion channels, have attracted increasing attention as unique methods for single-molecule detection. The technology allows the real-time, selective, high-throughput analysis of nucleic acids through both biological and solid-state nanopores. In this Minireview, the background and latest progress in nanopore-based sequencing and detection of nucleic acids are summarized, and light is shed on a novel platform for nanopore-based detection. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of cervicitis on visual inspection with acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Davis-Dao, Carol A; Cremer, Miriam; Felix, Juan; Cortessis, Victoria K

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of cervicitis influenced the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). In a pilot study, 502 women from rural El Salvador were screened for cervical cancer using methods including colposcopy and VIA. The presence of cervicitis was assessed by grading the amount of inflammation on each woman's cervical biopsy. Data from 495 women found to be free of cervical neoplasia were analyzed for the present study. In this study population, 74% of women were classified as having cervicitis. Both the result of visual inspection and the result of colposcopy were highly associated with the presence of cervicitis (p =.007 and p =.006, respectively). Women with cervicitis were twice as likely to have a positive VIA result as women without cervicitis (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0-3.7). The presence of cervicitis may influence the accuracy of results obtained from colposcopy and VIA. This observation may be of particular importance in low-resource settings such as El Salvador where visual inspection methods are more commonly used in screening for cervical cancer.

  1. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that non-linguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a three-location spatiotemporal sequence of multi-colored geometric shapes. Early language skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Analyses of children’s reaction times to the stimuli suggest that the extent to which infants demonstrated learning was significantly correlated with their vocabulary comprehension at the time of test and with their gestural comprehension abilities 5 months later. These findings suggest that visual sequence learning may have both domain-general and domain-specific associations with language learning. PMID:22523477

  2. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Research suggests that non-linguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a three-location spatiotemporal sequence of multi-colored geometric shapes. Early language skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Analyses of children's reaction times to the stimuli suggest that the extent to which infants demonstrated learning was significantly correlated with their vocabulary comprehension at the time of test and with their gestural comprehension abilities 5 months later. These findings suggest that visual sequence learning may have both domain-general and domain-specific associations with language learning.

  3. Amino acid sequence of tyrosinase from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, K

    1978-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of tyrosinase from Neurospora crassa (monophenol,dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) is reported. This copper-containing oxidase consists of a single polypeptide chain of 407 amino acids. The primary structure was determined by automated and manual sequence analysis on fragments produced by cleavage with cyanogen bromide and on peptides obtained by digestion with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, or chymotrypsin. The amino terminus of the protein is acetylated and the single cysteinyl residue 96 is covalently linked via a thioether bridge to histidyl residue 94. The formation and the possible role of this unusual structure in Neurospora tyrosinase is discussed. Dye-sensitized photooxidation of apotyrosinase and active-site-directed inactivation of the native enzyme indicate the possible involvement of histidyl residues 188, 192, 289, and 305 or 306 as ligands to the active-site copper as well as in the catalytic mechanism of this monooxygenase. PMID:151279

  4. Complete amino acid sequence of three reptile lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Ponkham, Pornpimol; Daduang, Sakda; Kitimasak, Wachira; Krittanai, Chartchai; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Kawamura, Shunsuke; Araki, Tomohiro; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2010-01-01

    To study the structure and function of reptile lysozymes, we have reported their purification, and in this study we have established the amino acid sequence of three egg white lysozymes in soft-shelled turtle eggs (SSTL A and SSTL B from Trionyx sinensis, ASTL from Amyda cartilaginea) by using the rapid peptide mapping method. The established amino acid sequence of SSTL A, SSTL B, and ASTL showed substitutions of 43, 42, and 44 residues respectively when compared with the HEWL (hen egg white lysozyme) sequence. In these reptile lysozymes, SSTL A had one substitution compared with SSTL B (Gly126Asp) and had an N-terminal extra Gly and 11 substitutions compared with ASTL. SSTL B had an N-terminal extra Gly and 10 residues different from ASTL. The sequence of SSTL B was identical to soft-shelled turtle lysozyme from STL (Trionyx sinensis japonicus). The Ile residue at position 93 of ASTL is the first report in all C-type lysozymes. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions (Phe34His, Arg45Tyr, Thr47Arg, and Arg114Tyr) were also found at subsites E and F when compared with HEWL. The time course using N-acetylglucosamine pentamer as a substrate exhibited a reduction of the rate constant of glycosidic cleavage and increase of binding free energy for subsites E and F, which proved the contribution for amino acids mentioned above for substrate binding at subsites E and F. Interestingly, the variable binding free energy values occurred on ASTL, may be contributed from substitutions at outside of subsites E and F.

  5. Using sequence similarity networks for visualization of relationships across diverse protein superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Holly J; Morris, John H; Ferrin, Thomas E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in heterogeneous types of biological data--in particular, the abundance of new protein sequences--requires fast and user-friendly methods for organizing this information in a way that enables functional inference. The most widely used strategy to link sequence or structure to function, homology-based function prediction, relies on the fundamental assumption that sequence or structural similarity implies functional similarity. New tools that extend this approach are still urgently needed to associate sequence data with biological information in ways that accommodate the real complexity of the problem, while being accessible to experimental as well as computational biologists. To address this, we have examined the application of sequence similarity networks for visualizing functional trends across protein superfamilies from the context of sequence similarity. Using three large groups of homologous proteins of varying types of structural and functional diversity--GPCRs and kinases from humans, and the crotonase superfamily of enzymes--we show that overlaying networks with orthogonal information is a powerful approach for observing functional themes and revealing outliers. In comparison to other primary methods, networks provide both a good representation of group-wise sequence similarity relationships and a strong visual and quantitative correlation with phylogenetic trees, while enabling analysis and visualization of much larger sets of sequences than trees or multiple sequence alignments can easily accommodate. We also define important limitations and caveats in the application of these networks. As a broadly accessible and effective tool for the exploration of protein superfamilies, sequence similarity networks show great potential for generating testable hypotheses about protein structure-function relationships.

  6. Driving on the surface of Mars with the rover sequencing and visualization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J.; Hartman, F.; Cooper, B.; Maxwell, S.; Yen, J.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    Operating a rover on Mars is not possible using teleoperations due to the distance involved and the bandwith limitations. To operate these rovers requires sophisticated tools to make operators knowledgeable of the terrain, hazards, features of interest, and rover state and limitations, and to support building command sequences and rehearsing expected operations. This paper discusses how the Rover Sequencing and Visualization program and a small set of associated tools support this requirement.

  7. Driving on the surface of Mars with the rover sequencing and visualization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J.; Hartman, F.; Cooper, B.; Maxwell, S.; Yen, J.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    Operating a rover on Mars is not possible using teleoperations due to the distance involved and the bandwith limitations. To operate these rovers requires sophisticated tools to make operators knowledgeable of the terrain, hazards, features of interest, and rover state and limitations, and to support building command sequences and rehearsing expected operations. This paper discusses how the Rover Sequencing and Visualization program and a small set of associated tools support this requirement.

  8. Amino-acid sequence of toxin I from Anemonia sulcata.

    PubMed

    Wunderer, G; Eulitz, M

    1978-08-15

    Toxin I from Anemonia sulcata, a major component of the sea anemone venom, consists of 46 amino acid residues which are linked by three disulfide bridges. The [14C]carboxymethylated polypeptide was sequenced to position 29 by automated Edman degradation. The remaining sequence was determined from cyanogen bromide peptides and from tryptic peptides of the citraconylated [14C]carboxymethylated toxin. Toxin I is homologous to toxin II from Anemonia sulcata and to anthopleurin A, a toxin from the sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica. These toxins constitute a new class of polypeptide toxins. No significant homologies exist with toxin III from Anemonia sulcata nor with known sequences of neurotoxins or cardiotoxins of various origin.

  9. BSviewer: a genotype-preserving, nucleotide-level visualizer for bisulfite sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kun; Lun, Fiona F M; Jiang, Peiyong; Sun, Hao

    2017-08-08

    The bisulfite sequencing technology has been widely used to study the DNA methylation profile in many species. However, most of the current visualization tools for bisulfite sequencing data only provide high-level views (i.e., overall methylation densities) while miss the methylation dynamics at nucleotide level. Meanwhile, they also focus on CpG sites while omit other information (such as genotypes on SNP sites) which could be helpful for interpreting the methylation pattern of the sequencing data. A bioinformatics tool that visualizes the methylation statuses at nucleotide level and preserves the most essential information of the sequencing data is thus valuable and needed. We have developed BSviewer, a lightweight nucleotide-level visualization tool for bisulfite sequencing data. Using an imprinting gene as an example, we show that BSviewer could be specifically helpful for interpreting the bisulfite sequencing data with allele-specific DNA methylation pattern. BSviewer is implemented in Perl and runs on most GNU/Linux platforms. Source code and testing dataset are freely available at http://sunlab.cpy.cuhk.edu.hk/BSviewer/ . haosun@cuhk.edu.hk.

  10. ProViz-a web-based visualization tool to investigate the functional and evolutionary features of protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Peter; Manguy, Jean; Shields, Denis C; Higgins, Desmond G; Davey, Norman E

    2016-07-08

    Low-throughput experiments and high-throughput proteomic and genomic analyses have created enormous quantities of data that can be used to explore protein function and evolution. The ability to consolidate these data into an informative and intuitive format is vital to our capacity to comprehend these distinct but complementary sources of information. However, existing tools to visualize protein-related data are restricted by their presentation, sources of information, functionality or accessibility. We introduce ProViz, a powerful browser-based tool to aid biologists in building hypotheses and designing experiments by simplifying the analysis of functional and evolutionary features of proteins. Feature information is retrieved in an automated manner from resources describing protein modular architecture, post-translational modification, structure, sequence variation and experimental characterization of functional regions. These features are mapped to evolutionary information from precomputed multiple sequence alignments. Data are displayed in an interactive and information-rich yet intuitive visualization, accessible through a simple protein search interface. This allows users with limited bioinformatic skills to rapidly access data pertinent to their research. Visualizations can be further customized with user-defined data either manually or using a REST API. ProViz is available at http://proviz.ucd.ie/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Quantum-Sequencing: Biophysics of quantum tunneling through nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy has extensively been used in physical surface sciences to study quantum tunneling to measure electronic local density of states of nanomaterials and to characterize adsorbed species. Quantum-Sequencing (Q-Seq) is a new method based on tunneling microscopy for electronic sequencing of single molecule of nucleic acids. A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the unique ``electronic fingerprints'' for all nucleotides on DNA and RNA using Q-Seq along their intrinsic biophysical parameters. We have analyzed tunneling spectra for the nucleotides at different pH conditions and analyzed the HOMO, LUMO and energy gap for all of them. In addition we show a number of biophysical parameters to further characterize all nucleobases (electron and hole transition voltage and energy barriers). These results highlight the robustness of Q-Seq as a technique for next-generation sequencing.

  12. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence of guinea pig endometrial prorelaxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y A; Bryant-Greenwood, G D; Mandel, M; Greenwood, F C

    1992-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the relaxin gene transcript in the endometrium of the late pregnant guinea pig has been determined. The strategy used was a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers designed from the mRNA sequence of porcine preprorelaxin, rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR, and blunt end cloning in M13 mp18. With heterologous primers, a 226-basepair (bp) segment of the guinea pig relaxin gene sequence was obtained and was used to design a guinea pig-specific primer for use with the rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR method. The latter allowed completion of the sequence of 336 bp, with a 96-bp overlap. The sequence obtained shows greater homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels with porcine and human relaxins H1 and H2 than with rat relaxin, supporting the thesis that the guinea pig is not a rodent. The transcription of the guinea pig endometrial relaxin gene during pregnancy was confirmed by Northern analysis of guinea pig endometrial tissues with a species-specific cDNA probe. The endometrial relaxin gene is transcribed during pregnancy, but not in lactation, consistent with the observed immunostaining for relaxin.

  13. Infants' statistical learning: 2- and 5-month-olds' segmentation of continuous visual sequences.

    PubMed

    Slone, Lauren Krogh; Johnson, Scott P

    2015-05-01

    Past research suggests that infants have powerful statistical learning abilities; however, studies of infants' visual statistical learning offer differing accounts of the developmental trajectory of and constraints on this learning. To elucidate this issue, the current study tested the hypothesis that young infants' segmentation of visual sequences depends on redundant statistical cues to segmentation. A sample of 20 2-month-olds and 20 5-month-olds observed a continuous sequence of looming shapes in which unit boundaries were defined by both transitional probability and co-occurrence frequency. Following habituation, only 5-month-olds showed evidence of statistically segmenting the sequence, looking longer to a statistically improbable shape pair than to a probable pair. These results reaffirm the power of statistical learning in infants as young as 5 months but also suggest considerable development of statistical segmentation ability between 2 and 5 months of age. Moreover, the results do not support the idea that infants' ability to segment visual sequences based on transitional probabilities and/or co-occurrence frequencies is functional at the onset of visual experience, as has been suggested previously. Rather, this type of statistical segmentation appears to be constrained by the developmental state of the learner. Factors contributing to the development of statistical segmentation ability during early infancy, including memory and attention, are discussed.

  14. The Effects of Blocking and Joint Control Training on Sequencing Visual Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Curtis W.; Meyer, Careen S.; Miguel, Caio F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effects of blocking on the accuracy of arranging visual stimuli in sequences as an attempt to assess whether verbal behavior mediates nonverbal performance. Across three experiments, college students were trained to echo and tact the names of abstract images vocally (Experiments 1 and 3) and with hand signs (Experiment 2), and…

  15. Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

  16. Abstract Rule Learning for Visual Sequences in 8- and 11-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Fernandes, Keith J.; Frank, Michael C.; Kirkham, Natasha; Marcus, Gary; Rabagliati, Hugh; Slemmer, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the development of a fundamental component of cognition: to recognize and generalize abstract relations. Infants were presented with simple rule-governed patterned sequences of visual shapes (ABB, AAB, and ABA) that could be discriminated from differences in the position of the repeated element (late,…

  17. Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

  18. CDvist: A webserver for identification and visualization of conserved domains in protein sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Adebali, Ogun; Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2014-12-18

    Identification of domains in protein sequences allows their assigning to biological functions. Several webservers exist for identification of protein domains using similarity searches against various databases of protein domain models. However, none of them provides comprehensive domain coverage while allowing bulk querying and their visualization schemes can be improved. To address these issues, we developed CDvist (a comprehensive domain visualization tool), which combines the best available search algorithms and databases into a user-friendly framework. First, a given protein sequence is matched to domain models using high-specificity tools and only then unmatched segments are subjected to more sensitive algorithms resulting in a best possible comprehensive coverage. In conclusion, bulk querying and rich visualization and download options provide improved functionality to domain architecture analysis.

  19. CDvist: A webserver for identification and visualization of conserved domains in protein sequences

    DOE PAGES

    Adebali, Ogun; Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2014-12-18

    Identification of domains in protein sequences allows their assigning to biological functions. Several webservers exist for identification of protein domains using similarity searches against various databases of protein domain models. However, none of them provides comprehensive domain coverage while allowing bulk querying and their visualization schemes can be improved. To address these issues, we developed CDvist (a comprehensive domain visualization tool), which combines the best available search algorithms and databases into a user-friendly framework. First, a given protein sequence is matched to domain models using high-specificity tools and only then unmatched segments are subjected to more sensitive algorithms resulting inmore » a best possible comprehensive coverage. In conclusion, bulk querying and rich visualization and download options provide improved functionality to domain architecture analysis.« less

  20. DecisionFlow: Visual Analytics for High-Dimensional Temporal Event Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Gotz, David; Stavropoulos, Harry

    2014-12-01

    Temporal event sequence data is increasingly commonplace, with applications ranging from electronic medical records to financial transactions to social media activity. Previously developed techniques have focused on low-dimensional datasets (e.g., with less than 20 distinct event types). Real-world datasets are often far more complex. This paper describes DecisionFlow, a visual analysis technique designed to support the analysis of high-dimensional temporal event sequence data (e.g., thousands of event types). DecisionFlow combines a scalable and dynamic temporal event data structure with interactive multi-view visualizations and ad hoc statistical analytics. We provide a detailed review of our methods, and present the results from a 12-person user study. The study results demonstrate that DecisionFlow enables the quick and accurate completion of a range of sequence analysis tasks for datasets containing thousands of event types and millions of individual events.

  1. [Producing a sequence of movements in response to a sequence of visual stimuli. Inter-individual differences in early phase of sequence learning].

    PubMed

    Kurganskiĭ, A V; Grigal, P P

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we studied the inter-individual variants at the early stage of serial learning in the sequence reproduction task where subjects were asked to produce a sequence of movements whose serial order was given by the sequence of visual stimuli. A total of 20 adults participated in the experiment where, besides the sequence reproduction task, each subject also performed the simple visuomotor reaction time task, the choice reaction time task and the serial reaction time task. It was found that individual latencies vs. trial number plots (learning curves) were characterized by one distinctive feature: the latency reduction, if any, took a form of either an abrupt decline down to a stationary level (fast phase) or a gradual approximately linear leveling off over the entire block of 60 trials (slow phase). The diversity of the individual learning curves were limited to the following four types: a flat curve, a curve with the fast phase only, a curve with the slow phase only, and a curve that combined both phases with the leading fast phase followed by the slow phase. All the subjects were subdivided into four groups according to the subject's type of learning curve. We analyzed the correlation pattern between temporal indices (latencies and inter-response intervals) and compared these indices to simple visuomotor reaction time, choice reaction time and the amount of learning in the serial reaction time task. The significant between-group differences found in this analysis suggest that there are some essential functional differences related to the group break up. It was suggested that inter-individual variants in the character of the early stage of sequence learning are determined mainly by the functional and structural complexity of the internal representation of the sequence and by the way the working memory operates in order to recognize the driving sequence of visual stimuli and to translate the internal representation of a sequence into motor commands.

  2. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Funk, C.D.; Radmark, O.; Hoeoeg, J.O.; Joernvall, H.; Samuelsson, B.

    1988-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.34), a Ca/sup 2 +/- and ATP-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of the peptidoleukotrienes and the chemotactic factor leukotriene B/sub 4/. A cDNA clone corresponding to 5-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody. Additional clones from a human placenta lambda gt11 cDNA library were obtained by plaque hybridization with the /sup 32/P-labeled lung cDNA clone. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicate that the composite DNAs contain the complete coding region for the enzyme. From the deduced primary structure, 5-lipoxygenase encodes a 673 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 77,839. Direct analysis of the native protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the deduced composition, the amino-terminal amino acid sequence, and the structure of many internal segments. 5-Lipoxygenase has no apparent sequence homology with leukotriene A/sub 4/ hydrolase or Ca/sup 2 +/-binding proteins. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of an mRNA species of approx. = 2700 nucleotides in leukocytes, lung, and placenta.

  3. Nucleic acid sequence detection using multiplexed oligonucleotide PCR

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott

    2006-12-26

    Methods for rapidly detecting single or multiple sequence alleles in a sample nucleic acid are described. Provided are all of the oligonucleotide pairs capable of annealing specifically to a target allele and discriminating among possible sequences thereof, and ligating to each other to form an oligonucleotide complex when a particular sequence feature is present (or, alternatively, absent) in the sample nucleic acid. The design of each oligonucleotide pair permits the subsequent high-level PCR amplification of a specific amplicon when the oligonucleotide complex is formed, but not when the oligonucleotide complex is not formed. The presence or absence of the specific amplicon is used to detect the allele. Detection of the specific amplicon may be achieved using a variety of methods well known in the art, including without limitation, oligonucleotide capture onto DNA chips or microarrays, oligonucleotide capture onto beads or microspheres, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Various labels and address-capture tags may be employed in the amplicon detection step of multiplexed assays, as further described herein.

  4. Gene Slider: sequence logo interactive data-visualization for education and research.

    PubMed

    Waese, Jamie; Pasha, Asher; Wang, Ting Ting; van Weringh, Anna; Guttman, David S; Provart, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    Gene Slider helps visualize the conservation and entropy of orthologous DNA and protein sequences by presenting them as one long sequence logo that can be zoomed in and out of, from an overview of the entire sequence down to just a few residues at a time. A search function enables users to find motifs such as cis-elements in promoter regions by simply 'drawing' a sequence logo representation of the desired motif as a query. In addition to displaying user-supplied FASTA files, our demonstration version of Gene Slider loads and displays a rich database of 90 000+ conserved non-coding regions across the Brassicaceae indexed to the TAIR10 Col-0 Arabidopsis thaliana sequence. It also displays transcription factor binding sites, enabling easy identification of regions that are both conserved across multiple species and may contain transcription factor binding sites.

  5. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  6. DSSR-enhanced visualization of nucleic acid structures in Jmol.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert M; Lu, Xiang-Jun

    2017-05-03

    Sophisticated and interactive visualizations are essential for making sense of the intricate 3D structures of macromolecules. For proteins, secondary structural components are routinely featured in molecular graphics visualizations. However, the field of RNA structural bioinformatics is still lagging behind; for example, current molecular graphics tools lack built-in support even for base pairs, double helices, or hairpin loops. DSSR (Dissecting the Spatial Structure of RNA) is an integrated and automated command-line tool for the analysis and annotation of RNA tertiary structures. It calculates a comprehensive and unique set of features for characterizing RNA, as well as DNA structures. Jmol is a widely used, open-source Java viewer for 3D structures, with a powerful scripting language. JSmol, its reincarnation based on native JavaScript, has a predominant position in the post Java-applet era for web-based visualization of molecular structures. The DSSR-Jmol integration presented here makes salient features of DSSR readily accessible, either via the Java-based Jmol application itself, or its HTML5-based equivalent, JSmol. The DSSR web service accepts 3D coordinate files (in mmCIF or PDB format) initiated from a Jmol or JSmol session and returns DSSR-derived structural features in JSON format. This seamless combination of DSSR and Jmol/JSmol brings the molecular graphics of 3D RNA structures to a similar level as that for proteins, and enables a much deeper analysis of structural characteristics. It fills a gap in RNA structural bioinformatics, and is freely accessible (via the Jmol application or the JSmol-based website http://jmol.x3dna.org). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The amino acid sequence of rabbit cardiac troponin I.

    PubMed Central

    Grand, R J; Wilkinson, J M

    1976-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of troponin I from rabbit cardiac muscle was determined by the isolation of four unique CNBr fragments, together with overlapping tryptic peptides containing radioactive methionine residues. Overlap data for residues 35-36, 93-94 and 140-145 are incomplete, the sequence at these positions being based on homology with the sequence of the fast-skeletal-muscle protein. Cardiac troponin I is a single polypeptide chain of 206 residues with mol.wt. 23550 and an extinction coefficient, E 1%,1cm/280, of 4.37. The protein has a net positive charge of 14 and is thus somewhat more basic than troponin I from fast-skeletal muscle. Comparison of the sequences of troponin I from cardiac and fast skeletal muscle show that the cardiac protein has 26 extra residues at the N-terminus which account for the larger size of the protein. In the remainder of sequence there is a considerable degree of homology, this being greater in the C-terminal two-thirds of the molecule. The region in the cardiac protein corresponding to the peptide with inhibitory activity from the fast-skeletal-muscle protein is very similar and it seems unlikely that this is the cause of the difference in inhibitory activity between the two proteins. The region responsible for binding troponin C, however, possesses a lower degree of homology. Detailed evidence on which the sequence is based has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50072 (20 pages), at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7QB, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1976) 153, 5. PMID:1008822

  8. Amino acid sequence of a mouse immunoglobulin mu chain.

    PubMed Central

    Kehry, M; Sibley, C; Fuhrman, J; Schilling, J; Hood, L E

    1979-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the mouse mu chain from the BALB/c myeloma tumor MOPC 104E is reported. The C mu region contains four consecutive homology regions of approximately 110 residues and a COOH-terminal region of 19 residues. A comparison of this mu chain from mouse with a complete mu sequence from human (Ou) and a partial mu chain sequence from dog (Moo) reveals a striking gradient of increasing homology from the NH2-terminal to the COOH-terminal portion of these mu chains, with the former being the least and the latter the most highly conserved. Four of the five sites of carbohydrate attachment appear to be at identical residue positions when the constant regions of the mouse and human mu chains are compared. The mu chain of MOPC 104E has a carbohydrate moiety attached in the second hypervariable region. This is particularly interesting in view of the fact that MOPC 104E binds alpha-(1 leads to 3)-dextran, a simple carbohydrate. The structural and functional constraints imposed by these comparative sequence analyses are discussed. PMID:111247

  9. Bacteriorhodopsin: partial sequence of mRNA provides amino acid sequence in the precursor region.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S H; Majumdar, A; Dunn, R; Makabe, O; RajBhandary, U L; Khorana, H G; Ohtsuka, E; Tanaka, T; Taniyama, Y O; Ikehara, M

    1981-01-01

    mRNA for bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium halobium has been partially purified. By using this mRNA as template in the presence of reverse transcriptase RNA-dependent DNA nucleotidyltransferase and a 5'-[32P] synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide corresponding to amino acids 9-12 of bacteriorhodopsin as primer, we have isolated the major 5'-[32P]cDNA product, approximately 80 nucleotides long, and determined its sequence. Based on the cDNA sequence, the 5'-proximal sequence of bacteriorhodopsin mRNA is G-C-A-U-G-U-U-G-G-A-G-U-U-A-U-U-G-C-C-A-A-C-A-G-C-A-G-U-G-G-A-G-G-G-G-G-U-A-U-C -G-C-A-G-G-C-C-C-A-G-A-U-C-A-C-C-G-G-A-C-G-U-C-C-G. This includes the expected sequence for amino acids 1-8 and shows that bacteriorhodopsin is synthesized as a precursor that is at least 13 amino acids longer (Met-Leu-Glu-Leu-Leu-Pro-Thr-Ala-Val-Glu-Gly-Val-Ser) at the NH2 terminus. Agarose/urea gel electrophoresis of the partially purified mRNA showed several bands; of these, a major one hybridized with 5'-[32P]cDNA. These results suggest that the bacteriorhodopsin mRNA in the partially purified preparation is homogeneous in size and that it constitutes a substantial portion of the RNA preparation subjected to electrophoresis. Images PMID:6943548

  10. Relationship between peptide amino acid sequence and membrane curvature generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Nathan; Kuo, David; Hwee Lai, Ghee; Mishra, Abhijit; Wong, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Amphipathic peptides and amphipathic domains in proteins can perturb and restructure biological membranes. For example, it is believed that the cationic, amphipathic motif found in membrane active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is responsible for their membrane disruption mechanisms of action. And ApoA-I, the main apolipoprotein in high density lipoprotein contains a series of amphipathic α-helical repeats which are responsible for its lipid associating properties. We use small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the interaction of model cell membranes with prototypical AMPs and consensus peptides derived from the helical structural motif of ApoA-I. The relationship between peptide sequence and the peptide-induced changes in membrane curvature and topology is examined. By comparing the membrane rearrangement and corresponding phase behavior induced by these two distinct classes of membrane restructuring peptides we will discuss the role of amino acid sequence on membrane curvature generation.

  11. Isolating Visual and Proprioceptive Components of Motor Sequence Learning in ASD.

    PubMed

    Sharer, Elizabeth A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Oberman, Lindsay M

    2016-05-01

    In addition to defining impairments in social communication skills, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also show impairments in more basic sensory and motor skills. Development of new skills involves integrating information from multiple sensory modalities. This input is then used to form internal models of action that can be accessed when both performing skilled movements, as well as understanding those actions performed by others. Learning skilled gestures is particularly reliant on integration of visual and proprioceptive input. We used a modified serial reaction time task (SRTT) to decompose proprioceptive and visual components and examine whether patterns of implicit motor skill learning differ in ASD participants as compared with healthy controls. While both groups learned the implicit motor sequence during training, healthy controls showed robust generalization whereas ASD participants demonstrated little generalization when visual input was constant. In contrast, no group differences in generalization were observed when proprioceptive input was constant, with both groups showing limited degrees of generalization. The findings suggest, when learning a motor sequence, individuals with ASD tend to rely less on visual feedback than do healthy controls. Visuomotor representations are considered to underlie imitative learning and action understanding and are thereby crucial to social skill and cognitive development. Thus, anomalous patterns of implicit motor learning, with a tendency to discount visual feedback, may be an important contributor in core social communication deficits that characterize ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 563-569. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Learning of grammar-like visual sequences by adults with and without language-learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Jessica M; Plante, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. In Study 1, adults with normal language (NL) or language-learning disability (LLD) were familiarized with the visual artificial grammar and then tested using items that conformed or deviated from the grammar. In Study 2, a 2nd sample of adults with NL and LLD were presented auditory word pairs with weak semantic associations (e.g., groom + clean) along with the visual learning task. Participants were instructed to attend to visual sequences and to ignore the auditory stimuli. Incidental encoding of these words would indicate reduced attention to the primary task. In Studies 1 and 2, both groups demonstrated learning and generalization of the artificial grammar. In Study 2, neither the NL nor the LLD group appeared to encode the words presented during the learning phase. The results argue against a general deficit in statistical learning for individuals with LLD and demonstrate that both NL and LLD learners can ignore extraneous auditory stimuli during visual learning.

  13. Ultrasensitive nucleic acid sequence detection by single-molecule electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A; Shera, E.B.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year laboratory-directed research and development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There has been considerable interest in the development of very sensitive clinical diagnostic techniques over the last few years. Many pathogenic agents are often present in extremely small concentrations in clinical samples, especially at the initial stages of infection, making their detection very difficult. This project sought to develop a new technique for the detection and accurate quantification of specific bacterial and viral nucleic acid sequences in clinical samples. The scheme involved the use of novel hybridization probes for the detection of nucleic acids combined with our recently developed technique of single-molecule electrophoresis. This project is directly relevant to the DOE`s Defense Programs strategic directions in the area of biological warfare counter-proliferation.

  14. Magnifying visual target information and the role of eye movements in motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Massing, Matthias; Blandin, Yannick; Panzer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment investigated the influence of eye movements on learning a simple motor sequence task when the visual display was magnified. The task was to reproduce a 1300 ms spatial-temporal pattern of elbow flexions and extensions. The spatial-temporal pattern was displayed in front of the participants. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups differing on eye movements (free to use their eyes/instructed to fixate) and the visual display (small/magnified). All participants had to perform a pre-test, an acquisition phase, a delayed retention test, and a transfer test. The results indicated that participants in each practice condition increased their performance during acquisition. The participants who were permitted to use their eyes in the magnified visual display outperformed those who were instructed to fixate on the magnified visual display. When a small visual display was used, the instruction to fixate induced no performance decrements compared to participants who were permitted to use their eyes during acquisition. The findings demonstrated that a spatial-temporal pattern can be learned without eye movements, but being permitting to use eye movements facilitates the response production when the visual angle is increased.

  15. Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, T.P.; Woods, K.R.

    1981-06-01

    A method is presented for locating protein antigenic determinants by analyzing amino acid sequences in order to find the point of greatest local hydrophilicity. This is accomplished by assigning each amino acid a numerical value (hydrophilicity value) and then repetitively averaging these values along the peptide chain. The point of highest local average hydrophilicity is invariably located in, or immediately adjacent to, an antigenic determinant. It was found that the prediction success rate depended on averaging group length, with hexapeptide averages yielding optimal results. The method was developed using 12 proteins for which extensive immunochemical analysis has been carried out and subsequently was used to predict antigenic determinants for the following proteins: hepatitis B surface antigen, influenza hemagglutinis, fowl plague virus hemagglutinin, human histocompatibility antigen HLA-B7, human interferons, Escherichia coli and cholera enterotoxins, ragweed allergens Ra3 and Ra5, and streptococcal M protein. The hepatitis B surface antigen sequence was synthesized by chemical means and was shown to have antigenic activity by radioimmunoassay.

  16. BLASTGrabber: a bioinformatic tool for visualization, analysis and sequence selection of massive BLAST data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in sequencing efficiency have vastly increased the sizes of biological sequence databases, including many thousands of genome-sequenced species. The BLAST algorithm remains the main search engine for retrieving sequence information, and must consequently handle data on an unprecedented scale. This has been possible due to high-performance computers and parallel processing. However, the raw BLAST output from contemporary searches involving thousands of queries becomes ill-suited for direct human processing. Few programs attempt to directly visualize and interpret BLAST output; those that do often provide a mere basic structuring of BLAST data. Results Here we present a bioinformatics application named BLASTGrabber suitable for high-throughput sequencing analysis. BLASTGrabber, being implemented as a Java application, is OS-independent and includes a user friendly graphical user interface. Text or XML-formatted BLAST output files can be directly imported, displayed and categorized based on BLAST statistics. Query names and FASTA headers can be analysed by text-mining. In addition to visualizing sequence alignments, BLAST data can be ordered as an interactive taxonomy tree. All modes of analysis support selection, export and storage of data. A Java interface-based plugin structure facilitates the addition of customized third party functionality. Conclusion The BLASTGrabber application introduces new ways of visualizing and analysing massive BLAST output data by integrating taxonomy identification, text mining capabilities and generic multi-dimensional rendering of BLAST hits. The program aims at a non-expert audience in terms of computer skills; the combination of new functionalities makes the program flexible and useful for a broad range of operations. PMID:24885091

  17. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed Central

    Kasarda, D D; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J E; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with amino acid sequences derived from both cDNA clones and is virtually identical to one of them. On the basis of sequence information, after loss of the signal sequence, the mature alpha-type gliadins may be divided into five different domains, two of which may have evolved from an ancestral gliadin gene, whereas the remaining three contain repeating sequences that may have developed independently. Images PMID:6589619

  18. ZOOM Lite: next-generation sequencing data mapping and visualization software.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Ma, Bin

    2010-07-01

    High-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies pose increasing demands on the efficiency, accuracy and usability of data analysis software. In this article, we present ZOOM Lite, a software for efficient reads mapping and result visualization. With a kernel capable of mapping tens of millions of Illumina or AB SOLiD sequencing reads efficiently and accurately, and an intuitive graphical user interface, ZOOM Lite integrates reads mapping and result visualization into a easy to use pipeline on desktop PC. The software handles both single-end and paired-end reads, and can output both the unique mapping result or the top N mapping results for each read. Additionally, the software takes a variety of input file formats and outputs to several commonly used result formats. The software is freely available at http://bioinfor.com/zoom/lite/.

  19. Structural gene and complete amino acid sequence of Vibrio alginolyticus collagenase.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, H; Shibano, Y; Morihara, K; Fukushima, J; Inami, S; Keil, B; Gilles, A M; Kawamoto, S; Okuda, K

    1992-01-01

    The DNA encoding the collagenase of Vibrio alginolyticus was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. When the cloned gene was ligated to pUC18, the Escherichia coli expression vector, bacteria carrying the gene exhibited both collagenase antigen and collagenase activity. The open reading frame from the ATG initiation codon was 2442 bp in length for the collagenase structural gene. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature collagenase consists of 739 amino acids with an Mr of 81875. The amino acid sequences of 20 polypeptide fragments were completely identical with the deduced amino acid sequences of the collagenase gene. The amino acid composition predicted from the DNA sequence was similar to the chemically determined composition of purified collagenase reported previously. The analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences of the collagenase gene were rigorously performed, but we could not detect any significant sequence similarity to other collagenases. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1311172

  20. Insights into How Students Learn the Difference between a Weak Acid and a Strong Acid from Cartoon Tutorials Employing Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Akaygun, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes an investigation into how Flash-based cartoon video tutorials featuring molecular visualizations affect students' mental models of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions and how the acids respond when tested for electrical conductance. Variation theory served as the theoretical framework for examining how students…

  1. Insights into How Students Learn the Difference between a Weak Acid and a Strong Acid from Cartoon Tutorials Employing Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Akaygun, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes an investigation into how Flash-based cartoon video tutorials featuring molecular visualizations affect students' mental models of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions and how the acids respond when tested for electrical conductance. Variation theory served as the theoretical framework for examining how students…

  2. STAR: an integrated solution to management and visualization of sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jie; Shen, Li; Tonti-Filippini, Julian; Zhu, Yun; Jia, Haiyang; Lister, Ryan; Whitaker, John W; Ecker, Joseph R; Millar, A Harvey; Ren, Bing; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-15

    Easily visualization of complex data features is a necessary step to conduct studies on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. We developed STAR, an integrated web application that enables online management, visualization and track-based analysis of NGS data. STAR is a multilayer web service system. On the client side, STAR leverages JavaScript, HTML5 Canvas and asynchronous communications to deliver a smoothly scrolling desktop-like graphical user interface with a suite of in-browser analysis tools that range from providing simple track configuration controls to sophisticated feature detection within datasets. On the server side, STAR supports private session state retention via an account management system and provides data management modules that enable collection, visualization and analysis of third-party sequencing data from the public domain with over thousands of tracks hosted to date. Overall, STAR represents a next-generation data exploration solution to match the requirements of NGS data, enabling both intuitive visualization and dynamic analysis of data. STAR browser system is freely available on the web at http://wanglab.ucsd.edu/star/browser and https://github.com/angell1117/STAR-genome-browser.

  3. STAR: an integrated solution to management and visualization of sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jie; Shen, Li; Tonti-Filippini, Julian; Zhu, Yun; Jia, Haiyang; Lister, Ryan; Whitaker, John W.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Millar, A. Harvey; Ren, Bing; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Easily visualization of complex data features is a necessary step to conduct studies on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. We developed STAR, an integrated web application that enables online management, visualization and track-based analysis of NGS data. Results: STAR is a multilayer web service system. On the client side, STAR leverages JavaScript, HTML5 Canvas and asynchronous communications to deliver a smoothly scrolling desktop-like graphical user interface with a suite of in-browser analysis tools that range from providing simple track configuration controls to sophisticated feature detection within datasets. On the server side, STAR supports private session state retention via an account management system and provides data management modules that enable collection, visualization and analysis of third-party sequencing data from the public domain with over thousands of tracks hosted to date. Overall, STAR represents a next-generation data exploration solution to match the requirements of NGS data, enabling both intuitive visualization and dynamic analysis of data. Availability and implementation: STAR browser system is freely available on the web at http://wanglab.ucsd.edu/star/browser and https://github.com/angell1117/STAR-genome-browser. Contact: wei-wang@ucsd.edu PMID:24078702

  4. ActiviTree: interactive visual exploration of sequences in event-based data using graph similarity.

    PubMed

    Vrotsou, Katerina; Johansson, Jimmy; Cooper, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The identification of significant sequences in large and complex event-based temporal data is a challenging problem with applications in many areas of today's information intensive society. Pure visual representations can be used for the analysis, but are constrained to small data sets. Algorithmic search mechanisms used for larger data sets become expensive as the data size increases and typically focus on frequency of occurrence to reduce the computational complexity, often overlooking important infrequent sequences and outliers. In this paper we introduce an interactive visual data mining approach based on an adaptation of techniques developed for web searching, combined with an intuitive visual interface, to facilitate user-centred exploration of the data and identification of sequences significant to that user. The search algorithm used in the exploration executes in negligible time, even for large data, and so no pre-processing of the selected data is required, making this a completely interactive experience for the user. Our particular application area is social science diary data but the technique is applicable across many other disciplines.

  5. High sequence homology between protein tyrosine acid phosphatase from boar seminal vesicles and human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Paweł; Płucienniczak, Grazyna; Strzezek, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Boar seminal vesicle protein tyrosine acid phosphatase (PTAP) and human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) show high affinity for protein phosphotyrosine residues. The physico-chemical and kinetic properties of the boar and human enzymes are different. The main objective of this study was to establish the nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding boar PTAP and compare it with that of human PAP cDNA. Also, the amino-acid sequence of boar PTAP was compared with the sequence of human PAP. PTAP was isolated from boar seminal vesicle fluid and sequenced. cDNA to boar seminal vesicle RNA was synthesized, amplified by PCR, cloned in E. coli and sequenced. The obtained N-terminal amino-acid sequence of boar PTAP showed 92% identity with the N-terminal amino-acid sequence of human PAP. The determined sequence of a 354 bp nucleotide fragment (GenBank accession number: GQ184596) showed 90% identity with the corresponding sequence of human PAP. On the basis of this sequence a 118 amino acid fragment of boar PTAP was predicted. This fragment showed 89% identity with the corresponding fragment of human PAP and had a similar hydropathy profile. The compared sequences differ in terms of their isoelectric points and amino-acid composition. This may explain the differences in substrate specificity and inhibitor resistance of boar PTAP and human PAP.

  6. The cone visual pigments of an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii): sequence, spectral tuning, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Samir S; Wakefield, Matthew J; Tada, Takashi; Marotte, Lauren; Yokoyama, Shozo; Marshall Graves, Jenny A

    2003-10-01

    Studies on marsupial color vision have been limited to very few species. There is evidence from behavioral, electroretinographic (ERG), and microspectrophotometric (MSP) measurements for the existence of both dichromatic and trichromatic color vision. No studies have yet investigated the molecular mechanisms of spectral tuning in the visual pigments of marsupials. Our study is the first to determine the mRNA sequence, infer the amino acid sequence, and determine, by in vitro expression, the spectra of the cone opsins of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). This yielded some information on mechanisms and evolution of spectral tuning of these pigments. The tammar wallaby retina contains only short-wavelength sensitive (SWS) and middle-wavelength sensitive (MWS) pigment mRNAs. This predicts dichromatic color vision, which is consistent with conclusions from previous behavioral studies ( Hemmi 1999). We found that the wallaby has a SWS1 class pigment of 346 amino acids. Sequence comparison with eutherian SWS pigments predicts that this SWS1 pigment absorbs maximally (lambdamax) at 424 nm and, therefore, is a blue rather than a UV pigment. This (lambdamax) is close to that of the in vitro-expressed wallaby SWS pigment (lambdamax of 420 +/- 2 nm) and to that determined behaviorally (420 nm). The difference from the mouse UV pigment (lambdamax of 359 nm) is largely accounted for by the F86Y substitution, in agreement with in vitro results comparing a variety of other SWS pigments. This suggests that spectral tuning employing F86Y substitution most likely arose independently in the marsupials and ungulates as a result of convergent evolution. An apparently different mechanism of spectral tuning of the SWS1 pigments, involving five amino acid positions, evolved in primates. The wallaby MWS pigment has 363 amino acids. Species comparisons at positions critical to spectral tuning predict a lambdamax near 530 nm, which is close to that of the in vitro

  7. Visual detection of nucleic acids based on lateral flow biosensor and hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    PubMed

    Ying, Na; Ju, Chuanjing; Li, Zhongyi; Liu, Wensen; Wan, Jiayu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a new lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (LFNAB) using hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification was developed for visual detection of nucleic acids with high sensitivity and low cost. A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in our design. The sandwich system of capture probe (CP)/target DNA/reporter probe (RP)-HCR complexes was fabricated as the sensing platform. As the initiator strand, reporter probe propagated a chain reaction of hybridization events between the two hairpin probes modified with biotin, and determined whether long nicked DNA polymers were formed. The biotin-labeled double-strand DNA polymers then introduced numerous Streptavidin (SA)-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the lateral flow device. The CP/target DNA/RP-HCR complexes were captured on the test zone by the specific reaction between anti-Fam monoclonal antibody (anti-Fam mAb) on the test zone and Fam of the complexes. The accumulation of AuNPs on the test zone of the biosensor enabled the visual detection of specific sequences. The detection limit of specific DNA was as low as 1.76pM, which was about 2 orders lower than that of the LFNAB without HCR amplification. And the detection limit of Salmonella was 3×10(3)cfumL(-1). In conclusion, this visual detection system, HCR-LFNAB, is suitable for non-specialist personnel and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in low-resource settings.

  8. Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Nucleic Acid Sequences in Cellular DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chil-Yong; Temin, Howard M.

    1974-01-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus 60S RNA labeled with 125I, or reticuloendotheliosis virus complementary DNA labeled with 3H, were hybridized to DNAs from infected chicken and pheasant cells. Most of the sequences of the viral RNA were found in the infected cell DNAs. The reticuloendotheliosis viruses, therefore, replicate through a DNA intermediate. The same labeled nucleic acids were hybridized to DNA of uninfected chicken, pheasant, quail, turkey, and duck. About 10% of the sequences of reticuloendotheliosis virus RNA were present in the DNA of uninfected chicken, pheasant, quail, and turkey. None were detected in DNA of duck. The specificity of the hybridization was shown by competition between unlabeled and 125I-labeled viral RNAs and by determination of melting temperatures. In contrast, 125I-labeled RNA of Rous-associated virus-O, an avian leukosis-sarcoma virus, hybridized 55% to DNA of uninfected chicken, 20% to DNA of uninfected pheasant, 15% to DNA of uninfected quail, 10% to DNA of uninfected turkey, and less than 1% to DNA of uninfected duck. PMID:4372393

  9. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of the maize endosperm protein glutelin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Prat, S; Cortadas, J; Puigdomènech, P; Palau, J

    1985-01-01

    The cDNA coding for a glutelin-2 protein from maize endosperm has been cloned and the complete amino acid sequence of the protein derived for the first time. An immature maize endosperm cDNA bank was screened for the expression of a beta-lactamase:glutelin-2 (G2) fusion polypeptide by using antibodies against the purified 28 kd G2 protein. A clone corresponding to the 28 kd G2 protein was sequenced and the primary structure of this protein was derived. Five regions can be defined in the protein sequence: an 11 residue N-terminal part, a repeated region formed by eight units of the sequence Pro-Pro-Pro-Val-His-Leu, an alternating Pro-X stretch 21 residues long, a Cys rich domain and a C-terminal part rich in Gln. The protein sequence is preceded by 19 residues which have the characteristics of the signal peptide found in secreted proteins. Unlike zeins, the main maize storage proteins, 28 kd glutelin-2 has several homologous sequences in common with other cereal storage proteins. Images PMID:3839076

  10. Predicting protein amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuqiu; Yu, Hua; Gong, Xiujun

    2017-08-01

    Amidation is the fourth major category of post-translational modifications, which plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Identifying amidation sites can help us understanding the amidation and recognizing the original reason of many kinds of diseases. But the traditional experimental methods for predicting amidation sites are often time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we propose a computational method for predicting amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features. Three kinds of feature extraction methods are used to build a feature vector enabling to capture not only the physicochemical properties but also position related information of the amino acids. An extremely randomized trees algorithm is applied to choose the optimal features to remove redundancy and dependence among components of the feature vector by a supervised fashion. Finally the support vector machine classifier is used to label the amidation sites. When tested on an independent data set, it shows that the proposed method performs better than all the previous ones with the prediction accuracy of 0.962 at the Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.89 and area under curve of 0.964.

  11. Complete amino acid sequence of chicken liver acyl carrier protein derived from the fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, W Y; Stoops, J K; Wakil, S J

    1989-04-01

    The acyl carrier protein domain of the chicken liver fatty acid synthase has been isolated after tryptic treatment of the synthase. The isolated domain functions as an acceptor of acetyl and malonyl moieties in the synthase-catalyzed transfer of these groups from their coenzyme A esters and therefore indicates that the acyl carrier protein domain exists in the complex as a discrete entity. The amino acid sequence of the acyl carrier protein was derived from analyses of peptide fragments produced by cyanogen bromide cleavage and trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestions of the molecule. The isolated acyl carrier protein domain consists of 89 amino acid residues and has a calculated molecular weight of 10,127. The protein contains the phosphopantetheine group attached to the serine residue at position 38. The isolated acyl carrier protein peptide shows some sequence homology with the acyl carrier protein of Escherichia coli, particularly in the vicinity of the site of phosphopantetheine attachment, and shows extensive sequence homology with the acyl carrier protein from the uropygial gland of goose.

  12. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide and...

  13. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide and...

  14. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide and...

  15. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide and...

  16. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide and...

  17. Human liver apolipoprotein B-100 cDNA: complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S W; Grant, S M; Higuchi, K; Hospattankar, A; Lackner, K; Lee, N; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), the ligand on low density lipoproteins that interacts with the low density lipoprotein receptor and initiates receptor-mediated endocytosis and low density lipoprotein catabolism, has been cloned, and the complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequences have been determined. ApoB-100 cDNAs were isolated from normal human liver cDNA libraries utilizing immunoscreening as well as filter hybridization with radiolabeled apoB-100 oligodeoxynucleotides. The apoB-100 mRNA is 14.1 kilobases long encoding a mature apoB-100 protein of 4536 amino acids with a calculated amino acid molecular weight of 512,723. ApoB-100 contains 20 potential glycosylation sites, and 12 of a total of 25 cysteine residues are located in the amino-terminal region of the apolipoprotein providing a potential globular structure of the amino terminus of the protein. ApoB-100 contains relatively few regions of amphipathic helices, but compared to other human apolipoproteins it is enriched in beta-structure. The delineation of the entire human apoB-100 sequence will now permit a detailed analysis of the conformation of the protein, the low density lipoprotein receptor binding domain(s), and the structural relationship between apoB-100 and apoB-48 and will provide the basis for the study of genetic defects in apoB-100 in patients with dyslipoproteinemias. PMID:3464946

  18. HYBRIDCHECK: software for the rapid detection, visualization and dating of recombinant regions in genome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ben J; van Oosterhout, Cock

    2016-03-01

    HYBRIDCHECK is a software package to visualize the recombination signal in large DNA sequence data set, and it can be used to analyse recombination, genetic introgression, hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. It can scan large (multiple kb) contigs and whole-genome sequences of three or more individuals. HYBRIDCHECK is written in the r software for OS X, Linux and Windows operating systems, and it has a simple graphical user interface. In addition, the r code can be readily incorporated in scripts and analysis pipelines. HYBRIDCHECK implements several ABBA-BABA tests and visualizes the effects of hybridization and the resulting mosaic-like genome structure in high-density graphics. The package also reports the following: (i) the breakpoint positions, (ii) the number of mutations in each introgressed block, (iii) the probability that the identified region is not caused by recombination and (iv) the estimated age of each recombination event. The divergence times between the donor and recombinant sequence are calculated using a JC, K80, F81, HKY or GTR correction, and the dating algorithm is exceedingly fast. By estimating the coalescence time of introgressed blocks, it is possible to distinguish between hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. HYBRIDCHECK is libré software and it and its manual are free to download from http://ward9250.github.io/HybridCheck/.

  19. IBS: an illustrator for the presentation and visualization of biological sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenzhong; Xie, Yubin; Ma, Jiyong; Luo, Xiaotong; Nie, Peng; Zuo, Zhixiang; Lahrmann, Urs; Zhao, Qi; Zheng, Yueyuan; Zhao, Yong; Xue, Yu; Ren, Jian

    2015-10-15

    Biological sequence diagrams are fundamental for visualizing various functional elements in protein or nucleotide sequences that enable a summarization and presentation of existing information as well as means of intuitive new discoveries. Here, we present a software package called illustrator of biological sequences (IBS) that can be used for representing the organization of either protein or nucleotide sequences in a convenient, efficient and precise manner. Multiple options are provided in IBS, and biological sequences can be manipulated, recolored or rescaled in a user-defined mode. Also, the final representational artwork can be directly exported into a publication-quality figure. The standalone package of IBS was implemented in JAVA, while the online service was implemented in HTML5 and JavaScript. Both the standalone package and online service are freely available at http://ibs.biocuckoo.org. renjian.sysu@gmail.com or xueyu@hust.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. IBS: an illustrator for the presentation and visualization of biological sequences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenzhong; Xie, Yubin; Ma, Jiyong; Luo, Xiaotong; Nie, Peng; Zuo, Zhixiang; Lahrmann, Urs; Zhao, Qi; Zheng, Yueyuan; Zhao, Yong; Xue, Yu; Ren, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Biological sequence diagrams are fundamental for visualizing various functional elements in protein or nucleotide sequences that enable a summarization and presentation of existing information as well as means of intuitive new discoveries. Here, we present a software package called illustrator of biological sequences (IBS) that can be used for representing the organization of either protein or nucleotide sequences in a convenient, efficient and precise manner. Multiple options are provided in IBS, and biological sequences can be manipulated, recolored or rescaled in a user-defined mode. Also, the final representational artwork can be directly exported into a publication-quality figure. Availability and implementation: The standalone package of IBS was implemented in JAVA, while the online service was implemented in HTML5 and JavaScript. Both the standalone package and online service are freely available at http://ibs.biocuckoo.org. Contact: renjian.sysu@gmail.com or xueyu@hust.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26069263

  1. Computer selection of oligonucleotide probes from amino acid sequences for use in gene library screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Ye, J H; Wallace, D C

    1984-01-11

    We present a computer program, FINPROBE, which utilizes known amino acid sequence data to deduce minimum redundancy oligonucleotide probes for use in screening cDNA or genomic libraries or in primer extension. The user enters the amino acid sequence of interest, the desired probe length, the number of probes sought, and the constraints on oligonucleotide synthesis. The computer generates a table of possible probes listed in increasing order of redundancy and provides the location of each probe in the protein and mRNA coding sequence. Activation of a next function provides the amino acid and mRNA sequences of each probe of interest as well as the complementary sequence and the minimum dissociation temperature of the probe. A final routine prints out the amino acid sequence of the protein in parallel with the mRNA sequence listing all possible codons for each amino acid.

  2. Personal sleep pattern visualization using sequence-based kernel self-organizing map on sound data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongle; Kato, Takafumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Numao, Masayuki; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method to discover sleep patterns via clustering of sound events recorded during sleep. The proposed method extends the conventional self-organizing map algorithm by kernelization and sequence-based technologies to obtain a fine-grained map that visualizes the distribution and changes of sleep-related events. We introduced features widely applied in sound processing and popular kernel functions to the proposed method to evaluate and compare performance. The proposed method provides a new aspect of sleep monitoring because the results demonstrate that sound events can be directly correlated to an individual's sleep patterns. In addition, by visualizing the transition of cluster dynamics, sleep-related sound events were found to relate to the various stages of sleep. Therefore, these results empirically warrant future study into the assessment of personal sleep quality using sound data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Timing and Sequence of Brain Activity in Top-Down Control of Visual-Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Grent-‘t-Jong, Tineke; Woldorff, Marty G

    2007-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated a frontal-parietal network in the top-down control of attention. However, little is known about the timing and sequence of activations within this network. To investigate these timing questions, we used event-related electrical brain potentials (ERPs) and a specially designed visual-spatial attentional-cueing paradigm, which were applied as part of a multi-methodological approach that included a closely corresponding event-related fMRI study using an identical paradigm. In the first 400 ms post cue, attention-directing and control cues elicited similar general cue-processing activity, corresponding to the more lateral subregions of the frontal-parietal network identified with the fMRI. Following this, the attention-directing cues elicited a sustained negative-polarity brain wave that was absent for control cues. This activity could be linked to the more medial frontal–parietal subregions similarly identified in the fMRI as specifically involved in attentional orienting. Critically, both the scalp ERPs and the fMRI-seeded source modeling for this orienting-related activity indicated an earlier onset of frontal versus parietal contribution (∼400 versus ∼700 ms). This was then followed (∼800–900 ms) by pretarget biasing activity in the region-specific visual-sensory occipital cortex. These results indicate an activation sequence of key components of the attentional-control brain network, providing insight into their functional roles. More specifically, these results suggest that voluntary attentional orienting is initiated by medial portions of frontal cortex, which then recruit medial parietal areas. Together, these areas then implement biasing of region-specific visual-sensory cortex to facilitate the processing of upcoming visual stimuli. PMID:17199410

  4. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall...

  5. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall...

  6. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall...

  7. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall...

  8. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall...

  9. Polyamide fluorescent probes for visualization of repeated DNA sequences in living cells.

    PubMed

    Nozeret, Karine; Loll, François; Escudé, Christophe; Boutorine, Alexandre S

    2015-03-02

    DNA imaging in living cells usually requires transgenic approaches that modify the genome. Synthetic pyrrole-imidazole polyamides that bind specifically to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) represent an attractive approach for in-cell imaging that does not necessitate changes to the genome. Nine hairpin polyamides that target mouse major satellite DNA were synthesized. Their interactions with synthetic target dsDNA fragments were studied by thermal denaturation, gel-shift electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The polyamides had different affinities for the target DNA, and fluorescent labeling of the polyamides affected their affinity for their targets. We validated the specificity of the probes in fixed cells and provide evidence that two of the probes detect target sequences in mouse living cell lines. This study demonstrates for the first time that synthetic compounds can be used for the visualization of the nuclear substructures formed by repeated DNA sequences in living cells.

  10. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1996. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Foley, B.; Korber, B.; Mellors, J.W.; Jeang, K.T.; Wain-Hobson, S.

    1997-04-01

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) Nuclear Acid Alignments and Sequences; (2) Amino Acid Alignments; (3) Analysis; (4) Related Sequences; and (5) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. In addition to the general descriptions of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  12. Wasabi: An Integrated Platform for Evolutionary Sequence Analysis and Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Veidenberg, Andres; Medlar, Alan; Löytynoja, Ari

    2016-04-01

    Wasabi is an open source, web-based environment for evolutionary sequence analysis. Wasabi visualizes sequence data together with a phylogenetic tree within a modern, user-friendly interface: The interface hides extraneous options, supports context sensitive menus, drag-and-drop editing, and displays additional information, such as ancestral sequences, associated with specific tree nodes. The Wasabi environment supports reproducibility by automatically storing intermediate analysis steps and includes built-in functions to share data between users and publish analysis results. For computational analysis, Wasabi supports PRANK and PAGAN for phylogeny-aware alignment and alignment extension, and it can be easily extended with other tools. Along with drag-and-drop import of local files, Wasabi can access remote data through URL and import sequence data, GeneTrees and EPO alignments directly from Ensembl. To demonstrate a typical workflow using Wasabi, we reproduce key findings from recent comparative genomics studies, including a reanalysis of the EGLN1 gene from the tiger genome study: These case studies can be browsed within Wasabi at http://wasabiapp.org:8000?id=usecases. Wasabi runs inside a web browser and does not require any installation. One can start using it at http://wasabiapp.org. All source code is licensed under the AGPLv3.

  13. PHYLOViZ: phylogenetic inference and data visualization for sequence based typing methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the decrease of DNA sequencing costs, sequence-based typing methods are rapidly becoming the gold standard for epidemiological surveillance. These methods provide reproducible and comparable results needed for a global scale bacterial population analysis, while retaining their usefulness for local epidemiological surveys. Online databases that collect the generated allelic profiles and associated epidemiological data are available but this wealth of data remains underused and are frequently poorly annotated since no user-friendly tool exists to analyze and explore it. Results PHYLOViZ is platform independent Java software that allows the integrated analysis of sequence-based typing methods, including SNP data generated from whole genome sequence approaches, and associated epidemiological data. goeBURST and its Minimum Spanning Tree expansion are used for visualizing the possible evolutionary relationships between isolates. The results can be displayed as an annotated graph overlaying the query results of any other epidemiological data available. Conclusions PHYLOViZ is a user-friendly software that allows the combined analysis of multiple data sources for microbial epidemiological and population studies. It is freely available at http://www.phyloviz.net. PMID:22568821

  14. BamView: visualizing and interpretation of next-generation sequencing read alignments

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Simon R.; Otto, Thomas D.; Berriman, Matthew; Parkhill, Julian; McQuillan, Jacqueline A.

    2013-01-01

    So-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided the ability to sequence on a massive scale at low cost, enabling biologists to perform powerful experiments and gain insight into biological processes. BamView has been developed to visualize and analyse sequence reads from NGS platforms, which have been aligned to a reference sequence. It is a desktop application for browsing the aligned or mapped reads [Ruffalo, M, LaFramboise, T, Koyutürk, M. Comparative analysis of algorithms for next-generation sequencing read alignment. Bioinformatics 2011;27:2790–6] at different levels of magnification, from nucleotide level, where the base qualities can be seen, to genome or chromosome level where overall coverage is shown. To enable in-depth investigation of NGS data, various views are provided that can be configured to highlight interesting aspects of the data. Multiple read alignment files can be overlaid to compare results from different experiments, and filters can be applied to facilitate the interpretation of the aligned reads. As well as being a standalone application it can be used as an integrated part of the Artemis genome browser, BamView allows the user to study NGS data in the context of the sequence and annotation of the reference genome. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density and candidate SNP sites can be highlighted and investigated, and read-pair information can be used to discover large structural insertions and deletions. The application will also calculate simple analyses of the read mapping, including reporting the read counts and reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) for genes selected by the user. Availability: BamView and Artemis are freely available software. These can be downloaded from their home pages: http://bamview.sourceforge.net/; http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/software/artemis/. Requirements: Java 1.6 or higher. PMID:22253280

  15. Human retroviruses and aids, 1992. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Korber, B.; Berzofsky, J.A.; Pavlakis, G.N.; Smith, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (H) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium. While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. In addition to the general descriptions below of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  16. An interactive visualization tool to explore the biophysical properties of amino acids and their contribution to substitution matrices

    PubMed Central

    Bulka, Blazej; desJardins, Marie; Freeland, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    Background Quantitative descriptions of amino acid similarity, expressed as probabilistic models of evolutionary interchangeability, are central to many mainstream bioinformatic procedures such as sequence alignment, homology searching, and protein structural prediction. Here we present a web-based, user-friendly analysis tool that allows any researcher to quickly and easily visualize relationships between these bioinformatic metrics and to explore their relationships to underlying indices of amino acid molecular descriptors. Results We demonstrate the three fundamental types of question that our software can address by taking as a specific example the connections between 49 measures of amino acid biophysical properties (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity), a generalized model of amino acid substitution (as represented by the PAM74-100 matrix), and the mutational distance that separates amino acids within the standard genetic code (i.e., the number of point mutations required for interconversion during protein evolution). We show that our software allows a user to recapture the insights from several key publications on these topics in just a few minutes. Conclusion Our software facilitates rapid, interactive exploration of three interconnected topics: (i) the multidimensional molecular descriptors of the twenty proteinaceous amino acids, (ii) the correlation of these biophysical measurements with observed patterns of amino acid substitution, and (iii) the causal basis for differences between any two observed patterns of amino acid substitution. This software acts as an intuitive bioinformatic exploration tool that can guide more comprehensive statistical analyses relating to a diverse array of specific research questions. PMID:16817972

  17. GeneWiz browser: An Interactive Tool for Visualizing Sequenced Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hallin, Peter F.; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik; Rotenberg, Eva; Binnewies, Tim T.; Benham, Craig J.; Ussery, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We present an interactive web application for visualizing genomic data of prokaryotic chromosomes. The tool (GeneWiz browser) allows users to carry out various analyses such as mapping alignments of homologous genes to other genomes, mapping of short sequencing reads to a reference chromosome, and calculating DNA properties such as curvature or stacking energy along the chromosome. The GeneWiz browser produces an interactive graphic that enables zooming from a global scale down to single nucleotides, without changing the size of the plot. Its ability to disproportionally zoom provides optimal readability and increased functionality compared to other browsers. The tool allows the user to select the display of various genomic features, color setting and data ranges. Custom numerical data can be added to the plot allowing, for example, visualization of gene expression and regulation data. Further, standard atlases are pre-generated for all prokaryotic genomes available in GenBank, providing a fast overview of all available genomes, including recently deposited genome sequences. The tool is available online from http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/gwBrowser. Supplemental material including interactive atlases is available online at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/gwBrowser/suppl/. PMID:21304658

  18. Learning and Recognition of a Non-conscious Sequence of Events in Human Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Clive R.; Andrews, Samantha K.; Antoniades, Chrystalina A.; Kennard, Christopher; Soto, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human primary visual cortex (V1) has long been associated with learning simple low-level visual discriminations [1] and is classically considered outside of neural systems that support high-level cognitive behavior in contexts that differ from the original conditions of learning, such as recognition memory [2, 3]. Here, we used a novel fMRI-based dichoptic masking protocol—designed to induce activity in V1, without modulation from visual awareness—to test whether human V1 is implicated in human observers rapidly learning and then later (15–20 min) recognizing a non-conscious and complex (second-order) visuospatial sequence. Learning was associated with a change in V1 activity, as part of a temporo-occipital and basal ganglia network, which is at variance with the cortico-cerebellar network identified in prior studies of “implicit” sequence learning that involved motor responses and visible stimuli (e.g., [4]). Recognition memory was associated with V1 activity, as part of a temporo-occipital network involving the hippocampus, under conditions that were not imputable to mechanisms associated with conscious retrieval. Notably, the V1 responses during learning and recognition separately predicted non-conscious recognition memory, and functional coupling between V1 and the hippocampus was enhanced for old retrieval cues. The results provide a basis for novel hypotheses about the signals that can drive recognition memory, because these data (1) identify human V1 with a memory network that can code complex associative serial visuospatial information and support later non-conscious recognition memory-guided behavior (cf. [5]) and (2) align with mouse models of experience-dependent V1 plasticity in learning and memory [6]. PMID:26948883

  19. Learning and Recognition of a Non-conscious Sequence of Events in Human Primary Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Clive R; Andrews, Samantha K; Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Kennard, Christopher; Soto, David

    2016-03-21

    Human primary visual cortex (V1) has long been associated with learning simple low-level visual discriminations [1] and is classically considered outside of neural systems that support high-level cognitive behavior in contexts that differ from the original conditions of learning, such as recognition memory [2, 3]. Here, we used a novel fMRI-based dichoptic masking protocol-designed to induce activity in V1, without modulation from visual awareness-to test whether human V1 is implicated in human observers rapidly learning and then later (15-20 min) recognizing a non-conscious and complex (second-order) visuospatial sequence. Learning was associated with a change in V1 activity, as part of a temporo-occipital and basal ganglia network, which is at variance with the cortico-cerebellar network identified in prior studies of "implicit" sequence learning that involved motor responses and visible stimuli (e.g., [4]). Recognition memory was associated with V1 activity, as part of a temporo-occipital network involving the hippocampus, under conditions that were not imputable to mechanisms associated with conscious retrieval. Notably, the V1 responses during learning and recognition separately predicted non-conscious recognition memory, and functional coupling between V1 and the hippocampus was enhanced for old retrieval cues. The results provide a basis for novel hypotheses about the signals that can drive recognition memory, because these data (1) identify human V1 with a memory network that can code complex associative serial visuospatial information and support later non-conscious recognition memory-guided behavior (cf. [5]) and (2) align with mouse models of experience-dependent V1 plasticity in learning and memory [6]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The green-absorbing Drosophila Rh6 visual pigment contains a blue-shifting amino acid substitution that is conserved in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Farrell, David M; Zheng, Lijun; Phistry, Meridee; Bagg, Eve E; Britt, Steven G

    2009-02-27

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate invertebrate visual pigment absorption are poorly understood. Through sequence analysis and functional investigation of vertebrate visual pigments, numerous amino acid substitutions important for this adaptive process have been identified. Here we describe a serine/alanine (S/A) substitution in long wavelength-absorbing Drosophila visual pigments that occurs at a site corresponding to Ala-292 in bovine rhodopsin. This S/A substitution accounts for a 10-17-nm absorption shift in visual pigments of this class. Additionally, we demonstrate that substitution of a cysteine at the same site, as occurs in the blue-absorbing Rh5 pigment, accounts for a 4-nm shift. Substitutions at this site are the first spectrally significant amino acid changes to be identified for invertebrate pigments sensitive to visible light and are the first evidence of a conserved tuning mechanism in vertebrate and invertebrate pigments of this class.

  1. Completion of the amino acid sequence of the alpha 1 chain from type I calf skin collagen. Amino acid sequence of alpha 1(I)B8.

    PubMed Central

    Glanville, R W; Breitkreutz, D; Meitinger, M; Fietzek, P P

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the 279-residue CNBr peptide CB8 from the alpha 1 chain of type I calf skin collagen is presented. It was determined by sequencing overlapping fragments of CB8 produced by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, trypsin, Endoproteinase Arg-C and hydroxylamine. Tryptic cleavages were also made specific for lysine by blocking arginine residues with cyclohexane-1,2-dione. This completes the amino acid sequence analysis of the 1054-residues-long alpha (I) chain of calf skin collagen. PMID:6354180

  2. CNVkit: Genome-Wide Copy Number Detection and Visualization from Targeted DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shain, A. Hunter; Botton, Thomas; Bastian, Boris C.

    2016-01-01

    Germline copy number variants (CNVs) and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are of significant importance in syndromic conditions and cancer. Massively parallel sequencing is increasingly used to infer copy number information from variations in the read depth in sequencing data. However, this approach has limitations in the case of targeted re-sequencing, which leaves gaps in coverage between the regions chosen for enrichment and introduces biases related to the efficiency of target capture and library preparation. We present a method for copy number detection, implemented in the software package CNVkit, that uses both the targeted reads and the nonspecifically captured off-target reads to infer copy number evenly across the genome. This combination achieves both exon-level resolution in targeted regions and sufficient resolution in the larger intronic and intergenic regions to identify copy number changes. In particular, we successfully inferred copy number at equivalent to 100-kilobase resolution genome-wide from a platform targeting as few as 293 genes. After normalizing read counts to a pooled reference, we evaluated and corrected for three sources of bias that explain most of the extraneous variability in the sequencing read depth: GC content, target footprint size and spacing, and repetitive sequences. We compared the performance of CNVkit to copy number changes identified by array comparative genomic hybridization. We packaged the components of CNVkit so that it is straightforward to use and provides visualizations, detailed reporting of significant features, and export options for integration into existing analysis pipelines. CNVkit is freely available from https://github.com/etal/cnvkit. PMID:27100738

  3. CNVkit: Genome-Wide Copy Number Detection and Visualization from Targeted DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Talevich, Eric; Shain, A Hunter; Botton, Thomas; Bastian, Boris C

    2016-04-01

    Germline copy number variants (CNVs) and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are of significant importance in syndromic conditions and cancer. Massively parallel sequencing is increasingly used to infer copy number information from variations in the read depth in sequencing data. However, this approach has limitations in the case of targeted re-sequencing, which leaves gaps in coverage between the regions chosen for enrichment and introduces biases related to the efficiency of target capture and library preparation. We present a method for copy number detection, implemented in the software package CNVkit, that uses both the targeted reads and the nonspecifically captured off-target reads to infer copy number evenly across the genome. This combination achieves both exon-level resolution in targeted regions and sufficient resolution in the larger intronic and intergenic regions to identify copy number changes. In particular, we successfully inferred copy number at equivalent to 100-kilobase resolution genome-wide from a platform targeting as few as 293 genes. After normalizing read counts to a pooled reference, we evaluated and corrected for three sources of bias that explain most of the extraneous variability in the sequencing read depth: GC content, target footprint size and spacing, and repetitive sequences. We compared the performance of CNVkit to copy number changes identified by array comparative genomic hybridization. We packaged the components of CNVkit so that it is straightforward to use and provides visualizations, detailed reporting of significant features, and export options for integration into existing analysis pipelines. CNVkit is freely available from https://github.com/etal/cnvkit.

  4. iMotifs: an integrated sequence motif visualization and analysis environment

    PubMed Central

    Piipari, Matias; Down, Thomas A.; Saini, Harpreet; Enright, Anton; Hubbard, Tim J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Short sequence motifs are an important class of models in molecular biology, used most commonly for describing transcription factor binding site specificity patterns. High-throughput methods have been recently developed for detecting regulatory factor binding sites in vivo and in vitro and consequently high-quality binding site motif data are becoming available for increasing number of organisms and regulatory factors. Development of intuitive tools for the study of sequence motifs is therefore important. iMotifs is a graphical motif analysis environment that allows visualization of annotated sequence motifs and scored motif hits in sequences. It also offers motif inference with the sensitive NestedMICA algorithm, as well as overrepresentation and pairwise motif matching capabilities. All of the analysis functionality is provided without the need to convert between file formats or learn different command line interfaces. The application includes a bundled and graphically integrated version of the NestedMICA motif inference suite that has no outside dependencies. Problems associated with local deployment of software are therefore avoided. Availability: iMotifs is licensed with the GNU Lesser General Public License v2.0 (LGPL 2.0). The software and its source is available at http://wiki.github.com/mz2/imotifs and can be run on Mac OS X Leopard (Intel/PowerPC). We also provide a cross-platform (Linux, OS X, Windows) LGPL 2.0 licensed library libxms for the Perl, Ruby, R and Objective-C programming languages for input and output of XMS formatted annotated sequence motif set files. Contact: matias.piipari@gmail.com; imotifs@googlegroups.com PMID:20106815

  5. An Integrated Sequence-Structure Database incorporating matching mRNA sequence, amino acid sequence and protein three-dimensional structure data.

    PubMed Central

    Adzhubei, I A; Adzhubei, A A; Neidle, S

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed a non-homologous database, termed the Integrated Sequence-Structure Database (ISSD) which comprises the coding sequences of genes, amino acid sequences of the corresponding proteins, their secondary structure and straight phi,psi angles assignments, and polypeptide backbone coordinates. Each protein entry in the database holds the alignment of nucleotide sequence, amino acid sequence and the PDB three-dimensional structure data. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for each entry are selected on the basis of exact matches of the source organism and cell environment. The current version 1.0 of ISSD is available on the WWW at http://www.protein.bio.msu.su/issd/ and includes 107 non-homologous mammalian proteins, of which 80 are human proteins. The database has been used by us for the analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in mRNA sequences showing their correlation with the three-dimensional structure features in the encoded proteins. Possible ISSD applications include optimisation of protein expression, improvement of the protein structure prediction accuracy, and analysis of evolutionary aspects of the nucleotide sequence-protein structure relationship. PMID:9399866

  6. Visualization of specific repetitive genomic sequences with fluorescent TALEs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Satoru; Sugano, Shigeo S; Kuwata, Keiko; Osakabe, Keishi; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2016-11-01

    Live imaging of the dynamics of nuclear organization provides the opportunity to uncover the mechanisms responsible for four-dimensional genome architecture. Here, we describe the use of fluorescent protein (FP) fusions of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to visualize endogenous genomic sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ability to engineer sequence-specific TALEs permits the investigation of precise genomic sequences. We could detect TALE-FP signals associated with centromeric, telomeric, and rDNA repeats and the signal distribution was consistent with that observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. TALE-FPs are advantageous because they permit the observation of intact tissues. We used our TALE-FP method to investigate the nuclei of several multicellular plant tissues including roots, hypocotyls, leaves, and flowers. Because TALE-FPs permit live-cell imaging, we successfully observed the temporal dynamics of centromeres and telomeres in plant organs. Fusing TALEs to multimeric FPs enhanced the signal intensity when observing telomeres. We found that the mobility of telomeres was different in sub-nuclear regions. Transgenic plants stably expressing TALE-FPs will provide new insights into chromatin organization and dynamics in multicellular organisms.

  7. Visualization of specific repetitive genomic sequences with fluorescent TALEs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Satoru; Sugano, Shigeo S.; Kuwata, Keiko; Osakabe, Keishi; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2016-01-01

    Live imaging of the dynamics of nuclear organization provides the opportunity to uncover the mechanisms responsible for four-dimensional genome architecture. Here, we describe the use of fluorescent protein (FP) fusions of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to visualize endogenous genomic sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ability to engineer sequence-specific TALEs permits the investigation of precise genomic sequences. We could detect TALE-FP signals associated with centromeric, telomeric, and rDNA repeats and the signal distribution was consistent with that observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. TALE-FPs are advantageous because they permit the observation of intact tissues. We used our TALE-FP method to investigate the nuclei of several multicellular plant tissues including roots, hypocotyls, leaves, and flowers. Because TALE-FPs permit live-cell imaging, we successfully observed the temporal dynamics of centromeres and telomeres in plant organs. Fusing TALEs to multimeric FPs enhanced the signal intensity when observing telomeres. We found that the mobility of telomeres was different in sub-nuclear regions. Transgenic plants stably expressing TALE-FPs will provide new insights into chromatin organization and dynamics in multicellular organisms. PMID:27811079

  8. Complete amino acid sequence and structure characterization of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Theerasilp, S; Hitotsuya, H; Nakajo, S; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1989-04-25

    The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of modifying sour taste into sweet taste. The complete amino acid sequence of miraculin purified from miracle fruits by a newly developed method (Theerasilp, S., and Kurihara, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11536-11539) was determined by an automatic Edman degradation method. Miraculin was a single polypeptide with 191 amino acid residues. The calculated molecular weight based on the amino acid sequence and the carbohydrate content (13.9%) was 24,600. Asn-42 and Asn-186 were linked N-glycosidically to carbohydrate chains. High homology was found between the amino acid sequences of miraculin and soybean trypsin inhibitor.

  9. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using a bifunctional hybridization probe

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detecting and isolating a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids is provided using a bifunctional hybridization probe capable of hybridizing to the target sequence that includes a detectable marker and a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent. A kit is also provided for detecting a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids using a bifunctional hybridization probe according to this method.

  10. ProfileGrids as a new visual representation of large multiple sequence alignments: a case study of the RecA protein family

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Alberto I; Almada, Albert E; Abajian, Aaron C

    2008-01-01

    Background Multiple sequence alignments are a fundamental tool for the comparative analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. However, large data sets are no longer manageable for visualization and investigation using the traditional stacked sequence alignment representation. Results We introduce ProfileGrids that represent a multiple sequence alignment as a matrix color-coded according to the residue frequency occurring at each column position. JProfileGrid is a Java application for computing and analyzing ProfileGrids. A dynamic interaction with the alignment information is achieved by changing the ProfileGrid color scheme, by extracting sequence subsets at selected residues of interest, and by relating alignment information to residue physical properties. Conserved family motifs can be identified by the overlay of similarity plot calculations on a ProfileGrid. Figures suitable for publication can be generated from the saved spreadsheet output of the colored matrices as well as by the export of conservation information for use in the PyMOL molecular visualization program. We demonstrate the utility of ProfileGrids on 300 bacterial homologs of the RecA family – a universally conserved protein involved in DNA recombination and repair. Careful attention was paid to curating the collected RecA sequences since ProfileGrids allow the easy identification of rare residues in an alignment. We relate the RecA alignment sequence conservation to the following three topics: the recently identified DNA binding residues, the unexplored MAW motif, and a unique Bacillus subtilis RecA homolog sequence feature. Conclusion ProfileGrids allow large protein families to be visualized more effectively than the traditional stacked sequence alignment form. This new graphical representation facilitates the determination of the sequence conservation at residue positions of interest, enables the examination of structural patterns by using residue physical properties, and permits the display

  11. ABRF ESRG 2005 Study: Identification of Seven Modified Amino Acids by Edman Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Brune, D.; Denslow, N.D.; Kobayashi, R.; Lane, W.S.; Leone, J.W.; Madden, B.J.; Neveu, J. M.; Pohl, J.

    2006-01-01

    Identification of modified amino acids can be a challenging part for Edman degradation sequence analysis, largely because they are not included among the commonly used phenylthiohydantion amino acid standards. Yet many can have unique retention times and can be assigned by an experienced researcher or through the use of a guide showing their typical chromatography characteristics. The Edman Sequencing Research Group (ESRG) 2005 study is a continuation of the 2004 study, in which the participating laboratories were provided a synthetic peptide and asked to identify the modified amino acids present in the sequence. The study sample provided an opportunity to sequence a peptide containing a variety of modified amino acids and note their retention times relative to the common amino acids. It also allowed the ESRG to compile the chromatographic properties and intensities from multiple instruments and tabulate an average elution position for these modified amino acids on commonly used instruments. Participating laboratories were given 2000 pmoles of a synthetic peptide, 18 amino acids long, containing the following modified amino acids: dimethyl- and trimethyl-lysine, 3-methyl-histidine, N-carbamyl-lysine, cystine, N-methyl-alanine, and isoaspartic acid. The modified amino acids were interspersed with standard amino acids to help in the assessment of initial and repetitive yields. In addition to filling in an assignment sheet, which included retention times and peak areas, participants were asked to provide specific details about the parameters used for the sequencing run. References for some of the modified amino acid elution characteristics were provided and the participants had the option of viewing a list of the modified amino acids present in the peptide at the ESRG Web site. The ABRF ESRG 2005 sample is the seventeenth in a series of studies designed to aid laboratories in evaluating their abilities to obtain and interpret amino acid sequence data. PMID:17122064

  12. Feature selection from short amino acid sequences in phosphorylation prediction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecławski, Jakub; Jankowski, Stanisław; Szymański, Zbigniew

    The paper describes solution of feature selection from amino acid sequences in phosphorylation prediction problem. We show that even for short sequences the variable selection leads to better classification performance. Moreover, the final simplicity of models allows for better data understanding and can be used by an expert for further analysis. The feature selection process is divided into two parts: i) the classification tree is used for finding the most relevant positions in amino acid sequences, ii) then the contrast pattern kernel is applied for pattern selection. This work summarizes the research made on classification of short amino acid sequences. The results of the research allowed us to propose a general scheme of amino acid sequence analysis.

  13. Identification of Nucleic Acid High Affinity Binding Sequences of Proteins by SELEX.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for the identification of nucleic acid sequences bound with high affinity by proteins or by other molecules suitable for a partitioning assay. Here, a histidine-tagged protein is allowed to interact with a pool of nucleic acids and the protein-nucleic acid complexes formed are retained on a Ni-NTA matrix. Nucleic acids with a low level of recognition by the protein are washed away. The pool of recovered nucleic acids is amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and is submitted to further rounds of selection. Each round of selection increases the proportion of sequences that are avidly bound by the protein of interest. The cloning and sequencing of these sequences finally completes their identification.

  14. Identification of nucleic acid high-affinity binding sequences of proteins by SELEX.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A technique is described for the identification of nucleic acid sequences bound with high affinity by proteins or by other molecules suitable for a partitioning assay. Here, a histidine-tagged protein is allowed to interact with a pool of nucleic acids and the protein-nucleic acid complexes formed are retained on a Ni-NTA matrix. Nucleic acids with a low level of recognition by the protein are washed away. The pool of recovered nucleic acids is amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and is submitted to further rounds of selection. Each round of selection increases the proportion of sequences that are avidly bound by the protein of interest. The cloning and sequencing of these sequences finally completes their identification.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis acidic phospholipase A2: isolation and partial amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Guajardo, Brenda L; González-Salazar, Francisco; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor M; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Garza-González, Jesús N; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of acute disease worldwide, and trichomoniasis is the most common and curable disease, generating more than 170 million cases annually worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy in vitro cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa, where the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been reported as potential virulence factors. These enzymes have been partially characterized from the subcellular fraction S30 of pathogenic T. vaginalis strains. The main objective of this study was to purify a phospholipase A2 from T. vaginalis, make a partial characterization, obtain a partial amino acid sequence, and determine its enzymatic participation as hemolytic factor causing lysis of erythrocytes. Trichomonas S30, RF30 and UFF30 sub-fractions from GT-15 strain have the capacity to hydrolyze [2-(14)C-PA]-PC at pH 6.0. Proteins from the UFF30 sub-fraction were separated by affinity chromatography into two eluted fractions with detectable PLA A2 activity. The EDTA-eluted fraction was analyzed by HPLC using on-line HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and two protein peaks were observed at 8.2 and 13 kDa. Peptide sequences were identified from the proteins present in the eluted EDTA UFF30 fraction; bioinformatic analysis using Protein Link Global Server charged with T. vaginalis protein database suggests that eluted peptides correspond a putative ubiquitin protein in the 8.2 kDa fraction and a phospholipase preserved in the 13 kDa fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction hydrolyzed [2-(14)C-PA]-PC lyses erythrocytes from Sprague-Dawley in a time and dose-dependent manner. The acidic hemolytic activity decreased by 84% with the addition of 100 μM of Rosenthal's inhibitor.

  16. DSSR-enhanced visualization of nucleic acid structures in Jmol

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sophisticated and interactive visualizations are essential for making sense of the intricate 3D structures of macromolecules. For proteins, secondary structural components are routinely featured in molecular graphics visualizations. However, the field of RNA structural bioinformatics is still lagging behind; for example, current molecular graphics tools lack built-in support even for base pairs, double helices, or hairpin loops. DSSR (Dissecting the Spatial Structure of RNA) is an integrated and automated command-line tool for the analysis and annotation of RNA tertiary structures. It calculates a comprehensive and unique set of features for characterizing RNA, as well as DNA structures. Jmol is a widely used, open-source Java viewer for 3D structures, with a powerful scripting language. JSmol, its reincarnation based on native JavaScript, has a predominant position in the post Java-applet era for web-based visualization of molecular structures. The DSSR-Jmol integration presented here makes salient features of DSSR readily accessible, either via the Java-based Jmol application itself, or its HTML5-based equivalent, JSmol. The DSSR web service accepts 3D coordinate files (in mmCIF or PDB format) initiated from a Jmol or JSmol session and returns DSSR-derived structural features in JSON format. This seamless combination of DSSR and Jmol/JSmol brings the molecular graphics of 3D RNA structures to a similar level as that for proteins, and enables a much deeper analysis of structural characteristics. It fills a gap in RNA structural bioinformatics, and is freely accessible (via the Jmol application or the JSmol-based website http://jmol.x3dna.org). PMID:28472503

  17. Lyophilized Visually Readable Loop-Mediated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Detection Ebola Zaire RNA.

    PubMed

    Carter, Christoph; Akrami, Kevan; Hall, Drew; Smith, Davey; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah

    2017-02-24

    Recent viral outbreaks highlight the need for reliable, yet broadly deployable diagnostics for detection of epidemic and emerging pathogens. In this study we designed and optimized methods to visually detect viral nucleic acid by isothermal amplification and SYBR dye intercalation. We designed and tested loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers and lyophilized reactions to optimize the detection of Zaire Ebola Virus (ZEBOV) and further evolved the LAMP platform to allow room-temperature storage for deployment in resource limited settings. Our results demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for viral nucleic acid sequences with lower limits of detection of less than 100 copies. Moreover, lyophilized reaction mixtures retained activity for prolonged periods under dry conditions at room temperature. This approach offers a way for detection of emerging viruses in resource limited settings.

  18. Sequence-Specific Covalent Capture Coupled with High-Contrast Nanopore Detection of a Disease-Derived Nucleic Acid Sequence.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Maryam Imani; Shi, Ruicheng; Zhang, Xinyue; Gu, Li-Qun; Gates, Kent S

    2017-07-18

    Hybridization-based methods for the detection of nucleic acid sequences are important in research and medicine. Short probes provide sequence specificity, but do not always provide a durable signal. Sequence-specific covalent crosslink formation can anchor probes to target DNA and might also provide an additional layer of target selectivity. Here, we developed a new crosslinking reaction for the covalent capture of specific nucleic acid sequences. This process involved reaction of an abasic (Ap) site in a probe strand with an adenine residue in the target strand and was used for the detection of a disease-relevant T→A mutation at position 1799 of the human BRAF kinase gene sequence. Ap-containing probes were easily prepared and displayed excellent specificity for the mutant sequence under isothermal assay conditions. It was further shown that nanopore technology provides a high contrast-in essence, digital-signal that enables sensitive, single-molecule sensing of the cross-linked duplexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration.

  20. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-03-24

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. 14 figs.

  1. PrDOS: prediction of disordered protein regions from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takashi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2007-07-01

    PrDOS is a server that predicts the disordered regions of a protein from its amino acid sequence (http://prdos.hgc.jp). The server accepts a single protein amino acid sequence, in either plain text or FASTA format. The prediction system is composed of two predictors: a predictor based on local amino acid sequence information and one based on template proteins. The server combines the results of the two predictors and returns a two-state prediction (order/disorder) and a disorder probability for each residue. The prediction results are sent by e-mail, and the server also provides a web-interface to check the results.

  2. The amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J

    1985-01-01

    Protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It comprises 65 amino acids including eight half-cystines. The complete amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 has been elucidated. The sequence (residues 1-50) resembles that of the N-terminal sequence of the subunits of a synergistic type protein and residues 51-65 that of the C-terminal sequence of an angusticeps type protein. Mixtures of protein CM-3 and angusticeps type proteins showed no apparent synergistic effect, in that their toxicity in combination was no greater than the sum of their individual toxicities.

  3. The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human γ heavy chains

    PubMed Central

    Press, E. M.; Hogg, N. M.

    1970-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human pathological immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin G1 class are reported. Comparison of the two sequences shows that the heavy-chain variable regions are similar in length to those of the light chains. The existence of heavy chain variable region subgroups is also deduced, from a comparison of these two sequences with those of another γ 1 chain, Eu, a μ chain, Ou, and the partial sequence of a fourth γ 1 chain, Ste. Carbohydrate has been found to be linked to an aspartic acid residue in the variable region of one of the γ 1 chains, Cor. PMID:5449120

  4. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis.

  5. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  6. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at approximately 4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at approximately 2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  7. SeqX: a tool to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures.

    PubMed

    Biro, Jan C; Fördös, Gergely

    2005-07-12

    The interacting residues of protein and nucleic acid sequences are close to each other - they are co-located. Structure databases (like Protein Data Bank, PDB and Nucleic Acid Data Bank, NDB) contain all information about these co-locations; however it is not an easy task to penetrate this complex information. We developed a JAVA tool, called SeqX for this purpose. SeqX tool is useful to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. The user: a. selects a structure from PDB; b. chooses an atom that is commonly present in every residues of the nucleic acid and/or protein structure(s). c. defines a distance from these atoms (3-15 A). The SeqX tool detects every residue that is located within the defined distances from the defined "backbone" atom(s); provides a DotPlot-like visualization (Residues Contact Map), and calculates the frequency of every possible residue pairs (Residue Contact Table) in the observed structure. It is possible to exclude +/- 1 to 10 neighbor residues in the same polymeric chain from detection, which greatly improves the specificity of detections (up to 60% when tested on dsDNA). Results obtained on protein structures showed highly significant correlations with results obtained from literature (p < 0.0001, n = 210, four different subsets). The co-location frequency of physico-chemically compatible amino acids is significantly higher than is calculated and expected in random protein sequences (p < 0.0001, n = 80). The tool is simple and easy to use and provides a quick and reliable visualization and analyses of residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. AVAILABILITY AND REQUIREMENTS: http://janbiro.com/Downloads.html SeqX, Java J2SE Runtime Environment 5.0 (available from [see Additional file 1] http://www.sun.com) and at least a 1 GHz processor and with a minimum 256 Mb RAM. Source codes are available from the authors.

  8. SeqX: a tool to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Jan C; Fördös, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    Background The interacting residues of protein and nucleic acid sequences are close to each other – they are co-located. Structure databases (like Protein Data Bank, PDB and Nucleic Acid Data Bank, NDB) contain all information about these co-locations; however it is not an easy task to penetrate this complex information. We developed a JAVA tool, called SeqX for this purpose. Results SeqX tool is useful to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. The user a. selects a structure from PDB; b. chooses an atom that is commonly present in every residues of the nucleic acid and/or protein structure(s) c. defines a distance from these atoms (3–15 Å). The SeqX tool detects every residue that is located within the defined distances from the defined "backbone" atom(s); provides a DotPlot-like visualization (Residues Contact Map), and calculates the frequency of every possible residue pairs (Residue Contact Table) in the observed structure. It is possible to exclude +/- 1 to 10 neighbor residues in the same polymeric chain from detection, which greatly improves the specificity of detections (up to 60% when tested on dsDNA). Results obtained on protein structures showed highly significant correlations with results obtained from literature (p < 0.0001, n = 210, four different subsets). The co-location frequency of physico-chemically compatible amino acids is significantly higher than is calculated and expected in random protein sequences (p < 0.0001, n = 80). Conclusion The tool is simple and easy to use and provides a quick and reliable visualization and analyses of residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. Availability and requirements SeqX, Java J2SE Runtime Environment 5.0 (available from [see Additional file 1] ) and at least a 1 GHz processor and with a minimum 256 Mb RAM. Source codes are available from the authors. PMID:16011796

  9. Visual, base-specific detection of nucleic acid hybridization using polymerization-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ryan R; Johnson, Leah M; Bowman, Christopher N

    2009-03-15

    Polymerization-based signal amplification offers sensitive visualization of biotinylated biomolecules functionalized to glass microarrays in a manner suitable for point-of-care use. Here we report using this method for visual detection of multiplexed nucleic acid hybridizations from complex media and develop an application toward point mutation detection and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. Primer extension reactions were employed to label selectively and universally all complementary surface DNA hybrids with photoinitiators, permitting simultaneous and dynamic photopolymerization from positive sites to 0.5-nM target concentrations. Dramatic improvements in signal ratios between complementary and mismatched hybrids enabled visual discrimination of single base differences in KRAS codon-12 biomarkers.

  10. The Chinese hamster Alu-equivalent sequence: a conserved highly repetitious, interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in mammals has a structure suggestive of a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Toomey, T P; Leinwand, L; Jelinek, W R

    1981-01-01

    A consensus sequence has been determined for a major interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid repeat in the genome of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells). This sequence is extensively homologous to (i) the human Alu sequence (P. L. Deininger et al., J. Mol. Biol., in press), (ii) the mouse B1 interspersed repetitious sequence (Krayev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1201-1215, 1980) (iii) an interspersed repetitious sequence from African green monkey deoxyribonucleic acid (Dhruva et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:4514-4518, 1980) and (iv) the CHO and mouse 4.5S ribonucleic acid (this report; F. Harada and N. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1273-1285, 1980). Because the CHO consensus sequence shows significant homology to the human Alu sequence it is termed the CHO Alu-equivalent sequence. A conserved structure surrounding CHO Alu-equivalent family members can be recognized. It is similar to that surrounding the human Alu and the mouse B1 sequences, and is represented as follows: direct repeat-CHO-Alu-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. A composite interspersed repetitious sequence has been identified. Its structure is represented as follows: direct repeat-residue 47 to 107 of CHO-Alu-non-Alu repetitious sequence-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. Because the Alu flanking sequences resemble those that flank known transposable elements, we think it likely that the Alu sequence dispersed throughout the mammalian genome by transposition. Images PMID:9279371

  11. The amino acid sequence of goat beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Préaux, G; Braunitzer, G; Schrank, B; Stangl, A

    1979-11-01

    The isolation of beta-lactoglobulin from milk of the goat is described. The purified protein was checked for purity and has been characterized by its gross composition and end groups. The native or the modified protein was then degraded by tryptic and cyanogen bromide cleavage. The cleavage products were isolated and sequenced in the sequenator using a Quadrol and propyne program. These data provide the complete sequence of beta-lactoglobulin of the goat. The results are discussed and compared particularly with bovine beta-lactoglobulin components AB. Some biological aspects are described.

  12. Layered materials with coexisting acidic and basic sites for catalytic one-pot reaction sequences.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-06-17

    Acidic montmorillonite-immobilized primary amines (H-mont-NH(2)) were found to be excellent acid-base bifunctional catalysts for one-pot reaction sequences, which are the first materials with coexisting acid and base sites active for acid-base tamdem reactions. For example, tandem deacetalization-Knoevenagel condensation proceeded successfully with the H-mont-NH(2), affording the corresponding condensation product in a quantitative yield. The acidity of the H-mont-NH(2) was strongly influenced by the preparation solvent, and the base-catalyzed reactions were enhanced by interlayer acid sites.

  13. Computer Simulation of the Determination of Amino Acid Sequences in Polypeptides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubert, Stephen D.; Sontum, Stephen F.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a computer program that generates a random string of amino acids and guides the student in determining the correct sequence of a given protein by using experimental analytic data for that protein. (MLH)

  14. Computer Simulation of the Determination of Amino Acid Sequences in Polypeptides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubert, Stephen D.; Sontum, Stephen F.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a computer program that generates a random string of amino acids and guides the student in determining the correct sequence of a given protein by using experimental analytic data for that protein. (MLH)

  15. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated glycolic acids via sequenced brook and Ireland--claisen rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-05

    Organozinc, -magnesium, and -lithium nucleophiles initiate a Brook/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence of allylic silyl glyoxylates resulting in the formation of gamma,delta-unsaturated alpha-silyloxy acids.

  16. Self-Organization of Spatio-Temporal Hierarchy via Learning of Dynamic Visual Image Patterns on Action Sequences.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns.

  17. Self-Organization of Spatio-Temporal Hierarchy via Learning of Dynamic Visual Image Patterns on Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns. PMID:26147887

  18. Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.

  19. The Effect of Using a Visual Representation Tool in a Teaching-Learning Sequence for Teaching Newton's Third Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savinainen, Antti; Mäkynen, Asko; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS) that focuses on the notion of interaction in teaching Newton's third law (N3 law) which is, as earlier studies have shown, a challenging topic for students to learn. The TLS made systematic use of a visual representation tool--an interaction diagram (ID)--highlighting…

  20. The Effect of Using a Visual Representation Tool in a Teaching-Learning Sequence for Teaching Newton's Third Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savinainen, Antti; Mäkynen, Asko; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS) that focuses on the notion of interaction in teaching Newton's third law (N3 law) which is, as earlier studies have shown, a challenging topic for students to learn. The TLS made systematic use of a visual representation tool--an interaction diagram (ID)--highlighting…

  1. A Study of the Effects on Pupil Achievement of Certain Audio and Visual Presentation Sequences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galfo, Armand J.

    An investigation was made to determine whether pupils learn more when sight and sound are not presented simultaneously, and whether audio or visual redundancy cause a cueing effect which produces a superior sight-sound or sound-sight sequence. Commercially produced filmstrip lessons were converted into two experimental and two control sequences…

  2. Genome sequence of the acid-tolerant strain Rhizobium sp. LPU83.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Del Papa, María Florencia; Martini, Carla; Pühler, Alfred; Lagares, Antonio; Schlüter, Andreas; Pistorio, Mariano

    2014-04-20

    Rhizobia are important members of the soil microbiome since they enter into nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with different legume host plants. Rhizobium sp. LPU83 is an acid-tolerant Rhizobium strain featuring a broad-host-range. However, it is ineffective in nitrogen fixation. Here, the improved draft genome sequence of this strain is reported. Genome sequence information provides the basis for analysis of its acid tolerance, symbiotic properties and taxonomic classification.

  3. The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Matsumoto, T; Torikata, T

    1998-10-01

    The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity were analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had one amino acid substitution at position 102 (Arg to Gly) comparing with Indian peafowl lysozyme and four amino acid substitutions at positions 3 (Phe to Tyr), 15 (His to Leu), 41 (Gln to His), and 121 (Gln to His) with chicken lysozyme. Analysis of the time-courses of reaction using N-acetylglucosamine pentamer as a substrate showed a difference of binding free energy change (-0.4 kcal/mol) at subsites A between monal pheasant and Indian peafowl lysozyme. This was assumed to be caused by the amino acid substitution at subsite A with loss of a positive charge at position 102 (Arg102 to Gly).

  4. Sequence-selective single-molecule alkylation with a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide visualized in a DNA nanoscaffold.

    PubMed

    Yoshidome, Tomofumi; Endo, Masayuki; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hidaka, Kumi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-14

    We demonstrate a novel strategy for visualizing sequence-selective alkylation of target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide in a designed DNA origami scaffold. Doubly functionalized PI polyamide was designed by introduction of an alkylating agent 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI) and biotin for sequence-selective alkylation at the target sequence and subsequent streptavidin labeling, respectively. Selective alkylation of the target site in the substrate DNA was observed by analysis using sequencing gel electrophoresis. For the single-molecule observation of the alkylation by functionalized PI polyamide using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the target position in the dsDNA (∼200 base pairs) was alkylated and then visualized by labeling with streptavidin. Newly designed DNA origami scaffold named "five-well DNA frame" carrying five different dsDNA sequences in its cavities was used for the detailed analysis of the sequence-selectivity and alkylation. The 64-mer dsDNAs were introduced to five individual wells, in which target sequence AGTXCCA/TGGYACT (XY = AT, TA, GC, CG) was employed as fully matched (X = G) and one-base mismatched (X = A, T, C) sequences. The fully matched sequence was alkylated with 88% selectivity over other mismatched sequences. In addition, the PI polyamide failed to attach to the target sequence lacking the alkylation site after washing and streptavidin treatment. Therefore, the PI polyamide discriminated the one mismatched nucleotide at the single-molecule level, and alkylation anchored the PI polyamide to the target dsDNA.

  5. Single-chain structure of human ceruloplasmin: the complete amino acid sequence of the whole molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, N; Ortel, T L; Putnam, F W

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal 67,000-dalton (67-kDa) fragment of human ceruloplasmin and have established overlapping sequences between the 67-kDa and 50-kDa fragments and between the 50-kDa and 19-kDa fragments. The 67-kDa fragment contains 480 amino acid residues and three glucosamine oligosaccharides. These results together with our previous sequence data for the 50-kDa and 19-kDa fragments complete the amino acid sequence of human ceruloplasmin. The polypeptide chain has a total of 1,046 amino acid residues (Mr 120,085) and has attachment sites for four glucosamine oligosaccharides; together these account for the total molecular mass of human ceruloplasmin (132 kDa). The sequence analysis of the peptides overlapping the fragments showed that one additional amino acid, arginine, is present between the 67-kDa and 50-kDa fragments, and another, lysine, is between the 50-kDa and 19-kDa fragments. Only two apparent sites of amino acid interchange have been identified in the polypeptide chain. Both involve a single-point interchange of glycine and lysine that would result in a difference in charge. The results of the complete sequence analysis verified that human ceruloplasmin is composed of a single polypeptide chain and that the subunit-like fragments are produced by proteolytic cleavage during purification (and possibly also in vivo). PMID:6582496

  6. Myoglobin of the shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni: isolation and amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1979-06-01

    Myoglobin isolated from red muscle of the shark H. portusjacksoni was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on sulfopropyl-Sephadex and gel-filtration. Amino acid analysis and sequence determination showed 148 amino acid residues. The amino terminal residue is acetylated as shown by mass spectrographic analysis of N-terminal peptides. There is a deletion of four residues at the amino terminal end as well as one residue in the CD interhelical area relative to other myoglobins. The complete amino acid sequence has been determined following digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin and staphylococcal protease. Sequences of the purified peptides were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The amino acid sequence showed approximately 85 differences from mammalian, monotreme and bird myoglobins. The date of divergence of the shark H. portusjacksoni from these other orders was estimated at 450 +/- 16 million years, based on the number of amino acid differences between species and allowing for multiple mutations during the evolutionary period. This estimate agrees well with similar estimates made using alpha- and beta-globin sequences, in contrast to widely differing estimates of dates of divergence for monotremes using the same three globin chains. Compared with myoglobins from species previously studied, there are many more differences in amino acid sequences, and in many positions residues are found that are more characteristic of alpha- and beta-globins, suggesting a conservation of residues over a long period of evolutionary time. There are fewer stabilizing hydrogen bonds and salt-linkages than in other myoglobins.

  7. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-10-06

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. Copyright © 2016 Geissler et al.

  8. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii. The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. PMID:27795248

  9. Amino acid sequence of fibrolase, a direct-acting fibrinolytic enzyme from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix venom.

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, A.; Chamberlain, S. H.; Chu, H. L.; Retzios, A. D.; Markland, F. S.; Masiarz, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of fibrolase, a fibrinolytic enzyme from southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix) venom, has been determined. This is the first report of the sequence of a direct-acting, nonhemorrhagic fibrinolytic enzyme found in snake venom. The majority of the sequence was established by automated Edman degradation of overlapping peptides generated by a variety of selective cleavage procedures. The amino-terminus is blocked by a cyclized glutamine (pyroglutamic acid) residue, and the sequence of this region of the molecule was determined by mass spectrometry. Fibrolase is composed of 203 residues in a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 22,891, as determined by the sequence. Its sequence is homologous to the sequence of the hemorrhagic toxin Ht-d of Crotalus atrox venom and with the sequences of two metalloproteinases from Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom. Microheterogeneity in the sequence was found at both the amino-terminus and at residues 189 and 192. All six cysteine residues in fibrolase are involved in disulfide bonds. A disulfide bond between cysteine-118 and cysteine-198 has been established and bonds between cysteines-158/165 and between cysteines-160/192 are inferred from the homology to Ht-d. Secondary structure prediction reveals a very low percentage of alpha-helix (4%), but much greater beta-structure (39.5%). Analysis of the sequence reveals the absence of asparagine-linked glycosylation sites defined by the consensus sequence: asparagine-X-serine/threonine. PMID:1304358

  10. An interactive environment for agile analysis and visualization of ChIP-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Lerdrup, Mads; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi; Hansen, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    To empower experimentalists with a means for fast and comprehensive chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data analyses, we introduce an integrated computational environment, EaSeq. The software combines the exploratory power of genome browsers with an extensive set of interactive and user-friendly tools for genome-wide abstraction and visualization. It enables experimentalists to easily extract information and generate hypotheses from their own data and public genome-wide datasets. For demonstration purposes, we performed meta-analyses of public Polycomb ChIP-seq data and established a new screening approach to analyze more than 900 datasets from mouse embryonic stem cells for factors potentially associated with Polycomb recruitment. EaSeq, which is freely available and works on a standard personal computer, can substantially increase the throughput of many analysis workflows, facilitate transparency and reproducibility by automatically documenting and organizing analyses, and enable a broader group of scientists to gain insights from ChIP-seq data.

  11. PASTA: Ultra-Large Multiple Sequence Alignment for Nucleotide and Amino-Acid Sequences.

    PubMed

    Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Guo, Sheng; Wang, Li-San; Kim, Junhyong; Warnow, Tandy

    2015-05-01

    We introduce PASTA, a new multiple sequence alignment algorithm. PASTA uses a new technique to produce an alignment given a guide tree that enables it to be both highly scalable and very accurate. We present a study on biological and simulated data with up to 200,000 sequences, showing that PASTA produces highly accurate alignments, improving on the accuracy and scalability of the leading alignment methods (including SATé). We also show that trees estimated on PASTA alignments are highly accurate--slightly better than SATé trees, but with substantial improvements relative to other methods. Finally, PASTA is faster than SATé, highly parallelizable, and requires relatively little memory.

  12. Fluorogenic Substrates for Visualizing Acidic Organelle Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Harlan, Fiona Karen; Lusk, Jason Scott; Mohr, Breanna Michelle; Guzikowski, Anthony Peter; Batchelor, Robert Hardy; Jiang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic cytoplasmic organelles that are present in all nucleated mammalian cells and are involved in a variety of cellular processes including repair of the plasma membrane, defense against pathogens, cholesterol homeostasis, bone remodeling, metabolism, apoptosis and cell signaling. Defects in lysosomal enzyme activity have been associated with a variety of neurological diseases including Parkinson’s Disease, Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Fluorogenic lysosomal staining probes were synthesized for labeling lysosomes and other acidic organelles in a live-cell format and were shown to be capable of monitoring lysosomal metabolic activity. The new targeted substrates were prepared from fluorescent dyes having a low pKa value for optimum fluorescence at the lower physiological pH found in lysosomes. They were modified to contain targeting groups to direct their accumulation in lysosomes as well as enzyme-cleavable functions for monitoring specific enzyme activities using a live-cell staining format. Application to the staining of cells derived from blood and skin samples of patients with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Krabbe and Gaucher Diseases as well as healthy human fibroblast and leukocyte control cells exhibited localization to the lysosome when compared with known lysosomal stain LysoTracker® Red DND-99 as well as with anti-LAMP1 Antibody staining. When cell metabolism was inhibited with chloroquine, staining with an esterase substrate was reduced, demonstrating that the substrates can be used to measure cell metabolism. When applied to diseased cells, the intensity of staining was reflective of lysosomal enzyme levels found in diseased cells. Substrates specific to the enzyme deficiencies in Gaucher or Krabbe disease patient cell lines exhibited reduced staining compared to that in non-diseased cells. The new lysosome-targeted fluorogenic substrates should be useful for research, diagnostics and

  13. Molecular Biocomputing Suite: a word processor add-in for the analysis and manipulation of nucleic acid and protein sequence data.

    PubMed

    Muller, P Y; Studer, E; Miserez, A R

    2001-12-01

    In all fields of molecular biology, researchers are increasingly challenged by experiments planned and evaluated on the basis of nucleic acid and protein sequence data generally retrieved from public databases. Despite the wide spectrum of available Web-based software tools for sequence analysis, the routine use of these tools has disadvantages, particularly because of the elaborate and heterogeneous ways of data input, output, and storage. Here we present a Visual Basic-encoded Microsoft Word Add-In, the Molecular BioComputing Suite (MBCS), available at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.BioTechniques.com). The MBCS software aims to manage and expedite a wide range of sequence analyses and manipulations using an integrated text editor environment including menu-guided commands. Its independence of sequence formats enables MBCS to be used as a pivotal application between other software tools for sequence analysis, manipulation, annotation, and editing.

  14. Visual detection of nucleic acids based on Mie scattering and the magnetophoretic effect.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zichen; Chen, Shan; Ho, John Kin Lim; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Chen, Ting-Hsuan

    2015-12-07

    Visual detection of nucleic acid biomarkers is a simple and convenient approach to point-of-care applications. However, issues of sensitivity and the handling of complex bio-fluids have posed challenges. Here we report on a visual method detecting nucleic acids using Mie scattering of polystyrene microparticles and the magnetophoretic effect. Magnetic microparticles (MMPs) and polystyrene microparticles (PMPs) were surface-functionalised with oligonucleotide probes, which can hybridise with target oligonucleotides in juxtaposition and lead to the formation of MMPs-targets-PMPs sandwich structures. Using an externally applied magnetic field, the magnetophoretic effect attracts the sandwich structure to the sidewall, which reduces the suspended PMPs and leads to a change in the light transmission via the Mie scattering. Based on the high extinction coefficient of the Mie scattering (∼3 orders of magnitude greater than that of the commonly used gold nanoparticles), our results showed the limit of detection to be 4 pM using a UV-Vis spectrometer or 10 pM by direct visual inspection. Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that this method is compatible with multiplex assays and detection in complex bio-fluids, such as whole blood or a pool of nucleic acids, without purification in advance. With a simplified operation procedure, low instrumentation requirement, high sensitivity and compatibility with complex bio-fluids, this method provides an ideal solution for visual detection of nucleic acids in resource-limited settings.

  15. Acetic acid visualization of the cervix: an alternative to cytologic screening.

    PubMed

    Megevand, E; Denny, L; Dehaeck, K; Soeters, R; Bloch, B

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the value of acetic acid visualization of the cervix as an alternative to cytologic screening. A prospective study was conducted in a squatter area in Cape Town, South Africa, on 2426 women who underwent speculum examination, naked-eye inspection of the cervix after application of acetic acid, and cytologic smear. The smears were stained and processed at the screening site. Patients with a positive reading after acetic acid or a smear indicating a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) were referred for immediate colposcopy, biopsy, and when indicated, treatment by large loop excision of the transformation zone. Therefore, histology was obtained on all patients with a positive acetic acid test or a positive cytology. Seventy-six women with positive reactions to acetic acid. Among the 2350 women with negative reactions, 254 had positive cervical smears; only 11 of these had histologic high-grade SIL. In contrast, 20 of the 61 women with positive cytology and positive acetic acid test had high-grade SIL on histology. Therefore, the acetic acid reaction enabled the observer to detect 20 of the 31 women (64%) who exhibited a high-grade SIL both on cytology and histology. In locations where access to cytopathology is limited, naked-eye visualization of the cervix after application of diluted acetic acid warrants consideration as an alternative in the detection of cervical premalignant lesions.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Gephyronic Acid Producer Cystobacter violaceus Strain Cb vi76

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D. Cole; Young, Jeanette; Carmichael, Rory; Tan, John

    2014-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of Cystobacter violaceus strain Cb vi76, which produces the eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor gephyronic acid, has been obtained. The genome contains numerous predicted secondary metabolite clusters, including the gephyronic acid biosynthetic pathway. This genome will contribute to the investigation of secondary metabolism in other Cystobacter strains. PMID:25502681

  17. SETG: Nucleic Acid Extraction and Sequencing for In Situ Life Detection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarro, A.; Hachey, J.; Tani, J.; Smith, A.; Bhattaru, S. A.; Pontefract, A.; Doebler, R.; Brown, M.; Ruvkun, G.; Zuber, M. T.; Carr, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    We are developing an integrated nucleic acid extraction and sequencing instrument: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) for in situ life detection on Mars. Our goals are to identify related or unrelated nucleic acid-based life on Mars.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium sp. Strain IPPAS B-1200 with a Unique Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Starikov, Alexander Y.; Usserbaeva, Aizhan A.; Sinetova, Maria A.; Sarsekeyeva, Fariza K.; Zayadan, Bolatkhan K.; Ustinova, Vera V.; Kupriyanova, Elena V.; Los, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS strain B-1200, isolated from Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan, and characterized by the unique fatty acid composition of its membrane lipids, which are enriched with myristic and myristoleic acids. The approximate genome size is 3.4 Mb, and the predicted number of coding sequences is 3,119. PMID:27856596

  19. Parvalbumins from coelacanth muscle. III. Amino acid sequence of the major component.

    PubMed

    Jauregui-Adell, J; Pechere, J F

    1978-09-26

    The primary structure of the major parvalbumin (pI = 4.52) from coelacanth muscle (Latimeria chalumnae) has been determined. Sequence analysis of the tryptic peptides, in some cases obtained with beta-trypsin, accounts for the total amino acid content of the protein. Chymotryptic peptides provide appropriate sequence overlaps, to complete the localization of the tryptic peptides. Examination of the amino acid sequence of this protein shows the typical structure of a beta-parvalbumin. Its position in the dendrogram of related calcium-binding proteins corresponds to that usually accepted for crossopterygians.

  20. Sequencing and computational analysis of complete genome sequences of Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus from acid lime and pummelo.

    PubMed

    Borah, Basanta K; Johnson, A M Anthony; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2009-08-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus, is the causative agent of Citrus mosaic disease in India. Although the virus has been detected in several citrus species, only two full-length genomes, one each from Sweet orange and Rangpur lime, are available in publicly accessible databases. In order to obtain a better understanding of the genetic variability of the virus in other citrus mosaic-affected citrus species, we performed the cloning and sequence analysis of complete genomes of CMBV from two additional citrus species, Acid lime and Pummelo. We show that CMBV genomes from the two hosts share high homology with previously reported CMBV sequences and hence conclude that the new isolates represent variants of the virus present in these species. Based on in silico sequence analysis, we predict the possible function of the protein encoded by one of the five ORFs.

  1. Enhanced visual responses in cat dLGN--potentiation by priming with excitatory amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rivadulla, C; Grieve, K L; Cudeiro, J

    1998-03-09

    Sustained iontophoresis of NMDA potentiated visual responses for minutes after the application in 16 of 38 cells (42%), peaking 3 min after the end of the application and declining to control levels within 12 min. Potentiation was also seen after application of ACPD (36%, n = 14) and AMPA (29%, n = 14), but not after application of ACh (n = 20). ACh also excites dLGN cells, but does not interact with amino acid receptors, and ACh receptors are not directly involved in the transmission of visual information. We suggest that this modulation is a form of visually induced potentiation which permits dynamic modification of the strength of visual information to be relayed to the cortex depending upon the history of previous activity levels.

  2. Analysis of cloned cDNA and genomic sequences for phytochrome: complete amino acid sequences for two gene products expressed in etiolated Avena.

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, H P; Barker, R F; Idler, K B; Lissemore, J L; Quail, P H

    1985-01-01

    Cloned cDNA and genomic sequences have been analyzed to deduce the amino acid sequence of phytochrome from etiolated Avena. Restriction endonuclease site polymorphism between clones indicates that at least four phytochrome genes are expressed in this tissue. Sequence analysis of two complete and one partial coding region shows approximately 98% homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels, with the majority of amino acid changes being conservative. High sequence homology is also found in the 5'-untranslated region but significant divergence occurs in the 3'-untranslated region. The phytochrome polypeptides are 1128 amino acid residues long corresponding to a molecular mass of 125 kdaltons. The known protein sequence at the chromophore attachment site occurs only once in the polypeptide, establishing that phytochrome has a single chromophore per monomer covalently linked to Cys-321. Computer analyses of the amino acid sequences have provided predictions regarding a number of structural features of the phytochrome molecule. PMID:3001642

  3. SNBRFinder: A Sequence-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Prediction of Nucleic Acid-Binding Residues

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions are central to various fundamental biological processes. Automated methods capable of reliably identifying DNA- and RNA-binding residues in protein sequence are assuming ever-increasing importance. The majority of current algorithms rely on feature-based prediction, but their accuracy remains to be further improved. Here we propose a sequence-based hybrid algorithm SNBRFinder (Sequence-based Nucleic acid-Binding Residue Finder) by merging a feature predictor SNBRFinderF and a template predictor SNBRFinderT. SNBRFinderF was established using the support vector machine whose inputs include sequence profile and other complementary sequence descriptors, while SNBRFinderT was implemented with the sequence alignment algorithm based on profile hidden Markov models to capture the weakly homologous template of query sequence. Experimental results show that SNBRFinderF was clearly superior to the commonly used sequence profile-based predictor and SNBRFinderT can achieve comparable performance to the structure-based template methods. Leveraging the complementary relationship between these two predictors, SNBRFinder reasonably improved the performance of both DNA- and RNA-binding residue predictions. More importantly, the sequence-based hybrid prediction reached competitive performance relative to our previous structure-based counterpart. Our extensive and stringent comparisons show that SNBRFinder has obvious advantages over the existing sequence-based prediction algorithms. The value of our algorithm is highlighted by establishing an easy-to-use web server that is freely accessible at http://ibi.hzau.edu.cn/SNBRFinder. PMID:26176857

  4. Amino acid sequence of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) chymotrypsin inhibitor, WCI-3.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Hara, S; Ikenaka, T

    1988-10-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of winged bean chymotrypsin inhibitor 3 (WCI-3) was determined by the conventional methods. WCI-3 consisted of 183 amino acid residues, but was heterogeneous in the carboxyl terminal region owing to the loss of one to four carboxyl terminal amino acid residues. The sequence of WCI-3 was highly homologous with those of soybean trypsin inhibitor Tia, winged bean trypsin inhibitor WTI-1, and Erythrina latissima trypsin inhibitor DE-3. One of the reactive site peptide bonds of WCI-3 was identified as Leu(65)-Ser(66), which was located at the same position as those of the other Kunitz-family leguminous proteinase inhibitors.

  5. Purification, characterization and partial amino acid sequence of glycogen synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Carabaza, A; Arino, J; Fox, J W; Villar-Palasi, C; Guinovart, J J

    1990-01-01

    Glycogen synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme showed a subunit molecular mass of 80 kDa. The holoenzyme appears to be a tetramer. Antibodies developed against purified yeast glycogen synthase inactivated the enzyme in yeast extracts and allowed the detection of the protein in Western blots. Amino acid analysis showed that the enzyme is very rich in glutamate and/or glutamine residues. The N-terminal sequence (11 amino acid residues) was determined. In addition, selected tryptic-digest peptides were purified by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. and submitted to gas-phase sequencing. Up to eight sequences (79 amino acid residues) could be aligned with the human muscle enzyme sequence. Levels of identity range between 37 and 100%, indicating that, although human and yeast glycogen synthases probably share some conserved regions, significant differences in their primary structure should be expected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2114092

  6. Amino acid sequence of anionic peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei.

    PubMed

    Baker, Margaret R; Zhao, Hongwei; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Li, Qing X

    2014-12-10

    Palm peroxidases are extremely stable and have uncommon substrate specificity. This study was designed to fill in the knowledge gap about the structures of a peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei. The complete amino acid sequence and partial glycosylation were determined by MALDI-top-down sequencing of native windmill palm tree peroxidase (WPTP), MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS of WPTP tryptic peptides, and cDNA sequencing. The propeptide of WPTP contained N- and C-terminal signal sequences which contained 21 and 17 amino acid residues, respectively. Mature WPTP was 306 amino acids in length, and its carbohydrate content ranged from 21% to 29%. Comparison to closely related royal palm tree peroxidase revealed structural features that may explain differences in their substrate specificity. The results can be used to guide engineering of WPTP and its novel applications.

  7. Amino Acid Sequence of Anionic Peroxidase from the Windmill Palm Tree Trachycarpus fortunei

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Palm peroxidases are extremely stable and have uncommon substrate specificity. This study was designed to fill in the knowledge gap about the structures of a peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei. The complete amino acid sequence and partial glycosylation were determined by MALDI-top-down sequencing of native windmill palm tree peroxidase (WPTP), MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS of WPTP tryptic peptides, and cDNA sequencing. The propeptide of WPTP contained N- and C-terminal signal sequences which contained 21 and 17 amino acid residues, respectively. Mature WPTP was 306 amino acids in length, and its carbohydrate content ranged from 21% to 29%. Comparison to closely related royal palm tree peroxidase revealed structural features that may explain differences in their substrate specificity. The results can be used to guide engineering of WPTP and its novel applications. PMID:25383699

  8. Temporal and Spatial Predictability of an Irrelevant Event Differently Affect Detection and Memory of Items in a Visual Sequence.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Junji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the temporal and spatial predictability of a task-irrelevant visual event affects the detection and memory of a visual item embedded in a continuously changing sequence. Participants observed 11 sequentially presented letters, during which a task-irrelevant visual event was either present or absent. Predictabilities of spatial location and temporal position of the event were controlled in 2 × 2 conditions. In the spatially predictable conditions, the event occurred at the same location within the stimulus sequence or at another location, while, in the spatially unpredictable conditions, it occurred at random locations. In the temporally predictable conditions, the event timing was fixed relative to the order of the letters, while in the temporally unpredictable condition; it could not be predicted from the letter order. Participants performed a working memory task and a target detection reaction time (RT) task. Memory accuracy was higher for a letter simultaneously presented at the same location as the event in the temporally unpredictable conditions, irrespective of the spatial predictability of the event. On the other hand, the detection RTs were only faster for a letter simultaneously presented at the same location as the event when the event was both temporally and spatially predictable. Thus, to facilitate ongoing detection processes, an event must be predictable both in space and time, while memory processes are enhanced by temporally unpredictable (i.e., surprising) events. Evidently, temporal predictability has differential effects on detection and memory of a visual item embedded in a sequence of images.

  9. RNAblueprint: flexible multiple target nucleic acid sequence design.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Stefan; Tschiatschek, Birgit; Flamm, Christoph; Hofacker, Ivo L; Findeiß, Sven

    2017-09-15

    Realizing the value of synthetic biology in biotechnology and medicine requires the design of molecules with specialized functions. Due to its close structure to function relationship, and the availability of good structure prediction methods and energy models, RNA is perfectly suited to be synthetically engineered with predefined properties. However, currently available RNA design tools cannot be easily adapted to accommodate new design specifications. Furthermore, complicated sampling and optimization methods are often developed to suit a specific RNA design goal, adding to their inflexibility. We developed a C ++  library implementing a graph coloring approach to stochastically sample sequences compatible with structural and sequence constraints from the typically very large solution space. The approach allows to specify and explore the solution space in a well defined way. Our library also guarantees uniform sampling, which makes optimization runs performant by not only avoiding re-evaluation of already found solutions, but also by raising the probability of finding better solutions for long optimization runs. We show that our software can be combined with any other software package to allow diverse RNA design applications. Scripting interfaces allow the easy adaption of existing code to accommodate new scenarios, making the whole design process very flexible. We implemented example design approaches written in Python to demonstrate these advantages. RNAblueprint , Python implementations and benchmark datasets are available at github: https://github.com/ViennaRNA . s.hammer@univie.ac.at, ivo@tbi.univie.ac.at or sven@tbi.univie.ac.at. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Visualization of an endogenous retinoic acid gradient across embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Satoshi; Iimura, Tadahiro; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-04-18

    In vertebrate development, the body plan is determined by primordial morphogen gradients that suffuse the embryo. Retinoic acid (RA) is an important morphogen involved in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of structures, including the hindbrain and paraxial mesoderm. RA diffuses over long distances, and its activity is spatially restricted by synthesizing and degrading enzymes. However, gradients of endogenous morphogens in live embryos have not been directly observed; indeed, their existence, distribution and requirement for correct patterning remain controversial. Here we report a family of genetically encoded indicators for RA that we have termed GEPRAs (genetically encoded probes for RA). Using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer we engineered the ligand-binding domains of RA receptors to incorporate cyan-emitting and yellow-emitting fluorescent proteins as fluorescence resonance energy transfer donor and acceptor, respectively, for the reliable detection of ambient free RA. We created three GEPRAs with different affinities for RA, enabling the quantitative measurement of physiological RA concentrations. Live imaging of zebrafish embryos at the gastrula and somitogenesis stages revealed a linear concentration gradient of endogenous RA in a two-tailed source-sink arrangement across the embryo. Modelling of the observed linear RA gradient suggests that the rate of RA diffusion exceeds the spatiotemporal dynamics of embryogenesis, resulting in stability to perturbation. Furthermore, we used GEPRAs in combination with genetic and pharmacological perturbations to resolve competing hypotheses on the structure of the RA gradient during hindbrain formation and somitogenesis. Live imaging of endogenous concentration gradients across embryonic development will allow the precise assignment of molecular mechanisms to developmental dynamics and will accelerate the application of approaches based on morphogen gradients to tissue engineering and

  11. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a new subtilisin from an alkaliphilic Bacillus isolate.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Magallones, Marietta V; Takimura, Yasushi; Hatada, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu

    2003-10-01

    The gene for a new subtilisin from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. KSM-LD1 was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of the gene encoded a 97 amino-acid prepro-peptide plus a 307 amino-acid mature enzyme that contained a possible catalytic triad of residues, Asp32, His66, and Ser224. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme (LD1) showed approximately 65% identity to those of subtilisins SprC and SprD from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. LG12. The amino acid sequence identities of LD1 to those of previously reported true subtilisins and high-alkaline proteases were below 60%. LD1 was characteristically stable during incubation with surfactants and chemical oxidants. Interestingly, an oxidizable Met residue is located next to the catalytic Ser224 of the enzyme as in the cases of the oxidation-susceptible subtilisins reported to date.

  12. Amino acid sequence of homologous rat atrial peptides: natriuretic activity of native and synthetic forms.

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, N G; Lazure, C; Chrétien, M; Thibault, G; Garcia, R; Cantin, M; Genest, J; Nutt, R F; Brady, S F; Lyle, T A

    1984-01-01

    A substance called atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), localized in secretory granules of atrial cardiocytes, was isolated as four homologous natriuretic peptides from homogenates of rat atria. The complete sequence of the longest form showed that it is composed of 33 amino acids. The three other shorter forms (2-33, 3-33, and 8-33) represent amino-terminally truncated versions of the 33 amino acid parent molecule as shown by analysis of sequence, amino acid composition, or both. The proposed primary structure agrees entirely with the amino acid composition and reveals no significant sequence homology with any known protein or segment of protein. The short form ANF-(8-33) was synthesized by a multi-fragment condensation approach and the synthetic product was shown to exhibit specific activity comparable to that of the natural ANF-(3-33). PMID:6232612

  13. Shark myelin basic protein: amino acid sequence, secondary structure, and self-association.

    PubMed

    Milne, T J; Atkins, A R; Warren, J A; Auton, W P; Smith, R

    1990-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) from the Whaler shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) has been purified from acid extracts of a chloroform/methanol pellet from whole brains. The amino acid sequence of the majority of the protein has been determined and compared with the sequences of other MBPs. The shark protein has only 44% homology with the bovine protein, but, in common with other MBPs, it has basic residues distributed throughout the sequence and no extensive segments that are predicted to have an ordered secondary structure in solution. Shark MBP lacks the triproline sequence previously postulated to form a hairpin bend in the molecule. The region containing the putative consensus sequence for encephalitogenicity in the guinea pig contains several substitutions, thus accounting for the lack of activity of the shark protein. Studies of the secondary structure and self-association have shown that shark MBP possesses solution properties similar to those of the bovine protein, despite the extensive differences in primary structure.

  14. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, R.J.; Pittman, D.D.; Toole, J.J.; Kriz, R.W.; Aldape, R.A.; Hewick, R.M.; Kaufman, R.J.; Mann, K.G.

    1987-07-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A)tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approx. 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approx. 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approx. 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues.

  15. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  16. A study to visualize and determine the sequencing of intersecting ink lines.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Braz, André; López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Determining the sequencing of intersecting ink lines is one of the current problems for forensic document examiners. The way two inks will distribute and interact with each other and the paper at the crossing is a dynamic process that can be affected by many variables. Thus, the main purpose of this manuscript is to visualize and have a more comprehensive understanding of this process as well as study a methodology for determining the correct order of intersecting ink lines. For this, overlapping layers of different types of inks from writing instruments and printers were cross-sectioned and examined with a microscope. Results from pen/pen crossings showed that liquid-liquid and gel-gel intersections tended to form a double layer but oil-oil intersections usually formed mixtures. Additionally, oil-liquid and oil-gel intersections tended to form a double layer whenever the oil ink was on top and liquid-gel intersections tended to form a double layer for almost all crossings with exception of the ones involving a gel pen ink from one manufacturer. Results from pen/printer crossings showed the formation of a double layer only when the printer ink was on top of the pen ink. On the other permutation, the pen ink tended to penetrate through the printer ink producing the mixture of both inks. The inks drying time was found to be an important factor affecting the interaction between two inks in a crossing, particularly crossings involving gel pen inks. On the contrary, the type of paper and the writing pressure showed no significant influence on the inks distribution at the crossing. The methodology developed was reproducible with overlapping layers but there were many experimental difficulties during the validation process of intersections representing real crossings. Moreover, interpretation was dependent on the operator's eye which was a limiting factor.

  17. Detection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Londhe, M; George, S S; Seshadri, L

    1997-06-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and specificity of acetic application to the cervix followed by naked eye visualization as a screening test for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Three hundred and seventy two sexually active woman in the reproductive age group were studied. All the women underwent Papanicolaou test, acetic acid test and colposcopy. One hundred and seventy five woman were acetic acid test negative, 197 women were acetic acid test positive. The sensitivity of acetic acid test was 72.4%, specificity 54% and false negative rate 15.2%, as compared to papanicolaou test which had a sensitivity of 13.2%, specificity of 96.3% and false negative rate of 24.4%. The advantage of the acetic acid test lies in its easy technique, low cost and high sensitivity which are important factors for determining the efficacy of any screening programme in developing countries.

  18. Visualized analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juntao; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yinghui; Tang, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Chengzhu; Jia, Zhen; Zhao, Liqing

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common foodborne bacterial pathogen, which survives in cold environments and is sometimes difficult to culture. Fatty acid analysis under cold stress was conducted for several V. parahaemolyticus strains using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the results were compared with those of the controls. All the fatty acid profiles obtained were visualized by multidimensional scaling (MDS) and self-organized map (SOM). It was observed that the fatty acid profiles of V. parahaemolyticus substantially changed under cold stress. The percentage of methyl palmitate remarkably decreased and that of methyl palmitoleate (except for two strains) and methyl oleate increased. These findings demonstrate the role of fatty acids in cold stress. The changes in the fatty acid profiles illustrated by MDS and SOM could differentiate strains under cold stress from the controls and can potentially lead to a method of detecting injured cold-stressed V. parahaemolyticus.

  19. Visualization and Sequencing of Membrane Remodeling Leading to Influenza Virus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Long; Ebner, Jamie L.; Mileant, Alexander; Williams, James A.

    2016-01-01

    structures of a subset of conformations and parts of the fusion machinery have been characterized, the nature and sequence of membrane deformations during fusion have largely eluded characterization. Building upon studies that focused on early stages of HA-mediated membrane remodeling, here cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was used to image the three-dimensional organization of intact influenza virions at different stages of fusion with liposomes, leading all the way to completion of the fusion reaction. By monitoring the evolution of fusion intermediate populations over the course of acid-induced fusion, we identified the progression of membrane reorganization that leads to efficient fusion by an enveloped virus. PMID:27226364

  20. AL-Base: a visual platform analysis tool for the study of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bodi, Kip; Prokaeva, Tatiana; Spencer, Brian; Eberhard, Maurya; Connors, Lawreen H.; Seldin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    AL-Base, a curated database of human immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain (LC) sequences derived from patients with AL amyloidosis and controls, is described, along with a collection of analytical and graphic tools designed to facilitate their analysis. AL-Base is designed to compile and analyse amyloidogenic Ig LC sequences and to compare their predicted protein sequence and structure to non-amyloidogenic LC sequences. Currently, the database contains over 3000 de-identified LC nucleotide and amino acid sequences, of which 433 encode monoclonal proteins that were reported to form fibrillar deposits in AL patients. Each sequence is categorised according to germline gene usage, clinical status and sample source. Currently, tools are available to search for sequences by various criteria, to analyse the biochemical properties of the predicted amino acids at each position and to display the results in a graphical fashion. The likelihood that each sequence has evolved through somatic hypermutation can be predicted using an automated binomial or multinomial distribution model. AL-Base is available to the scientific community for research purposes. PMID:19291508

  1. Possible role of biochemiluminescent photons for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced phosphenes and visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kapócs, Gábor; Scholkmann, Felix; Salari, Vahid; Császár, Noémi; Szőke, Henrik; Bókkon, István

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is an increased interest in research on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) because it may offer new opportunities in psychotherapy under controlled settings. The more we know about how a drug works in the brain, the more opportunities there will be to exploit it in medicine. Here, based on our previously published papers and investigations, we suggest that LSD-induced visual hallucinations/phosphenes may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system in blind as well as healthy people.

  2. Nucleic and Amino Acid Sequences Support Structure-Based Viral Classification

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Robert M.; Ravantti, Janne J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral capsids ensure viral genome integrity by protecting the enclosed nucleic acids. Interactions between the genome and capsid and between individual capsid proteins (i.e., capsid architecture) are intimate and are expected to be characterized by strong evolutionary conservation. For this reason, a capsid structure-based viral classification has been proposed as a way to bring order to the viral universe. The seeming lack of sufficient sequence similarity to reproduce this classification has made it difficult to reject structural convergence as the basis for the classification. We reinvestigate whether the structure-based classification for viral coat proteins making icosahedral virus capsids is in fact supported by previously undetected sequence similarity. Since codon choices can influence nascent protein folding cotranslationally, we searched for both amino acid and nucleotide sequence similarity. To demonstrate the sensitivity of the approach, we identify a candidate gene for the pandoravirus capsid protein. We show that the structure-based classification is strongly supported by amino acid and also nucleotide sequence similarities, suggesting that the similarities are due to common descent. The correspondence between structure-based and sequence-based analyses of the same proteins shown here allow them to be used in future analyses of the relationship between linear sequence information and macromolecular function, as well as between linear sequence and protein folds. IMPORTANCE Viral capsids protect nucleic acid genomes, which in turn encode capsid proteins. This tight coupling of protein shell and nucleic acids, together with strong functional constraints on capsid protein folding and architecture, leads to the hypothesis that capsid protein-coding nucleotide sequences may retain signatures of ancient viral evolution. We have been able to show that this is indeed the case, using the major capsid proteins of viruses forming icosahedral capsids

  3. Classification of mouse VK groups based on the partial amino acid sequence to the first invariant tryptophan: impact of 14 new sequences from IgG myeloma proteins.

    PubMed

    Potter, M; Newell, J B; Rudikoff, S; Haber, E

    1982-12-01

    Fourteen new VK sequences derived from BALB/c IgG myeloma proteins were determined to the first invariant tryptophan (Trp 35). These partial sequences were compared with 65 other published VK sequences using a computer program. The 79 sequences were organized according to the length of the sequence from the amino terminus to the first invariant tryptophan (Trp 35), into seven groups (33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40 and 41aa). A distance matrix of all 79 sequences was then computed, i.e. the number of amino acid substitutions necessary to convert one sequence to another was determined. From these data a dendrogram was constructed. Most of the VK sequences fell into clusters or closely related groups. The definition of a sequence group is arbitrary but facilitates the classification of VK proteins. We used 12 substitutions as the basis for defining a sequence group based on the known number of substitutions that are found in the VK21 proteins. By this criterion there were 18 groups in the Trp 35 dendrogram. Twelve of the 14 new sequences fell into one of these sequence groups; two formed new sequence groups. Collective amino acid sequencing is still encountering new VK structures indicating more sequences will be required to attain an accurate estimate of the total number of VK groups. Updated dendrograms can be quickly generated to include newly generated sequences.

  4. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the human erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase cDNA: revised amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Joulin, V; Peduzzi, J; Roméo, P H; Rosa, R; Valentin, C; Dubart, A; Lapeyre, B; Blouquit, Y; Garel, M C; Goossens, M

    1986-01-01

    The human erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) is a multifunctional enzyme which controls the metabolism of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, the main allosteric effector of haemoglobin. Several cDNA banks were constructed from reticulocyte mRNA, either by conventional cloning methods in pBR322 and screening with specific mixed oligonucleotide probes, or in the expression vector lambda gt 11. The largest cDNA isolated contained 1673 bases [plus the poly(A) tail], which is slightly smaller than the size of the intact mRNA as estimated by Northern blot analysis (approximately 1800 bases). This cDNA encodes for a protein of 258 residues; the protein yielded 34 tryptic peptides which were subsequently isolated by h.p.l.c. Our nucleotide sequence data were entirely confirmed by the amino acid composition of these tryptic peptides and reveal several major differences from the published sequence; the revised amino acid sequence of human BPGM is presented. These findings represent the first step in the study of the expression and regulation of this enzyme as a specific marker of the erythroid cell line. Images Fig. 5. PMID:3023066

  5. Plant mitochondrial nucleic acid sequences as a tool for phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hiesel, R; von Haeseler, A; Brennicke, A

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of mitochondrial nucleic acid sequences as a phylogenetic tool, we have analyzed cytochrome oxidase subunit III (coxIII) coding sequences in representatives of the major groups of land plants. The phylogenetic tree derived from these mitochondrial sequences confirms the monophyletic origin of land plant mitochondria with the general order and descent of land plants deduced by other molecular, physiological, and morphological traits. The mitochondrial sequences strongly suggest a close phylogenetic relationship between Bryophyta and Lycopodiatae, whereas Psilophytatae cluster with the other vascular plants. In addition to the high sequence similarity, both Hepaticophytina and Lycopodiatae contain a related intron in the coxIII gene that, to our knowledge, is not found in any other plant species. The slowly evolving mitochondrial sequences of plants are shown to provide a useful phylogenetic tool to evaluate distant evolutionary relationships within this kingdom. PMID:7507251

  6. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1997-04-01

    A method for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample is provided using hybridization probes which competitively hybridize to a target nucleic acid. According to the method, a target nucleic acid sequence is hybridized to first and second hybridization probes which are complementary to overlapping portions of the target nucleic acid sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent and the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker. The first complexing agent attached to the first hybridization probe is contacted with a second complexing agent, the second complexing agent being attached to a solid support such that when the first and second complexing agents are attached, target nucleic acid sequences hybridized to the first hybridization probe become immobilized on to the solid support. The immobilized target nucleic acids are then separated and detected by detecting the detectable marker attached to the second hybridization probe. A kit for performing the method is also provided. 7 figs.

  7. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample is provided using hybridization probes which competitively hybridize to a target nucleic acid. According to the method, a target nucleic acid sequence is hybridized to first and second hybridization probes which are complementary to overlapping portions of the target nucleic acid sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent and the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker. The first complexing agent attached to the first hybridization probe is contacted with a second complexing agent, the second complexing agent being attached to a solid support such that when the first and second complexing agents are attached, target nucleic acid sequences hybridized to the first hybridization probe become immobilized on to the solid support. The immobilized target nucleic acids are then separated and detected by detecting the detectable marker attached to the second hybridization probe. A kit for performing the method is also provided.

  8. JDet: interactive calculation and visualization of function-related conservation patterns in multiple sequence alignments and structures.

    PubMed

    Muth, Thilo; García-Martín, Juan A; Rausell, Antonio; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2012-02-15

    We have implemented in a single package all the features required for extracting, visualizing and manipulating fully conserved positions as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern in multiple sequence alignments. The program allows, among other things, to run different methods for extracting these positions, combine the results and visualize them in protein 3D structures and sequence spaces. JDet is a multiplatform application written in Java. It is freely available, including the source code, at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/JDet. The package includes two of our recently developed programs for detecting functional positions in protein alignments (Xdet and S3Det), and support for other methods can be added as plug-ins. A help file and a guided tutorial for JDet are also available.

  9. Amino acid sequence around the active-site serine residue in the acyltransferase domain of goat mammary fatty acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, J; Højrup, P; Rasmussen, M M; Roepstorff, P; Knudsen, J

    1985-01-01

    Goat mammary fatty acid synthetase was labelled in the acyltransferase domain by formation of O-ester intermediates by incubation with [1-14C]acetyl-CoA and [2-14C]malonyl-CoA. Tryptic-digest and CNBr-cleavage peptides were isolated and purified by high-performance reverse-phase and ion-exchange liquid chromatography. The sequences of the malonyl- and acetyl-labelled peptides were shown to be identical. The results confirm the hypothesis that both acetyl and malonyl groups are transferred to the mammalian fatty acid synthetase complex by the same transferase. The sequence is compared with those of other fatty acid synthetase transferases. PMID:3922356

  10. Ligation with nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Ong, Carmichael; Tai, Warren; Sarma, Aartik; Opal, Steven M; Artenstein, Andrew W; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel method for detecting nucleic acid targets using a ligation step along with an isothermal, exponential amplification step. We use an engineered ssDNA with two variable regions on the ends, allowing us to design the probe for optimal reaction kinetics and primer binding. This two-part probe is ligated by T4 DNA Ligase only when both parts bind adjacently to the target. The assay demonstrates that the expected 72-nt RNA product appears only when the synthetic target, T4 ligase, and both probe fragments are present during the ligation step. An extraneous 38-nt RNA product also appears due to linear amplification of unligated probe (P3), but its presence does not cause a false-positive result. In addition, 40 mmol/L KCl in the final amplification mix was found to be optimal. It was also found that increasing P5 in excess of P3 helped with ligation and reduced the extraneous 38-nt RNA product. The assay was also tested with a single nucleotide polymorphism target, changing one base at the ligation site. The assay was able to yield a negative signal despite only a single-base change. Finally, using P3 and P5 with longer binding sites results in increased overall sensitivity of the reaction, showing that increasing ligation efficiency can improve the assay overall. We believe that this method can be used effectively for a number of diagnostic assays.

  11. Computational simulations of protein folding to engineer amino acid sequences to encourage desired supersecondary structure formation.

    PubMed

    Gerstman, Bernard S; Chapagain, Prem P

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of protein folding are complicated because of the various types of amino acid interactions that create secondary, supersecondary, and tertiary interactions. Computational modeling can be used to simulate the biophysical and biochemical interactions that determine protein folding. Effective folding to a desired protein configuration requires a compromise between speed, stability, and specificity. If the primary sequence of amino acids emphasizes one of these characteristics, the others might suffer and the folding process may not be optimized. We provide an example of a model peptide whose primary sequence produces a highly stable supersecondary two-helix bundle structure, but at the expense of lower speed and specificity of the folding process. We show how computational simulations can be used to discover the configuration of the kinetic trap that causes the degradation in the speed and specificity of folding. We also show how amino acid sequences can be engineered by specific substitutions to optimize the folding to the desired supersecondary structure.

  12. Isolation and amino-acid sequence determination of monkey insulin and proinsulin.

    PubMed

    Naithani, V K; Steffens, G J; Tager, H S; Buse, G; Rubenstein, A H; Steiner, D F

    1984-05-01

    Insulin has been isolated and purified from rhesus monkey pancreas by means of acid-ethanol extraction, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The complete amino-acid sequence of the hormone has been determined by amino-acid analysis of the oxidized A- and B-chains, by end group determination, by the identification of the C-terminal residues (AsnA21 and ThrB30) by carboxypeptidase A digestion and by Edman degradation of the S-carboxymethylated A- and B-chains. The 51-residue monkey insulin was shown to be identical to human insulin. From the known insulin and C-peptide sequence the primary sequence of monkey proinsulin has been proposed.

  13. Does a sensory processing deficit explain counting accuracy on rapid visual sequencing tasks in adults with and without dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Wright, Craig M; Norris, Karla; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2011-06-01

    The experiments conducted aimed to investigate whether reduced accuracy when counting stimuli presented in rapid temporal sequence in adults with dyslexia could be explained by a sensory processing deficit, a general slowing in processing speed or difficulties shifting attention between stimuli. To achieve these aims, the influence of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), stimulus duration, and sequence length were evaluated in two experiments. In the first that used skilled readers only, significantly more errors were found with presentation of long sequences when the ISI or stimulus durations were short. Experiment 2 used a wider range of ISIs and stimulus durations. Compared to skilled readers, a group with dyslexia had reduced accuracy on two-stimulus sequences when the ISI was short, but not when the ISI was long. Although reduced accuracy was found on all short and long sequences by the group with dyslexia, when performance on two-stimulus sequences was used as an index of sensory processing efficiency and controlled, group differences were found with presentation of stimuli of short duration only. We concluded that continuous, repetitive stimulation to the same visual area can produce a capacity limitation on rapid counting tasks in all readers when the ISIs or stimulus durations are short. While reduced accuracy on rapid sequential counting tasks can be explained by a sensory processing deficit when the stimulus duration is long, slower processing speed in the group with dyslexia explains the greater inaccuracy found as sequence length is increased when the stimulus duration is short.

  14. Gift from statistical learning: Visual statistical learning enhances memory for sequence elements and impairs memory for items that disrupt regularities.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Sachio; Saiki, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Prior studies have shown that visual statistical learning (VSL) enhances familiarity (a type of memory) of sequences. How do statistical regularities influence the processing of each triplet element and inserted distractors that disrupt the regularity? Given that increased attention to triplets induced by VSL and inhibition of unattended triplets, we predicted that VSL would promote memory for each triplet constituent, and degrade memory for inserted stimuli. Across the first two experiments, we found that objects from structured sequences were more likely to be remembered than objects from random sequences, and that letters (Experiment 1) or objects (Experiment 2) inserted into structured sequences were less likely to be remembered than those inserted into random sequences. In the subsequent two experiments, we examined an alternative account for our results, whereby the difference in memory for inserted items between structured and random conditions is due to individuation of items within random sequences. Our findings replicated even when control letters (Experiment 3A) or objects (Experiment 3B) were presented before or after, rather than inserted into, random sequences. Our findings suggest that statistical learning enhances memory for each item in a regular set and impairs memory for items that disrupt the regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amino acid sequences of two trypsin inhibitors from winged bean seeds (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L)DC.).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Hara, S; Ikenaka, T

    1983-09-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (WTI-1) purified from winged bean seeds is a Kunitz type protease inhibitor having a molecular weight of 19,200. WTI-1 inhibits bovine trypsin stoichiometrically, but not bovine alpha-chymotrypsin. The approximate Ki value for the trypsin-inhibitor complex is 2.5 X 10(-9) M. The complete amino acid sequence of WTI-1 was determined by conventional methods. Comparison of the sequence with that of soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) indicated that the sequence of WTI-1 had 50% homology with that of STI. WTI-1 was separated into 2 homologous inhibitors, WTI-1A and WTI-1B, by isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric points of WTI-1A and WTI-1B were 8.5 and 9.4, respectively, and their sequences were presumed from their amino acid compositions.

  16. Conservation of Shannon's redundancy for proteins. [information theory applied to amino acid sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Concepts of information theory are applied to examine various proteins in terms of their redundancy in natural originators such as animals and plants. The Monte Carlo method is used to derive information parameters for random protein sequences. Real protein sequence parameters are compared with the standard parameters of protein sequences having a specific length. The tendency of a chain to contain some amino acids more frequently than others and the tendency of a chain to contain certain amino acid pairs more frequently than other pairs are used as randomness measures of individual protein sequences. Non-periodic proteins are generally found to have random Shannon redundancies except in cases of constraints due to short chain length and genetic codes. Redundant characteristics of highly periodic proteins are discussed. A degree of periodicity parameter is derived.

  17. RNA internal standard synthesis by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for competitive quantitative amplification reactions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wan-Yu; Baeumner, Antje J

    2007-02-15

    Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reactions have been demonstrated to successfully synthesize new sequences based on deletion and insertion reactions. Two RNA internal standards were synthesized for use in competitive amplification reactions in which quantitative analysis can be achieved by coamplifying the internal standard with the wild type sample. The sequences were created in two consecutive NASBA reactions using the E. coli clpB mRNA sequence as model analyte. The primer sequences of the wild type sequence were maintained, and a 20-nt-long segment inside the amplicon region was exchanged for a new segment of similar GC content and melting temperature. The new RNA sequence was thus amplifiable using the wild type primers and detectable via a new inserted sequence. In the first reaction, the forwarding primer and an additional 20-nt-long sequence was deleted and replaced by a new 20-nt-long sequence. In the second reaction, a forwarding primer containing as 5' overhang sequence the wild type primer sequence was used. The presence of pure internal standard was verified using electrochemiluminescence and RNA lateral-flow biosensor analysis. Additional sequence deletion in order to shorten the internal standard amplicons and thus generate higher detection signals was found not to be required. Finally, a competitive NASBA reaction between one internal standard and the wild type sequence was carried out proving its functionality. This new rapid construction method via NASBA provides advantages over the traditional techniques since it requires no traditional cloning procedures, no thermocyclers, and can be completed in less than 4 h.

  18. Conversion of amino-acid sequence in proteins to classical music: search for auditory patterns

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    We have converted genome-encoded protein sequences into musical notes to reveal auditory patterns without compromising musicality. We derived a reduced range of 13 base notes by pairing similar amino acids and distinguishing them using variations of three-note chords and codon distribution to dictate rhythm. The conversion will help make genomic coding sequences more approachable for the general public, young children, and vision-impaired scientists. PMID:17477882

  19. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, T; Ballivet, M; Patrick, J; Heinemann, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence has been determined of a cDNA clone that codes for the 60,000-dalton gamma subunit of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor. The length of the cDNA clone is 2,010 base pairs. The 5' and 3' untranslated regions have respective lengths of 31 and 461 base pairs. Data suggest that the putative polyadenylylation consensus sequence A-A-T-A-A-A may not be required for polyadenylylation of the mRNA corresponding to the cDNA clone described in this study. From the DNA sequence data, the amino acid sequence of the gamma subunit was deduced. The subunit is composed of 489 amino acids giving a molecular mass of 56,600 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence data also indicate the presence of a 17-amino acid extension or signal peptide on this subunit. From these data, structural predictions for the gamma subunit are made such as potential membrane-spanning regions, possible asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, and the assignment of regions of the protein to the extracellular, internal, and cytoplasmic domains of the lipid bilayer. Images PMID:6573658

  20. Diagnostics based on nucleic acid sequence variant profiling: PCR, hybridization, and NGS approaches.

    PubMed

    Khodakov, Dmitriy; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, David Yu

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acid sequence variations have been implicated in many diseases, and reliable detection and quantitation of DNA/RNA biomarkers can inform effective therapeutic action, enabling precision medicine. Nucleic acid analysis technologies being translated into the clinic can broadly be classified into hybridization, PCR, and sequencing, as well as their combinations. Here we review the molecular mechanisms of popular commercial assays, and their progress in translation into in vitro diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ab initio detection of fuzzy amino acid tandem repeats in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tandem repetitions within protein amino acid sequences often correspond to regular secondary structures and form multi-repeat 3D assemblies of varied size and function. Developing internal repetitions is one of the evolutionary mechanisms that proteins employ to adapt their structure and function under evolutionary pressure. While there is keen interest in understanding such phenomena, detection of repeating structures based only on sequence analysis is considered an arduous task, since structure and function is often preserved even under considerable sequence divergence (fuzzy tandem repeats). Results In this paper we present PTRStalker, a new algorithm for ab-initio detection of fuzzy tandem repeats in protein amino acid sequences. In the reported results we show that by feeding PTRStalker with amino acid sequences from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database we detect novel tandemly repeated structures not captured by other state-of-the-art tools. Experiments with membrane proteins indicate that PTRStalker can detect global symmetries in the primary structure which are then reflected in the tertiary structure. Conclusions PTRStalker is able to detect fuzzy tandem repeating structures in protein sequences, with performance beyond the current state-of-the art. Such a tool may be a valuable support to investigating protein structural properties when tertiary X-ray data is not available. PMID:22536906

  2. The complete amino acid sequence of chicken skeletal-muscle enolase.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, G A; Dunbar, B; Fothergill-Gilmore, L A

    1986-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of chicken skeletal-muscle enolase, comprising 433 residues, was determined. The sequence was deduced by automated sequencing of hydroxylamine-cleavage, CNBr-cleavage, o-iodosobenzoic acid-cleavage, clostripain-digest and staphylococcal-proteinase-digest fragments. The presence of several acid-labile peptide bonds and the tenacious aggregation of most CNBr-cleavage fragments meant that a commonly used sequencing strategy involving initial CNBr cleavage was unproductive. Cleavage at the single Asn-Gly peptide bond with hydroxylamine proved to be particularly useful. Comparison of the sequence of chicken enolase with the two yeast enolase isoenzyme sequences shows that the enzyme is strongly conserved, with 60% of the residues identical. The histidine and arginine residues implicated as being important for the activity of yeast enolase are conserved in the chicken enzyme. Secondary-structure predictions are analysed in an accompanying paper [Sawyer, Fothergill-Gilmore & Russell (1986) Biochem. J. 236, 127-130]. PMID:3539098

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids modify human cortical visual processing--a double-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Isabelle; Crewther, David P; Pipingas, Andrew; Rowsell, Renee; Cockerell, Robyn; Crewther, Sheila G

    2011-01-01

    While cardiovascular and mood benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are manifest, direct neurophysiological evidence of their effects on cortical activity is still limited. Hence we chose to examine the effects of two proprietary fish oil products with different EPA:DHA ratios (EPA-rich, high EPA:DHA; DHA-rich) on mental processing speed and visual evoked brain activity. We proposed that nonlinear multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) would be sensitive to any alteration of the neural function induced by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, because the higher order kernel responses directly measure the degree of recovery of the neural system as a function of time following stimulation. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 18-34, with no known neurological or psychiatric disorder and not currently taking any nutritional supplementation, were recruited. A double-blind, crossover design was utilized, including a 30-day washout period, between two 30-day supplementation periods of the EPA-rich and DHA-rich diets (with order of diet randomized). Psychophysical choice reaction times and multi-focal nonlinear visual evoked potential (VEP) testing were performed at baseline (No Diet), and after each supplementation period. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, for stimulation at high luminance contrast, a significant reduction in the amplitude of the first slice of the second order VEP kernel response, previously related to activation in the magnocellular pathway, was observed. The correlations between the amplitude changes of short latency second and first order components were significantly different for the two supplementations. Significantly faster choice reaction times were observed psychophysically (compared with baseline performance) under the EPA-rich (but not DHA-rich) supplementation, while simple reaction times were not affected. The reduced nonlinearities observed under the EPA

  4. The amino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues of stem bromelain

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. S.; Lowe, G.

    1970-01-01

    Stem bromelain that had been irreversibly inhibited with 1,3-dibromo[2-14C]-acetone was reduced with sodium borohydride and carboxymethylated with iodoacetic acid. After digestion with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin three radioactive peptides were isolated chromatographically. The amino acid sequences around the cross-linked cysteine and histidine residues were determined and showed a high degree of homology with those around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues of papain and ficin. PMID:5420046

  5. Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Faldella, G; Govoni, M; Alessandroni, R; Marchiani, E; Salvioli, G P; Biagi, P L; Spano, C

    1996-01-01

    The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a preterm formula supplemented with LCP (PF-LCP) (n = 21), or a traditional preterm formula (PF) (n = 25). In the breast milk and PF-LCP groups the morphology and latencies of the waves that reflect the visual projecting system were similar; in the PF group the morphology was quite different and the wave latencies were significantly longer. This could mean that the maturation pattern of VEPs in preterm infants who did not receive LCP was slower. Moreover, a higher level of erythrocyte LCP, especially DHA, was found in breast milk and PF-LCP groups compared with the PF group. ERG and BAEP recordings were the same in all three groups. These results suggest that a well balanced LCP supplement in preterm formulas can positively influence the maturation of visual evoked potentials in preterm infants when breast milk is not available. PMID:8949693

  6. Amino acid sequences of two nonspecific lipid-transfer proteins from germinated castor bean.

    PubMed

    Takishima, K; Watanabe, S; Yamada, M; Suga, T; Mamiya, G

    1988-11-01

    The amino acid sequence of two nonspecific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTP) B and C from germinated castor bean seeds have been determined. Both the proteins consist of 92 residues, as for nsLTP previously reported, and their calculated Mr values are 9847 and 9593 for nsLTP-B and nsLTP-C, respectively. The sequences of nsLTP-B and nsLTP-C, compared to the known sequence of nsLTP-A from the same source, are 68% and 35% similar, respectively. No variation was found at the positions of the cysteine residues, indicating that they might be involved in disulfide bridges.

  7. Ambient temperature detection of PCR amplicons with a novel sequence-specific nucleic acid lateral flow biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Yean, Chan Yean

    2012-01-01

    In the field of diagnostics, molecular amplification targeting unique genetic signature sequences has been widely used for rapid identification of infectious agents, which significantly aids physicians in determining the choice of treatment as well as providing important epidemiological data for surveillance and disease control assessment. We report the development of a rapid nucleic acid lateral flow biosensor (NALFB) in a dry-reagent strip format for the sequence-specific detection of single-stranded polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons at ambient temperature (22-25°C). The NALFB was developed in combination with a linear-after-the-exponential PCR assay and the applicability of this biosensor was demonstrated through detection of the cholera toxin gene from diarrheal-causing toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Amplification using the advanced asymmetric PCR boosts the production of fluorescein-labeled single-stranded amplicons, allowing capture probes immobilized on the NALFB to hybridize specifically with complementary targets in situ on the strip. Subsequent visual formation of red lines is achieved through the binding of conjugated gold nanoparticles to the fluorescein label of the captured amplicons. The visual detection limit observed with synthetic target DNA was 0.3 ng and 1 pg with pure genomic DNA. Evaluation of the NALFB with 164 strains of V. cholerae and non-V. cholerae bacteria recorded 100% for both sensitivity and specificity. The whole procedure of the low-cost NALFB, which is performed at ambient temperature, eliminates the need for preheated buffers or additional equipment, greatly simplifying the protocol for sequence-specific PCR amplicon analysis.

  8. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  9. Synthetic oligonucleotide probes deduced from amino acid sequence data. Theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lathe, R

    1985-05-05

    Synthetic probes deduced from amino acid sequence data are widely used to detect cognate coding sequences in libraries of cloned DNA segments. The redundancy of the genetic code dictates that a choice must be made between (1) a mixture of probes reflecting all codon combinations, and (2) a single longer "optimal" probe. The second strategy is examined in detail. The frequency of sequences matching a given probe by chance alone can be determined and also the frequency of sequences closely resembling the probe and contributing to the hybridization background. Gene banks cannot be treated as random associations of the four nucleotides, and probe sequences deduced from amino acid sequence data occur more often than predicted by chance alone. Probe lengths must be increased to confer the necessary specificity. Examination of hybrids formed between unique homologous probes and their cognate targets reveals that short stretches of perfect homology occurring by chance make a significant contribution to the hybridization background. Statistical methods for improving homology are examined, taking human coding sequences as an example, and considerations of codon utilization and dinucleotide frequencies yield an overall homology of greater than 82%. Recommendations for probe design and hybridization are presented, and the choice between using multiple probes reflecting all codon possibilities and a unique optimal probe is discussed.

  10. In silico comparative analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences for prion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Lee, J; Lee, C

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variability might contribute to species specificity of prion diseases in various organisms. In this study, structures of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and its amino acids were compared among species of which sequence data were available. Comparisons of PRNP DNA sequences among 12 species including human, chimpanzee, monkey, bovine, ovine, dog, mouse, rat, wallaby, opossum, chicken and zebrafish allowed us to identify candidate regulatory regions in intron 1 and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in addition to the coding region. Highly conserved putative binding sites for transcription factors, such as heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) and myocite enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), were discovered in the intron 1. In 3'-UTR, the functional sequence (ATTAAA) for nucleus-specific polyadenylation was found in all the analysed species. The functional sequence (TTTTTAT) for maturation-specific polyadenylation was identically observed only in ovine, and one or two nucleotide mismatches in the other species. A comparison of the amino acid sequences in 53 species revealed a large sequence identity. Especially the octapeptide repeat region was observed in all the species but frog and zebrafish. Functional changes and susceptibility to prion diseases with various isoforms of prion protein could be caused by numeric variability and conformational changes discovered in the repeat sequences.

  11. AcalPred: a sequence-based tool for discriminating between acidic and alkaline enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The structure and activity of enzymes are influenced by pH value of their surroundings. Although many enzymes work well in the pH range from 6 to 8, some specific enzymes have good efficiencies only in acidic (pH<5) or alkaline (pH>9) solution. Studies have demonstrated that the activities of enzymes correlate with their primary sequences. It is crucial to judge enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment from its amino acid sequence in molecular mechanism clarification and the design of high efficient enzymes. In this study, we developed a sequence-based method to discriminate acidic enzymes from alkaline enzymes. The analysis of variance was used to choose the optimized discriminating features derived from g-gap dipeptide compositions. And support vector machine was utilized to establish the prediction model. In the rigorous jackknife cross-validation, the overall accuracy of 96.7% was achieved. The method can correctly predict 96.3% acidic and 97.1% alkaline enzymes. Through the comparison between the proposed method and previous methods, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is more accurate. On the basis of this proposed method, we have built an online web-server called AcalPred which can be freely accessed from the website (http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/AcalPred). We believe that the AcalPred will become a powerful tool to study enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment.

  12. Complete amino acid sequence of the N-terminal extension of calf skin type III procollagen.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, A; Glanville, R W; Hörlein, D; Bruckner, P; Timpl, R; Fietzek, P P; Kühn, K

    1984-01-01

    The N-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen, isolated from foetal-calf skin, contains 130 amino acid residues. To determine its amino acid sequence, the peptide was reduced and carboxymethylated or aminoethylated and fragmented with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase and bacterial collagenase. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase was used to deblock the N-terminal collagenase fragment to enable amino acid sequencing. The type III collagen extension peptide is homologous to that of the alpha 1 chain of type I procollagen with respect to a three-domain structure. The N-terminal 79 amino acids, which contain ten of the 12 cysteine residues, form a compact globular domain. The next 39 amino acids are in a collagenase triplet sequence (Gly- Xaa - Yaa )n with a high hydroxyproline content. Finally, another short non-collagenous domain of 12 amino acids ends at the cleavage site for procollagen aminopeptidase, which cleaves a proline-glutamine bond. In contrast with type I procollagen, the type III procollagen extension peptides contain interchain disulphide bridges located at the C-terminus of the triple-helical domain. PMID:6331392

  13. Detection of multiple, novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human nucleic acids: relation to primate retroviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, A.; Misra, R.; Rush, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of chemically synthesized oligonucleotides designed on the basis of amino acid and/or nucleotide sequence data were used to detect a large number of novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human and mouse DNAs. Procedures involving Southern blotting, library screening, and the polymerase chain reaction were all used to detect such sequences; the polymerase chain reaction was the most rapid and productive approach. In the polymerase chain reaction, oligonucleotide mixtures based on consensus sequence homologies to reverse transcriptase coding sequences and unique oligonucleotides containing perfect homology to the coding sequences of human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II were both effective in amplifying reverse transcriptase-related DNA. It is shown that human DNA contains a wide spectrum of retrovirus-related reverse transcriptase coding sequences, including some that are clearly related to human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II, some that are related to the L-1 family of long interspersed nucleotide sequences, and others that are related to previously described human endogenous proviral DNAs. In addition, human T-cell leukemia virus type I-related sequences appear to be transcribed in both normal human T cells and in a cell line derived from a human teratocarcinoma.

  14. Advantages of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance sequences in the visualization of intravascular thrombi in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Allibert, R; Billon Grand, C; Vuillier, F; Cattin, F; Muzard, E; Biondi, A; Moulin, T; Medeiros, E

    2014-12-01

    In gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intravascular thrombi (IT) can appear as vascular susceptibility artifacts, linked to local presence of intra-arterial deoxyhaemoglobin, and called susceptibility vessel signs (SVS). Our objectives were to evaluate the sensitivity of susceptibility-weighted sequences, such as T2* weighted angiography (SWAN) in the visualization of SVS compared with T2*, to consider whether it enabled a better understanding of the importance of SVS, and to compare cerebral circulation regulation profiles according to the localization of the SVS (i.e. proximal or distal). We prospectively studied the clinical and imaging data of 78 consecutive patients admitted for acute cerebral ischemia to the stroke unit of Besançon University Hospital between 1 April 2009 and 31 January 2010. An SVS was visualized in 44/78 (56%) patients using SWAN and in 13/78 (16%) patients using T2*. All the SVS visible using T2* were also visible on the SWAN. The inter-observer kappa score was 0·72 [CI (0·53-0·91)] for T2*, 0·72 [CI (0·57-0·87)] for SWAN, and weighted kappa was 0·77 [CI (0·61-0·92)] for both T2* and SWAN. When an MCA occlusion was visible on MRA imaging (22/78 patients), a SVS was visualized in 7/22 cases (31·8%) using T2* and in 20/22 cases (91%) using SWAN. When the occlusion was visible in the M1 or M2 segments (17/78 patients), an SVS was visualized in 6/17 cases (35·3%) using T2* and in 15/17 cases (88·2%) using SWAN. When the occlusion was visible in the M3 segment (5/78 patients), an SVS was visualized in 1/5 cases (20%) using T2* and in 5/5 cases (100%) using SWAN. Presence of SVS was not associated with cardioembolic etiology of the stroke. SWAN was more sensitive than T2* in the visualization of SVS in the intracranial arteries during the acute phase of ischemic stroke. Our study shows that the low number of SVS visualized using T2* in previous studies is probably related to a lack of sensitivity of the sequence, rather

  15. The impact of visual sequencing of graphic symbols on the sentence construction output of children who have acquired language.

    PubMed

    Alant, Erna; du Plooy, Amelia; Dada, Shakila

    2007-01-01

    Although the sequence of graphic or pictorial symbols displayed on a communication board can have an impact on the language output of children, very little research has been conducted to describe this. Research in this area is particularly relevant for prioritising the importance of specific visual and graphic features in providing more effective and user-friendly access to communication boards. This study is concerned with understanding the impact ofspecific sequences of graphic symbol input on the graphic and spoken output of children who have acquired language. Forty participants were divided into two comparable groups. Each group was exposed to graphic symbol input with a certain word order sequence. The structure of input was either in typical English word order sequence Subject- Verb-Object (SVO) or in the word order sequence of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV). Both input groups had to answer six questions by using graphic output as well as speech. The findings indicated that there are significant differences in the PCS graphic output patterns of children who are exposed to graphic input in the SOV and SVO sequences. Furthermore, the output produced in the graphic mode differed considerably to the output produced in the spoken mode. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed

  16. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824 Patents... And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.824 Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence... readable form may be created by any means, such as word processors, nucleotide/amino acid sequence editors...

  17. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824 Patents... And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.824 Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence... readable form may be created by any means, such as word processors, nucleotide/amino acid sequence editors...

  18. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824 Patents... And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.824 Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence... readable form may be created by any means, such as word processors, nucleotide/amino acid sequence editors...

  19. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824 Patents... And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.824 Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence... readable form may be created by any means, such as word processors, nucleotide/amino acid sequence editors...

  20. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824 Patents... And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.824 Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence... readable form may be created by any means, such as word processors, nucleotide/amino acid sequence editors...

  1. Fast discovery and visualization of conserved regions in DNA sequences using quasi-alignment.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Anurag; Hahsler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing techniques are producing enormous amounts of biological sequence data and analysis becomes a major computational problem. Currently, most analysis, especially the identification of conserved regions, relies heavily on Multiple Sequence Alignment and its various heuristics such as progressive alignment, whose run time grows with the square of the number and the length of the aligned sequences and requires significant computational resources. In this work, we present a method to efficiently discover regions of high similarity across multiple sequences without performing expensive sequence alignment. The method is based on approximating edit distance between segments of sequences using p-mer frequency counts. Then, efficient high-throughput data stream clustering is used to group highly similar segments into so called quasi-alignments. Quasi-alignments have numerous applications such as identifying species and their taxonomic class from sequences, comparing sequences for similarities, and, as in this paper, discovering conserved regions across related sequences. In this paper, we show that quasi-alignments can be used to discover highly similar segments across multiple sequences from related or different genomes efficiently and accurately. Experiments on a large number of unaligned 16S rRNA sequences obtained from the Greengenes database show that the method is able to identify conserved regions which agree with known hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA. Furthermore, the experiments show that the proposed method scales well for large data sets with a run time that grows only linearly with the number and length of sequences, whereas for existing multiple sequence alignment heuristics the run time grows super-linearly. Quasi-alignment-based algorithms can detect highly similar regions and conserved areas across multiple sequences. Since the run time is linear and the sequences are converted into a compact clustering model, we are able to

  2. Complete amino acid sequence of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (transaminase B) of Salmonella typhimurium, identification of the coenzyme-binding site and sequence comparison analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Feild, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the subunit of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Salmonella typhimurium was determined by automated Edman degradation of peptide fragments generated by chemical and enzymatic digestion of S-carboxymethylated and S-pyridylethylated transaminase B. Peptide fragments of transaminase B were generated by treatment of the enzyme with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, endoproteinase Lys-C, and cyanogen bromide. Protocols were developed for separation of the peptide fragments by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion-exchange HPLC, and SDS-urea gel electrophoresis. The enzyme subunit contains 308 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 33,920 daltons. The coenzyme-binding site was determined by treatment of the enzyme, containing bound pyridoxal 5-phosphate, with tritiated sodium borohydride prior to trypsin digestion. Monitoring radioactivity incorporation and peptide map comparisons with an apoenzyme tryptic digest, allowed identification of the pyridoxylated-peptide which was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and sequenced. The coenzyme-binding site is a lysyl residue at position 159. Some peptides were further characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

  3. Alignment editing and identification of consensus secondary structures for nucleic acid sequences: interactive use of dot matrix representations.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J P; Janjić, N; Pribnow, D; Zichi, D A

    1995-01-01

    We present a computer-aided approach for identifying and aligning consensus secondary structure within a set of functionally related oligonucleotide sequences aligned by sequence. The method relies on visualization of secondary structure using a generalization of the dot matrix representation appropriate for consensus sequence data sets. An interactive computer program implementing such a visualization of consensus structure has been developed. The program allows for alignment editing, data and display filtering and various modes of base pair representation, including co-variation. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with four sample data sets derived from in vitro selection experiments and one data set comprising tRNA sequences. Images PMID:7501472

  4. Magnetic resonance visualization of conductive structures by sequence-triggered direct currents and spin-echo phase imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eibofner, Frank; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Graf, Hansjörg E-mail: drGraf@t-online.de; Clasen, Stephan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Instrument visualization in interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly performed via susceptibility artifacts. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from limited conspicuity in inhomogeneous tissue and disturbed spatial encoding. Also, susceptibility artifacts are controllable only by sequence parameters. This work presents the basics of a new visualization method overcoming such problems by applying sequence-triggered direct current (DC) pulses in spin-echo (SE) imaging. SE phase images allow for background free current path localization. Methods: Application of a sequence-triggered DC pulse in SE imaging, e.g., during a time period between radiofrequency excitation and refocusing, results in transient field inhomogeneities. Dependent on the additional z-magnetic field from the DC, a phase offset results despite the refocusing pulse. False spatial encoding is avoided by DC application during periods when read-out or slice-encoding gradients are inactive. A water phantom containing a brass conductor (water equivalent susceptibility) and a titanium needle (serving as susceptibility source) was used to demonstrate the feasibility. Artifact dependence on current strength and orientation was examined. Results: Without DC, the brass conductor was only visible due to its water displacement. The titanium needle showed typical susceptibility artifacts. Applying triggered DC pulses, the phase offset of spins near the conductor appeared. Because SE phase images are homogenous also in regions of persistent field inhomogeneities, the position of the conductor could be determined with high reliability. Artifact characteristic could be easily controlled by amperage leaving sequence parameters unchanged. For an angle of 30° between current and static field visualization was still possible. Conclusions: SE phase images display the position of a conductor carrying pulsed DC free from artifacts caused by persistent field inhomogeneities. Magnitude and phase

  5. The primary structure of E. coli RNA polymerase, Nucleotide sequence of the rpoC gene and amino acid sequence of the beta'-subunit.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov YuA; Monastyrskaya, G S; Gubanov, V V; Guryev, S O; Salomatina, I S; Shuvaeva, T M; Lipkin, V M; Sverdlov, E D

    1982-07-10

    The primary structure of the E. coli rpoC gene (5321 base pairs) coding the beta'-subunit of RNA polymerase as well as its adjacent segment have been determined. The structure analysis of the peptides obtained by cleavage of the protein with cyanogen bromide and trypsin has confirmed the amino acid sequence of the beta'-subunit deduced from the nucleotide sequence analysis. The beta'-subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase contains 1407 amino acid residues. Its translation is initiated by codon GUG and terminated by codon TAA. It has been detected that the sequence following the terminating codon is strikingly homologous to known sequences of rho-independent terminators.

  6. DNA Data Visualization (DDV): Software for Generating Web-Based Interfaces Supporting Navigation and Analysis of DNA Sequence Data of Entire Genomes.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Tomasz; Bordeleau, Eric; Burrus, Vincent; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Data visualization methods are necessary during the exploration and analysis activities of an increasingly data-intensive scientific process. There are few existing visualization methods for raw nucleotide sequences of a whole genome or chromosome. Software for data visualization should allow the researchers to create accessible data visualization interfaces that can be exported and shared with others on the web. Herein, novel software developed for generating DNA data visualization interfaces is described. The software converts DNA data sets into images that are further processed as multi-scale images to be accessed through a web-based interface that supports zooming, panning and sequence fragment selection. Nucleotide composition frequencies and GC skew of a selected sequence segment can be obtained through the interface. The software was used to generate DNA data visualization of human and bacterial chromosomes. Examples of visually detectable features such as short and long direct repeats, long terminal repeats, mobile genetic elements, heterochromatic segments in microbial and human chromosomes, are presented. The software and its source code are available for download and further development. The visualization interfaces generated with the software allow for the immediate identification and observation of several types of sequence patterns in genomes of various sizes and origins. The visualization interfaces generated with the software are readily accessible through a web browser. This software is a useful research and teaching tool for genetics and structural genomics.

  7. DNA Data Visualization (DDV): Software for Generating Web-Based Interfaces Supporting Navigation and Analysis of DNA Sequence Data of Entire Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Tomasz; Bordeleau, Eric; Burrus, Vincent; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Data visualization methods are necessary during the exploration and analysis activities of an increasingly data-intensive scientific process. There are few existing visualization methods for raw nucleotide sequences of a whole genome or chromosome. Software for data visualization should allow the researchers to create accessible data visualization interfaces that can be exported and shared with others on the web. Herein, novel software developed for generating DNA data visualization interfaces is described. The software converts DNA data sets into images that are further processed as multi-scale images to be accessed through a web-based interface that supports zooming, panning and sequence fragment selection. Nucleotide composition frequencies and GC skew of a selected sequence segment can be obtained through the interface. The software was used to generate DNA data visualization of human and bacterial chromosomes. Examples of visually detectable features such as short and long direct repeats, long terminal repeats, mobile genetic elements, heterochromatic segments in microbial and human chromosomes, are presented. The software and its source code are available for download and further development. The visualization interfaces generated with the software allow for the immediate identification and observation of several types of sequence patterns in genomes of various sizes and origins. The visualization interfaces generated with the software are readily accessible through a web browser. This software is a useful research and teaching tool for genetics and structural genomics. PMID:26636979

  8. Sequence variation divides Equine rhinitis B virus into three distinct phylogenetic groups that correlate with serotype and acid stability.

    PubMed

    Black, Wesley D; Hartley, Carol A; Ficorilli, Nino P; Studdert, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), genus Erbovirus, family Picornaviridae, occurs as two serotypes, ERBV1 and ERBV2, and the few isolates previously tested were acid labile. Of 24 ERBV1 isolates tested in the studies reported here, 19 were acid labile and five were acid stable. The two available ERBV2 isolates, as expected, were acid labile. Nucleotide sequences of the P1 region encoding the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 were determined for five acid-labile and three acid-stable ERBV1 isolates and one acid-labile ERBV2 isolate. The sequences were aligned with the published sequences of the prototype acid-labile ERBV1.1436/71 and the prototype ERBV2.313/75. The three acid-stable ERBV1 were closely related in a phylogenetic group that was distinct from the group of six acid-labile ERBV1, which were also closely related to each other. The two acid-labile ERBV2 formed a third distinct group. One acid-labile ERBV1 had a chimeric acid-labile/acid-stable ERBV1 P1 sequence, presumably because of a recombination event within VP2 and this was supported by SimPlot analysis. ERBV1 rabbit antiserum neutralized acid-stable and acid-labile ERBV1 isolates similarly. Accordingly, three distinct phylogenetic groups of erboviruses exist that are consistent with serotype and acid stability phenotypes.

  9. Bumblebees require visual pollen stimuli to initiate and multimodal stimuli to complete a full behavioral sequence in close-range flower orientation.

    PubMed

    Wilmsen, Saskia; Gottlieb, Robin; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen. As artificial pollen stimuli, we used the yellow flavonoid pigment quercetin, the scent compound eugenol, the amino acid proline, the monosaccharide glucose, and the texture of pollen-grain-sized glass pellets as a tactile stimulus. Three test stimuli, dandelion pollen, one out of various uni- and multimodal stimulus combinations, and a solvent control were presented simultaneously to individual bumblebees, whose response was recorded. The results indicate that bumblebees respond in an irreversible sequence of behavioral reactions. Bumblebees approached the visual stimulus quercetin as often as natural dandelion pollen. An additional olfactory stimulus resulted in slightly more frequent landings. The multimodal stimulus combinations including visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile stimuli elicited approaches, antennal contacts, and landings as often as natural pollen. Subsequent reactions like proboscis extension, mandible biting, and buzzing were more often but not regularly observed at dandelion pollen. Our study shows that visual signals of pollen are sufficient to trigger initial responses of bumblebees, whereas multimodal pollen stimuli elicit full behavioral response as compared to natural pollen. Our results suggest a major role of pollen cues for the attraction of bees toward flowers and also explain, why many floral guides mimic the visual signals of pollen and anthers, that is, the yellow and UV-absorbing color, to

  10. The amino acid sequence of cytochromes c-551 from three species of Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R. P.; Wynn, Margaret

    1973-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the cytochromes c-551 from three species of Pseudomonas have been determined. Each resembles the protein from Pseudomonas strain P6009 (now known to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, not Pseudomonas fluorescens) in containing 82 amino acids in a single peptide chain, with a haem group covalently attached to cysteine residues 12 and 15. In all four sequences 43 residues are identical. Although by bacteriological criteria the organisms are closely related, the differences between pairs of sequences range from 22% to 39%. These values should be compared with the differences in the sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c between mammals and amphibians (about 18%) or between mammals and insects (about 33%). Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50015 at the National Lending Library for Science and Technology, Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1973), 131, 5. PMID:4352718

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sorghum Grain Mold Fungus Epicoccum sorghinum, a Producer of Tenuazonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rodrigo C.; Davenport, Karen W.; Hovde, Blake; Silva, Danielle; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Correa, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The facultative plant pathogen Epicoccum sorghinum is associated with grain mold of sorghum and produces the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid. This fungus can have serious economic impact on sorghum production. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of E. sorghinum (USPMTOX48). PMID:28126937

  12. Snake venom. The amino acid sequence of protein A from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Strydom, D J

    1980-12-01

    Protein A from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom comprises 81 amino acids, including ten half-cystine residues. The complete primary structures of protein A and its variant A' were elucidated. The sequences of proteins A and A', which differ in a single position, show no homology with various neurotoxins and non-neurotoxic proteins and represent a new type of elapid venom protein.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus coagulans NL01, a Wonderful l-Lactic Acid Producer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Ting; Lin, Xi; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus coagulans NL01, which could produce high optically pure l-lactic acid using xylose as a sole carbon source. The draft genome is 3,505,081 bp, with 144 contigs. About 3,903 protein-coding genes and 92 rRNAs are predicted from this assembly. PMID:26089419

  14. SeqTools: visual tools for manual analysis of sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Barson, Gemma; Griffiths, Ed

    2016-01-22

    Manual annotation is essential to create high-quality reference alignments and annotation. Annotators need to be able to view sequence alignments in detail. The SeqTools package provides three tools for viewing different types of sequence alignment: Blixem is a many-to-one browser of pairwise alignments, displaying multiple match sequences aligned against a single reference sequence; Dotter provides a graphical dot-plot view of a single pairwise alignment; and Belvu is a multiple sequence alignment viewer, editor, and phylogenetic tool. These tools were originally part of the AceDB genome database system but have been completely rewritten to make them generally available as a standalone package of greatly improved function. Blixem is used by annotators to give a detailed view of the evidence for particular gene models. Blixem displays the gene model positions and the match sequences aligned against the genomic reference sequence. Annotators use this for many reasons, including to check the quality of an alignment, to find missing/misaligned sequence and to identify splice sites and polyA sites and signals. Dotter is used to give a dot-plot representation of a particular pairwise alignment. This is used to identify sequence that is not represented (or is misrepresented) and to quickly compare annotated gene models with transcriptional and protein evidence that putatively supports them. Belvu is used to analyse conservation patterns in multiple sequence alignments and to perform a combination of manual and automatic processing of the alignment. High-quality reference alignments are essential if they are to be used as a starting point for further automatic alignment generation. While there are many different alignment tools available, the SeqTools package provides unique functionality that annotators have found to be essential for analysing sequence alignments as part of the manual annotation process.

  15. Extremely Acidophilic Protists from Acid Mine Drainage Host Rickettsiales-Lineage Endosymbionts That Have Intervening Sequences in Their 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Dawson, Scott C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2003-01-01

    During a molecular phylogenetic survey of extremely acidic (pH < 1), metal-rich acid mine drainage habitats in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif., we detected 16S rRNA gene sequences of a novel bacterial group belonging to the order Rickettsiales in the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest known relatives of this group (92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity) are endosymbionts of the protist Acanthamoeba. Oligonucleotide 16S rRNA probes were designed and used to observe members of this group within acidophilic protists. To improve visualization of eukaryotic populations in the acid mine drainage samples, broad-specificity probes for eukaryotes were redesigned and combined to highlight this component of the acid mine drainage community. Approximately 4% of protists in the acid mine drainage samples contained endosymbionts. Measurements of internal pH of the protists showed that their cytosol is close to neutral, indicating that the endosymbionts may be neutrophilic. The endosymbionts had a conserved 273-nucleotide intervening sequence (IVS) in variable region V1 of their 16S rRNA genes. The IVS does not match any sequence in current databases, but the predicted secondary structure forms well-defined stem loops. IVSs are uncommon in rRNA genes and appear to be confined to bacteria living in close association with eukaryotes. Based on the phylogenetic novelty of the endosymbiont sequences and initial culture-independent characterization, we propose the name “Candidatus Captivus acidiprotistae.” To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endosymbiotic relationship in an extremely acidic habitat. PMID:12957940

  16. Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Poulson; Suman, Surendranath P; Li, Shuting; Fontaine, Michele; Steinke, Laurey

    2012-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the primary structure of white-tailed deer myoglobin (Mb). White-tailed deer Mb was isolated from cardiac muscles employing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation. Sequence analyses of intact Mb as well as tryptic- and cyanogen bromide-peptides yielded the complete primary structure of white-tailed deer Mb, which shared 100% similarity with red deer Mb. White-tailed deer Mb consists of 153 amino acid residues and shares more than 96% sequence similarity with myoglobins from meat-producing ruminants, such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Similar to sheep and goat myoglobins, white-tailed deer Mb contains 12 histidine residues. Proximal (position 93) and distal (position 64) histidine residues responsible for maintaining the stability of heme are conserved in white-tailed deer Mb.

  17. Amino acid sequences of heterotrophic and photosynthetic ferredoxins from the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Kamide, K; Sakai, H; Aoki, K; Sanada, Y; Wada, K; Green, L S; Yee, B C; Buchanan, B B

    1995-11-01

    Several forms (isoproteins) of ferredoxin in roots, leaves, and green and red pericarps in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were earlier identified on the basis of N-terminal amino acid sequence and chromatographic behavior (Green et al. 1991). In the present study, a large scale preparation made possible determination of the full length amino acid sequence of the two ferredoxins from leaves. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root were sequenced from the amino terminus to the 30th residue or beyond. The leaf ferredoxins were confirmed to be expressed in pericarp of both green and red fruit. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root appeared to be restricted to those tissue. The results extend earlier findings in demonstrating that ferredoxin occurs in the major organs of the tomato plant where it appears to function irrespective of photosynthetic competence.

  18. Complete complementary DNA-derived amino acid sequence of canine cardiac phospholamban.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, J; Ueno, A; Kitano, K; Tanaka, S; Kadoma, M; Tada, M

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones specific for phospholamban of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes have been isolated from a canine cardiac cDNA library. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence indicates that phospholamban consists of 52 amino acid residues and lacks an amino-terminal signal sequence. The protein has an inferred mol wt 6,080 that is in agreement with its apparent monomeric mol wt 6,000, estimated previously by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Phospholamban contains two distinct domains, a hydrophilic region at the amino terminus (domain I) and a hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus (domain II). We propose that domain I is localized at the cytoplasmic surface and offers phosphorylatable sites whereas domain II is anchored into the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. PMID:3793929

  19. Nucleotide sequence and the encoded amino acids of human apolipoprotein A-I mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S W; Brewer, H B

    1984-01-01

    The cDNA clones encoding the precursor form of human liver apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), preproapoA-I, have been isolated from a cDNA library. A 17-base synthetic oligonucleotide based on residues 108-113 of apoA-I and a 26-base primer-extended, dideoxynucleotide-terminated cDNA were used as hybridization probes to select for recombinant plasmids bearing the apoA-I sequence. The complete nucleic acid sequence of human liver preproapoA-I has been determined by analysis of the cloned cDNA. The sequence is composed of 801 nucleotides encoding 267 amino acid residues. PreproapoA-I contains an 18-amino-acid prepeptide and a 6-amino-acid propeptide connected to the amino terminus of the 243-amino acid mature apoA-I. Southern blotting analysis of chromosomal DNA obtained from peripheral blood indicated the apoA-I gene is contained in a 2.1-kilobase-pair Pst I fragment and there is no gross difference in structural organization between the normal apoA-I gene and the Tangier disease apoA-I gene. Images PMID:6198645

  20. Mathematical Characterization of Protein Sequences Using Patterns as Chemical Group Combinations of Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Provas; Ray, Korak Kumar; Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Jana, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences. The amino acid sequence of conventional myosin II head domain of 14 family members are taken to illustrate this new approach. We find two blocks of maximum length 6 aa as 'FPKATD' and 'Y/FTNEKL' without repeating the same chemical nature and one block of maximum length 20 aa with the repetition of chemical nature which are common among all 14 members. We also check commonality with another motor protein sub-family kinesin, KIF1A. Based on our analysis we find a common block of length 8 aa both in myosin II and KIF1A. This motif is located in the neck linker region which could be responsible for the generation of mechanical force, enabling us to find the unique blocks which remain chemically conserved across the family. We also validate our methodology with different protein families such as MYOI, Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Altogether, our studies provide a new methodology for investigating the conserved amino acids' pattern in different proteins.

  1. [Comparison of the diagnostic utility from visual inspection with acetic acid and cervical cytology].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Hernández, Nadia; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Lares-Bayona, Edgar Felipe; Cisneros-Pérez, Vicente; Milla-Villeda, Reinaldo Humberto; Arreola-Herrera, Francisco de Asís; Navarrete-Flores, José Antonio; Aguilar-Durán, Maricela; Núñez-Márquez, Teresita; Rueda-Cisneros, Dora Alicia

    2010-05-01

    In Mexico, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death in women after breast cancer. The human papillomavirus is associated with intraepithelial lesions, detected up to 99.7% of cervical carcinomas. Despite being easy to detect is a condition that many women suffer. To determine the diagnostic utility of the visual inspection with acetic acid of the uterine cervix compared with the cervical cytology. Study of diagnostic tests. The study was realized in the Centro de Atención Materno Infantil y Planificación Familiar of the Instituto de Investigación Científica, Durango, Mexico, research of the Juárez University of the State of Durango, from August 23, 2005 to November 13, 2006. 1,521 participants were examined who went consecutively to opportune detection of cervical cancer. One doctor practiced the test of acetic acid and cervical cytology to them, and one digital photograph, which was evaluated by three inter-observers triple blind. Those that was positive to anyone of these tests, were remitted to colposcopy and/or biopsy; also to 10% of selected negative population randomly was realized this procedure. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and exactitude were determined. For the agreement inter-observer index of Kappa was used. Sensitivity, specificity, values predictive positive, negative and exactitude for the visual inspection with acetic acid were 20, 97, 5 and 99%, respectively. For the cervical cytology were of 80, 99, 57 and 99%, respectively. The force of agreement between the interobservant was poor. In this study cervical cytology was more useful than visual inspection with acetic acid to detect dysplasias or cervical cancer opportunely, due to detect all the positive true cases confirmed by biopsy.

  2. Analysis and Visualization of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Sequence Alignments Using ngs.plot.

    PubMed

    Loh, Yong-Hwee Eddie; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The continual maturation and increasing applications of next-generation sequencing technology in scientific research have yielded ever-increasing amounts of data that need to be effectively and efficiently analyzed and innovatively mined for new biological insights. We have developed ngs.plot-a quick and easy-to-use bioinformatics tool that performs visualizations of the spatial relationships between sequencing alignment enrichment and specific genomic features or regions. More importantly, ngs.plot is customizable beyond the use of standard genomic feature databases to allow the analysis and visualization of user-specified regions of interest generated by the user's own hypotheses. In this protocol, we demonstrate and explain the use of ngs.plot using command line executions, as well as a web-based workflow on the Galaxy framework. We replicate the underlying commands used in the analysis of a true biological dataset that we had reported and published earlier and demonstrate how ngs.plot can easily generate publication-ready figures. With ngs.plot, users would be able to efficiently and innovatively mine their own datasets without having to be involved in the technical aspects of sequence coverage calculations and genomic databases.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of solid dental restoration materials using 3D UTE sequences: visualization and relaxometry of various compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Ulrich; Syha, Roland; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Martirosian, Petros; Grözinger, Gerd; Schabel, Christoph; Schick, Fritz; Springer, Fabian

    2013-12-01

    Due to an increasing scientific interest in MR-imaging of carious lesions and teeth, an accurate signal characterization of dental restoration materials is necessary for optimization of MR sequence protocols and evaluation of material degradation. Therefore, signal yield and relaxation behavior of common dental restoration materials in comparison to those of dentine of extracted human teeth were assessed in vitro by ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences. Eighteen material samples and dentine of two freshly extracted human teeth were investigated on a 3T whole-body clinical MR-scanner. Transverse (T2*) and longitudinal relaxation times (T1) were quantified using a recently published modified Ernst equation that takes relevant in-pulse relaxation effects into account. All investigated samples could be successfully visualized but maximum signal yield was highly variable between samples. T1-values of the investigated dental restoration materials ranged between 28 and 365 ms, whereas T2*-values ranged between 96 and 917 μs. In contrast, T1-values of dentine (T1=545 ms±299 ms) were higher, while T2*-values (T2*=478 μs±271 μs) showed similar values. Dental restoration materials and dentine of extracted human teeth can be visualized by UTE sequences and show a broad range of signal yield and relaxation times.

  4. Nucleic-acid-programmed Ag-nanoclusters as a generic platform for visualization of latent fingerprints and exogenous substances.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xiang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhijun; Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-01-11

    We display a nucleic acid controlled AgNC platform for latent fingerprint visualization. The versatile emission of aptamer-modified AgNCs was regulated by the nearby DNA regions. Multi-color images for simultaneous visualization of fingerprints and exogenous components were successfully obtained. A quantitative detection strategy for exogenous substances in fingerprints was also established.

  5. Temporal alignment of anticipatory motor cortical beta lateralisation in hidden visual-motor sequences.

    PubMed

    Heideman, Simone G; van Ede, Freek; Nobre, Anna C

    2017-09-16

    Performance improves when participants respond to events that are structured in repeating sequences, suggesting that learning can lead to proactive anticipatory preparation. Whereas most sequence-learning studies have emphasized spatial structure, most sequences also contain a prominent temporal structure. We used MEG to investigate spatial and temporal anticipatory neural dynamics in a modified serial reaction-time (SRT) task. Performance and brain activity were compared between blocks with learned spatial-temporal sequences and blocks with new sequences. After confirming a strong behavioural benefit of spatial-temporal predictability, we show lateralisation of beta oscillations in anticipation of the response associated with the upcoming target location, and show that this also aligns to the expected timing of these forthcoming events. This effect was found both when comparing between repeated (learned) and new (unlearned) sequences, as well as when comparing targets that were expected after short vs. long intervals within the repeated (learned) sequence. Our findings suggest that learning of spatial-temporal structure leads to proactive and dynamic modulation of motor cortical excitability in anticipation of both the location and timing of events that are relevant to guide action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Software scripts for quality checking of high-throughput nucleic acid sequencers.

    PubMed

    Lazo, G R; Tong, J; Miller, R; Hsia, C; Rausch, C; Kang, Y; Anderson, O D

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a graphical interface to allow the researcher to view and assess the quality of sequencing results using a series of program scripts developed to process data generated by automated sequencers. The scripts are written in Perl programming language and are executable under the cgibin directory of a Web server environment. The scripts direct nucleic acid sequencing trace file data output from automated sequencers to be analyzed by the phred molecular biology program and are displayed as graphical hypertext mark-up language (HTML) pages. The scripts are mainly designed to handle 96-well microtiter dish samples, but the scripts are also able to read data from 384-well microtiter dishes 96 samples at a time. The scripts may be customized for different laboratory environments and computer configurations. Web links to the sources and discussion page are provided.

  7. Further characterization and amino acid sequence of m-type thioredoxins from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Tsugita, A; Dalzoppo, D; Vilbois, F; Schürmann, P

    1986-01-02

    The complete primary structure of m-type thioredoxin from spinach chloroplasts has been sequenced by conventional sequencing including fragmentation, Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion. As already reported [Tsugita, A., Maeda, K. & Schürmann, P. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 115, 1-7] these thioredoxins contain the same active-site sequence as thioredoxins from other sources. Based on the amino acid sequence thioredoxin mc contains 103 residues, has a relative molecular mass of 11425 and a molar absorption coefficient at 280 nm of 19 300 M-1 cm-1. The spinach thioredoxin mc has an overall homology of 44% with the thioredoxin from Escherichia coli mainly due to differences in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions.

  8. Protein sequence alignment with family-specific amino acid similarity matrices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alignment of amino acid sequences by means of dynamic programming is a cornerstone sequence comparison method. The quality of alignments produced by dynamic programming critically depends on the choice of the alignment scoring function. Therefore, for a specific alignment problem one needs a way of selecting the best performing scoring function. This work is focused on the issue of finding optimized protein family- and fold-specific scoring functions for global similarity matrix-based sequence alignment. Findings I utilize a comprehensive set of reference alignments obtained from structural superposition of homologous and analogous proteins to design a quantitative statistical framework for evaluating the performance of alignment scoring functions in global pairwise sequence alignment. This framework is applied to study how existing general-purpose amino acid similarity matrices perform on individual protein families and structural folds, and to compare them to family-specific and fold-specific matrices derived in this work. I describe an adaptive alignment procedure that automatically selects an appropriate similarity matrix and optimized gap penalties based on the properties of the sequences being aligned. Conclusions The results of this work indicate that using family-specific similarity matrices significantly improves the quality of the alignment of homologous sequences over the traditional sequence alignment based on a single general-purpose similarity matrix. However, using fold-specific similarity matrices can only marginally improve sequence alignment of proteins that share the same structural fold but do not share a common evolutionary origin. The family-specific matrices derived in this work and the optimized gap penalties are available at http://taurus.crc.albany.edu/fsm. PMID:21846354

  9. Common recognition principles across diverse sequence and structural families of sialic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bhagavat, Raghu; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids form a large family of 9-carbon monosaccharides and are integral components of glycoconjugates. They are known to bind to a wide range of receptors belonging to diverse sequence families and fold classes and are key mediators in a plethora of cellular processes. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the features that give rise to such a recognition capability. Structural analyses using a non-redundant data set of known sialic acid binding proteins was carried out, which included exhaustive binding site comparisons and site alignments using in-house algorithms, followed by clustering and tree computation, which has led to derivation of sialic acid recognition principles. Although the proteins in the data set belong to several sequence and structure families, their binding sites could be grouped into only six types. Structural comparison of the binding sites indicates that all sites contain one or more different combinations of key structural features over a common scaffold. The six binding site types thus serve as structural motifs for recognizing sialic acid. Scanning the motifs against a non-redundant set of binding sites from PDB indicated the motifs to be specific for sialic acid recognition. Knowledge of determinants obtained from this study will be useful for detecting function in unknown proteins. As an example analysis, a genome-wide scan for the motifs in structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome identified 17 hits that contain combinations of the features, suggesting a possible function of sialic acid binding by these proteins.

  10. Influence of severe vibrations on the visual perception of video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Adrian; Fisher, E.; Rotman, Stanley R.; Kopeika, Norman S.

    2000-12-01

    There are two kinds of video image sequence distortions caused by vibration of the camera. The first is the vibration of the line-of-sight causing location changes of the scene in successive frames. The second effect is the blur of each frame of the sequence due to frame motion during its exposure. In this work, the relative effects of these two types of degradations on the ability of observers to recognize targets are investigated. This study is useful for evaluating the amount of effort required to compensate each effect. We found that the threshold contrast needed to recognize a target in a vibrating video sequence under certain conditions is more affected by the motion blur of each frame than the oscillation of the line-of-sight. For digital sequence restoration methods, this study determines the required precision of the deblurring and registration processes. It shows that the deblurring process should not be neglected as it often is.

  11. Clinical utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid HCl to better visualize and more completely remove gliomas.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Adamson, D Cory

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is typically the first line of treatment for gliomas. However, the neurosurgeon faces a major challenge in achieving maximal resection in high-grade gliomas as these infiltrative tumors make it difficult to discern tumor margins from normal brain with conventional white-light microscopy alone. To aid in resection of these infiltrative tumors, fluorescence-guided surgery has gained much popularity in intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas, with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) leading the way. First introduced in an article in Neurosurgery, 5-ALA has since become a safe, effective, and inexpensive method to visualize and improve resection of gliomas. This has undoubtedly led to improvements in the clinical course of patients as demonstrated by the increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with such devastating disease. This literature review aims to discuss the major studies and trials demonstrating the clinical utility of 5-ALA and its ability to aid in complete resection of malignant gliomas.

  12. In-Gel Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Prussian Blue-Forming Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian

    2013-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting increasing attention due to its important functions. Diverse detection methods with their own properties have been developed for characterization of LAAO. In the present study, a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible method for quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on the visualization of Prussian blue-forming reaction is described. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, this Prussian blue agar assay can be directly used to determine the numbers and approximate molecular weights of LAAO in one step, allowing straightforward application for purification and sequence identification of LAAO from diverse samples. PMID:23383337

  13. Myoglobins of cartilaginous fishes III. Amino acid sequence of myoglobin of the shark Galeorhinus australis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W K; Koureas, D D; Thompson, E O

    1981-01-01

    Myoglobin isolated from the red muscle of the school shark Galeorhinus australis was purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined following digestion with trypsin and purification of the peptides by paper ionophoresis and chromatography. Sequences of purified peptides were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure and the peptides aligned by homology with the sequence of the myoglobin of the gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus. The two myoglobin sequences showed a marked similarity (16 differences), but both sequences showed approximately the same number of differences (68) from myoglobin of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni. There are 19 residues unique to three shark myoglobin sequences. As found with other fish myoglobins there are 148 residues with deletions of four residues at the amino terminal end as well as one residue in the CD region. The amino terminal residue is acetylated. The distal E7 histidine residue was found to be replaced by glutamine, as only previously reported for the myoglobin sequence of gummy shark.

  14. N-terminal amino acid sequence of proalbumin from inbred buffalo rats.

    PubMed

    Millership, A; Edwards, K; Chelladurai, M; Dryburgh, H; Inglis, A S; Urban, J; Schreiber, G

    1980-03-01

    The sequence of radioactively labelled amino acids at the N-terminus of proalbumin was determined by automated Edman-degradation. [3H] Valine, [3H]phenylalanine or [14C]arginine was incorporated into protein in vivo for a time period of 10 min after injection. Since albumin remains unlabelled during this time period (Urban et al., 1976), separation of proalbumin and albumin was not required for this work. Hence, compared to previous methods, a shorter purification procedure could be used which increased the yield of anti-albumin-precipitable protein and reduced the risk of proteolysis. Microsomes were prepared from livers removed 10 min after injection of the radioactively labelled amino acids. A buffer extract of the acetone-dried powder from these microsomes was chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose. All protein obtained after chromatography which could be precipitated with antiserum to serum albumin was isolated by immunoprecipitation and subsequent separation of the antigen-antibody complex. The sequence of radioactive amino acids in this antigen preparation suggests that about 20-25% of proalbumin possessed at the N-terminus the pentapeptide sequence X-Val-Phe-Arg-Arg- whereas 75-80% contained the hexapeptide sequence Arg-X-Val-Phe-Arg-Arg-.

  15. Haemoglobins of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni II. Amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain.

    PubMed

    Nash, A R; Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1976-03-01

    The amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain of the principal haemoglobin from the shark, H. portusjacksoni has been determined. The chain has 148 residues and is acetylated at the amino terminal. The soluble peptides obtained by tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the protein or its cyanogen bromide fragments were isolated by gel filtration, paper ionophoresis and paper chromatography. The amino acid sequences were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The insoluble "core" peptide from the tryptic digestion contained 34 residues and required cleavage by several prosteases before the sequence was established. Compared with human alpha-chain there are 88 amino acid differences including the additional seven residues which appear on the amino terminal of the shark chain. There is also one deletion and one insertion. The chain contains no tryptophan but has four cysteinyl residues which is the highest number of such residues recorded for a vertebrate globin. In the alpha1beta1 contact sites there are four changes in the oxyhaemoglobin form and six deoxy form. Nine of the 16, alpha1beta1 contact sites show variation while three of the haem contact sites have changed in comparison to the residues known to be involved in these interactions in horse haemoglobin alpha-chain. Use of the sequence data to estimate a time of divergence of the shark from the main vertebrate line yielded the value of 410 +/- 46 million years. The data, in general, support the palaeontological view that bony fishes arose before the elasmobranchs.

  16. Amino acid sequence of band-3 protein from rainbow trout erythrocytes derived from cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, S; Michel, F; Rudloff, V; Appelhans, H

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present the first complete band-3 cDNA sequence of a poikilothermic lower vertebrate. The primary structure of the anion-exchange protein band 3 (AE1) from rainbow trout erythrocytes was determined by nucleotide sequencing of cDNA clones. The overlapping clones have a total length of 3827 bp with a 5'-terminal untranslated region of 150 bp, a 2754 bp open reading frame and a 3'-untranslated region of 924 bp. Band-3 protein from trout erythrocytes consists of 918 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 101 827 Da. Comparison of its amino acid sequence revealed a 60-65% identity within the transmembrane spanning sequence of band-3 proteins published so far. An additional insertion of 24 amino acid residues within the membrane-associated domain of trout band-3 protein was identified, which until now was thought to be a general feature only of mammalian band-3-related proteins. PMID:1637296

  17. Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Kamlesh D [Ken; SNL,

    2016-07-12

    Kamlesh (Ken) Patel from Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, California) presents "Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology " at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  18. Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Kamlesh D; SNL,

    2012-06-01

    Kamlesh (Ken) Patel from Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, California) presents "Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology " at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  19. Mathematical Characterization of Protein Sequences Using Patterns as Chemical Group Combinations of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Jana, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences. The amino acid sequence of conventional myosin II head domain of 14 family members are taken to illustrate this new approach. We find two blocks of maximum length 6 aa as ‘FPKATD’ and ‘Y/FTNEKL’ without repeating the same chemical nature and one block of maximum length 20 aa with the repetition of chemical nature which are common among all 14 members. We also check commonality with another motor protein sub-family kinesin, KIF1A. Based on our analysis we find a common block of length 8 aa both in myosin II and KIF1A. This motif is located in the neck linker region which could be responsible for the generation of mechanical force, enabling us to find the unique blocks which remain chemically conserved across the family. We also validate our methodology with different protein families such as MYOI, Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Altogether, our studies provide a new methodology for investigating the conserved amino acids’ pattern in different proteins. PMID:27930687

  20. Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase from Ginger Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yuki; Fukamizo, Tamo; Yoneda, Kazunari; Araki, Tomohiro

    2017-04-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme protecting cells from oxidative stress. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is known for its antioxidant properties, however, there are no data on SODs from ginger rhizomes. In this study, we purified SOD from the rhizome of Z. officinale (Zo-SOD) and determined its complete amino acid sequence using N terminal sequencing, amino acid analysis, and de novo sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Zo-SOD consists of 151 amino acids with two signature Cu/Zn-SOD motifs and has high similarity to other plant Cu/Zn-SODs. Multiple sequence alignment showed that Cu/Zn-binding residues and cysteines forming a disulfide bond, which are highly conserved in Cu/Zn-SODs, are also present in Zo-SOD. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plant Cu/Zn-SODs clustered into distinct chloroplastic, cytoplasmic, and intermediate groups. Among them, only chloroplastic enzymes carried amino acid substitutions in the region functionally important for enzymatic activity, suggesting that chloroplastic SODs may have a function distinct from those of SODs localized in other subcellular compartments. The nucleotide sequence of the Zo-SOD coding region was obtained by reverse-translation, and the gene was synthesized, cloned, and expressed. The recombinant Zo-SOD demonstrated pH stability in the range of 5-10, which is similar to other reported Cu/Zn-SODs, and thermal stability in the range of 10-60 °C, which is higher than that for most plant Cu/Zn-SODs but lower compared to the enzyme from a Z. officinale relative Curcuma aromatica.

  1. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle ATP-AMP transphosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Palmieri, R H; Frischat, A; Fischer, A H; Wu, L H; Maland, L; Manship, M

    1984-05-22

    The total amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been determined, and the single polypeptide chain of 194 amino acid residues starts with N-acetylmethionine and ends with leucyllysine at its carboxyl terminus, in agreement with the earlier data on its amino acid composition [Mahowald, T. A., Noltmann, E. A., & Kuby, S. A. (1962) J. Biol. Chem. 237, 1138-1145] and its carboxyl-terminus sequence [Olson, O. E., & Kuby, S. A. (1964) J. Biol. Chem. 239, 460-467]. Elucidation of the primary structure was based on tryptic and chymotryptic cleavages of the performic acid oxidized protein, cyanogen bromide cleavages of the 14C-labeled S-carboxymethylated protein at its five methionine sites (followed by maleylation of peptide fragments), and tryptic cleavages at its 12 arginine sites of the maleylated 14C-labeled S-carboxymethylated protein. Calf muscle myokinase, whose sequence has also been established, differs primarily from the rabbit muscle myokinase's sequence in the following: His-30 is replaced by Gln-30; Lys-56 is replaced by Met-56; Ala-84 and Asp 85 are replaced by Val-84 and Asn-85. A comparison of the four muscle-type adenylate kinases, whose covalent structures have now been determined, viz., rabbit, calf, porcine, and human [for the latter two sequences see Heil, A., Müller, G., Noda, L., Pinder, T., Schirmer, H., Schirmer, I., & Von Zabern, I. (1974) Eur. J. Biochem. 43, 131-144, and Von Zabern, I., Wittmann-Liebold, B., Untucht-Grau, R., Schirmer, R. H., & Pai, E. F. (1976) Eur. J. Biochem. 68, 281-290], demonstrates an extraordinary degree of homology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Role of the two-component leader sequence and mature amino acid sequences in extracellular export of endoglucanase EGL from Pseudomonas solanacearum.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J Z; Schell, M A

    1992-01-01

    The egl gene of Pseudomonas solanacearum encodes a 43-kDa extracellular endoglucanase (mEGL) involved in wilt disease caused by this phytopathogen. Egl is initially translated with a 45-residue, two-part leader sequence. The first 19 residues are apparently removed by signal peptidase II during export of Egl across the inner membrane (IM); the remaining residues of the leader sequence (modified with palmitate) are removed during export across the outer membrane (OM). Localization of Egl-PhoA fusion proteins showed that the first 26 residues of the Egl leader sequence are required and sufficient to direct lipid modification, processing, and export of Egl or PhoA across the IM but not the OM. Fusions of the complete 45-residue leader sequence or of the leader and increasing portions of mEgl sequences to PhoA did not cause its export across the OM. In-frame deletion of portions of mEGL-coding sequences blocked export of the truncated polypeptides across the OM without affecting export across the IM. These results indicate that the first part of the leader sequence functions independently to direct export of Egl across the IM while the second part and sequences and structures in mEGL are involved in export across the OM. Computer analysis of the mEgl amino acid sequence obtained from its nucleotide sequence identified a region of mEGL similar in amino acid sequence to regions in other prokaryotic endoglucanases. Images PMID:1735723

  3. The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Holder, A A; Wootton, J C; Baron, A J; Chambers, G K; Fincham, J R

    1975-01-01

    Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1002

  4. Amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from a Spirometra (Spirometra erinaceieuropaei).

    PubMed

    Sanda, A; Uchida, A; Itagaki, T; Kobayashi, H; Inokuchi, N; Koyama, T; Iwama, M; Ohgi, K; Irie, M

    2001-12-01

    A trypsin inhibitor that is highly homologous with bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was co-purified along with RNase from Spirometra (Spirometra erinaceieuropaei). The amino acid sequence of this inhibitor (SETI) and the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding this protein were determined by protein chemistry and gene technology. SETI contains 68 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 7,798 Da. SETI has 31 amino acid residues that are identical with BPTI's sequence, including 6 half-cystine and 5 aromatic amino acid residues. The active site Lys residue in BPTI is replaced by an Arg residue in SETI. SETI is an effective inhibitor of trypsin and moderately inhibits a-chymotrypsin, but less inhibits elastase or subtilisin. SETI was expressed by E. coli containing a PelB vector carrying the SETI encoding cDNA; an expression yield of 0.68 mg/l was obtained. The phylogenetic relationship of SETI and the other BPTI-like trypsin inhibitors was analyzed using most likelihood inference methods.

  5. Multiple site-selective insertions of non-canonical amino acids into sequence-repetitive polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Lin; Patterson, Melissa A.; Carpenter Desai, Holly E.; Mehl, Ryan A.; Giorgi, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient method is described for introduction of non-canonical amino acids at multiple, structurally defined sites within recombinant polypeptide sequences. E. coli MRA30, a bacterial host strain with attenuated activity for release factor 1 (RF1), is assessed for its ability to support the incorporation of a diverse range of non-canonical amino acids in response to multiple encoded amber (TAG) codons within genetic templates derived from superfolder GFP and an elastin-mimetic protein polymer. Suppression efficiency and isolated protein yield were observed to depend on the identity of the orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair and the non-canonical amino acid substrate. This approach afforded elastin-mimetic protein polymers containing non-canonical amino acid derivatives at up to twenty-two positions within the repeat sequence with high levels of substitution. The identity and position of the variant residues was confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis of the full-length polypeptides and proteolytic cleavage fragments resulting from thermolysin digestion. The accumulated data suggest that this multi-site suppression approach permits the preparation of protein-based materials in which novel chemical functionality can be introduced at precisely defined positions within the polypeptide sequence. PMID:23625817

  6. The complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from Bauhinia variegata var. candida seeds.

    PubMed

    Di Ciero, L; Oliva, M L; Torquato, R; Köhler, P; Weder, J K; Camillo Novello, J; Sampaio, C A; Oliveira, B; Marangoni, S

    1998-11-01

    Trypsin inhibitors of two varieties of Bauhinia variegata seeds have been isolated and characterized. Bauhinia variegata candida trypsin inhibitor (BvcTI) and B. variegata lilac trypsin inhibitor (BvlTI) are proteins with Mr of about 20,000 without free sulfhydryl groups. Amino acid analysis shows a high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glycine, and a low content of histidine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine in both inhibitors. Isoelectric focusing for both varieties detected three isoforms (pI 4.85, 5.00, and 5.15), which were resolved by HPLC procedure. The trypsin inhibitors show Ki values of 6.9 and 1.2 nM for BvcTI and BvlTI, respectively. The N-terminal sequences of the three trypsin inhibitor isoforms from both varieties of Bauhinia variegata and the complete amino acid sequence of B. variegata var. candida L. trypsin inhibitor isoform 3 (BvcTI-3) are presented. The sequences have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the reduced and carboxymethylated proteins of the peptides resulting from Staphylococcus aureus protease and trypsin digestion. BvcTI-3 is composed of 167 residues and has a calculated molecular mass of 18,529. Homology studies with other trypsin inhibitors show that BvcTI-3 belongs to the Kunitz family. The putative active site encompasses Arg (63)-Ile (64).

  7. Deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid: SPL(pVal)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.A.; Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Hydrophobic, proteolipid-like protein of Mr 6500 was isolated from ether/ethanol extracts of human, canine and bovine pulmonary surfactant. Amino acid composition of the protein demonstrated a remarkable abundance of hydrophobic residues, particularly valine and leucine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human protein was determined: N-Leu-Ile-Pro-Cys-Cys-Pro-Val-Asn-Leu-Lys-Arg-Leu-Leu-Ile-Val4... An oligonucleotide probe was used to screen an adult human lung cDNA library and resulted in detection of cDNA clones with predicted amino acid sequence with close identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human peptide. SPL(pVal) was found within the reading frame of a larger peptide. SPL(pVal) results from proteolytic processing of a larger preprotein. Northern blot analysis detected in a single 1.0 kilobase SPL(pVal) RNA which was less abundant in fetal than in adult lung. Mixtures of purified canine and bovine SPL(pVal) and synthetic phospholipids display properties of rapid adsorption and surface tension lowering activity characteristic of surfactant. Human SPL(pVal) is a pulmonary surfactant proteolipid which may therefore be useful in combination with phospholipids and/or other surfactant proteins for the treatment of surfactant deficiency such as hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants.

  8. Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) from India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2011-06-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp, recently been classified as Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). The complete nucleic acid sequence of PstDNV from India was obtained by cloning and sequencing of different DNA fragment of the virus. The genome organisation of PstDNV revealed that there were three major coding domains: a left ORF (NS1) of 2001 bp, a mid ORF (NS2) of 1092 bp and a right ORF (VP) of 990 bp. The complete genome and amino acid sequences of three proteins viz., NS1, NS2 and VP were compared with the genomes of the virus reported from Hawaii, China and Mexico and with partial sequence available from isolates from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis of shrimp, insect and vertebrate parvovirus sequences showed that the Indian PstDNV isolate is phylogenetically more closely related to one of the three isolates from Taiwan (AY355307), and two isolates (AY362547 and AY102034) from Thailand.

  9. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human plakoglobin, the common junctional plaque protein

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, W.W.; Goldschmidt, M.D.; Zimbelmann, R.; Mueller, H.M.; Schiller, D.L.; Cowin, P. )

    1989-06-01

    Plakoglobin is a major cytoplasmic protein that occurs in a soluble and a membrane-associated form and is the only known constituent common to the submembranous plaques of both kinds of adhering junctions, the desmosomes and the intermediate junctions. Using a partial cDNA clone for bovine plakoglobin, the authors isolated cDNAs encoding human plakoglobin, determined its nucleotide sequence, and deduced the complete amino acid sequence. The polypeptide encoded by the cDNA was synthesized by in vitro transcription and translation and identified by its comigration with authentic plakoglobin in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The identity was further confirmed by comparison of the deduced sequence with the directly determined amino acid sequence of two fragments from bovine plakoglobin. Analysis of the plakoglobin sequence showed the protein to be unrelated to any other known proteins, highly conserved between human and bovine tissues, and characterized by numerous changes between hydrophilic and hydrophobic sections. Only one kind of plakoglobin mRNA was found in most tissues, but an additional mRNA was detected in certain human tumor cell lines. This longer mRNA may be represented by a second type of plakoglobin cDNA, which contains an insertion of 297 nucleotides in the 3{prime} noncoding region.

  10. SUBGROUPS OF AMINO ACID SEQUENCES IN THE VARIABLE REGIONS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bruce A.; Pflumm, Mollie N.; User, Urs Rutisha; Edelman, Gerald M.

    1969-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the first 133 residues of the heavy (γ) chain from a human γG immunoglobulin (He) has been determined. This γ-chain is identical in Gm type to that of protein Eu, the complete sequence of which has been reported. Comparison of the two sequences substantiates the previous suggestion that there are subgroups of variable regions of heavy chains. The variable region of Eu has been assigned to subgroup I and that of He to subgroup II; on the other hand, the constant regions of the two proteins appear to be identical. Comparison of the sequence of the heavy chain of He with the heavy chain sequences determined in other laboratories suggests that the variable region of subgroup II is at least 118 residues long. The nature and distribution of amino acid variations in this heavy chain subgroup resemble those observed in light chain subgroups. These studies provide evidence that the translocation hypothesis applies to heavy as well as to light chains, viz., genes for variable regions (V) are somatically translocated to genes for constant regions (C) to form complete VC structural genes. Images PMID:5264153

  11. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly's visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly's visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly's diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels.

  12. Molecular cytogenetics by polymerase catalyzed amplification or in situ labelling of specific nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bolund, L.; Brandt, C.; Hindkjaer, J.; Koch, J.; Koelvraa, S.; Pedersen, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can be performed on isolated cells or chromosomes and the product can be analyzed by DNA technology or by FISH to test metaphases. The authors have good experiences analyzing aberrant chromosomes by FACS sorting, PCR with degenerated primers and painting of test metaphases with the PCR product. They also utilize polymerases for PRimed IN Situ labelling (PRINS) of specific nucleic acid sequences. In PRINS oligonucleotides are hybridized to their target sequences and labeled nucleotides are incorporated at the site of hybridization with the oligonucleotide as primer. PRINS may eventually allow the study of individual genes, gene expression and even somatic mutations (in mRNA) in single cells.

  13. DNA Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Gene: Amino Acid Sequence of Repetitive Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea, Vincenzo; Ellis, Joan; Zavala, Fidel; Arnot, David E.; Asavanich, Achara; Masuda, Aoi; Quakyi, Isabella; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1984-08-01

    A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS β -lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  14. Amino-Acid Sequence of NADP-Specific Glutamate Dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, John C.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Holder, Anthony A.; Baron, Andrew J.; Taylor, John G.; Fincham, John R. S.; Blumenthal, Kenneth M.; Moon, Kenneth; Smith, Emil L.

    1974-01-01

    A tentative primary structure of the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase [L-glutamate: NADP oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.1.4] from Neurospora crassa has been determined. The proposed sequence contains 452 amino-acid residues in each of the identical subunits of the hexameric enzyme. Comparison of the sequence with that of the bovine liver enzyme reveals considerable homology in the amino-terminal portion of the chain, including the vicinity of the reactive lysine, with only shorter stretches of homology within the carboxyl-terminal regions. The significance of this distribution of homologous regions is discussed. PMID:4155068

  15. Serendipity in Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. [Visualization of nonbiliary incidental abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Sugarman, L.A.; Frank, M.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1980-05-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy has contributed significantly to the diagnosis of acute and chronic biliary tract disorders. Yet attention should also be focused on the other structres visualized during the blood pool, hepatocyte, renal excretory, and intestinal phases of the study. Nonbiliary pathology was detected in 42 of 294 patients (14.3%) studied for suspected acute cholecystitis. The serendipitous detection of previously unsuspected abnormalities assisted in directing further work-up away from suspected biliary disease and towards the real source of the patient's acute problem in 28 cases (9.5%).

  16. ngs.plot: Quick mining and visualization of next-generation sequencing data by integrating genomic databases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between the millions of functional DNA elements and their protein regulators, and how they work in conjunction to manifest diverse phenotypes, is key to advancing our understanding of the mammalian genome. Next-generation sequencing technology is now used widely to probe these protein-DNA interactions and to profile gene expression at a genome-wide scale. As the cost of DNA sequencing continues to fall, the interpretation of the ever increasing amount of data generated represents a considerable challenge. Results We have developed ngs.plot – a standalone program to visualize enrichment patterns of DNA-interacting proteins at functionally important regions based on next-generation sequencing data. We demonstrate that ngs.plot is not only efficient but also scalable. We use a few examples to demonstrate that ngs.plot is easy to use and yet very powerful to generate figures that are publication ready. Conclusions We conclude that ngs.plot is a useful tool to help fill the gap between massive datasets and genomic information in this era of big sequencing data. PMID:24735413

  17. ngs.plot: Quick mining and visualization of next-generation sequencing data by integrating genomic databases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Shao, Ningyi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Nestler, Eric

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the relationship between the millions of functional DNA elements and their protein regulators, and how they work in conjunction to manifest diverse phenotypes, is key to advancing our understanding of the mammalian genome. Next-generation sequencing technology is now used widely to probe these protein-DNA interactions and to profile gene expression at a genome-wide scale. As the cost of DNA sequencing continues to fall, the interpretation of the ever increasing amount of data generated represents a considerable challenge. We have developed ngs.plot - a standalone program to visualize enrichment patterns of DNA-interacting proteins at functionally important regions based on next-generation sequencing data. We demonstrate that ngs.plot is not only efficient but also scalable. We use a few examples to demonstrate that ngs.plot is easy to use and yet very powerful to generate figures that are publication ready. We conclude that ngs.plot is a useful tool to help fill the gap between massive datasets and genomic information in this era of big sequencing data.

  18. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of rat myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H).

    PubMed

    Jung, J; Oh, J; Lee, K

    1998-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the cDNA clone encoding rat skeletal muscle myosin-binding protein H (MyBP-H) was determined and amino acid sequence was deduced from the nucleotide sequence (GenBank accession number AF077338). The full-length cDNA of 1782 base pairs(bp) contains a single open reading frame of 1454 bp encoding a rat MyBP-H protein of the predicted molecular mass 52.7 kDa and includes the common consensus 'CA__TG' protein binding motif. The cDNA sequence of rat MyBP-H show 92%, 84% and 41% homology with those of mouse, human and chicken, respectively. The protein contains tandem internal motifs array (-FN III-Ig C2-FN III-Ig C2-) in the C-terminal region which resembles to the immunoglobulin superfamily C2 and fibronectin type III motifs. The amino acid sequence of the C-terminal Ig C2 was highly conserved among MyBPs family and other thick filament binding proteins, suggesting that the C-terminal Ig C2 might play an important role in its function. All proteins belonging to MyBP-H member contains 'RKPS' sequence which is assumed to be cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase A phosphorylation site. Computer analysis of the primary sequence of rat MyBP-H predicted 11 protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, 7 casein kinase II (CK2) phosphorylation site and 4 N-myristoylation site.

  19. Method for high-volume sequencing of nucleic acids: random and directed priming with libraries of oligonucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William

    1995-04-18

    Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient.

  20. Method for high-volume sequencing of nucleic acids: random and directed priming with libraries of oligonucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.

    1995-04-18

    Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient. 2 figs.

  1. Tools for visualization and integration of intermediate sequencing results in large disease gene discovery projects.

    PubMed

    Rzhetsky, A; Kalachikov, S; Ye, X; Zhang, P; Russo, J J

    1998-02-16

    We describe two Java applets which are useful for insightful presentation of intermediate experimental data in gene discovery projects involving large scale sequencing. One of these applets provides a physical map of a genomic region and provides easy access to the second applet, which furnishes a detailed map of sequence contigs associated with clones on the physical map. In particular, the second applet displays all the known information about each contig, including the presence of exons, database homology 'hits', repetitive elements and other features; the graphics are linked to other World Wide Web pages, providing detailed information on each feature. These applets should be useful to other research groups working on large sequencing projects.

  2. Sequence-specific thermodynamic properties of nucleic acids influence both transcriptional pausing and backtracking in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II pauses and backtracks during transcription, with many consequences for gene expression and cellular physiology. Here, we show that the energy required to melt double-stranded nucleic acids in the transcription bubble predicts pausing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae far more accurately than nucleosome roadblocks do. In addition, the same energy difference also determines when the RNA polymerase backtracks instead of continuing to move forward. This data-driven model corroborates—in a genome wide and quantitative manner—previous evidence that sequence-dependent thermodynamic features of nucleic acids influence both transcriptional pausing and backtracking. PMID:28301878

  3. Using GBrowse 2.0 to visualize and share next-generation sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    GBrowse is a mature web-based genome browser that is suitable for deployment on both public and private web sites. It supports most of genome browser features, including qualitative and quantitative (wiggle) tracks, track uploading, track sharing, interactive track configuration, semantic zooming and limited smooth track panning. As of version 2.0, GBrowse supports next-generation sequencing (NGS) data by providing for the direct display of SAM and BAM sequence alignment files. SAM/BAM tracks provide semantic zooming and support both local and remote data sources. This article provides step-by-step instructions for configuring GBrowse to display NGS data. PMID:23376193

  4. Visualization of Iron-Binding Micelles in Acidic Recombinant Biomineralization Protein, MamC

    DOE PAGES

    Kashyap, Sanjay; Woehl, Taylor; Valverde-Tercedor, Carmen; ...

    2014-01-01

    Biological macromolecules are utilized in low-temperature synthetic methods to exert precise control over nanoparticle nucleation and placement. They enable low-temperature formation of a variety of functional nanostructured materials with properties often not achieved via conventional synthetic techniques. Here we report on the in situ visualization of a novel acidic bacterial recombinant protein, MamC, commonly present in the magnetosome membrane of several magnetotactic bacteria, including Magnetococcus marinus , strain MC-1. Our findings provide an insight into the self-assembly of MamC and point to formation of the extended protein surface, which is assumed to play an important role in the formationmore » of biotemplated inorganic nanoparticles. The self-organization of MamC is compared to the behavior of another acidic recombinant iron-binding protein, Mms6.« less

  5. RareVariantVis: new tool for visualization of causative variants in rare monogenic disorders using whole genome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Garbulowski, Mateusz; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Holdhus, Rita; Labun, Kornel; Sztromwasser, Pawel; Gilissen, Christian; Hoischen, Alexander; Houge, Gunnar; Petersen, Kjell; Jonassen, Inge; Steen, Vidar M

    2016-10-01

    The search for causative genetic variants in rare diseases of presumed monogenic inheritance has been boosted by the implementation of whole exome (WES) and whole genome (WGS) sequencing. In many cases, WGS seems to be superior to WES, but the analysis and visualization of the vast amounts of data is demanding. To aid this challenge, we have developed a new tool-RareVariantVis-for analysis of genome sequence data (including non-coding regions) for both germ line and somatic variants. It visualizes variants along their respective chromosomes, providing information about exact chromosomal position, zygosity and frequency, with point-and-click information regarding dbSNP IDs, gene association and variant inheritance. Rare variants as well as de novo variants can be flagged in different colors. We show the performance of the RareVariantVis tool in the Genome in a Bottle WGS data set. https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/3.3/bioc/html/RareVariantVis.html tomasz.stokowy@k2.uib.no Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA, identification of cleavage activation site and amino acid sequence of N-terminus of F1 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Satake, M; Coligan, J E; Norrby, E; Camargo, E; Venkatesan, S

    1985-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (Fo) was deduced from the sequence of a partial cDNA clone of mRNA and from the 5' mRNA sequence obtained by primer extension and dideoxysequencing. The encoded protein of 574 amino acids is extremely hydrophobic and has a molecular weight of 63371 daltons. The site of proteolytic cleavage within this protein was accurately mapped by determining a partial amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the larger subunit (F1) purified by radioimmunoprecipitation using monoclonal antibodies. Alignment of the N-terminus of the F1 subunit within the deduced amino acid sequence of Fo permitted us to identify a sequence of lys-lys-arg-lys-arg-arg at the C-terminus of the smaller N-terminal F2 subunit that appears to represent the cleavage/activation domain. Five potential sites of glycosylation, four within the F2 subunit, were also identified. Three extremely hydrophobic domains are present in the protein; a) the N-terminal signal sequence, b) the N-terminus of the F1 subunit that is analogous to the N-terminus of the paramyxovirus F1 subunit and the HA2 subunit of influenza virus hemagglutinin, and c) the putative membrane anchorage domain near the C-terminus of F1. Images PMID:2987829

  7. Analysis of protein function and its prediction from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wyatt T; Radivojac, Predrag

    2011-07-01

    Understanding protein function is one of the keys to understanding life at the molecular level. It is also important in the context of human disease because many conditions arise as a consequence of alterations of protein function. The recent availability of relatively inexpensive sequencing technology has resulted in thousands of complete or partially sequenced genomes with millions of functionally uncharacterized proteins. Such a large volume of data, combined with the lack of high-throughput experimental assays to functionally annotate proteins, attributes to the growing importance of automated function prediction. Here, we study proteins annotated by Gene Ontology (GO) terms and estimate the accuracy of functional transfer from protein sequence only. We find that the transfer of GO terms by pairwise sequence alignments is only moderately accurate, showing a surprisingly small influence of sequence identity (SID) in a broad range (30-100%). We developed and evaluated a new predictor of protein function, functional annotator (FANN), from amino acid sequence. The predictor exploits a multioutput neural network framework which is well suited to simultaneously modeling dependencies between functional terms. Experiments provide evidence that FANN-GO (predictor of GO terms; available from http://www.informatics.indiana.edu/predrag) outperforms standard methods such as transfer by global or local SID as well as GOtcha, a method that incorporates the structure of GO.

  8. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Alexander; Wincker, Patrick; Mauger, Stéphane; Jaillon, Olivier; Malarme, Karine; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2001-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire genome and a shotgun polishing step. The genome contains 2,365,589 base pairs and encodes 2310 proteins, including 293 protein-coding genes belonging to six prophages and 43 insertion sequence (IS) elements. Nonrandom distribution of IS elements indicates that the chromosome of the sequenced strain may be a product of recent recombination between two closely related genomes. A complete set of late competence genes is present, indicating the ability of L. lactis to undergo DNA transformation. Genomic sequence revealed new possibilities for fermentation pathways and for aerobic respiration. It also indicated a horizontal transfer of genetic information from Lactococcus to gram-negative enteric bacteria of Salmonella-Escherichia group. [The sequence data described in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AE005176.] PMID:11337471

  9. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Barrio, Álvaro; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. Results An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. Conclusion The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, , or at . PMID:19534743

  10. Automatic classification of lung tumour heterogeneity according to a visual-based score system in dynamic contrast enhanced CT sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Baiocco, Serena

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technologies have been considered for a long time as one of the most effective medical imaging tools for morphological analysis of body parts. Contrast Enhanced CT (CE-CT) also allows emphasising details of tissue structures whose heterogeneity, inspected through visual analysis, conveys crucial information regarding diagnosis and prognosis in several clinical pathologies. Recently, Dynamic CE-CT (DCE-CT) has emerged as a promising technique to perform also functional hemodynamic studies, with wide applications in the oncologic field. DCE-CT is based on repeated scans over time performed after intravenous administration of contrast agent, in order to study the temporal evolution of the tracer in 3D tumour tissue. DCE-CT pushes towards an intensive use of computers to provide automatically quantitative information to be used directly in clinical practice. This requires that visual analysis, representing the gold-standard for CT image interpretation, gains objectivity. This work presents the first automatic approach to quantify and classify the lung tumour heterogeneities based on DCE-CT image sequences, so as it is performed through visual analysis by experts. The approach developed relies on the spatio-temporal indices we devised, which also allow exploiting temporal data that enrich the knowledge of the tissue heterogeneity by providing information regarding the lesion status.

  11. Stereochemical Sequence Ion Selectivity: Proline versus Pipecolic-acid-containing Protonated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Guan, Shanshan; Bythell, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Substitution of proline by pipecolic acid, the six-membered ring congener of proline, results in vastly different tandem mass spectra. The well-known proline effect is eliminated and amide bond cleavage C-terminal to pipecolic acid dominates instead. Why do these two ostensibly similar residues produce dramatically differing spectra? Recent evidence indicates that the proton affinities of these residues are similar, so are unlikely to explain the result [Raulfs et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 1705-1715 (2014)]. An additional hypothesis based on increased flexibility was also advocated. Here, we provide a computational investigation of the "pipecolic acid effect," to test this and other hypotheses to determine if theory can shed additional light on this fascinating result. Our calculations provide evidence for both the increased flexibility of pipecolic-acid-containing peptides, and structural changes in the transition structures necessary to produce the sequence ions. The most striking computational finding is inversion of the stereochemistry of the transition structures leading to "proline effect"-type amide bond fragmentation between the proline/pipecolic acid-congeners: R (proline) to S (pipecolic acid). Additionally, our calculations predict substantial stabilization of the amide bond cleavage barriers for the pipecolic acid congeners by reduction in deleterious steric interactions and provide evidence for the importance of experimental energy regime in rationalizing the spectra.

  12. Sequence-specific nucleic acid detection from binary pore conductance measurement

    PubMed Central

    Esfandiari, Leyla; Monbouquette, Harold G.; Schmidt, Jacob J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a platform for sequence-specific nucleic acid (NA) detection utilizing a micropipette tapered to a 2 μm diameter pore and 3 μm diameter polystyrene beads to which uncharged peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe molecules have been conjugated. As the target NAs hybridize to the complementary PNA-beads, the beads acquire negative charge and become electrophoretically mobile. An applied electric field guides these NA-PNA-beads toward the pipette tip, which they obstruct, leading to an indefinite, electrically detectable, partial blockade of the pore. In the presence of non-complementary NA, even to the level of single base mismatch, permanent pore blockade is not seen. We show application of this platform to detection of the anthrax lethal factor sequence. PMID:22931376

  13. Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) lacking the acidic subunit DNA sequence lack Mojave toxin in their venom.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, B J; Pineda, G; Banuelas-Ornelas, J J; Dagda, R K; Gasanov, S E; Rael, E D; Lieb, C S

    2001-09-01

    The venom composition of Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) differs in that some individuals have Mojave toxin and others do not. In order to understand the genetic basis for this difference, genomic DNA samples from Mojave rattlesnakes collected in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences that relate to the acidic (Mta) and basic (Mtb) subunits of this toxin. DNA samples were subjected to PCR to amplify nucleotide sequences from second to fourth exons of the acidic and basic subunits. These nucleotide sequences were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences generated aligned exactly to previously published nucleotide sequences of Mojave toxin. All DNA samples analyzed generated product using the basic subunit primers, and aligned identically to the Mtb nucleotide sequence. However, only 11 out of the 14 samples generated a product with the acidic subunit primers. These 11 sequences aligned identically to the Mta nucleotide sequence. The venom from the three snakes whose DNA did not amplify with the acidic subunit primers were not recognized by antibodies to Mojave toxin. This suggests that snakes with venom lacking Mojave toxin also lack the productive nucleotide sequence for the acidic subunit in their DNA.

  14. Self-sequencing of amino acids and origins of polyfunctional protocells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The role of proteins in the origin of living things is discussed. It has been experimentally established that amino acids can sequence themselves under simulated geological conditions with highly nonrandom products which accordingly contain diverse information. Multiple copies of each type of macromolecule are formed, resulting in greater power for any protoenzymic molecule than would accrue from a single copy of each type. Thermal proteins are readily incorporated into laboratory protocells. The experimental evidence for original polyfunctional protocells is discussed.

  15. Self-sequencing of amino acids and origins of polyfunctional protocells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The role of proteins in the origin of living things is discussed. It has been experimentally established that amino acids can sequence themselves under simulated geological conditions with highly nonrandom products which accordingly contain diverse information. Multiple copies of each type of macromolecule are formed, resulting in greater power for any protoenzymic molecule than would accrue from a single copy of each type. Thermal proteins are readily incorporated into laboratory protocells. The experimental evidence for original polyfunctional protocells is discussed.

  16. Amino acid sequence of atrial natriuretic peptides in human coronary sinus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yandle, T; Crozier, I; Nicholls, G; Espiner, E; Carne, A; Brennan, S

    1987-07-31

    Two atrial natriuretic peptides were purified from pooled human coronary sinus plasma by Sep-Pak extraction, immunoaffinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were homologous with 99-126 human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) and 106-126 hANP, the latter being most probably linked to 99-105 ANP by the disulphide bond. The molar ratio of the peptides in plasma, as assessed by radioimmunoassay was 10:3.

  17. Ultrasensitive visual read-out of nucleic acids using electrocatalytic fluid displacement

    PubMed Central

    Besant, Justin D.; Das, Jagotamoy; Burgess, Ian B.; Liu, Wenhan; Sargent, Edward H.; Kelley, Shana O.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of disease outside of sophisticated laboratories urgently requires low-cost, user-friendly devices. Disposable, instrument-free testing devices are used for home and physician office testing, but are limited in applicability to a small class of highly abundant analytes. Direct, unambiguous visual read-out is an ideal way to deliver a result on a disposable device; however, existing strategies that deliver appropriate sensitivity produce only subtle colour changes. Here we report a new approach, which we term electrocatalytic fluid displacement, where a molecular binding event is transduced into an electrochemical current, which drives the electrodeposition of a metal catalyst. The catalyst promotes bubble formation that displaces a fluid to reveal a high contrast change. We couple the read-out system to a nanostructured microelectrode and demonstrate direct visual detection of 100 fM DNA in 10 min. This represents the lowest limit of detection of nucleic acids reported using high contrast visual read-out. PMID:25901450

  18. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer. PMID:24147211

  19. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  20. Coding and 3' non-coding nucleotide sequence of chalcone synthase mRNA and assignment of amino acid sequence of the enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Reimold, Ursula; Kröger, Manfred; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an almost complete cDNA copy of chalcone synthase mRNA from cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum hortense) has been determined. The cDNA copy comprised the complete coding sequence for chalcone synthase, a short A-rich stretch of the 5' non-coding region and the complete 3' non-coding region including a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA is consistent with a partial N-terminal sequence analysis, the total amino acid composition, the cyanogen bromide cleavage pattern, and the apparent mol. wt. of the subunit of the purified enzyme. PMID:16453477

  1. Novel Numerical Characterization of Protein Sequences Based on Individual Amino Acid and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-ping; Sheng, Ya-jun; He, Ping-an; Ruan, Ji-shuo

    2015-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of amino acids play a very important role in protein folding and its interaction with the environment and other molecules, as well as its catalytic mechanism. Based on the two physicochemical indexes, a 2D graphical representation of protein sequences is introduced; meanwhile, a new numerical characteristic has been proposed to compute the distance of different sequences for analysis of sequence similarity/dissimilarity on the basis of this graphical representation. Furthermore, we apply the new distance in the similarities/dissimilarities of ND5 proteins of nine species and predict the four major classes based on the dataset containing 639 domains. The results show that the method is simple and effective. PMID:25705698

  2. Amino acid sequence similarity between rabies virus glycoprotein and snake venom curaremimetic neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Wilson, P T; Hawrot, E; Speicher, D W

    1984-11-16

    Evidence was presented earlier that a host-cell receptor for the highly neurotropic rabies virus might be the acetylcholine receptor. The amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein of rabies virus was compared by computer analysis with that of snake venom curaremimetic neurotoxins, potent ligands of the acetylcholine receptor. A statistically significant sequence relation was found between a segment of the rabies glycoprotein and the entire sequence of long neurotoxins. The greatest identity occurs with residues considered most important in neurotoxicity, including those interacting with the acetylcholine binding site of the acetylcholine receptor. Because of the similarity between the glycoprotein and the receptor-binding region of the neurotoxins, this region of the viral glycoprotein may function as a recognition site for the acetylcholine receptor. Direct binding of the rabies virus glycoprotein to the acetylcholine receptor could contribute to the neurotropism of this virus.

  3. Partial amino acid sequence of human pancreatic stone protein, a novel pancreatic secretory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Montalto, G; Bonicel, J; Multigner, L; Rovery, M; Sarles, H; De Caro, A

    1986-01-01

    Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) is the major organic component of human pancreatic stones. With the use of monoclonal antibody immunoadsorbents, five immunoreactive forms (PSP-S) with close Mr values (14,000-19,000) were isolated from normal pancreatic juice. By CM-Trisacryl M chromatography the lowest-Mr form (PSP-S1) was separated from the others and some of its molecular characteristics were investigated. The Mr of the PSP-S1 polypeptide chain calculated from the amino acid composition was about 16,100. The N-terminal sequences (40 residues) of PSP and PSP-S1 are identical, which suggests that the peptide backbone is the same for both of these polypeptides. The PSP-S1 sequence was determined up to residue 65 and was found to be different from all other known protein sequences. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3541906

  4. The complete amino acid sequence of growth hormone of an elasmobranch, the blue shark (Prionace glauca).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Yasuda, A; Lewis, U J; Yokoo, Y; Kawauchi, H

    1989-02-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of growth hormone (GH) from a phylogenetically ancient fish, the blue shark (Prionace glauca), was determined. The shark GH isolated from pituitary glands by U. J. Lewis, R. N. P. Singh, B. K. Seavey, R. Lasker, and G. E. Pickford (1972, Fish. Bull. 70, 933-939) was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The hormone was reduced, carboxymethylated, and subsequently cleaved in turn with cyanogen bromide and Staphylococcus aureus protease. The intact protein was also cleaved with lysyl endopeptidase and o-iodosobenzoic acid. The resulting peptide fragments were separated by rpHPLC and submitted to sequence analysis by automated and manual Edman methods. The shark GH consists of 183 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 21,081. Sequence comparisons revealed that the elasmobranch GH is considerably more similar to tetrapod GHs (e.g., 68% identity with sea turtle GH, 63% with chicken GH, and 58% with ovine GH) than teleostean GHs (e.g., 38% identities with salmon GH and 42% with bonito GH) except for eel GH (61% identity), and substantiates the earlier finding derived from the immunochemical and biological studies (Hayashida and Lewis, 1978) that the primitive fish are less diverged from the main line of vertebrate evolution leading to the tetrapod than are the modern bony fish.

  5. Complete amino acid sequences of three proteinase inhibitors from white sword bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    PubMed

    Park, S S; Sumi, T; Ohba, H; Nakamura, O; Kimura, M

    2000-10-01

    Three major serine proteinase inhibitors (SBI-1, -2, and -3) were purified from the seeds of white sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) by FPLC and reversed-phase HPLC. The sequences of these inhibitors were established by automatic Edman degradation and TOF-mass spectrometry. SBI-1, -2, and -3 consisted of 72, 73, and 75 amino acid residues, with molecular masses of 7806.5, 7919.8, and 8163.4, respectively. The sequences of SBI-1 and -2 coincided with those of CLT I and II [Terada et al. (1994) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 58, 376-379] except only N- or C-terminal amino acid residues. Analysis of the amino acid sequences showed that the active sites of the inhibitors contained a Lys21-Ser22 against trypsin and Leu48-Ser49 against chymotrypsin, respectively. Further, it became apparent that about seven disulfide bonds were present. These results suggest that sword bean inhibitors are members of the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor family.

  6. Random Amino Acid Mutations and Protein Misfolding Lead to Shannon Limit in Sequence-Structure Communication

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Andreas Martin

    2008-01-01

    The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions) and in structure (structural defects) trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a) sensitive to random errors and (b) restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials. PMID:18769673

  7. Characterization of the microbial acid mine drainage microbial community using culturing and direct sequencing techniques.

    PubMed

    Auld, Ryan R; Myre, Maxine; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Leduc, Leo G; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2013-05-01

    We characterized the bacterial community from an AMD tailings pond using both classical culturing and modern direct sequencing techniques and compared the two methods. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is produced by the environmental and microbial oxidation of minerals dissolved from mining waste. Surprisingly, we know little about the microbial communities associated with AMD, despite the fundamental ecological roles of these organisms and large-scale economic impact of these waste sites. AMD microbial communities have classically been characterized by laboratory culturing-based techniques and more recently by direct sequencing of marker gene sequences, primarily the 16S rRNA gene. In our comparison of the techniques, we find that their results are complementary, overall indicating very similar community structure with similar dominant species, but with each method identifying some species that were missed by the other. We were able to culture the majority of species that our direct sequencing results indicated were present, primarily species within the Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium genera, although estimates of relative species abundance were only obtained from direct sequencing. Interestingly, our culture-based methods recovered four species that had been overlooked from our sequencing results because of the rarity of the marker gene sequences, likely members of the rare biosphere. Further, direct sequencing indicated that a single genus, completely missed in our culture-based study, Legionella, was a dominant member of the microbial community. Our results suggest that while either method does a reasonable job of identifying the dominant members of the AMD microbial community, together the methods combine to give a more complete picture of the true diversity of this environment.

  8. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid for cervical intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Goel, A; Gandhi, G; Batra, S; Bhambhani, S; Zutshi, V; Sachdeva, P

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In this prospective study, 400 women were screened using the Papanicolaou (PAP) smear, VIA and colposcopy. Those who had positive results with any of the screening methods underwent large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). The sensitivity and specificity of each of the screening methods was analyzed. The sensitivity of VIA (96.7%) was much higher than that of the Pap smear (50%), and almost as high as that of colposcopy (100%). The specificity of VIA (36.4%) was lower than that of the Pap smear (97%) and colposcopy (96.9%), resulting in high false-positive rates for VIA. Two cases of endocervical lesions were missed with VIA. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid is very sensitive for ectocervical lesions. The advantages of the VIA method are its low cost and ease of use (it can be used by paramedical workers), its high sensitivity and its immediate results (it is possible to "see and treat" at the first visit). Its main limitation is a high rate of false-positive results, which may lead to overtreatment if a "see and treat" policy is applied.

  9. The amino acid sequence of the aspartate aminotransferase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, V B; Maras, B; Barra, D; Doonan, S

    1991-01-01

    1. The single (cytosolic) aspartate aminotransferase was purified in high yield from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 2. Amino-acid-sequence analysis was carried out by digestion of the protein with trypsin and with CNBr; some of the peptides produced were further subdigested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase or with pepsin. Peptides were sequenced by the dansyl-Edman method and/or by automated gas-phase methods. The amino acid sequence obtained was complete except for a probable gap of two residues as indicated by comparison with the structures of counterpart proteins in other species. 3. The N-terminus of the enzyme is blocked. Fast-atom-bombardment m.s. was used to identify the blocking group as an acetyl one. 4. Alignment of the sequence of the enzyme with those of vertebrate cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases and with the enzyme from Escherichia coli showed that about 25% of residues are conserved between these distantly related forms. 5. Experimental details and confirmatory data for the results presented here are given in a Supplementary Publication (SUP 50164, 25 pages) that has been deposited at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa. Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7 BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1991) 273, 5. PMID:1859361

  10. Analysis of amino acid sequence variations and immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes of German cockroach tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2004-09-01

    The allergenicities of tropomyosins from different organisms have been reported to vary. The cDNA encoding German cockroach tropomyosin (Bla g 7) was isolated, expressed, and characterized previously. In the present study, the amino acid sequence variations in German cockroach tropomyosin were analyzed in order to investigate its influence on allergenicity. We also undertook the identification of immunodominant peptides containing immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes which may facilitate the development of diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies based on the recombinant proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis with mouse anti-recombinant German cockroach tropomyosin serum was performed to investigate the isoforms at the protein level. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to examine the sequence diversity. Eleven different variants of the deduced amino acid sequences were identified by RT-PCR. German cockroach tropomyosin has only minor sequence variations that did not seem to affect its allergenicity significantly. These results support the molecular basis underlying the cross-reactivities of arthropod tropomyosins. Recombinant fragments were also generated by PCR, and IgE-binding epitopes were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera from seven patients revealed heterogeneous IgE-binding responses. This study demonstrates multiple IgE-binding epitope regions in a single molecule, suggesting that full-length tropomyosin should be used for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  11. [MOLECULAR EVOLUTION OF ION CHANNELS: AMINO ACID SEQUENCES AND 3D STRUCTURES].

    PubMed

    Korkosh, V S; Zhorov, B S; Tikhonov, D B

    2016-01-01

    An integral part of modern evolutionary biology is comparative analysis of structure and function of macromolecules such as proteins. The first and critical step to understand evolution of homologous proteins is their amino acid sequence alignment. However, standard algorithms fop not provide unambiguous sequence alignments for proteins of poor homology. More reliable results can be obtained by comparing experimental 3D structures obtained at atomic resolution, for instance, with the aid of X-ray structural analysis. If such structures are lacking, homology modeling is used, which may take into account indirect experimental data on functional roles of individual amino-acid residues. An important problem is that the sequence alignment, which reflects genetic modifications, does not necessarily correspond to the functional homology. The latter depends on three-dimensional structures which are critical for natural selection. Since alignment techniques relying only on the analysis of primary structures carry no information on the functional properties of proteins, including 3D structures into consideration is very important. Here we consider several examples involving ion channels and demonstrate that alignment of their three-dimensional structures can significantly improve sequence alignments obtained by traditional methods.

  12. A proposal for a coherent mammalian histone H1 nomenclature correlated with amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Parseghian, M H; Henschen, A H; Krieglstein, K G; Hamkalo, B A

    1994-04-01

    Bio-Rex 70 chromatography was combined with reverse-phase (RP) HPLC to fractionate histone H1 zero and 4 histone H1 subtypes from human placental nuclei as previously described (Parseghian MH et al., 1993, Chromosome Res 1:127-139). After proteolytic digestion of the subtypes with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, peptides were fractionated by RP-HPLC and partially sequenced by Edman degradation in order to correlate them with human spleen subtypes (Ohe Y, Hayashi H, Iwai K, 1986, J Biochem (Tokyo) 100:359-368; 1989, J Biochem (Tokyo) 106:844-857). Based on comparisons with the sequence data available from other mammalian species, subtypes were grouped. These groupings were used to construct a coherent nomenclature for mammalian somatic H1s. Homologous subtypes possess characteristic patterns of growth-related and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation sites. The groupings defined by amino acid sequence also were used to correlate the elution profiles and electrophoretic mobilities of subtypes derived from different species. Previous attempts at establishing an H1 nomenclature by chromatographic or electrophoretic fractionations has resulted in several misidentifications. We present here, for the first time, a nomenclature for somatic H1s based on amino acid sequences that are analogous to those for H1 zero and H1t. The groupings defined should be useful in correlating the many observations regarding H1 subtypes in the literature.

  13. Complete amino acid sequence of a histidine-rich proteolytic fragment of human ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Kingston, I B; Kingston, B L; Putnam, F W

    1979-04-01

    The complete amino acid sequence has been determined for a fragment of human ceruloplasmin [ferroxidase; iron(II):oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.16.3.1]. The fragment (designated Cp F5) contains 159 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 18,650; it lacks carbohydrate, is rich in histidine, and contains one free cysteine that may be part of a copper-binding site. This fragment is present in most commercial preparations of ceruloplasmin, probably owing to proteolytic degradation, but can also be obtained by limited cleavage of single-chain ceruloplasmin with plasmin. Cp F5 probably is an intact domain attached to the COOH-terminal end of single-chain ceruloplasmin via a labile interdomain peptide bond. A model of the secondary structure predicted by empirical methods suggests that almost one-third of the amino acid residues are distributed in alpha helices, about a third in beta-sheet structure, and the remainder in beta turns and unidentified structures. Computer analysis of the amino acid sequence has not demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between this ceruloplasmin fragment and any other protein, but there is some evidence for an internal duplication.

  14. Mulan: Multiple-Sequence Local Alignment and Visualization for Studying Function and Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, I; Loots, G; Giardine, B; Hou, M; Ma, J; Hardison, R; Stubbs, L; Miller, W

    2004-07-14

    Multiple sequence alignment analysis is a powerful approach for understanding phylogenetic relationships, annotating genes and detecting functional regulatory elements. With a growing number of partly or fully sequenced vertebrate genomes, effective tools for performing multiple comparisons are required to accurately and efficiently assist biological discoveries. Here we introduce Mulan (http://mulan.dcode.org/), a novel method and a network server for comparing multiple draft and finished-quality sequences to identify functional elements conserved over evolutionary time. Mulan brings together several novel algorithms: the tba multi-aligner program for rapid identification of local sequence conservation and the multiTF program for detecting evolutionarily conserved transcription factor binding sites in multiple alignments. In addition, Mulan supports two-way communication with the GALA database; alignments of multiple species dynamically generated in GALA can be viewed in Mulan, and conserved transcription factor binding sites identified with Mulan/multiTF can be integrated and overlaid with extensive genome annotation data using GALA. Local multiple alignments computed by Mulan ensure reliable representation of short-and large-scale genomic rearrangements in distant organisms. Mulan allows for interactive modification of critical conservation parameters to differentially predict conserved regions in comparisons of both closely and distantly related species. We illustrate the uses and applications of the Mulan tool through multi-species comparisons of the GATA3 gene locus and the identification of elements that are conserved differently in avians than in other genomes allowing speculation on the evolution of birds. Source code for the aligners and the aligner-evaluation software can be freely downloaded from http://bio.cse.psu.edu/.

  15. VisRseq: R-based visual framework for analysis of sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Several tools have been developed to enable biologists to perform initial browsing and exploration of sequencing data. However the computational tool set for further analyses often requires significant computational expertise to use and many of the biologists with the knowledge needed to interpret these data must rely on programming experts. Results We present VisRseq, a framework for analysis of sequencing datasets that provides a computationally rich and accessible framework for integrative and interactive analyses without requiring programming expertise. We achieve this aim by providing R apps, which offer a semi-auto generated and unified graphical user interface for computational packages in R and repositories such as Bioconductor. To address the interactivity limitation inherent in R libraries, our framework includes several native apps that provide exploration and brushing operations as well as an integrated genome browser. The apps can be chained together to create more powerful analysis workflows. Conclusions To validate the usability of VisRseq for analysis of sequencing data, we present two case studies performed by our collaborators and report their workflow and insights. PMID:26328469

  16. Processing and amino acid sequence analysis of the mouse mammary tumor virus env gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, L O; Copeland, T D; Oroszlan, S; Schochetman, G

    1982-01-01

    The envelope proteins of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) are synthesized from a subgenomic 24S mRNA as a 75,000-dalton glycosylated precursor polyprotein which is eventually processed to the mature glycoproteins gp52 and gp36. In vivo synthesis of this env precursor in the presence of the core glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin yielded a precursor of approximately 61,000 daltons (P61env). However, a 67,000-dalton protein (P67env) was obtained from cell-free translation with the MMTV 24S mRNA as the template. To determine whether the portion of the protein cleaved from P67env to give P61env was removed from the NH2-terminal end of P67env and as such would represent a leader sequence, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the terminal peptide gp52 was determined. Glutamic acid, and not methionine, was found to be the amino-terminal residue of gp52, indicating that the cleaved portion was derived from the NH2-terminal end of P67env. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of gp52's from endogenous and exogenous C3H MMTVs were determined though 46 residues and found to be identical. However, amino acid composition and type-specific gp52 radioimmunoassays from MMTVs grown in heterologous cells indicated primary structure differences between gp52's of the two viruses. The nucleic acid sequence of cloned MMTV DNA fragments (J. Majors and H. E. Varmus, personal communication) in conjunction with the NH2-terminal sequence of gp52 allowed localization of the env gene in the MMTV genome. Nucleotides coding for the NH2 terminus of gp52 begin approximately 0.8 kilobase to the 3' side of the single EcoRI cleavage site. Localization of the env gene at that point agrees with the proposed gene order -gag-pol-env- and also allows sufficient coding potential for the glycoprotein precursor without extending into the long terminal repeat. Images PMID:6281457

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  18. Measuring nanometer distances in nucleic acids using a sequence-independent nitroxide probe

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Peter Z; Haworth, Ian S; Cai, Qi; Kusnetzow, Ana K; Grant, Gian Paola G; Price, Eric A; Sowa, Glenna Z; Popova, Anna; Herreros, Bruno; He, Honghang

    2008-01-01

    This protocol describes the procedures for measuring nanometer distances in nucleic acids using a nitroxide probe that can be attached to any nucleotide within a given sequence. Two nitroxides are attached to phosphorothioates that are chemically substituted at specific sites of DNA or RNA. Inter-nitroxide distances are measured using a four-pulse double electron–electron resonance technique, and the measured distances are correlated to the parent structures using a Web-accessible computer program. Four to five days are needed for sample labeling, purification and distance measurement. The procedures described herein provide a method for probing global structures and studying conformational changes of nucleic acids and protein/nucleic acid complexes. PMID:17947978

  19. BeadCons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-11-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (BeadCons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of BeadCons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.

  20. Complete amino acid sequence of globin chains and biological activity of fragmented crocodile hemoglobin (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Srihongthong, Saowaluck; Pakdeesuwan, Anawat; Daduang, Sakda; Araki, Tomohiro; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2012-08-01

    Hemoglobin, α-chain, β-chain and fragmented hemoglobin of Crocodylus siamensis demonstrated both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the hemoglobin did not depend on the heme structure but could result from the compositions of amino acid residues and structures present in their primary structure. Furthermore, thirteen purified active peptides were obtained by RP-HPLC analyses, corresponding to fragments in the α-globin chain and the β-globin chain which are mostly located at the N-terminal and C-terminal parts. These active peptides operate on the bacterial cell membrane. The globin chains of Crocodylus siamensis showed similar amino acids to the sequences of Crocodylus niloticus. The novel amino acid substitutions of α-chain and β-chain are not associated with the heme binding site or the bicarbonate ion binding site, but could be important through their interactions with membranes of bacteria.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, T; Dalin, E; Tice, H; Bruce, D; Goodwin, L; Chertkov, O; Brettin, T; Han, C; Detter, C; Pitluck, S; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-12-31

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  2. Evidence of Divergent Amino Acid Usage in Comparative Analyses of R5- and X4-Associated HIV-1 Vpr Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Antell, Gregory C.; Zhong, Wen; Kercher, Katherine; Passic, Shendra; Williams, Jean; Liu, Yucheng; James, Tony; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Szep, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Vpr is an HIV-1 accessory protein that plays numerous roles during viral replication, and some of which are cell type dependent. To test the hypothesis that HIV-1 tropism extends beyond the envelope into the vpr gene, studies were performed to identify the associations between coreceptor usage and Vpr variation in HIV-1-infected patients. Colinear HIV-1 Env-V3 and Vpr amino acid sequences were obtained from the LANL HIV-1 sequence database and from well-suppressed patients in the Drexel/Temple Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES) Cohort. Genotypic classification of Env-V3 sequences as X4 (CXCR4-utilizing) or R5 (CCR5-utilizing) was used to group colinear Vpr sequences. To reveal the sequences associated with a specific coreceptor usage genotype, Vpr amino acid sequences were assessed for amino acid diversity and Jensen-Shannon divergence between the two groups. Five amino acid alphabets were used to comprehensively examine the impact of amino acid substitutions involving side chains with similar physiochemical properties. Positions 36, 37, 41, 89, and 96 of Vpr were characterized by statistically significant divergence across multiple alphabets when X4 and R5 sequence groups were compared. In addition, consensus amino acid switches were found at positions 37 and 41 in comparisons of the R5 and X4 sequence populations. These results suggest an evolutionary link between Vpr and gp120 in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:28620613

  3. Fluorescent probes for nucleic Acid visualization in fixed and live cells.

    PubMed

    Boutorine, Alexandre S; Novopashina, Darya S; Krasheninina, Olga A; Nozeret, Karine; Venyaminova, Alya G

    2013-12-11

    This review analyses the literature concerning non-fluorescent and fluorescent probes for nucleic acid imaging in fixed and living cells from the point of view of their suitability for imaging intracellular native RNA and DNA. Attention is mainly paid to fluorescent probes for fluorescence microscopy imaging. Requirements for the target-binding part and the fluorophore making up the probe are formulated. In the case of native double-stranded DNA, structure-specific and sequence-specific probes are discussed. Among the latest, three classes of dsDNA-targeting molecules are described: (i) sequence-specific peptides and proteins; (ii) triplex-forming oligonucleotides and (iii) polyamide oligo(N-methylpyrrole/N-methylimidazole) minor groove binders. Polyamides seem to be the most promising targeting agents for fluorescent probe design, however, some technical problems remain to be solved, such as the relatively low sequence specificity and the high background fluorescence inside the cells. Several examples of fluorescent probe applications for DNA imaging in fixed and living cells are cited. In the case of intracellular RNA, only modified oligonucleotides can provide such sequence-specific imaging. Several approaches for designing fluorescent probes are considered: linear fluorescent probes based on modified oligonucleotide analogs, molecular beacons, binary fluorescent probes and template-directed reactions with fluorescence probe formation, FRET donor-acceptor pairs, pyrene excimers, aptamers and others. The suitability of all these methods for living cell applications is discussed.

  4. The amino acid sequence of Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) and golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) egg-white lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kuramoto, M; Torikata, T

    1990-09-01

    The amino acids of Lady Amherst's pheasant and golden pheasant egg-white lysozymes have been sequenced. The carboxymethylated lysozymes were digested with trypsin followed by sequencing of the tryptic peptides. Lady Amherst's pheasant lysozyme proved to consist of 129 amino acid residues, and a relative molecular mass of 14,423 Da was calculated. This lysozyme had 6 amino acids substitutions when compared with hen egg-white lysozyme: Phe3 to Tyr, His15 to Leu, Gln41 to His, Asn77 to His, Gln 121 to Asn, and a newly found substitution of Ile124 to Thr. The amino acid sequence of golden pheasant lysozyme was identical to that of Lady Amherst's phesant lysozyme. The phylogenetic tree constructured by the comparison of amino acid sequences of phasianoid birds lysozymes revealed a minimum genetic distance between these pheasants and the turkey-peafowl group.

  5. Position-dependent effects of locked nucleic acid (LNA) on DNA sequencing and PCR primers

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Joshua D.; Fiala, Dean; Samala, Meinrado F.; Kahn, Jason D.; Peterson, Raymond J.

    2006-01-01

    Genomes are becoming heavily annotated with important features. Analysis of these features often employs oligonucleotides that hybridize at defined locations. When the defined location lies in a poor sequence context, traditional design strategies may fail. Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) can enhance oligonucleotide affinity and specificity. Though LNA has been used in many applications, formal design rules are still being defined. To further this effort we have investigated the effect of LNA on the performance of sequencing and PCR primers in AT-rich regions, where short primers yield poor sequencing reads or PCR yields. LNA was used in three positional patterns: near the 5′ end (LNA-5′), near the 3′ end (LNA-3′) and distributed throughout (LNA-Even). Quantitative measures of sequencing read length (Phred Q30 count) and real-time PCR signal (cycle threshold, CT) were characterized using two-way ANOVA. LNA-5′ increased the average Phred Q30 score by 60% and it was never observed to decrease performance. LNA-5′ generated cycle thresholds in quantitative PCR that were comparable to high-yielding conventional primers. In contrast, LNA-3′ and LNA-Even did not improve read lengths or CT. ANOVA demonstrated the statistical significance of these results and identified significant interaction between the positional design rule and primer sequence. PMID:17071964

  6. Mobile Platform for Multiplexed Detection and Differentiation of Disease-Specific Nucleic Acid Sequences, Using Microfluidic Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Smartphone Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weili; Yu, Hojeong; Sun, Fu; Ornob, Akid; Brisbin, Ryan; Ganguli, Anurup; Vemuri, Vinay; Strzebonski, Piotr; Cui, Guangzhe; Allen, Karen J; Desai, Smit A; Lin, Weiran; Nash, David M; Hirschberg, David L; Brooks, Ian; Bashir, Rashid; Cunningham, Brian T

    2017-09-05

    New tools are needed to enable rapid detection, identification, and reporting of infectious viral and microbial pathogens in a wide variety of point-of-care applications that impact human and animal health. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a platform for multiplexed analysis of disease-specific DNA sequences that utilizes a smartphone camera as the sensor in conjunction with a hand-held "cradle" that interfaces the phone with a silicon-based microfluidic chip embedded within a credit-card-sized cartridge. Utilizing specific nucleic acid sequences for four equine respiratory pathogens as representative examples, we demonstrated the ability of the system to utilize a single 15 μL droplet of test sample to perform selective positive/negative determination of target sequences, including integrated experimental controls, in approximately 30 min. Our approach utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reagents predeposited into distinct lanes of the microfluidic chip, which when exposed to target nucleic acid sequences from the test sample, generates fluorescent products that when excited by appropriately selected light emitting diodes (LEDs), are visualized and automatically analyzed by a software application running on the smartphone microprocessor. The system achieves detection limits comparable to those obtained by laboratory-based methods and instruments. Assay information is combined with the information from the cartridge and the patient to populate a cloud-based database for epidemiological reporting of test results.

  7. A 25-Amino Acid Sequence of the Arabidopsis TGD2 Protein Is Sufficient for Specific Binding of Phosphatidic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Binbin; Benning, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analysis suggests that the TGD2 protein of Arabidopsis is required for the biosynthesis of endoplasmic reticulum derived thylakoid lipids. TGD2 is proposed to be the substrate-binding protein of a presumed lipid transporter consisting of the TGD1 (permease) and TGD3 (ATPase) proteins. The TGD1, -2, and -3 proteins are localized in the inner chloroplast envelope membrane. TGD2 appears to be anchored with an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain into the inner envelope membrane, whereas the C-terminal domain faces the intermembrane space. It was previously shown that the C-terminal domain of TGD2 binds phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). To investigate the PtdOH binding site of TGD2 in detail, the C-terminal domain of the TGD2 sequence lacking the transit peptide and transmembrane sequences was fused to the C terminus of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DR). This greatly improved the solubility of the resulting DR-TGD2C fusion protein following production in Escherichia coli. The DR-TGD2C protein bound PtdOH with high specificity, as demonstrated by membrane lipid-protein overlay and liposome association assays. Internal deletion and truncation mutagenesis identified a previously undescribed minimal 25-amino acid fragment in the C-terminal domain of TGD2 that is sufficient for PtdOH binding. Binding characteristics of this 25-mer were distinctly different from those of TGD2C, suggesting that additional sequences of TGD2 providing the proper context for this 25-mer are needed for wild type-like PtdOH binding. PMID:19416982

  8. Nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene encoding fatty acid reductase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1993-02-26

    The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (EMBL Accession No. 65156) encoding fatty acid reductase (FAR) of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the encoded amino acid sequence deduced. The fatty acid reductase is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex. The complex is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde which serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reaction. The protein comprises 478 amino acid residues and has a calculated M(r) of 53,858. Alignment and comparison of the fatty acid reductase of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio harveyi B392 and Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 shows that there is 70% and 59% amino acid residues identity, respectively.

  9. A technique for extraction and thin layer chromatography visualization of fecal bile acids applied to neotropical felid scats.

    PubMed

    Cazón Narvaez, A V; Sühring, S S

    1999-01-01

    Fecal bile acid patterns have been used successfully to identify scats. Neotropical felid scats are capable of this biochemical identification because they present low concentrations of plant pigments that would interfere in fecal bile acids detection. However, neotropical felid scats have poor quantities of bile acids, so we developed in this work a proper technique for their extraction, visualization and determination. Twenty eighth feces of seven different felid species, collected from Zoological and Wildlife Parks, were dried and pulverized. The procedure for analyzing feces is: Take one g of pulverized feces and shake for 3 hr at room temperature in 20 ml benzene:methanol; filter and evaporate to 5 ml. Spot on TLC plate and develop in toluene:acetic acid:water. Dry and visualize with anisaldehyde. Field collected scats could be identified by the bile acids pattern revealed by this specific technique and, then, used as a source of information for distribution, density and food habits studies.

  10. Affective Visual Stimuli: Characterization of the Picture Sequences Impacts by Means of Nonlinear Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of preceding pictorial stimulus on the emotional autonomic responses of the subsequent one. Methods: To this effect, physiological signals, including Electrocardiogram (ECG), Pulse Rate (PR), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were collected. As these signals have random and chaotic nature, nonlinear dynamics of these physiological signals were evaluated with the methods of nonlinear system theory. Considering the hypothesis that emotional responses are usually associated with previous experiences of a subject, the subjective ratings of 4 emotional states were also evaluated. Four nonlinear characteristics (including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), based parameters, Lyapunov exponent, and approximate entropy) were implemented. Nine standard features (including mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, median, mode, the second, third, and fourth moment) were also extracted. Results: To evaluate the ability of features in discriminating different types of emotions, some classification approaches were appraised, of them, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) led to the best classification rate of 100%. The results show that considering the emotional sequences, GSR is the best candidate for the representation of the physiological changes. Discussion: Lower discrimination was attained when the sequence occurred in the diagonal line of valence-arousal coordinates (for instance, positive valence and positive arousal versus negative valence and negative arousal). By employing self-assessment ranks, no obvious improvement was achieved. PMID:26649159

  11. Visualization of the mycelia of wood-rotting fungi by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuji; Nakaba, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Funada, Ryo; Yoshida, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and brown rot fungus, Postia placenta, grown on agar plates, were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Mycelia grown on wood chips were also clearly detected by PNA-FISH following blocking treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the visualization of fungi in wood by FISH.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifD gene and predicted amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit of nitrogenase MoFe protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, I; Buck, M

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifD gene is presented and together with the accompanying paper [Holland, Zilberstein, Zamir & Sussman (1987) Biochem. J. 247, 277-285] completes the sequence of the nifHDK genes encoding the nitrogenase polypeptides. The K. pneumoniae nifD gene encodes the 483-amino acid-residue nitrogenase alpha-subunit polypeptide of Mr 54156. The alpha-subunit has five strongly conserved cysteine residues at positions 63, 89, 155, 184 and 275, some occurring in a region showing both primary sequence and potential structural homology to the K. pneumoniae nitrogenase beta-subunit. A comparison with six other alpha-subunit amino acid sequences has been made, which indicates a number of potentially important domains within alpha-subunits. PMID:3322262

  13. The primary structure of E. coli RNA polymerase, Nucleotide sequence of the rpoC gene and amino acid sequence of the beta'-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov YuA; Monastyrskaya, G S; Gubanov, V V; Guryev, S O; Salomatina, I S; Shuvaeva, T M; Lipkin, V M; Sverdlov, E D

    1982-01-01

    The primary structure of the E. coli rpoC gene (5321 base pairs) coding the beta'-subunit of RNA polymerase as well as its adjacent segment have been determined. The structure analysis of the peptides obtained by cleavage of the protein with cyanogen bromide and trypsin has confirmed the amino acid sequence of the beta'-subunit deduced from the nucleotide sequence analysis. The beta'-subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase contains 1407 amino acid residues. Its translation is initiated by codon GUG and terminated by codon TAA. It has been detected that the sequence following the terminating codon is strikingly homologous to known sequences of rho-independent terminators. PMID:6287430

  14. USH2 caused by GPR98 mutation diagnosed by massively parallel sequencing in advance of the occurrence of visual symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Moteki, Hideaki; Yoshimura, Hidekane; Azaiez, Hela; Booth, Kevin T.; Shearer, A Eliot; Sloan, Christina M.; Kolbe, Diana L.; Murata, Toshinori; Smith, Richard J. H.; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective We present two patients who were identified with mutations in the GPR98 gene that causes Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). Methods One hundred ninety-four (194) Japanese subjects from unrelated and families were enrolled in the study. Targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing of all known non-syndromic hearing loss genes were used to identify the genetic causes of hearing loss. Results We identified causative mutations in the GPR98 gene in one family (two siblings). The patients had moderate sloping hearing loss, and no progression was observed over a period of 10 years. Fundus examinations were normal. However, electroretinogram revealed impaired responses in both patients. Conclusion Early diagnosis of Usher syndrome has many advantages for patients and their families. This study supports the use of comprehensive genetic diagnosis for Usher syndrome, especially prior to the onset of visual symptoms, to provide the highest chance of diagnostic success in early life stages. PMID:25743181

  15. The Goldilocks Effect: Human Infants Allocate Attention to Visual Sequences That Are Neither Too Simple Nor Too Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Human infants, like immature members of any species, must be highly selective in sampling information from their environment to learn efficiently. Failure to be selective would waste precious computational resources on material that is already known (too simple) or unknowable (too complex). In two experiments with 7- and 8-month-olds, we measure infants’ visual attention to sequences of events varying in complexity, as determined by an ideal learner model. Infants’ probability of looking away was greatest on stimulus items whose complexity (negative log probability) according to the model was either very low or very high. These results suggest a principle of infant attention that may have broad applicability: infants implicitly seek to maintain intermediate rates of information absorption and avoid wasting cognitive resources on overly simple or overly complex events. PMID:22649492

  16. The Goldilocks effect: human infants allocate attention to visual sequences that are neither too simple nor too complex.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T; Aslin, Richard N

    2012-01-01

    Human infants, like immature members of any species, must be highly selective in sampling information from their environment to learn efficiently. Failure to be selective would waste precious computational resources on material that is already known (too simple) or unknowable (too complex). In two experiments with 7- and 8-month-olds, we measure infants' visual attention to sequences of events varying in complexity, as determined by an ideal learner model. Infants' probability of looking away was greatest on stimulus items whose complexity (negative log probability) according to the model was either very low or very high. These results suggest a principle of infant attention that may have broad applicability: infants implicitly seek to maintain intermediate rates of information absorption and avoid wasting cognitive resources on overly simple or overly complex events.

  17. Amino Acid Sequence of Mung Bean Trypsin Inhibitor and Its Modified Forms Appearing during Germination.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Chen, J C

    1983-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of the major trypsin inhibitor, F, of ungerminated mung beans (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) was determined by a combination of automatic solid phase and manual sequencing techniques. F is a typical Bowman-Birk-type proteinase inhibitor with 80 amino acid residues and exhibits a high degree of identity with the other sequenced members of the Bowman-Birk family of inhibitors. Thin layer peptide maps of mung bean inhibitors E and C (which appear during germination) indicate that both are derived from inhibitor F by limited specific proteolysis. Loss of the carboxyl-terminal residues 77 to 80 from F produces inhibitor E, while the loss of an additional two carboxyl-terminal residues, the loss of the amino-terminal residues 1 to 8, and an internal cleavage at Ala(35)-Asp(36) produces inhibitor C from E. Another inhibitor species, E', was isolated from ungerminated seeds. It differs from F in the loss of residues 1 to 6. The majority of the proteolytic cleavages noted in the F-E-C-E' system are at peptide bonds involving aspartyl residues.

  18. Complete amino acid sequence of the A chain of human complement-classical-pathway enzyme C1r.

    PubMed Central

    Arlaud, G J; Willis, A C; Gagnon, J

    1987-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of human C1r A chain was determined, from sequence analysis performed on fragments obtained from C1r autolytic cleavage, cleavage of methionyl bonds, tryptic cleavages at arginine and lysine residues, and cleavages by staphylococcal proteinase. The polypeptide chain has an N-terminal serine residue and contains 446 amino acid residues (Mr 51,200). The sequence data allow chemical characterization of fragments alpha (positions 1-211), beta (positions 212-279) and gamma (positions 280-446) yielded from C1r autolytic cleavage, and identification of the two major cleavage sites generating these fragments. Position 150 of C1r A chain is occupied by a modified amino acid residue that, upon acid hydrolysis, yields erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid, and that is located in a sequence homologous to the beta-hydroxyaspartic acid-containing regions of Factor IX, Factor X, protein C and protein Z. Sequence comparison reveals internal homology between two segments (positions 10-78 and 186-257). Two carbohydrate moieties are attached to the polypeptide chain, both via asparagine residues at positions 108 and 204. Combined with the previously determined sequence of C1r B chain [Arlaud & Gagnon (1983) Biochemistry 22, 1758-1764], these data give the complete sequence of human C1r. PMID:3036070

  19. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: N-terminal amino acid sequence of a major fimbrial subunit and nucleotide sequences of the genes from two strains.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, F K; Cook, S; Hull, R A; Massad, G; Mobley, H L

    1993-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection in hospitalized and catheterized patients, produces mannose-resistant/klebsiella-like (MR/K) and mannose-resistant/proteus-like (MR/P) hemagglutinins. The gene encoding the major structural subunit of a fimbria, possibly MR/K, was identified in two strains. A degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on the N terminus of the Proteus uroepithelial cell adhesin and antiserum raised against the denatured polypeptide were used to screen a cosmid gene bank of strain HU1069. A cosmid clone that reacted with the probe and antiserum was identified, and a fimbria-like open reading frame was determined by nucleotide sequencing. The predicted N-terminal amino acid sequence of the processed polypeptide, ENETPAPKVSSTKGEIQLKG (residues 23 to 42), did not match the uroepithelial cell adhesin N terminus but, rather, matched exactly the N-terminal amino acid sequence of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular size of 19.5 kDa isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a fimbrial preparation from strain HI4320 expressing MR/K hemagglutinin. By using an oligonucleotide from the HU1069 open reading frame, the fimbrial gene was isolated and sequenced from a cosmid gene bank clone of strain HI4320. A 552-bp open reading frame predicts a 184-amino-acid polypeptide including a 22-amino-acid hydrophobic leader sequence. The unprocessed polypeptide is predicted to be 18,921 Da; the processed polypeptide is predicted to be 16,749 Da. The predicted amino acid sequence of the polypeptide encoded by the gene, designated pmfA, displayed 36% exact matches with the mannose-resistant fimbrial subunit encoded by smfA of Serratia marcescens but only 15% exact matches with the predicted sequence encoded by mrkA of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  20. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W

    1995-01-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793937

  1. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Mohn, W W

    1995-06-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Nucleotide sequences of the Pseudomonas savastanoi indoleacetic acid genes show homology with Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Palm, Curtis J.; Brooks, Bob; Kosuge, Tsune

    1985-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of iaaM and iaaH, the genetic determinants for, respectively, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid in the tumor-forming bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. The sequence analysis indicates that the iaaM locus contains an open reading frame encoding 557 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 61,783; the iaaH locus contains an open reading frame of 455 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 48,515. Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between the predicted sequence of the tryptophan monooxygenase of P. savastanoi and the deduced product of the T-DNA tms-1 gene of the octopine-type plasmid pTiA6NC from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Strong homology was found in the 25 amino acid sequence in the putative FAD-binding region of tryptophan monooxygenase. Homology was also found in the amino acid sequences representing the central regions of the putative products of iaaH and tms-2 T-DNA. The results suggest a strong similarity in the pathways for indoleacetic acid synthesis encoded by genes in P. savastanoi and in A. tumefaciens T-DNA. Images PMID:16593610

  3. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Alvaro Martínez; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-06-16

    The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, http://www.dasregistry.org, or at http://loka.bmc.uu.se/das/sources.

  4. CodaChrome: a tool for the visualization of proteome conservation across all fully sequenced bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between bacterial genomes are complicated by rampant horizontal gene transfer, varied selection pressures, acquisition of new genes, loss of genes, and divergence of genes, even in closely related lineages. As more and more bacterial genomes are sequenced, organizing and interpreting the incredible amount of relational information that connects them becomes increasingly difficult. Results We have developed CodaChrome (http://www.sourceforge.com/p/codachrome), a one-versus-all proteome comparison tool that allows the user to visually investigate the relationship between a bacterial proteome of interest and the proteomes encoded by every other bacterial genome recorded in GenBank in a massive interactive heat map. This tool has allowed us to rapidly identify the most highly conserved proteins encoded in the bacterial pan-genome, fast-clock genes useful for subtyping of bacterial species, the evolutionary history of an indel in the Sphingobium lineage, and an example of horizontal gene transfer from a member of the genus Enterococcus to a recent ancestor of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion CodaChrome is a user-friendly and powerful tool for simultaneously visualizing relationships between thousands of proteomes. PMID:24460813

  5. Endoscopic-assisted visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in malignant glioma surgery: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Marion; Kamp, Marcel; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Sabel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With the use of fluorescence-guided resection with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the rate of complete resection of the contrast-enhancing part of malignant gliomas could be increased from 36% to 65%. Because the visualization of 5-ALA-induced fluorescence depends on a sufficient exposure to fluorescent light, residual tumor tissue in deep-seated resection cavities might not be detected. In addition, subcortical parts of a large spherical tumor might not be visualized, owing to a tangential position at the periphery of the microscopic field. With the availability of a specially designed endoscope with the capability to visualize 5-ALA fluorescence, we investigated the impact of this new technique on the visualization of residual glioma tissue. A standard dose of 5-ALA 20 mg/kg was administered to 9 patients with deep-seated contrast-enhancing brain tumors 3 hours before surgery. A standard surgical exposure was performed and supplemented by the use of a specially designed endoscope with an option of 5-ALA fluorescence guidance. After microscopic visualization of the surgical cavity, endoscopic visualization was employed. If additional fluorescence tissue was detected, microscopic visualization was performed. Detected remnants of the tumor were removed and evaluated by histologic examination. In all cases, fluorescence-guided endoscopic visualization identified 5-ALA-positive tissue not sufficiently exposed by conventional microscopic visualization. In 8 patients, histopathologic examination confirmed residual tumor tissue; in 1 patient, the endoscopic visualized tissue was classified as radiation necrosis. In this patient, the tumor was completely ALA negative microscopically. As an additional instrument, fluorescence-guided endoscopic visualization might help to overcome technical limitations of the conventional microscopic exposure of 5-ALA-positive tumor tissue. The false-positive 5-ALA tissue indicates that endoscopic visualization may overestimate the amount

  6. Prediction of flexible/rigid regions from protein sequences using k-spaced amino acid pairs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Kurgan, Lukasz A; Ruan, Jishou

    2007-01-01

    Background Traditionally, it is believed that the native structure of a protein corresponds to a global minimum of its free energy. However, with the growing number of known tertiary (3D) protein structures, researchers have discovered that some proteins can alter their structures in response to a change in their surroundings or with the help of other proteins or ligands. Such structural shifts play a crucial role with respect to the protein function. To this end, we propose a machine learning method for the prediction of the flexible/rigid regions of proteins (referred to as FlexRP); the method is based on a novel sequence representation and feature selection. Knowledge of the flexible/rigid regions may provide insights into the protein folding process and the 3D structure prediction. Results The flexible/rigid regions were defined based on a dataset, which includes protein sequences that have multiple experimental structures, and which was previously used to study the structural conservation of proteins. Sequences drawn from this dataset were represented based on feature sets that were proposed in prior research, such as PSI-BLAST profiles, composition vector and binary sequence encoding, and a newly proposed representation based on frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs. These representations were processed by feature selection to reduce the dimensionality. Several machine learning methods for the prediction of flexible/rigid regions and two recently proposed methods for the prediction of conformational changes and unstructured regions were compared with the proposed method. The FlexRP method, which applies Logistic Regression and collocation-based representation with 95 features, obtained 79.5% accuracy. The two runner-up methods, which apply the same sequence representation and Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Naïve Bayes classifiers, obtained 79.2% and 78.4% accuracy, respectively. The remaining considered methods are characterized by accuracies below 70

  7. Visual functions in phenylketonuria-evaluating the dopamine and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Förl, Birgit; Springer, Christina; Weimer, Petra; Haege, Gisela; Mackensen, Friederike; Müller, Edith; Völcker, Hans Eberhard; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Lindner, Martin; Krastel, Hermann; Burgard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In phenylketonuria presymptomatic treatment following newborn screening prevents severe mental and physical impairment. The reasons for subtle impairments of cerebral functions despite early treatment remain unclear. We assessed a broad spectrum of visual functions in early-treated patients with phenylketonuria and evaluated two hypotheses-the dopamine and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) depletion hypotheses. Contrast sensitivity, colour vision, electroretinography, frequency doubling technology campimetry (FDT), and their relation with blood phenylalanine and docosahexaenoic acid levels were assessed in 36 patients with phenylketonuria and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Contrast sensitivity was significantly lower and total error scores in colour vision significantly higher in patients than controls. Electroretinography results differed significantly between patients and controls. We found a trend for the effect of phenylalanine-levels on contrast sensitivity and a significant effect on colour vision/FDT results. Docosahexaenoic acid levels in erythrocytes were not associated with visual functions. This is the first evaluation of visual functions in phenylketonuria using a comprehensive ophthalmological test battery. We found no evidence supporting the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypothesis. However, the effect of phenylalanine-levels on visual functions suggests that imbalance between phenylalanine and tyrosine may affect retinal dopamine levels in phenylketonuria. This is supported by the similar patterns of visual functions in patients with phenylketonuria observed in our study and patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Lange, Bernd Markus; McCaskill, David G.

    2001-01-01

    cDNAs encoding 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7) are provided which code for the expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from plants. In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, or its derivatives such as isopentenyl diphosphate (BP), or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase, or the production of its products.

  9. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jingfa; Hao, Lirui; Crowley, David E.; Zhang, Zhewen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Ning; Huo, Mingxin; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:26301592

  10. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Meili; Xiao, Jingfa; Hao, Lirui; Crowley, David E; Zhang, Zhewen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Ning; Huo, Mingxin; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals.

  11. Gene sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the motA protein, a membrane-associated protein required for flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G E; Macnab, R M; Stader, J; Matsumura, P; Burks, C

    1984-01-01

    The motA and motB gene products of Escherichia coli are integral membrane proteins necessary for flagellar rotation. We determined the DNA sequence of the region containing the motA gene and its promoter. Within this sequence, there is an open reading frame of 885 nucleotides, which with high probability (98% confidence level) meets criteria for a coding sequence. The 295-residue amino acid translation product had a molecular weight of 31,974, in good agreement with the value determined experimentally by gel electrophoresis. The amino acid sequence, which was quite hydrophobic, was subjected to a theoretical analysis designed to predict membrane-spanning alpha-helical segments of integral membrane proteins; four such hydrophobic helices were predicted by this treatment. Additional amphipathic helices may also be present. A remarkable feature of the sequence is the existence of two segments of high uncompensated charge density, one positive and the other negative. Possible organization of the protein in the membrane is discussed. Asymmetry in the amino acid composition of translated DNA sequences was used to distinguish between two possible initiation codons. The use of this method as a criterion for authentication of coding regions is described briefly in an Appendix. PMID:6090403

  12. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors than high-grade gliomas remains unclear. Within the frame of this thesis, we found a significantly higher rate of complete resections of our high-grade gliomas as compared to control cases by using the newly established 5-ALA fluorescence technology at our department. Additionally, we showed that MRI spectroscopy-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) is capable to identify intratumoral high-grade glioma areas (= anaplastic foci) during navigation guided resections to avoid histopathological undergrading. However, the accuracy of navigation systems with integrated pre-operative imaging data such as CSI declines during resections due to intra-operative brainshift. In two further studies, we found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift. Finally, we showed that the application of 5-ALA is also of relevance in needle biopsies for intra-operative identification of representative brain tumor tissue. These data indicate that 5-ALA is not only of major importance for resection of high-grade gliomas, but also for intra-operative visualization of anaplastic foci as well as representative brain tumor tissue in needle biopsies unaffected by brainshift. Consequently, this new technique might become a novel standard in brain tumor surgery that

  13. Visualizing the chain-flipping mechanism in fatty-acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Beld, Joris; Cang, Hu; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-29

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) from fatty acid synthases sequesters elongating products within its hydrophobic core, but this dynamic mechanism remains poorly understood. In this paper, we exploited solvatochromic pantetheine probes attached to ACP that fluoresce when sequestered. The addition of a catalytic partner lures the cargo out of the ACP and into the active site of the enzyme, thus enhancing fluorescence to reveal the elusive chain-flipping mechanism. This activity was confirmed by the use of a dual solvatochromic cross-linking probe and solution-phase NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the chain-flipping mechanism was visualized by single-molecule fluorescence techniques, thus demonstrating specificity between the Escherichia coli ACP and its ketoacyl synthase catalytic partner KASII.

  14. Visualizing the chain-flipping mechanism in fatty-acid biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Cang, Hu; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-29

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) from fatty acid synthases sequesters elongating products within its hydrophobic core, but this dynamic mechanism remains poorly understood. In this paper, we exploited solvatochromic pantetheine probes attached to ACP that fluoresce when sequestered. The addition of a catalytic partner lures the cargo out of the ACP and into the active site of the enzyme, thus enhancing fluorescence to reveal the elusive chain-flipping mechanism. This activity was confirmed by the use of a dual solvatochromic cross-linking probe and solution-phase NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the chain-flipping mechanism was visualized by single-molecule fluorescence techniques, thus demonstrating specificity between themore » Escherichia coli ACP and its ketoacyl synthase catalytic partner KASII.« less

  15. Clinical utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid HCl to better visualize and more completely remove gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Halani, Sameer H; Adamson, D Cory

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is typically the first line of treatment for gliomas. However, the neurosurgeon faces a major challenge in achieving maximal resection in high-grade gliomas as these infiltrative tumors make it difficult to discern tumor margins from normal brain with conventional white-light microscopy alone. To aid in resection of these infiltrative tumors, fluorescence-guided surgery has gained much popularity in intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas, with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) leading the way. First introduced in an article in Neurosurgery, 5-ALA has since become a safe, effective, and inexpensive method to visualize and improve resection of gliomas. This has undoubtedly led to improvements in the clinical course of patients as demonstrated by the increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with such devastating disease. This literature review aims to discuss the major studies and trials demonstrating the clinical utility of 5-ALA and its ability to aid in complete resection of malignant gliomas. PMID:27672334

  16. Sequence-defined bioactive macrocycles via an acid-catalysed cascade reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porel, Mintu; Thornlow, Dana N.; Phan, Ngoc N.; Alabi, Christopher A.

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic macrocycles derived from sequence-defined oligomers are a unique structural class whose ring size, sequence and structure can be tuned via precise organization of the primary sequence. Similar to peptides and other peptidomimetics, these well-defined synthetic macromolecules become pharmacologically relevant when bioactive side chains are incorporated into their primary sequence. In this article, we report the synthesis of oligothioetheramide (oligoTEA) macrocycles via a one-pot acid-catalysed cascade reaction. The versatility of the cyclization chemistry and modularity of the assembly process was demonstrated via the synthesis of >20 diverse oligoTEA macrocycles. Structural characterization via NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of conformational isomers, which enabled the determination of local chain dynamics within the macromolecular structure. Finally, we demonstrate the biological activity of oligoTEA macrocycles designed to mimic facially amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides. The preliminary results indicate that macrocyclic oligoTEAs with just two-to-three cationic charge centres can elicit potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Unconventional amino acid sequence of the sun anemone (Stoichactis helianthus) polypeptide neurotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Kem, W.; Dunn, B.; Parten, B.; Pennington, M.; Price, D.

    1986-05-01

    A 5000 dalton polypeptide neurotoxin (Sh-NI) purified by G50 Sephadex, P-cellulose, and SP-Sephadex chromatography was homogeneous by isoelectric focusing. Sh-NI was highly toxic to crayfish (LD/sub 50/ 0.6 ..mu..g/kg) but without effect upon mice at 15,000 ..mu..g/kg (i.p. injection). The reduced, /sup 3/H-carboxymethylated toxin and its fragments were subjected to automatic Edman degradation and the resulting PTH-amino acids were identified by HPLC, back hydrolysis, and scintillation counting. Peptides resulting from proteolytic (clostripain, staphylococcal protease) and chemical (tryptophan) cleavage were sequenced. The sequence is: AACKCDDEGPDIRTAPLTGTVDLGSCNAGWEKCASYYTIIADCCRKKK. This sequence differs considerably from the homologous Anemonia and Anthopleura toxins; many of the identical residues (6 half-cystines, G9, P10, R13, G19, G29, W30) are probably critical for folding rather than receptor recognition. However, the Sh-NI sequence closely resembles Radioanthus macrodactylus neurotoxin III and r. paumotensis II. The authors propose that Sh-NI and related Radioanthus toxins act upon a different site on the sodium channel.

  18. Repeat sequence chromosome specific nucleic acid probes and methods of preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Weier, H.U.G.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-06-27

    A primer directed DNA amplification method to isolate efficiently chromosome-specific repeated DNA wherein degenerate oligonucleotide primers are used is disclosed. The probes produced are a heterogeneous mixture that can be used with blocking DNA as a chromosome-specific staining reagent, and/or the elements of the mixture can be screened for high specificity, size and/or high degree of repetition among other parameters. The degenerate primers are sets of primers that vary in sequence but are substantially complementary to highly repeated nucleic acid sequences, preferably clustered within the template DNA, for example, pericentromeric alpha satellite repeat sequences. The template DNA is preferably chromosome-specific. Exemplary primers and probes are disclosed. The probes of this invention can be used to determine the number of chromosomes of a specific type in metaphase spreads, in germ line and/or somatic cell interphase nuclei, micronuclei and/or in tissue sections. Also provided is a method to select arbitrarily repeat sequence probes that can be screened for chromosome-specificity. 18 figs.

  19. Amino acid sequences and structures of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Welinder, K G; Jespersen, H M; Walther-Rasmussen, J; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulins have been determined by analyses of tryptic, V8-proteolytic and cyanogen bromide fragments, and by N-terminal sequencing. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken beta 2-microglobulin supports the sequence-derived Mr of 11,048. The higher apparent Mr obtained for the avian beta 2-microglobulins as compared to human beta 2-microglobulin by SDS-PAGE is not understood. Chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin consist of 98 residues and deviate at seven positions: 60, 66, 74-76, 78 and 82. The chicken and turkey sequences are identical to human beta 2-microglobulin at 46 and 47 positions, respectively, and to bovine beta 2-microglobulin at 47 positions, i.e. there is about 47% identity between avian and mammalian beta 2-microglobulins. The known X-ray crystallographic structures of bovine beta 2-microglobulin and human HLA-A2 complex suggest that the seven chicken to turkey differences are exposed to solvent in the avian MHC class I complex. The key residues of beta 2-microglobulin involved in alpha chain contacts within the MHC class I molecule are highly conserved between chicken and man. This explains that heterologous human beta 2-microglobulin can substitute the chicken beta 2-microglobulin in exchange studies with B-F (chicken MHC class I molecule), and suggests that the MHC class I structure is conserved over long evolutionary distances.

  20. Repeat sequence chromosome specific nucleic acid probes and methods of preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Gray, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    A primer directed DNA amplification method to isolate efficiently chromosome-specific repeated DNA wherein degenerate oligonucleotide primers are used is disclosed. The probes produced are a heterogeneous mixture that can be used with blocking DNA as a chromosome-specific staining reagent, and/or the elements of the mixture can be screened for high specificity, size and/or high degree of repetition among other parameters. The degenerate primers are sets of primers that vary in sequence but are substantially complementary to highly repeated nucleic acid sequences, preferably clustered within the template DNA, for example, pericentromeric alpha satellite repeat sequences. The template DNA is preferably chromosome-specific. Exemplary primers ard probes are disclosed. The probes of this invention can be used to determine the number of chromosomes of a specific type in metaphase spreads, in germ line and/or somatic cell interphase nuclei, micronuclei and/or in tissue sections. Also provided is a method to select arbitrarily repeat sequence probes that can be screened for chromosome-specificity.

  1. Method and software for using m-sequences to characterize parallel components of higher-order visual tracking behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Jacob W.; Keles, Mehmet F.; Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Lu, Patrick M.; Frye, Mark A.; Shoemaker, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    A moving visual figure may contain first-order signals defined by variation in mean luminance, as well as second-order signals defined by constant mean luminance and variation in luminance envelope, or higher-order signals that cannot be estimated by taking higher moments of the luminance distribution. Separating these properties of a moving figure to experimentally probe the visual subsystems that encode them is technically challenging and has resulted in debated mechanisms of visual object detection by flies. Our prior work took a white noise systems identification approach using a commercially available electronic display system to characterize the spatial variation in the temporal dynamics of two distinct subsystems for first- and higher-order components of visual figure tracking. The method relied on the use of single pixel displacements of two visual stimuli according to two binary maximum length shift register sequences (m-sequences) and cross-correlation of each m-sequence with time-varying flight steering measurements. The resultant spatio-temporal action fields represent temporal impulse responses parameterized by the azimuthal location of the visual figure, one STAF for first-order and another for higher-order components of compound stimuli. Here we review m-sequence and reverse correlation procedures, then describe our application in detail, provide Matlab code, validate the STAFs, and demonstrate the utility and robustness of STAFs by predicting the results of other published experimental procedures. This method has demonstrated how two relatively modest innovations on classical white noise analysis—the inclusion of space as a way to organize response kernels and the use of linear decoupling to measure the response to two channels of visual information simultaneously—could substantially improve our basic understanding of visual processing in the fly. PMID:25400550

  2. Method and software for using m-sequences to characterize parallel components of higher-order visual tracking behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Aptekar, Jacob W; Keles, Mehmet F; Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Lu, Patrick M; Frye, Mark A; Shoemaker, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    A moving visual figure may contain first-order signals defined by variation in mean luminance, as well as second-order signals defined by constant mean luminance and variation in luminance envelope, or higher-order signals that cannot be estimated by taking higher moments of the luminance distribution. Separating these properties of a moving figure to experimentally probe the visual subsystems that encode them is technically challenging and has resulted in debated mechanisms of visual object detection by flies. Our prior work took a white noise systems identification approach using a commercially available electronic display system to characterize the spatial variation in the temporal dynamics of two distinct subsystems for first- and higher-order components of visual figure tracking. The method relied on the use of single pixel displacements of two visual stimuli according to two binary maximum length shift register sequences (m-sequences) and cross-correlation of each m-sequence with time-varying flight steering measurements. The resultant spatio-temporal action fields represent temporal impulse responses parameterized by the azimuthal location of the visual figure, one STAF for first-order and another for higher-order components of compound stimuli. Here we review m-sequence and reverse correlation procedures, then describe our application in detail, provide Matlab code, validate the STAFs, and demonstrate the utility and robustness of STAFs by predicting the results of other published experimental procedures. This method has demonstrated how two relatively modest innovations on classical white noise analysis--the inclusion of space as a way to organize response kernels and the use of linear decoupling to measure the response to two channels of visual information simultaneously--could substantially improve our basic understanding of visual processing in the fly.

  3. Visual Inspection of Cervix With Acetic Acid as a Screening Modality for Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nooh, Ahmed M; Mohamed, Mohamed El-Sayed; El-Alfy, Yehia

    2015-10-01

    To assess feasibility and suitability of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA) in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and compare it with Papanicolaou test. This was a diagnostic accuracy cross-sectional study conducted at an Egyptian teaching hospital, where 784 women were offered Papanicolaou test, VIA, colposcopy, and cervical biopsy. Histopathologically confirmed CIN 2/3 was noted in 26 cases (3.3%) and cervical cancer in 3 cases (0.4%). Twenty-seven (93.1%) of these 29 cases of CIN 2+, including one invasive cancer, were suggested by VIA. The test sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) to detect CIN 2+ were 93.1%, 90.6%, 26.6%, and 99.7%, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio (LR +) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) for VIA were 9.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.77-12.62) and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.29), respectively. Twenty-six cases (89.7%) of CIN 2+ were suggested by Papanicolaou test, whereas all 3 cancers were missed by this test. Papanicolaou test sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV to detect CIN 2+ were 89.7%, 99.1%, 78.8%, and 99.6%, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio and LR- for the Papanicolaou test were 96.7 (95% CI, 45.78-204.23) and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.04-0.3), respectively. Colposcopy suggested 28 cases (96.6%) of CIN 2+, including 2 cancers. Colposcopy sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV to detect CIN 2+ were 96.6%, 99.2%, 82.4%, and 99.9%, respectively. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid is a feasible and suitable screening test for cervical cancer in under-resourced settings in developing countries. Its performance is comparable to the Papanicolaou test.

  4. Structural similarity between native proteins and chimera constructs obtained by inverting the amino Acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the symmetry of protein three-dimensional structures can be extremely useful in order to understand and classify the protein structural universe. The structures of proteins with back-traced amino acid sequence were modeled and compared to the structures of their native counterparts. Only in a very limited set of cases, the two objects showed a significant level of similarity. These extremely symmetric examples can be of any structural class and of any dimension. The lack of biunique "N to C" and "C to N" symmetry at the structural level mirrors that at the sequence level and we propose to design as a dlof symmetry the cases in which a protein structure is similar to its back-traced variant.

  5. Microbial community dynamics in bioaugmented sequencing batch reactors for bromoamine acid removal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Fu, Xiang; Xing, Linlin

    2005-05-01

    Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY with the ability to degrade bromoamine acid (BAA) was previously isolated from sludge samples. The enhancement of BAA removal by strain QYY in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was investigated in this study. The results showed that augmented SBRs exhibited stronger abilities to degrade BAA than the non-augmented control one. In order to estimate the relationship between community dynamics and function of augmented SBRs, a combined method based on fingerprints (ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, RISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used. The results indicated that the microbial community dynamics were substantially changed, and the introduced strain QYY was persistent in the augmented systems. This study suggests that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance BAA removal using BAA-degrading bacteria, such as S. xenophaga QYY.

  6. Complete amino acid sequence of ananain and a comparison with stem bromelain and other plant cysteine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K L; Albee, K L; Bernasconi, R J; Edmunds, T

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of ananain (EC3.4.22.31) and stem bromelain (3.4.22.32), two cysteine proteases from pineapple stem, are similar yet ananain and stem bromelain possess distinct specificities towards synthetic peptide substrates and different reactivities towards the cysteine protease inhibitors E-64 and chicken egg white cystatin. We present here the complete amino acid sequence of ananain and compare it with the reported sequences of pineapple stem bromelain, papain and chymopapain from papaya and actinidin from kiwifruit. Ananain is comprised of 216 residues with a theoretical mass of 23464 Da. This primary structure includes a sequence insert between residues 170 and 174 not present in stem bromelain or papain and a hydrophobic series of amino acids adjacent to His-157. It is possible that these sequence differences contribute to the different substrate and inhibitor specificities exhibited by ananain and stem bromelain. PMID:9355753

  7. [Measurement of the amino acid sequence for the fusion protein FP3 with LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Xiang-Dong; Tao, Lei; Pei, De-Ning; Guo, Ying; Rao, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of the fusion protein FP3 was measured by two types of LC-MS/MS and its primary structure was confirmed. After reduction and alkylation, the protein was digested with trypsin and glycosyl groups in glycopeptide were removed by PNGase F. The mixed peptides were separated by LC, then Q-TOF and Ion trap tandem mass spectrometry were used to measure b, y fragment ions of each peptide to analyze the amino acid sequence of fusion protein FP3. Seventy-six percent of full amino acid sequence of the fusion protein FP3 was measured by LC-ESI-Q-TOF with the remaining 24% completed by LC-ESI-Trap. As LC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry are rapid, sensitive, accurate to measure the protein amino acid sequence, they are important approach to structure analysis and identification of recombinant protein.

  8. NullSeq: A Tool for Generating Random Coding Sequences with Desired Amino Acid and GC Contents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sophia S.; Hockenberry, Adam J.; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Jewett, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. In order to accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. While many tools have been developed to create random nucleotide sequences, protein coding sequences are subject to a unique set of constraints that complicates the process of generating appropriate null models. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content for the purpose of hypothesis testing. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content, which we have developed into a python package. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. Furthermore, this approach can easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes as well as more effective engineering of biological systems. PMID:27835644

  9. Morphological tranformation of calcite crystal growth by prismatic "acidic" polypeptide sequences.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I; Giocondi, J L; Orme, C A; Collino, J; Evans, J S

    2007-02-13

    Many of the interesting mechanical and materials properties of the mollusk shell are thought to stem from the prismatic calcite crystal assemblies within this composite structure. It is now evident that proteins play a major role in the formation of these assemblies. Recently, a superfamily of 7 conserved prismatic layer-specific mollusk shell proteins, Asprich, were sequenced, and the 42 AA C-terminal sequence region of this protein superfamily was found to introduce surface voids or porosities on calcite crystals in vitro. Using AFM imaging techniques, we further investigate the effect that this 42 AA domain (Fragment-2) and its constituent subdomains, DEAD-17 and Acidic-2, have on the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite dislocation hillocks. We find that Fragment-2 adsorbs on terrace surfaces and pins acute steps, accelerates then decelerates the growth of obtuse steps, forms clusters and voids on terrace surfaces, and transforms calcite hillock morphology from a rhombohedral form to a rounded one. These results mirror yet are distinct from some of the earlier findings obtained for nacreous polypeptides. The subdomains Acidic-2 and DEAD-17 were found to accelerate then decelerate obtuse steps and induce oval rather than rounded hillock morphologies. Unlike DEAD-17, Acidic-2 does form clusters on terrace surfaces and exhibits stronger obtuse velocity inhibition effects than either DEAD-17 or Fragment-2. Interestingly, a 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces an irregular polygonal morphology to hillocks, and exhibits the highest degree of acute step pinning and obtuse step velocity inhibition. This suggests that there is some interplay between subdomains within an intra (Fragment-2) or intermolecular (1:1 mixture) context, and sequence interplay phenomena may be employed by biomineralization proteins to exert net effects on crystal growth and morphology.

  10. bio-samtools 2: a package for analysis and visualization of sequence and alignment data with SAMtools in Ruby.

    PubMed

    Etherington, Graham J; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; MacLean, Dan

    2015-08-01

    bio-samtools is a Ruby language interface to SAMtools, the highly popular library that provides utilities for manipulating high-throughput sequence alignments in the Sequence Alignment/Map format. Advances in Ruby, now allow us to improve the analysis capabilities and increase bio-samtools utility, allowing users to accomplish a large amount of analysis using a very small amount of code. bio-samtools can also be easily developed to include additional SAMtools methods and hence stay current with the latest SAMtools releases. We have added new Ruby classes for the MPileup and Variant Call Format (VCF) data formats emitted by SAMtools and introduced more analysis methods for variant analysis, including alternative allele calculation and allele frequency calling for SNPs. Our new implementation of bio-samtools also ensures that all the functionality of the SAMtools library is now supported and that bio-samtools can be easily extended to include future changes in SAMtools. bio-samtools 2 also provides methods that allow the user to directly produce visualization of alignment data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sequence detection analysis based on canonical correlation for steady-state visual evoked potential brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Ju, Zhengyu; Li, Jie; Jian, Rongjun; Jiang, Changjun

    2015-09-30

    Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been widely applied to develop brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The essence of SSVEP recognition is to recognize the frequency component of target stimulus focused by a subject significantly present in EEG spectrum. In this paper, a novel statistical approach based on sequence detection (SD) is proposed for improving the performance of SSVEP recognition. This method uses canonical correlation analysis (CCA) coefficients to observe SSVEP signal sequence. And then, a threshold strategy is utilized for SSVEP recognition. The result showed the classification performance with the longer duration of time window achieved the higher accuracy for most subjects. And the average time costing per trial was lower than the predefined recognition time. It was implicated that our approach could improve the speed of BCI system in contrast to other methods. Comparison with existing method(s): In comparison with other resultful algorithms, experimental accuracy of SD approach was better than those using a widely used CCA-based method and two newly proposed algorithms, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) recognition model as well as multivariate synchronization index (MSI) method. Furthermore, the information transfer rate (ITR) obtained by SD approach was higher than those using other three methods for most participants. These conclusions demonstrated that our proposed method was promising for a high-speed online BCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of dextranicin 24, a bacteriocin of Leuconostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Revol-Junelles, A M; Lefebvre, G

    1996-08-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum strain J24 synthesized a bacteriocin named Dextranicin 24 (Dex-24), which inhibited only other Leuconostoc sp. strains. It was purified by a two-step procedure from the fraction of the bacteriocin bound to the producer cells at the end of the growth: desorption form the cells at acidic pH, followed by reserve phase HPLC. The N-terminal sequence of Dex-24 was the following: NH2(-) K G V L G W L S M A S S A L T G P Q Q . . .

  13. Sequence selective recognition of double-stranded RNA using triple helix-forming peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Zengeya, Thomas; Gupta, Pankaj; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are attractive targets for molecular recognition because of the central role they play in gene expression. Since most noncoding RNAs are in a double-helical conformation, recognition of such structures is a formidable problem. Herein, we describe a method for sequence-selective recognition of biologically relevant double-helical RNA (illustrated on ribosomal A-site RNA) using peptide nucleic acids (PNA) that form a triple helix in the major grove of RNA under physiologically relevant conditions. Protocols for PNA preparation and binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry are described in detail.

  14. Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from primary amino acid sequence

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pratul Kumar

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a method utilizing primary amino acid sequence of a protein, energy minimization, molecular dynamics and protein vibrational modes to predict three-dimensional structure of a protein. The present invention also determines possible intermediates in the protein folding pathway. The present invention has important applications to the design of novel drugs as well as protein engineering. The present invention predicts the three-dimensional structure of a protein independent of size of the protein, overcoming a significant limitation in the prior art.

  15. Hemoglobin from the antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps neglecta. Amino acid sequence of the beta chain.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, R; Caruso, C; Schinina, M E; Rutigliano, B; Romano, M; Camardella, L; Bossa, F; Barra, D; di Prisco, G

    1990-01-01

    1. Notothenia coriiceps neglecta is a cold-adapted notothenioid teleost, widely distributed in the Antarctic waters. 2. In comparison with fishes from temperate waters, the blood of this teleost contains a reduced number of erythrocytes and concentration of hemoglobin; the erythrocytes contain two hemoglobins, Hb1 and Hb2, respectively accounting for approximately 90, and 5% of the total. 3. The two components differ by the alpha chain; the amino acid sequence of the beta chain in common to the two hemoglobins has been established, thus completing the elucidation of the primary structure of the major component Hb 1.

  16. Amino acid sequence of two neurotoxins from the venom of the Egyptian black snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia).

    PubMed

    Samejima, Y; Aoki-Tomomatsu, Y; Yanagisawa, M; Mebs, D

    1997-02-01

    The venom of the Egyptian black snake Walterinnesia aegyptia contains at least three toxins, which act postsynaptically to block the neuromuscular transmission of isolated rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm and chicken biventer cervicis muscle. The complete amino acid sequence of the two toxins, W-III and W-IV, consisting of 62 amino acid residues, was elucidated by Edman degradation of fragments obtained after Staphylococcus aureus protease and prolylpeptidase digestion. Although the toxins exhibit close structural homology to other short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins from Elapidae venoms, toxin IV is unique by having a free SH-group (cysteine) at position 16. In position 35 of W-III, which is located at the tip of the central loop, threonine is replaced by lysine, which may alter the interaction of the toxin with the acetylcholine receptor, since the toxin is seven times less lethal than toxin W-IV.

  17. Sequence-controlled RNA self-processing: computational design, biochemical analysis, and visualization by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Petkovic, Sonja; Badelt, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Delcea, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Reversible chemistry allowing for assembly and disassembly of molecular entities is important for biological self-organization. Thus, ribozymes that support both cleavage and formation of phosphodiester bonds may have contributed to the emergence of functional diversity and increasing complexity of regulatory RNAs in early life. We have previously engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme that shows how ribozymes may have circularized or extended their own length by forming concatemers. Using the Vienna RNA package, we now optimized this hairpin ribozyme variant and selected four different RNA sequences that were expected to circularize more efficiently or form longer concatemers upon transcription. (Two-dimensional) PAGE analysis confirms that (i) all four selected ribozymes are catalytically active and (ii) high yields of cyclic species are obtained. AFM imaging in combination with RNA structure prediction enabled us to calculate the distributions of monomers and self-concatenated dimers and trimers. Our results show that computationally optimized molecules do form reasonable amounts of trimers, which has not been observed for the original system so far, and we demonstrate that the combination of theoretical prediction, biochemical and physical analysis is a promising approach toward accurate prediction of ribozyme behavior and design of ribozymes with predefined functions. PMID:25999318

  18. Sequence-controlled RNA self-processing: computational design, biochemical analysis, and visualization by AFM.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Sonja; Badelt, Stefan; Block, Stephan; Flamm, Christoph; Delcea, Mihaela; Hofacker, Ivo; Müller, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Reversible chemistry allowing for assembly and disassembly of molecular entities is important for biological self-organization. Thus, ribozymes that support both cleavage and formation of phosphodiester bonds may have contributed to the emergence of functional diversity and increasing complexity of regulatory RNAs in early life. We have previously engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme that shows how ribozymes may have circularized or extended their own length by forming concatemers. Using the Vienna RNA package, we now optimized this hairpin ribozyme variant and selected four different RNA sequences that were expected to circularize more efficiently or form longer concatemers upon transcription. (Two-dimensional) PAGE analysis confirms that (i) all four selected ribozymes are catalytically active and (ii) high yields of cyclic species are obtained. AFM imaging in combination with RNA structure prediction enabled us to calculate the distributions of monomers and self-concatenated dimers and trimers. Our results show that computationally optimized molecules do form reasonable amounts of trimers, which has not been observed for the original system so far, and we demonstrate that the combination of theoretical prediction, biochemical and physical analysis is a promising approach toward accurate prediction of ribozyme behavior and design of ribozymes with predefined functions. © 2015 Petkovic et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1, a lactic acid bacterium that utilizes xylose and produces high levels of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Machii, Miki; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Hattori, Masahira; Sonomoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2012-04-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1 (= JCM7638). It is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, produces nisin Z, ferments xylose, and produces predominantly L-lactic acid at high xylose concentrations. From ortholog analysis with other five L. lactis strains, IO-1 was identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, which exhibits glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Geng, Weitao; Cao, Mingfeng; Song, Cunjiang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Chao; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yinghong; Du, Yang; Wang, Shufang

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is one of most prevalent Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacteria with the ability to synthesize polysaccharides and polypeptides. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens LL3, which was isolated from fermented food and presents the glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

  1. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  2. Design, synthesis, and characterization of a protein sequencing reagent yielding amino acid derivatives with enhanced detectability by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Aebersold, R.; Bures, E. J.; Namchuk, M.; Goghari, M. H.; Shushan, B.; Covey, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    We report the design, chemical synthesis, and structural and functional characterization of a novel reagent for protein sequence analysis by the Edman degradation, yielding amino acid derivatives rapidly detectable at high sensitivity by ion-evaporation mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that the reagent 3-[4'(ethylene-N,N,N-trimethylamino)phenyl]-2-isothiocyanate is chemically stable and shows coupling and cyclization/cleavage yields comparable to phenylisothiocyanate, the standard reagent in chemical sequence analysis, under conditions typically encountered in manual or automated sequence analysis. Amino acid derivatives generated with this reagent were detectable by ion-evaporation mass spectrometry at the subfemtomole sensitivity level at a pace of one sample per minute. Furthermore, derivatives were identified by their mass, thus permitting the rapid and highly sensitive determination of the molecular nature of modified amino acids. Derivatives of amino acids with acidic, basic, polar, or hydrophobic side chains were reproducibly detectable at comparable sensitivities. The polar nature of the reagent required covalent immobilization of polypeptides prior to automated sequence analysis. This reagent, used in automated sequence analysis, has the potential for overcoming the limitations in sensitivity, speed, and the ability to characterize modified amino acid residues inherent in the chemical sequencing methods that are currently used. PMID:1304351

  3. 3-d structure-based amino acid sequence alignment of esterases, lipases and related proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, M.K.; Doctor, B.P.; Cygler, M.; Schrag, J.D.; Sussman, J.L.

    1993-05-13

    Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, enzymes with potential as pretreatment drugs for organophosphate toxicity, are members of a larger family of homologous proteins that includes carboxylesterases, cholesterol esterases, lipases, and several nonhydrolytic proteins. A computer-generated alignment of 18 of the proteins, the acetylcholinesases, butyrylcholinesterases, carboxylesterases, some esterases, and the nonenzymatic proteins has been previously presented. More recently, the three-dimensional structures of two enzymes enzymes in this group, acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo californica and lipase from Geotrichum candidum, have been determined. Based on the x-ray structures and the superposition of these two enzymes, it was possible to obtain an improved amino acid sequence alignment of 32 members of this family of proteins. Examination of this alignment reveals that 24 amino acids are invariant in all of the hydrolytic proteins, and an additional 49 are well conserved. Conserved amino acids include those of the active site, the disulfide bridges, the salt bridges, in the core of the proteins, and at the edges of secondary structural elements. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures makes it possible to find a well-defined structural basis for the conservation of many of these amino acids.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae UW5, a Rhizobacterium Capable of High Levels of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Thomas J D; Patten, Cheryl L

    2015-08-06

    We report the complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae UW5, an indole-3-acetic acid-producing rhizobacterium originally isolated from the rhizosphere of grass. The 4.9-Mbp genome has a G+C content of 54% and contains 4,496 protein-coding sequences.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. PMID:27231363

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae UW5, a Rhizobacterium Capable of High Levels of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Thomas J. D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae UW5, an indole-3-acetic acid-producing rhizobacterium originally isolated from the rhizosphere of grass. The 4.9-Mbp genome has a G+C content of 54% and contains 4,496 protein-coding sequences. PMID:26251488

  7. Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, Isolated from a Nonscalded Curd Pressed Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Velly, H.; Abraham, A.-L.; Loux, V.; Delacroix-Buchet, A.; Fonseca, F.; Bouix, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the production of many fermented foods, such as dairy products. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, isolated from nonscalded curd pressed cheese. This genome sequence provides information in relation to dairy environment adaptation. PMID:25377704

  8. Development of a defined medium for arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using a visualization method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Ji, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hongman; Fu, Ninghua; Yan, Liexiang; Deng, Zhongtao; Huang, He

    2012-11-01

    Defined medium for arachidonic acid (ARA) production by Mortierella alpina was optimized for its metabolomics study. For this purpose, a visualization method (VM) was applied for the first time. Experiments were designed according to the uniform design with four factors (concentrations of glucose, NaNO(3), KH(2)PO(4) and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O) for each at nine levels. Dry cell weight (DCW), ARA yield in DCW [percent (w/w)] and ARA content in total fatty acids [percent (w/w)] were considered as the three objectives. Optimization of single-objective function and multi-objective function of two objectives and three objectives was attempted. Optimal DCW, ARA yield and ARA content were predicted to occur in a medium that contained (grams per litre): glucose 35, NaNO(3) 1, KH(2)PO(4) 7.5 and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O 2.6. Upon verification, the average tested DCW (12.95 g/l), ARA yield (18.89 %) and ARA content (42.36 %) were fairly close to the predicted values (12.88 g/l, 9.68 % and 35.57 %, respectively). Moreover, DCW, ARA yield and ARA content from the optimum medium increased by 35.68, 47.23 and 30.90 % compared with control, respectively, indicating that VM had succeeded in exploiting the biomass growth and ARA production by M. alpina.

  9. Multiple Amino Acid Sequence Alignment Nitrogenase Component 1: Insights into Phylogenetics and Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Howard, James B.; Kechris, Katerina J.; Rees, Douglas C.; Glazer, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid residues critical for a protein's structure-function are retained by natural selection and these residues are identified by the level of variance in co-aligned homologous protein sequences. The relevant residues in the nitrogen fixation Component 1 α- and β-subunits were identified by the alignment of 95 protein sequences. Proteins were included from species encompassing multiple microbial phyla and diverse ecological niches as well as the nitrogen fixation genotypes, anf, nif, and vnf, which encode proteins associated with cofactors differing at one metal site. After adjusting for differences in sequence length, insertions, and deletions, the remaining >85% of the sequence co-aligned the subunits from the three genotypes. Six Groups, designated Anf, Vnf , and Nif I-IV, were assigned based upon genetic origin, sequence adjustments, and conserved residues. Both subunits subdivided into the same groups. Invariant and single variant residues were identified and were defined as “core” for nitrogenase function. Three species in Group Nif-III, Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii, and Thermodesulfatator indicus, were found to have a seleno-cysteine that replaces one cysteinyl ligand of the 8Fe:7S, P-cluster. Subsets of invariant residues, limited to individual groups, were identified; these unique residues help identify the gene of origin (anf, nif, or vnf) yet should not be considered diagnostic of the metal content of associated cofactors. Fourteen of the 19 residues that compose the cofactor pocket are invariant or single variant; the other five residues are highly variable but do not correlate with the putative metal content of the cofactor. The variable residues are clustered on one side of the cofactor, away from other functional centers in the three dimensional structure. Many of the invariant and single variant residues were not previously recognized as potentially critical and their identification provides the bases

  10. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment nitrogenase component 1: insights into phylogenetics and structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Howard, James B; Kechris, Katerina J; Rees, Douglas C; Glazer, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid residues critical for a protein's structure-function are retained by natural selection and these residues are identified by the level of variance in co-aligned homologous protein sequences. The relevant residues in the nitrogen fixation Component 1 α- and β-subunits were identified by the alignment of 95 protein sequences. Proteins were included from species encompassing multiple microbial phyla and diverse ecological niches as well as the nitrogen fixation genotypes, anf, nif, and vnf, which encode proteins associated with cofactors differing at one metal site. After adjusting for differences in sequence length, insertions, and deletions, the remaining >85% of the sequence co-aligned the subunits from the three genotypes. Six Groups, designated Anf, Vnf , and Nif I-IV, were assigned based upon genetic origin, sequence adjustments, and conserved residues. Both subunits subdivided into the same groups. Invariant and single variant residues were identified and were defined as "core" for nitrogenase function. Three species in Group Nif-III, Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii, and Thermodesulfatator indicus, were found to have a seleno-cysteine that replaces one cysteinyl ligand of the 8Fe:7S, P-cluster. Subsets of invariant residues, limited to individual groups, were identified; these unique residues help identify the gene of origin (anf, nif, or vnf) yet should not be considered diagnostic of the metal content of associated cofactors. Fourteen of the 19 residues that compose the cofactor pocket are invariant or single variant; the other five residues are highly variable but do not correlate with the putative metal content of the cofactor. The variable residues are clustered on one side of the cofactor, away from other functional centers in the three dimensional structure. Many of the invariant and single variant residues were not previously recognized as potentially critical and their identification provides the bases for

  11. In the TTF-1 homeodomain the contribution of several amino acids to DNA recognition depends on the bound sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, D; Tell, G; Leonardi, A; Pellizzari, L; Pucillo, C; Lonigro, R; Formisano, S; Damante, G

    1996-01-01

    The thyroid transcription factor-1 homeodomain (TTF-1HD) shows a peculiar DNA binding specificity, preferentially recognizing sequences containing the 5'-CAAG-3' core motif. Most other homeodomains instead recognize sites containing the 5'-TAAT-3' core motif. Here, we show that TTF-1HD efficiently recognizes another sequence, called D1, devoid of the 5'-CAAG-3' core motif. Different experimental approaches indicate that TTF-1HD contacts the D1 sequence in a manner which is different to that used to interact with sequences containing the 5'-CAAG-3' core motif. The binding activities that mutants of TTF-1HD display with the D1 sequence or with the sequence containing the 5'-CAAG-3' core motif indicate that the role of several DNA-contacting amino acids is different. In particular, during recognition of the D1 sequence, backbone-interacting amino acids not relevant in binding to sequences containing the 5'-CAAG-3' core motif play an important role. In the TTF-1HD, therefore, the contribution of several amino acids to DNA recognition depends on the bound sequence. These data indicate that although a common bonding network exists in all of the HD/DNA complexes, peculiarities important for DNA recognition may occur in single cases. PMID:8811078

  12. Amino Acid Sequence of a Novel Calmodulin from the Unicellular Alga Chlamydomonas1

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Thomas J.; Wiggins, Michael E.; Watterson, D. Martin

    1985-01-01

    An amino acid sequence for a Chlamydomonas calmodulin has been elucidated with emphasis on the characterization of differences that are unique to Chlamydomonas and Dictyostelium calmodulin. While the concentration of calmodulin required for half-maximal activation of plant NAD kinase varies among vertebrate, higher plant, algal, and slime mold calmodulins, only calmodulins from the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas and the slime mold Dictyostelium show increased maximal activation of NAD kinase (Roberts, Burgess, Watterson 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 796-798; Marshak, Clarke, Roberts, Watterson 1984 Biochemistry 23: 2891-2899). The same preparations of calmodulin do not show major differences in phosphodiesterase or myosin light chain kinase activator activity. We report here that a Chlamydomonas calmodulin has four primary structural features similar to Dictyostelium that are not found in other calmodulins characterized to date: an altered carboxy terminus including a novel 11-residue extension for Chlamydomonas calmodulin, unique residues at positions 81 and 118, and an unmethylated lysine at position 115. The only amino acid sequence identity unique to Chlamydomonas and Dictyostelium calmodulin is the presence of a lysine at position 115 instead of a trimethyllysine. These studies indicate that the methylation state of lysine 115 may be important in the maximal NAD kinase activator activity of calmodulin and support the concept that calmodulin has multiple functional domains in addition to multiple structural domains. PMID:16664269

  13. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  14. The Sequence-Specific Cellular Uptake of Spherical Nucleic Acid Nanoparticle Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Suguna P.; Choi, Chung Hang J.; Hao, Liangliang; Calabrese, Colin M.; Auyeung, Evelyn; Zhang, Chuan; Goor, Olga J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sequence-dependent cellular uptake of spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates (SNAs). This process occurs by interaction with class A scavenger receptors (SR-A) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. It is known that linear poly(guanine) (poly G) is a natural ligand for SR-A, and it has been proposed that interaction of poly G with SR-A is dependent on the formation of G-quadruplexes. Since G-rich oligonucleotides are known to interact strongly with SR-A, we hypothesized that SNAs with higher G contents would be able to enter cells in larger amounts than SNAs composed of other nucleotides, and as such we measured cellular internalization of SNAs as a function of constituent oligonucleotide sequence. Indeed, SNAs with enriched G content show the highest cellular uptake. Using this hypothesis, we chemically conjugated a small molecule (camptothecin) with SNAs to create drug-SNA conjugates and observed that poly G SNAs deliver the most camptothecin to cells and have the highest cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Our data elucidate important design considerations for enhancing the intracellular delivery of spherical nucleic acids. PMID:26097111

  15. Partial amino acid sequences around sulfhydryl groups of soybean beta-amylase.

    PubMed

    Nomura, K; Mikami, B; Morita, Y

    1987-08-01

    Sulfhydryl (SH) groups of soybean beta-amylase were modified with 5-(iodoaceto-amidoethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (IAEDANS) and the SH-containing peptides exhibiting fluorescence were purified after chymotryptic digestion of the modified enzyme. The sequence analysis of the peptides derived from the modification of all SH groups in the denatured enzyme revealed the existence of six SH groups, in contrast to five reported previously. One of them was found to have extremely low reactivity toward SH-reagents without reduction. In the native state, IAEDANS reacted with 2 mol of SH groups per mol of the enzyme (SH1 and SH2) accompanied with inactivation of the enzyme owing to the modification of SH2 located near the active site of this enzyme. The selective modification of SH2 with IAEDANS was attained after the blocking of SH1 with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The amino acid sequences of the peptides containing SH1 and SH2 were determined to be Cys-Ala-Asn-Pro-Gln and His-Gln-Cys-Gly-Gly-Asn-Val-Gly-Asp-Ile-Val-Asn-Ile-Pro-Ile-Pro-Gln-Trp, respectively.

  16. The amino acid sequences and activities of synergistic hemolysins from Staphylococcus cohnii.

    PubMed

    Mak, Pawel; Maszewska, Agnieszka; Rozalska, Malgorzata

    2008-10-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus are a coagulase-negative staphylococci considered for a long time as unable to cause infections. This situation changed recently and pathogenic strains of these bacteria were isolated from hospital environments, patients and medical staff. Most of the isolated strains were resistant to many antibiotics. The present work describes isolation and characterization of several synergistic peptide hemolysins produced by these bacteria and acting as virulence factors responsible for hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Amino acid sequences of respective hemolysins from S. cohnii ssp. cohnii (named as H1C, H2C and H3C) and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus (H1U, H2U and H3U) were identical. Peptides H1 and H3 possessed significant amino acid homology to three synergistic hemolysins secreted by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to putative antibacterial peptide produced by Staphylococcus saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus. On the other hand, hemolysin H2 had a unique sequence. All isolated peptides lysed red cells from different mammalian species and exerted a cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts.

  17. Molecular cloning, encoding sequence, and expression of vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J F; Kahn, J S; Esteban, M

    1986-01-01

    A rabbit poxvirus genomic library contained within the expression vector lambda gt11 was screened with polyclonal antiserum prepared against vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)-I enzyme. Five positive phage clones containing from 0.72- to 2.5-kilobase-pair (kbp) inserts expressed a beta-galactosidase fusion protein that was reactive by immunoblotting with the NTPase-I antibody. Hybridization analysis allowed the location of this gene within the vaccinia HindIIID restriction fragment. From the known nucleotide sequence of the 16-kbp vaccinia HindIIID fragment, we identified a region that contains a 1896-base open reading frame coding for a 631-amino acid protein. Analysis of the complete sequence revealed a highly basic protein, with hydrophilic COOH and NH2 termini, various hydrophobic domains, and no significant homology to other known proteins. Translational studies demonstrate that NTPase-I belongs to a late class of viral genes. This protein is highly conserved among Orthopoxviruses. Images PMID:3025846

  18. NASP: a parallel program for identifying evolutionarily conserved nucleic acid secondary structures from nucleotide sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Semegni, J Y; Wamalwa, M; Gaujoux, R; Harkins, G W; Gray, A; Martin, D P

    2011-09-01

    Many natural nucleic acid sequences have evolutionarily conserved secondary structures with diverse biological functions. A reliable computational tool for identifying such structures would be very useful in guiding experimental analyses of their biological functions. NASP (Nucleic Acid Structure Predictor) is a program that takes into account thermodynamic stability, Boltzmann base pair probabilities, alignment uncertainty, covarying sites and evolutionary conservation to identify biologically relevant secondary structures within multiple sequence alignments. Unique to NASP is the consideration of all this information together with a recursive permutation-based approach to progressively identify and list the most conserved probable secondary structures that are likely to have the greatest biological relevance. By focusing on identifying only evolutionarily conserved structures, NASP forgoes the prediction of complete nucleotide folds but outperforms various other secondary structure prediction methods in its ability to selectively identify actual base pairings. Downloable and web-based versions of NASP are freely available at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/~yves/nasp_portal.php yves@cbio.uct.ac.za Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Amino acid neurotransmitter release and learning: a study of visual imprinting.

    PubMed

    Meredith, R M; McCabe, B J; Kendrick, K M; Horn, G

    2004-01-01

    The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is an area of the domestic chick forebrain that stores information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. The effects of visual imprinting on the release of the amino acids aspartate, arginine, citrulline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glycine and taurine from the left and right IMHVs in vitro were measured at 3.5, 10 and 24 h after training. Chicks were exposed to an imprinting stimulus for 1 h, their preferences measured 10 min afterward and a preference score calculated as a measure of the strength of learning. Potassium stimulation was used to evoke amino acid release from the IMHVs of trained and untrained chicks in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. Ca2+-dependent, K+-evoked release of glutamate was significantly (34.4%) higher in trained than in untrained chicks. This effect was not influenced by time after training or by side (left or right IMHV). Training influenced the evoked release of GABA and taurine from the left IMHV at both 3.5 and 10 h. The training effects at the two times were statistically homogeneous so data (< or = 10 h group) were combined for each amino acid respectively. For this < or = 10 h group, evoked release increased significantly with preference score. In contrast, for the 24 h group, evoked release of GABA and taurine was not significantly correlated with preference score. There were no significant correlations between preference score and GABA or taurine release in the right IMHV at any time, nor in the absence of extracellular calcium. No significant effects of training condition, time or side were observed for any other amino acid in the study. The present findings suggest that soon after chicks have been exposed to an imprinting stimulus glutamatergic excitatory transmission in IMHV is enhanced, and remains enhanced for at least 24 h. In contrast, the learning-related elevations in taurine and GABA release are not

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus CECT 9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443, Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Grape Must

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CECT9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT8443, acetic acid bacteria isolated from grape must. Gluconobacter species are well known for their ability to oxidize sugar alcohols into the corresponding acids. Our objective was to select strains to oxidize effectively d-glucose. PMID:27365351