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Sample records for acid showed significant

  1. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  2. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  3. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. PMID:25703740

  4. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  5. Most acid-tolerant chickpea mesorhizobia show induction of major chaperone genes upon acid shock.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Clarisse; Oliveira, Solange

    2013-01-01

    Our goals were to evaluate the tolerance of mesorhizobia to acid and alkaline conditions as well as to investigate whether acid tolerance is related to the species or the origin site of the isolates. In addition, to investigate the molecular basis of acid tolerance, the expression of chaperone genes groEL and dnaKJ was analyzed using acid-tolerant and sensitive mesorhizobia. Tolerance to pH 5 and 9 was evaluated in liquid medium for 98 Portuguese chickpea mesorhizobia belonging to four species clusters. All isolates showed high sensitivity to pH 9. In contrast, mesorhizobia revealed high diversity in terms of tolerance to acid stress: 35 % of the isolates were acid sensitive and 45 % were highly tolerant to pH 5 or moderately acidophilic. An association between mesorhizobia tolerance to acid conditions and the origin soil pH was found. Furthermore, significant differences between species clusters regarding tolerance to acidity were obtained. Ten isolates were used to investigate the expression levels of the chaperone genes by northern hybridization. Interestingly, most acid-tolerant isolates displayed induction of the dnaK and groESL genes upon acid shock while the sensitive ones showed repression. This study suggests that acid tolerance in mesorhizobia is related to the pH of the origin soil and to the species cluster of the isolates. Additionally, the transcriptional analysis suggests a relationship between induction of major chaperone genes and higher tolerance to acid pH in mesorhizobia. This is the first report on transcriptional analysis of the major chaperones genes in mesorhizobia under acidity, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of rhizobia acidity tolerance.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of dioleoyl glyceric acids showing antitrypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Lešová et al. reported the isolation and identification of metabolite OR-1, showing antitrypsin activity, produced during fermentation by Penicillium funiculosum. The structure of OR-1 was a mixture of glyceric acid (GA), esterified with C(14)-C(18) fatty acids, and oleic acid (C18:1) as the most predominant fatty acid (Folia Microbiol. 46, 21-23, 2001). In this study, dioleoyl D-GA and dioleoyl L-GA were synthesized via diesterification with oleoyl chloride, and their antitrypsin activities were evaluated using both a disk diffusion method and spectral absorption measurements. The results show that both compounds and their equivalent mixtures possess antitrypsin activities; however, their IC(50) values (approximately 2 mM) are much higher than that of OR-1 (4.25 µM), suggesting that dioleoyl GA does not play a major role in the OR-1 antitrypsin activity. PMID:21606621

  7. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ashino, Hiromi; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Ryoji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  8. [Significance of hydrocyanic acid formation during fires].

    PubMed

    von Meyer, L; Drasch, G; Kauert, G

    1979-01-01

    Cyanide concentrations of blood samples from fire victims autopsied in the Institute of Legal Medicine, Munich, have been determined. In 25% of 48 analyzed cases cyanide concentrations from 0.52 microgram to 6.24 microgram Cyanide/ml blood have been detected. These results are compared to former studies and the higher mean level in our collective is emphasized. The importance of hydrocyanid acid in the toxicity of fire gases is evidently greater, than assumed. Hydrocyanic acid may be produced from nitrogen continaing polymers during combustion. The quote of these polymers in clothing, furniture, and also in equipment of cars is increasing. Therefore, it is necessary to take more notice of the formation of hydrocyanic acid during combustion, even though carbon monoxide is in general the main toxic agent in fire gases.

  9. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  10. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  11. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  12. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  13. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  14. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  15. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01).

  16. Meropenem-clavulanic acid shows activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    England, Kathleen; Boshoff, Helena I M; Arora, Kriti; Weiner, Danielle; Dayao, Emmanuel; Schimel, Daniel; Via, Laura E; Barry, Clifton E

    2012-06-01

    The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem in combination with clavulanic acid reduced the bacterial burden in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by 2 logs over 6 days. Despite poor stability in solution and a short half-life in rodents, treatment of chronically infected mice revealed significant reductions of bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens. Our results show that meropenem has activity in two in vivo systems, but stability and pharmacokinetics of long-term administration will offer significant challenges to clinical evaluation.

  17. Administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein shows significant cognitive improvement in a mild injury model.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic mild brain injury in a rat model is accompanied by breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the accumulation of inflammatory cells. A therapeutic agent, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), inhibits both the classic and the alternative pathways of the complement system and, in so doing, prevents cell death and inflammation. With the use of a rat mild injury model, the effects of VCP on spatial learning and memory were tested. Training in a Morris water maze consisted of a total of 16 trials over a 2-day period before rats were anesthetized and subjected to mild (1.0-1.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microl of VCP (1.7 mg/ml) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Two weeks post-FPI the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. Neurologic motor function tests were carried out after FPI for 14 consecutive days and again after 28 days. The Morris water maze data show that FPI plus saline-injected rats spent a significantly (P <0.05) larger amount of time in one of the incorrect quadrants than did the FPI plus VCP-injected group. Neurologic evaluations 24 hours postinjury revealed differences in sensorimotor function between groups. The results suggest that in a mild injury model, VCP influences neurologic outcome and offers some enhancement in spatial memory and learning.

  18. Motivationally Significant Stimuli Show Visual Prior Entry: Evidence for Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Greg L.; Anderson, Adam A. K.; Pratt, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies that have found attentional capture effects for stimuli of motivational significance do not directly measure initial attentional deployment, leaving it unclear to what extent these items produce attentional capture. Visual prior entry, as measured by temporal order judgments (TOJs), rests on the premise that allocated attention…

  19. Meropenem-Clavulanic Acid Shows Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    England, Kathleen; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Arora, Kriti; Weiner, Danielle; Dayao, Emmanuel; Schimel, Daniel; Via, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem in combination with clavulanic acid reduced the bacterial burden in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by 2 logs over 6 days. Despite poor stability in solution and a short half-life in rodents, treatment of chronically infected mice revealed significant reductions of bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens. Our results show that meropenem has activity in two in vivo systems, but stability and pharmacokinetics of long-term administration will offer significant challenges to clinical evaluation. PMID:22450968

  20. A DNA adenine methylase mutant of Shigella flexneri shows no significant attenuation of virulence.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yasuko; Fernández, Reinaldo E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2004-04-01

    Mutants of Salmonella defective in DNA adenine methylase (dam) have been reported to be attenuated for virulence and to provide protective immunity when used as vaccine strains. To determine whether these observations could be extended to Shigella, a dam mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a was characterized and examined for the role of dam in pathogenesis. The Shigella dam mutant showed some unique characteristics; however, it retained virulence in vivo as well as in vitro. The mutant invaded cultured L2 monolayer cells as efficiently as the wild-type parent, but its intracellular growth was suppressed up to 7 h post-invasion. Furthermore, the invading dam mutant formed smaller plaques in cell monolayers compared to the parent strain. However, the mutant produced keratoconjunctivitis in the Sereny test in guinea pigs only slightly more slowly than the wild-type. While the effect of the dam mutation on virulence was modest, the rate of spontaneous mutation in the dam mutant was 1000-fold greater compared with the wild-type. The virulence and high mutability displayed by the dam mutant of Sh. flexneri suggest that a general anti-bacterial pathogen vaccine strategy based on mutations in dam needs to be re-evaluated.

  1. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  2. Biologic significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin.

    PubMed

    Ziboh, V A; Chapkin, R S

    1987-12-01

    Deficiency of essential fatty acid (EFA) containing linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in humans or animals induces morphologic changes characterized by severe scaly dermatosis, extensive percutaneous water loss, and hyperproliferation of the epidermis. Microscopically, the epidermis is characterized by hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. The refeeding of safflower oil containing linoleic acid or primrose oil (containing linoleic acid [18:2n-6] and gamma-linolenic acid [18:3n-6]) acids to EFA-deficient guinea pigs reverses the EFA-deficiency symptoms. In contrast, replacement of safflower oil with menhaden fish oil, (containing eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5n-3] and docosahexaenoic acid [22:6n-3]) did not reverse the symptoms of EFA deficiency. These results indicate: (1) that an understanding of the roles of vegetable or fish oil in skin must evolve from an understanding of the roles of each constituent n-6 or n-3 fatty acid, and (2) that the n-3 fatty acids may function to modulate the metabolism and function of the n-6 fatty acids in vivo.

  3. Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids from the Pacific krill show high ligand activities for PPARs[S

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Oshiro, Eriko; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Hakozaki, Mayuka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    PPARs regulate the expression of genes for energy metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs can influence fatty acid oxidation, the level of circulating triglycerides, glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate that 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), 8-HEPE, 9-HEPE, 12-HEPE and 18-HEPE (hydroxylation products of EPA) obtained from methanol extracts of Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica) can act as PPAR ligands. Two of these products, 8-HEPE and 9-HEPE, enhanced the transcription levels of GAL4-PPARs to a significantly greater extent than 5-HEPE, 12-HEPE, 18-HEPE, EPA, and EPA ethyl-ester. 8-HEPE also activated significantly higher transcription of GAL4-PPARα, GAL4-PPARγ, and GAL4-PPARδ than EPA at concentrations greater than 4, 64, and 64 μM, respectively. We also demonstrated that 8-HEPE increased the expression levels of genes regulated by PPARs in FaO, 3T3-F442A, and C2C12 cells. Furthermore, 8-HEPE enhanced adipogenesis and glucose uptake. By contrast, at the same concentrations, EPA showed weak or little effect, indicating that 8-HEPE was the more potent inducer of physiological effects. PMID:24668940

  4. The significance of folic acid for epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Moore, James Layne

    2005-09-01

    The following is a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the many important roles of folic acid in the health of patients with epilepsy. A review of past and current literature reveals that folic acid plays important roles in the areas of hematology, neurology, development, and reproduction. Also highlighted are new areas for exploration.

  5. The physiological significance of phenylacetic Acid in abscising cotton cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C; Mansager, E R

    1986-06-01

    The physiological role of phenylacetic acid (PAA) as an endogenous regulator of cotyledon abscission was examined using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG 102) seedlings. Application of 100 micromolar or more PAA to leafless cotyledon abscission-zone explants resulted in the retardation of petiole abscission and a decrease in the rise of ethylene evolution that normally accompanies aging of these explants in vitro. The partial inhibition of ethylene evolution in these explants by PAA was indirect since application of this compound stimulated short-term (<24 hours) ethylene production. PAA treatment partially suppressed the stimulation of petiole abscission elicited by either ethylene or abscisic acid. Both free and an acid-labile, bound form of PAA were identified in extracts prepared from cotyledons. No discernible pattern of changes in free or bound PAA was found during the course of ethylene-induced cotyledon abscission. Unlike indole-3-acetic acid, transport of PAA in isolated petiole segments was limited and exhibited little polarity. On the whole, these results are not consistent with the direct participation of PAA in the endogenous regulation of cotyledon abscission.

  6. Molecular mechanism and functional significance of acid generation in the Drosophila midgut

    PubMed Central

    Overend, Gayle; Luo, Yuan; Henderson, Louise; Douglas, Angela E.; Davies, Shireen A.; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2016-01-01

    The gut of Drosophila melanogaster includes a proximal acidic region (~pH 2), however the genome lacks the H+/K+ ATPase characteristic of the mammalian gastric parietal cell, and the molecular mechanisms of acid generation are poorly understood. Here, we show that maintenance of the low pH of the acidic region is dependent on H+ V-ATPase, together with carbonic anhydrase and five further transporters or channels that mediate K+, Cl− and HCO3− transport. Abrogation of the low pH did not influence larval survival under standard laboratory conditions, but was deleterious for insects subjected to high Na+ or K+ load. Insects with elevated pH in the acidic region displayed increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pathogens and increased abundance of key members of the gut microbiota (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus), suggesting that the acidic region has bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal activity. Conversely, the pH of the acidic region was significantly reduced in germ-free Drosophila, indicative of a role of the gut bacteria in shaping the pH conditions of the gut. These results demonstrate that the acidic gut region protects the insect and gut microbiome from pathological disruption, and shed light on the mechanisms by which low pH can be maintained in the absence of H+, K+ ATPase. PMID:27250760

  7. Depressive symptoms and pain evaluations among persons with chronic pain: catastrophizing, but not pain acceptance, shows significant effects.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Elizabeth J; Ness, Timothy J; Doleys, Daniel M; Baños, James H; Cianfrini, Leanne; Richards, J Scott

    2009-12-15

    Cognitive factors such as catastrophic thoughts regarding pain, and conversely, one's acceptance of that pain, may affect emotional functioning among persons with chronic pain conditions. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of both catastrophizing and acceptance on affective ratings of experimentally induced ischemic pain and also self-reports of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven individuals with chronic back pain completed self-report measures of catastrophizing, acceptance, and depressive symptoms. In addition, participants underwent an ischemic pain induction procedure and were asked to rate the induced pain. Catastrophizing showed significant effects on sensory and intensity but not affective ratings of the induced pain. Acceptance did not show any significant associations, when catastrophizing was also in the model, with any form of ratings of the induced pain. Catastrophizing, but not acceptance, was also significantly associated with self-reported depressive symptoms when these two variables were both included in a regression model. Overall, results indicate negative thought patterns such as catastrophizing appear to be more closely related to outcomes of perceived pain severity and affect in persons with chronic pain exposed to an experimental laboratory pain stimulus than does more positive patterns as reflected in measures of acceptance.

  8. Prognostic Significance of Uric Acid Levels in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Zhi-Chao; Lu, Tao-Sheng; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The importance and function of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with cardiovascular disease or stroke are unclear. We sought to evaluate the appropriate UA levels for stroke patients and the association between endogenous UA levels and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, particularly regarding the possible interaction between gender and UA levels with respect to AIS prognosis. We examined 303 patients who had an onset of ischemic stroke within 48 h. Of those, 101 patients received thrombolytic treatment. Serum UA (μmol/L) levels were measured the second morning after admission. Patient prognosis was evaluated 90 days after clinical onset by modified Rankin Scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to serum UA quartiles. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess clinical relevance in regard to functional outcome and endogenous UA levels. Analysis of subgroups by gender and normal glomerular filtration rate were also been done. Poor functional outcome was associated with older age, history of atrial fibrillation, or higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with higher UA levels (>380 μmol/L) or lower UA levels (≤250 μmol/L) were 2-3 times more likely to have a poor outcome (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.14-7.61; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02-7.58, respectively) compared to the baseline group (UA level 316-380 μmol/L). The same results were observed in thrombolyzed patients. Patients with high and low UA levels were 9-18 times more likely to having poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 316-380 μmol/L; OR 18.50, 95% CI: 2.041-167.67; OR 9.66, 95% CI 1.42-65.88, respectively). In men, patients with high UA levels were 6 times more likely to have poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 279-334 μmol/L; OR 6.10, 95% CI 1.62-22.93). However, female patients with UA level 271-337 μmol/L were seven times more

  9. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  10. FICTION-TSA analysis of the B-cell compartment in myeloma shows no significant expansion of myeloma precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, F E; Rawstron, A C; Pratt, G; O'Connor, S; Su'ut, L; Blythe, D; Fenton, J; Claydon, D; Child, J A; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J

    1999-07-01

    Studies utilizing flow cytometry and PCR have shown that the B-cell compartment in myeloma contains cells which are clonally related to the myelomatous plasma cells. Current data, however, remains inconclusive regarding the extent of this involvement. By combining fluorescent immunophenotyping, tyramine signal amplification and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FICTION-TSA), we have used the presence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities within plasma cells as a clonal marker to examine the CD20+ B-cell compartment for the presence of aneuploidy. A series of 54 cases of myeloma were screened for the presence of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes 3 and 11. FICTION-TSA was performed on 13 cases with either trisomy 3 or 11 and on a control group of six cases known to be disomic for the two chromosomes. B-cell numbers were reduced in the myeloma cases compared to the normal controls (median 1.8% v 3.0%, P = 0.05). In the cases with a chromosomal marker, three signals were seen in a median of 1.88% of CD20+ B cells compared to 2.58% within the control group. Comparison of the two groups using a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test showed no statistical significant difference. Using this data set, it was possible to exclude a 3.03% expansion of clonally related B cells (95% confidence level). We conclude that the B-cell compartment in myeloma does not represent the major site of clonal expansion, and if clonally related cells are present then the numbers are few. PMID:10444161

  11. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:19962286

  12. Tranexamic acid-induced ligneous conjunctivitis with renal failure showed reversible hypoplasminogenaemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngseok; Izumi, Naohiro; Potts, Luke Benjamin; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2014-05-19

    Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare severe conjunctivitis characterised by fibrin-rich, 'woody', pseudomembranes on the tarsal conjunctiva complicated by congenital hypoplasminogenaemia. A previous report suggested that ligneous conjunctivitis may result from tranexamic acid (TA)-induced 'secondary' hypoplasminogenaemia. However, the serum plasminogen level has not been confirmed in that scenario. We report for the first time a case of TA-induced ligneous conjunctivitis with reversible hypoplasminogenaemia. A 70-year-old woman developed a gastric ulcer that was treated with oral TA. After 5 weeks of treatment, the patient presented with bilateral pale yellow pseudomembranes on the palpebral conjunctivae. Haematological analysis showed hypoplasminogenaemia. We diagnosed ligneous conjunctivitis. TA was discontinued after 14 weeks after the gastric ulcer symptoms resolved. Six weeks after discontinuation of therapy, the pseudomembranes regressed and the serum plasminogen level returned to the normal range. TA should be considered a possible aetiology in the setting of unresolving ligneous conjunctivitis.

  13. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding. PMID:27336313

  14. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding.

  15. A novel primary bile acid in the Shoebill stork and herons and its phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Hagey, L R; Schteingart, C D; Ton-Nu, H-T; Hofmann, A F

    2002-05-01

    The Shoebill stork, an enigma phylogenetically, was found to contain as its dominant biliary bile acid 16alpha-hydroxychenodeoxycholic acid, a heretofore undescribed bile acid. The bile acid occurred as its taurine N-acyl amidate; structure was established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). A search for this novel bile acid in other Ciconiiformes showed that it constituted >92% of biliary bile acids in five of nine herons in the Ardidae, but was absent in all other families (Ciconiidae, Threskiornithidae, Scopidae, Phoenicopteridae). The presence of this biochemical trait in the Shoebill stork and certain herons suggests that these birds are closely related.

  16. Overexpression of PAD1 and FDC1 results in significant cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Richard, Peter; Viljanen, Kaarina; Penttilä, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The S. cerevisiae PAD1 gene had been suggested to code for a cinnamic acid decarboxylase, converting trans-cinnamic acid to styrene. This was suggested for the reason that the over-expression of PAD1 resulted in increased tolerance toward cinnamic acid, up to 0.6 mM. We show that by over-expression of the PAD1 together with the FDC1 the cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity can be increased significantly. The strain over-expressing PAD1 and FDC1 tolerated cinnamic acid concentrations up to 10 mM. The cooperation of Pad1p and Fdc1p is surprising since the PAD1 has a mitochondrial targeting sequence and the FDC1 codes for a cytosolic protein. The cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity was also seen in the cell free extract. The activity was 0.019 μmol per minute and mg of extracted protein. The overexpression of PAD1 and FDC1 resulted also in increased activity with the hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeinic acid. This activity was not seen when FDC1 was overexpressed alone. An efficient cinnamic acid decarboxylase is valuable for the genetic engineering of yeast strains producing styrene. Styrene can be produced from endogenously produced L-phenylalanine which is converted by a phenylalanine ammonia lyase to cinnamic acid and then by a decarboxylase to styrene.

  17. Ubiquitous Geometry: Some Examples Showing the Significance of Size and Shape in the Works of Man and Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents examples to show the ubiquitous nature of geometry. Illustrates the relationship between the perimeter and area of two-dimensional objects and between the area and volume of three-dimensional objects. Provides examples of distribution systems, optimum shapes, structural strength, biological heat engines, man's size, and reflection and…

  18. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome.

  19. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome. PMID:12032571

  20. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

    PubMed Central

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  1. Bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid showing selective affinity for osteoclasts as a potential treatment for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kootala, Sujit; Ossipov, Dmitri; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander; Hilborn, Jöns

    2015-08-01

    Current treatments for osteoporosis involve the administration of high doses of bisphosphonates (BPs) over a number of years. However, the efficiency of the absorption of these drugs and specificity towards targeted osteoclastic cells is still suboptimal. In this study, we have exploited the natural affinity of high (H) and low (L) molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) towards a cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) receptors on osteoclasts to use it as a biodegradable targeting vehicle. We covalently bonded BP to functionalised HA (HA-BP) and found that HA-BP conjugates were highly specific to osteoclastic cells and reduced mature osteoclast numbers significantly more than free BP. To study the uptake of HA-BP, we fluorescently derivatised the polymer-drug with fluorescein B isothiocyanate (FITC) and found that L-HA-BP could seamlessly enter osteoclastic cells. Alternatively, we tested polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a synthetic polymer delivery vehicle using similar chemistry to link BP and found that osteoclast numbers did not reduce in the same way. These findings could pave the way for biodegradable polymers to be used as vehicles for targeted delivery of anti-osteoporotic drugs. PMID:26222035

  2. The chemotaxonomic significance of two bioactive caffeic acid esters, nepetoidins A and B, in the Lamiaceae.

    PubMed

    Grayer, Renée J; Eckert, Maria R; Veitch, Nigel C; Kite, Geoffrey C; Marin, Petar D; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Simmonds, Monique S J; Paton, Alan J

    2003-09-01

    A survey of leaf surface constituents in the family Lamiaceae using HPLC with diode array detection revealed the presence of two characteristic phenolic compounds in many species. The distribution of these phenolics in the Lamiaceae was found to be of taxonomic significance, as they were present in the great majority of species investigated for the subfamily Nepetoideae, including representatives of the well-known genera of culinary herbs, mint, rosemary, sage, thyme and basil. In contrast, they were absent from species of the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae studied and from the related families Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae and Buddlejaceae. The compounds were isolated from Plectranthus crassus and identified by NMR spectroscopy as the known caffeic acid esters (Z,E)-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate and (Z,E)-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate, for which the trivial names nepetoidins A and B are proposed. The presence of this pair of caffeic acid esters adds another character to the chemical, palynological and embryological features distinguishing the Nepetoideae from the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae and related families, and supports the view that the Nepetoideae are a specialised and monophyletic group within the family. Nepetoidin B was shown to have a greater antioxidant activity than gallic, rosmarinic and caffeic acids, and showed activity as an insect phagostimulant. Both compounds were antifungal.

  3. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma (PMA) Shows Significant Differences in Gene Expression vs. Pilocytic Astrocytoma (PA) and Variable Tendency Toward Maturation to PA.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Donson, Andrew M; Vogel, Hannes; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2015-07-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) manifest a more aggressive clinical course than pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Development of effective therapies demands a better biological understanding of PMA. We first conducted gene expression microarray analysis of 9 PMA and 13 PA from infra- and supratentorial sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that tumors are grouped according to anatomic site, not diagnosis. Gene expression profiles were then contrasted between eight PMAs and six PAs, all supratentorial/hypothalamic/chiasmal. Clinical outcome of PMAs varied, with four out of four patients with diencephalic syndrome succumbing to disease, one of whom showed bulky metastatic leptomeningeal spread at autopsy, with bimodal maturation to PA in some areas and de-differentiation to glioblastoma in others. A surviving child has undergone multiple surgical debulking, with progressive maturation to PA over time. Ontology-enrichment analysis identified overexpression in PMAs of extracellular matrix and mitosis-related genes. Genes overexpressed in PMA vs. PA, ranked according to fold-change, included developmental genes H19, DACT2, extracellular matrix collagens (COL2A1; COL1A1) and IGF2BP3 (IMP3), the latter previously identified as an adverse prognostic factor in PMA and PA.

  4. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) shows significant differences in gene expression versus pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and variable tendency toward maturation to PA

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K.; Donson, Andrew M.; Vogel, Hannes; Foreman, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) manifest a more aggressive clinical course than pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Development of effective therapies demands a better biological understanding of PMA. We first conducted gene expression microarray analysis of 9 PMA and 13 PA from infra- and supra-tentorial sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that tumors grouped according to anatomic site, not diagnosis. Gene expression profiles were then contrasted between 8 PMAs and 6 PAs, all supratentorial/hypothalamic/chiasmal. Clinical outcome of PMAs varied, with 4/4 patients with diencephalic syndrome succumbing to disease, one of whom showed bulky metastatic leptomeningeal spread at autopsy, with bimodal maturation to PA in some areas and de-differentiation to glioblastoma in others. A surviving child has undergone multiple surgical debulkings, with progressive maturation to PA over time. Ontology-enrichment analysis identified overexpression in PMAs of extracellular matrix and mitosis-related genes. Genes overexpressed in PMA versus PA, ranked according to fold-change, included developmental genes H19, DACT2, extracellular matrix collagens (COL2A1;COL1A1) and IGF2BP3 (IMP3), the latter previously identified as an adverse prognostic factor in PMA and PA. PMID:25521223

  5. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) shows circadian oscillations in crayfish Procambarus clarkii putative pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María de la Paz; Escamilla-Chimal, Elsa G

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies of glia have examined glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and its relationship to the circadian rhythms of different organisms, they have not explored the daily GFAP oscillations in the putative pacemakers of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii or in other crustaceans. In this study we investigated the daily variations in GFAP concentrations in the eyestalk and brain, which are considered to be putative pacemakers in adult P. clarkii. In both structures, the glial GFAP was quantified using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and double labeling immunofluorescence was used to detect it and its co-localization with protein Period (PER), an important component of the circadian clock, in various regions of both structures. The ELISA results were analyzed using Cosinor and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni and Scheffé's post hoc tests. The results of this analysis showed that the GFAP levels present circadian oscillations in both structures. Moreover, GFAP was localized in different structures of the eyestalk and brain; however, co-localization with PER occurred only in the lamina ganglionaris, specifically in the cartridges of the eyestalk and in some of the cluster 9 brain cells. These results suggest that as in other invertebrates and vertebrates, glial cells could be involved in the circadian system of P. clarkii; however, thus far we cannot know whether the glial cells are only effectors, participate in afferent pathways, or are part of the circadian clock.

  6. Significance of acid-mucin-positive nongoblet columnar cells in the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Y; Wang, H H; Antonioli, D A; Spechler, S J; Zeroogian, J M; Goyal, R; Shahsafaei, A; Odze, R D

    1999-12-01

    Acidic mucin-positive nongoblet columnar cells (NGCC) have recently been observed in the surface epithelium of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and distal esophagus in resections from patients with traditional long segment (>3 cm) Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, the significance of finding acidic mucin-positive NGCC in the surface epithelium of biopsy specimens from the distal esophagus/GEJ region in the absence of goblet cells (GC) remains unknown. Therefore, to determine the significance of mucin histochemical changes in the distal esophagus/GEJ region, we analyzed and compared the types, prevalence, and distribution of neutral and acidic mucins in biopsy specimens obtained from 2 groups of patients: those with (32 patients) and those without (107 patients) GC identified in this area. Various mucin histochemical stains (PAS-Ab pH 2.5, HID-Ab pH 2.5, PB/KOH/PAS) were used to identify neutral mucins, acidic mucins (sialomucins and sulphomucins), and o-acetylated sialomucins. The results were compared between the 2 patient groups and correlated with the clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features. Compared with patients without GC, patients with GC had a significantly higher male/female ratio and a higher proportion of patients with greater than 3 cm of columnar epithelium within the esophagus. Acidic mucin (sialomucin and sulphomucin)-positive NGCC in the surface, foveolar, and glandular epithelium did not show any correlation with any of the clinical, endoscopic, or pathologic features, such as esophagitis, carditis, antritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, or length of columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus. However, acidic mucin-positive NGCC correlated strongly with the presence of GC (P < .001). For example, sialomucin-positive NGCC were present in 28 of 32 (88%) patients with GC compared with 31 of 107 (29%) patients without GC (P < .001). Similarly, sulphomucin-positive NGCC were present in 20 of 32 (62%) patients with GC, compared with 11 of

  7. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR. PMID:27490540

  8. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR. PMID:27490540

  9. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133− populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133− cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  10. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133- cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  11. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133- cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  12. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  13. Planarity of heteroaryldithiocarbazic acid derivatives showing tuberculostatic activity. III. Mono- and diesters of 3-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)dithiocarbazic acid.

    PubMed

    Szczesio, Małgorzata; Olczak, Andrzej; Gołka, Jolanta; Gobis, Katarzyna; Foks, Henryk; Główka, Marek L

    2011-07-01

    Methyl 2-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbodithioate, C(7)H(8)N(4)OS(2), (E1), N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl)methylidene]pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide, C(8)H(10)N(4)OS(2), (F1), N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl)methylidene]-6-methoxypyrazine-2-carbohydrazide, C(9)H(12)N(4)O(2)S(2), (F2), and methyl 1-methyl-2-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbodithioate, C(8)H(10)N(4)OS(2), (G1), can be considered as derivatives of classical (thio)amide-type tuberculostatics, and all are moderately active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study was undertaken in a search for relationships between activity and specific intramolecular interactions, especially conjugations and hydrogen-bond contacts, and the molecular structures were compared with respective amine analogues, also active against the pathogen. Despite the differences between the amine and carbonyl groups with opposite functions in the hydrogen bond, the two types of structure show a surprisingly similar planar geometry, mostly due to the conjugations aided by the bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen-bond contact between the N-H group of the central hydrazide group as donor and a pyrazine N atom and an S atom of the dithio function as acceptors. Planarity was suggested to be crucial for the tuberculostatic activity of these compounds. The N-methylated derivative (G1) showed a significant twist at the N-N bond [torsion angle = -121.9 (3)°] due to the methyl substitution, which precludes an intramolecular N-H···S contact and the planarity of the whole molecule. Nonetheless, the compound shows moderate tuberculostatic activity.

  14. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

  16. Sequential treatment with betulinic acid followed by 5-fluorouracil shows synergistic cytotoxic activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Jian; Liu, Jun-Bao; Dou, Yu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid selectively inhibits the growth of ovarian carcinoma cell lines without affecting the normal cells. In the present study, the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and betulinic acid (BA) combination on ovarian carcinoma cells was studied. The results demonstrated that ovarian carcinoma cells on concurrent or 5-FU followed by BA treatment show increased Sub-G1 cell population, increased rate of cell apoptosis and morphological changes in mitochondrial membrane. In OVCAR 432 cells treatment with sequential combination of 5-FU and BA increased the Sub-G1 cell population to 51.3% and growth inhibition rate of > 72%. However, exposure to BA before 5-FU treatment caused a decrease in rate of inhibition to < 35%. Treatment with combination of 5 μM of 5-FU and 1 μM of BA for 48 h, led to an induction of apoptosis in 79.7% and induced morphological changes in OVCAR 432 cells. The Western blot results showed high concentration of cytochrome c in the cell cytosol after 24 h of 5-FU and BA combination treatment. Treatment of BA-responsive RMS-13 cells with 5-FU and BA combination resulted in inhibition of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and IGF2 genes. In addition, we found a significant reduction in hedgehog activity of RMS-13 cells after 5-FU and BA combination treatment by means of a hedgehog-responsive reporter assay. Therefore, 5-FU and BA combination can be a promising regimen for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25755712

  17. The lesion-mimic mutant cpr22 shows alterations in abscisic acid signaling and abscisic acid insensitivity in a salicylic acid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Stephen; Moeder, Wolfgang; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Joo, Se-Hwan; Urquhart, William; Klessig, Daniel F; Kim, Seong-Ki; Nambara, Eiji; Yoshioka, Keiko

    2010-04-01

    A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lesion-mimic mutants exhibit alterations in both abiotic stress responses and pathogen resistance. One of these mutants, constitutive expresser of PR genes22 (cpr22), which has a mutation in two cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, is a typical lesion-mimic mutant exhibiting elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA), spontaneous cell death, constitutive expression of defense-related genes, and enhanced resistance to various pathogens; the majority of its phenotypes are SA dependent. These defense responses in cpr22 are suppressed under high-humidity conditions and enhanced by low humidity. After shifting plants from high to low humidity, the cpr22 mutant, but not the wild type, showed a rapid increase in SA levels followed by an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Concomitantly, genes for ABA metabolism were up-regulated in the mutant. The expression of a subset of ABA-inducible genes, such as RD29A and KIN1/2, was down-regulated, but that of other genes, like ABI1 and HAB1, was up-regulated in cpr22 after the humidity shift. cpr22 showed reduced responsiveness to ABA not only in abiotic stress responses but also in germination and stomatal closure. Double mutant analysis with nahG plants that degrade SA indicated that these alterations in ABA signaling were attributable to elevated SA levels. Furthermore, cpr22 displayed suppressed drought responses by long-term drought stress. Taken together, these results suggest an effect of SA on ABA signaling/abiotic stress responses during the activation of defense responses in cpr22. PMID:20164209

  18. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. PMID:23617813

  19. Zwitterion/Brønsted Acid Mixtures Showing Controlled Lower Critical Solution Temperature-Type Phase Changes with Water.

    PubMed

    Mieno, Yuki; Kohno, Yuki; Saita, Shohei; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-22

    A new ammonium-type zwitterion (ZI), N,N-dihexyl-N-monopentyl-3-sulfonyl-1-propaneammonium (N665 C3S) with adequate hydrophobicity showed reversible and highly temperature-sensitive lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase transitions after being mixed with pure water. Generally for such compounds, those with longer alkyl chains were immiscible with water and those with shorter chains were miscible with water, regardless of temperature. A slightly more hydrophobic ZI than N665 C3S showed LCST-type phase behavior with water when it was mixed with equimolar amounts of a Brønsted acid such as trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (HTfO). The phase-transition temperature of the ZI/Brønsted acid mixed aqueous solution was controllable by water content. PMID:27310140

  20. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  1. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie; Novak, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  2. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  3. Significance of CO2 donor on the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Succinic acid is a building-block chemical which could be used as the precursor of many industrial products. The dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth could strongly regulate the metabolic flux of carbon and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, which are the important committed steps for the biosynthesis of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Previous reports showed that succinic acid production could be promoted by regulating the supply of CO2 donor in the fermentation broth. Therefore, the effects of dissolved CO2 concentration and MgCO3 on the fermentation process should be investigated. In this article, we studied the impacts of gaseous CO2 partial pressure, dissolved CO2 concentration, and the addition amount of MgCO3 on succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. We also demonstrated that gaseous CO2 could be removed when MgCO3 was fully supplied. Results An effective CO2 quantitative mathematical model was developed to calculate the dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth. The highest succinic acid production of 61.92 g/L was obtained at 159.22 mM dissolved CO2 concentration, which was supplied by 40 g/L MgCO3 at the CO2 partial pressure of 101.33 kPa. When MgCO3 was used as the only CO2 donor, a maximal succinic acid production of 56.1 g/L was obtained, which was just decreased by 7.03% compared with that obtained under the supply of gaseous CO2 and MgCO3. Conclusions Besides the high dissolved CO2 concentration, the excessive addition of MgCO3 was beneficial to promote the succinic acid synthesis. This was the first report investigating the replaceable of gaseous CO2 in the fermentation of succinic acid. The results obtained in this study may be useful for reducing the cost of succinic acid fermentation process. PMID:22040346

  4. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  5. RNAi targeting putative genes in phosphatidylcholine turnover results in significant change in fatty acid composition in Crambe abyssinica seed oil.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Li, Xueyuan; Hofvander, Per; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Danni; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of three enzymes, LPCAT, PDCT and PDAT, involved in acyl turnover in phosphatidylcholine in order to explore the possibility of further increasing erucic acid (22:1) content in Crambe seed oil. The complete coding sequences of LPCAT1-1 and LPCAT1-2 encoding lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), PDCT1 and PDCT2 encoding phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), and PDAT encoding phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) were cloned from developing Crambe seeds. The alignment of deduced amino acid sequences displayed a high similarity to the Arabidopsis homologs. Transgenic lines expressing RNA interference (RNAi) targeting either single or double genes showed significant changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. An increase in oleic acid (18:1) was observed, to varying degrees, in all of the transgenic lines, and a cumulative effect of increased 18:1 was shown in the LPCAT-PDCT double-gene RNAi. However, LPCAT single-gene RNAi led to a decrease in 22:1 accumulation, while PDCT or PDAT single-gene RNAi had no obvious effect on the level of 22:1. In agreement with the abovementioned oil phenotypes, the transcript levels of the target genes in these transgenic lines were generally reduced compared to wild-type levels. In this paper, we discuss the potential to further increase the 22:1 content in Crambe seed oil through downregulation of these genes in combination with fatty acid elongase and desaturases.

  6. Heavy metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under EDDS deficiency: significance of humic acid and chelant mixture.

    PubMed

    Yip, Theo C M; Yan, Dickson Y S; Yui, Matthew M T; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2010-06-01

    Biodegradable EDDS ([S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) has been suggested for enhancing heavy metal extraction from contaminated soils. Recent studies showed that Zn and Pb are less effectively extracted due to metal exchange and re-adsorption onto the soil surfaces, especially for EDDS-deficiency conditions. This study therefore investigated the influence of dissolved organic matter and the co-presence of EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) on metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under deficient amount of chelants in batch kinetics experiments. The addition of 10 and 20mgL(-1) of humic acid as dissolved organic matter (DOC) suppressed metal extraction by EDDS, probably resulting from the competition of adsorbed humic acid for heavy metals and adsorption of metal-humate complexes onto the soil surfaces. The effects were most significant for Pb because of greater extent of metal exchange of PbEDDS and high affinity towards organic matter. Thus, one should be cautious when there is a high content of organic matter in soils or groundwater. On the other hand, compared to individual additions of EDDS or EDTA, the equimolar EDDS and EDTA mixture exhibited significantly higher Pb extraction without notable Pb re-adsorption. The synergistic performance of the EDDS and EDTA mixture probably resulted from the change of chemical speciation and thus less competition among Cu, Zn and Pb for each chelant. These findings suggest further investigation into an optimum chemistry of the chelant mixture taking into account the effectiveness and associated environmental impact.

  7. Acid-base titrations for polyacids: Significance of the pK sub a and parameters in the Kern equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meites, L.

    1978-01-01

    A new method is suggested for calculating the dissociation constants of polyvalent acids, especially polymeric acids. In qualitative form the most significant characteristics of the titration curves are demonstrated and identified which are obtained when titrating the solutions of such acids with a standard base potentiometrically.

  8. Cell adhesion molecule pathway genes are regulated by cis-regulatory SNPs and show significantly altered expression in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xinjie; Liu, Gengfeng; Jiang, Yongshuai; Jiang, Qinghua; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Ma, Guoda; Zhang, Shuyan; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2015-10-01

    We previously identified the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) pathway as a consistent signal in 2 Alzheimer's disease (AD) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the genetic mechanisms of the CAM pathway in AD are unclear. Here, we conducted pathway analysis using (1) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology pathways; (2) 4 brain expression GWAS datasets; and (3) 2 whole-genome AD case-control expression datasets. Using the 4 brain expression GWAS datasets, we identified that genes regulated by cis-regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly enriched in the CAM pathway (p = 2.05E-06, p = 6.10E-07, p = 2.05E-06, and p = 1.47E-07 for each dataset). Interestingly, CAM is a significantly enriched pathway using down-regulated genes (raw p = 0.0235 and adjusted p = 0.0305) and all differentially expressed genes (raw p = 0.0105 and adjusted p = 0.0156) in dataset 5, and all differentially expressed genes (raw p = 0.0041 and adjusted p = 0.0062) in dataset 6. Collectively, our results show that CAM pathway genes are regulated by cis-regulatory SNPs and show significantly altered expression in AD. We believe that our results advance the understanding of AD mechanisms and will be useful for future genetic studies of AD.

  9. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. PMID:27596418

  10. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. III. Exon sequences confirm most dendrograms based on protein sequences: calmodulin dendrograms show significant lack of parallelism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakayama, S.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    In the first report in this series we presented dendrograms based on 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand family. In the second we used sequences from 228 proteins, containing 835 domains, and showed that eight of the 29 subfamilies are congruent and that the EF-hand domains of the remaining 21 subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories. In this study we have computed dendrograms within and among the EF-hand subfamilies using the encoding DNA sequences. In most instances the dendrograms based on protein and on DNA sequences are very similar. Significant differences between protein and DNA trees for calmodulin remain unexplained. In our fourth report we evaluate the sequences and the distribution of introns within the EF-hand family and conclude that exon shuffling did not play a significant role in its evolution.

  11. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee

    2015-01-01

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. PMID:26637600

  12. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-04

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.

  13. Human originated bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, produce conjugated linoleic acid and show anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baek, Min-Won; Kim, Dong-Jae; Lee, Ki-Eun; Paek, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Yeonhee; Park, Jae-Hak

    2006-07-01

    Many previous studies have reported that conjugated linoleic acid could be produced by starter culture bacteria, but the effects of the bacteria were not investigated. Moreover, there was no evidence of the conjugated linoleic acid-producing bacteria having potential health or nutritional effects related to conjugated linoleic acid, including reducing body fat. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, a human originated bacterium that produces t10, c12-conjugated linoleic acid, on diet-induced obese mice. After 8 weeks of feeding, L. rhamnosus PL60 reduced body weight without reducing energy intake, and caused a significant, specific reduction of white adipose tissue (epididymal and perirenal). Although the size of epididymal adipocytes was not reduced by L. rhamnosus PL60, apoptotic signals and UCP-2 mRNA levels increased in adipose tissue. Liver steatosis, a well known side effect of CLA, was not observed by L. rhamnosus PL60 treatment; on the contrary it seemed to be normalized. Results showed that the amount of conjugated linoleic acid produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60 was enough to produce an anti-obesity effect.

  14. Nitric acid photolysis on surfaces in low-NOx environments: Significant atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianliang; Gao, Honglian; He, Yi; Huang, Gu; Bertman, Steven B.; Civerolo, Kevin; Schwab, James

    2003-12-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is the dominant end product of NOx (= NO + NO2) oxidation in the troposphere, and its dry deposition is considered to be a major removal pathway for the atmospheric reactive nitrogen. Here we present both field and laboratory results to demonstrate that HNO3 deposited on ground and vegetation surfaces may undergo effective photolysis to form HONO and NOx, 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than in the gas phase and aqueous phase. With this enhanced rate, HNO3 photolysis on surfaces may significantly impact the chemistry of the overlying atmospheric boundary layer in remote low-NOx regions via the emission of HONO as a radical precursor and the recycling of HNO3 deposited on ground surfaces back to NOx.

  15. Amino acid δ13C analysis shows flexibility in the routing of dietary protein and lipids to the tissue of an omnivore.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Seth D; Wolf, Nathan; Peters, Jacob; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2014-11-01

    Stable-isotope analysis (SIA) has revolutionized animal ecology by providing time-integrated estimates of the use of resources and/or habitats. SIA is based on the premise that the isotopic composition of a consumer's tissues originates from its food, but is offset by trophic-discrimination (enrichment) factors controlled by metabolic processes associated with the assimilation of nutrients and the biosynthesis of tissues. Laboratory preparation protocols dictate that tissues both of consumers and of their potential prey be lipid-extracted prior to analysis, because (1) lipids have carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values that are lower by approximately 3-8‰ than associated proteins and (2) amino acids in consumers' proteinaceous tissues are assumed to be completely routed from dietary protein. In contrast, models of stable-isotope mixing assume that dietary macromolecules are broken into their elemental constituents from which non-essential amino acids are resynthesized to build tissues. Here, we show that carbon from non-protein dietary macromolecules, namely lipids, was used to synthesize muscle tissue in an omnivorous rodent (Mus musculus). We traced the influence of dietary lipids on the synthesis of consumers' tissues by inversely varying the dietary proportion of C4-based lipids and C3-based protein while keeping carbohydrate content constant in four dietary treatments, and analyzing the δ(13)C values of amino acids in mouse muscle after 4 months of feeding. The influence of dietary lipids on non-essential amino acids varied as function of biosynthetic pathway. The source of carbon in ketogenic amino acids synthesized through the Krebs cycle was highly sensitive to dietary lipid content, with significant increases of approximately 2-4‰ in Glutamate and Aspartate δ(13)C values from the 5% to 15% dietary lipid treatment. Glucogenic amino acids (Glycine and Serine) were less sensitive to dietary lipid, but increased by approximately 3-4‰ from the 25% to 40% lipid

  16. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Andrew S.; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  17. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  18. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC₅₀ (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L₉ (3⁴) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  19. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC₅₀ (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L₉ (3⁴) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina.

  20. A dual acting compound releasing nitric oxide (NO) and ibuprofen, NCX 320, shows significant therapeutic effects in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sciorati, Clara; Miglietta, Daniela; Buono, Roberta; Pisa, Viviana; Cattaneo, Dario; Azzoni, Emanuele; Brunelli, Silvia; Clementi, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    A resolutive therapy for muscular dystrophies, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases leading to muscular degeneration and in the severe forms to death, is still lacking. Since inflammation and defects in nitric oxide generation are recognized key pathogenic events in muscular dystrophy, we have analysed the effects of a derivative of ibuprofen, NCX 320, belonging to the class of cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD), in the α-sarcoglycan null mice, a severe mouse model of dystrophy. NCX 320 was administered daily in the diet for 8 months starting 1 month from weaning. Muscle functional recovery was evaluated by free wheel and treadmill tests at 8 months. Serum creatine kinase activity, as well as the number of diaphragm inflammatory infiltrates and necrotic fibres, was measured as indexes of skeletal muscle damage. Muscle regeneration was evaluated in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscles, measuring the numbers of centronucleated fibres and of myogenic precursor cells. NCX 320 mitigated muscle damage, reducing significantly serum creatine kinase activity, the number of necrotic fibres and inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, NCX 320 stimulated muscle regeneration increasing significantly the number of myogenic precursor cells and regenerating fibres. All these effects concurred in inducing a significant improvement of muscle function, as assessed by both free wheel and treadmill tests. These results describe the properties of a new compound incorporating nitric oxide donation together with anti-inflammatory properties, showing that it is effective in slowing muscle dystrophy progression long term. Of importance, this new compound deserves specific attention for its potential in the therapy of muscular dystrophy given that ibuprofen is well tolerated in paediatric patients and with a profile of safety that makes it suitable for chronic treatment such as the one required in muscular dystrophies. PMID:21609764

  1. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  2. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z

    1996-02-01

    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990. PMID:8600356

  3. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z

    1996-02-01

    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990.

  4. Significance of the detection of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Journal of Applied Toxicology publishes the paper Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast Tumours by Darbre et al. (2004), which reports that esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) can be detected in samples of tissue from human breast tumours. Breast tumour samples were supplied from 20 patients, in collaboration with the Edinburgh Breast Unit Research Group, and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in underarm deodorants and antiperspirants and in a wide range of other consumer products. The parabens also have inherent oestrogenic and other hormone related activity (increased progesterone receptor gene expression). As oestrogen is a major aetiological factor in the growth and development of the majority of human breast cancers, it has been previously suggested by Darbre that parabens and other chemicals in underarm cosmetics may contribute to the rising incidence of breast cancer. The significance of the finding of parabens in tumour samples is discussed here in terms of 1). Darbre et al's study design, 2). what can be inferred from this type of data (and what can not, such as the cause of these tumours), 3). the toxicology of these compounds and 4). the limitations of the existing toxicology database and the need to consider data that is appropriate to human exposures.

  5. Control of ACTH secretion by excitatory amino acids: functional significance and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jezova, Daniela

    2005-12-01

    The involvement of excitatory amino acids in the control of ACTH release is well established. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has a stimulatory effect on ACTH release, while the role of metabotropic receptors is not yet understood in detail. Glutamatergic regulation of ACTH release has a clear significance for the stress response and neuroendocrine functions during development. A dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis has been reported in several psychiatric and neurological disorders. So far, only fractional indices on the clinical importance of the interaction between glutamate and ACTH secretion have been obtained in both preclinical and clinical studies. Some antidepressant drugs, such as tianeptine, which were found to modulate ACTH release, appear to interfere with brain glutamatergic system. Changes in ACTH and cortisol release may be of importance for mood stabilizing effects of antiepileptic drugs modulating glutamate release, such as lamotrigine. Brain glutamate and HPA axis interaction seems to be of importance in alcohol and drug abuse. Little information is available on ACTH release in response to glutamate-modulating drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease. Nevertheless, pharmacological interventions influencing interaction between glutamate and the HPA axis are promising treatment possibilities in psychiatry and neurology.

  6. Significance of the C-terminal amino acid residue in mengovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Tatiana M; Alexeevski, Andrei V; Shatskaya, Galina S; Tolskaya, Elena A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Khitrina, Elena V; Agol, Vadim I

    2007-08-15

    Replication of picornavirus genomes is accomplished by the virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Although the primary structure of this enzyme exhibits a high level of conservation, there are several significant differences among different picornavirus genera. In particular, a comparative alignment indicates that the C-terminal sequences of cardiovirus RdRP (known also as 3D(pol)), are 1-amino-acid residue (arginine or tryptophan) longer than that of the enterovirus or rhinovirus enzymes. Here, it is shown that alterations of the last codon of the RdRP-encoding sequence of mengovirus RNA leading to deletion of the C-terminal Trp460 or its replacement by Ala or Phe dramatically impaired viral RNA replication and, in the former case, resulted in a quasi-infectious phenotype (i.e., the mutant RNA might generate a low yield of pseudorevertants acquiring a Tyr residue in place of the deleted Trp460). The replacement of Trp460 by His or Tyr did not appreciably alter the viral growth potential. Homology modeling of three-dimensional structure of mengovirus RdRP suggested that Trp460 may be involved in interaction between the thumb and palm domains of the enzyme. Specifically, Trp460 of the thumb may form a hydrogen bond with Thr219 and hydrophobically interact with Val216 of the palm. The proposed interactions were consistent with the results of in vivo SELEX experiment, which demonstrated that infectious virus could contain Ser or Thr at position 219 and hydrophobic Val, Leu, Ile, as well as Arg (whose side chain has a nonpolar part) at position 216. A similar thumb-palm domain interaction may be a general feature of several RdRPs and its possible functional significance is discussed. PMID:17467026

  7. Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far

    PubMed Central

    Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20 μM. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. PMID:23781257

  8. Biological significance of urolithins, the gut microbial ellagic Acid-derived metabolites: the evidence so far.

    PubMed

    Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2-20  μ M. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo.

  9. Abiogenic Syntheses of Lipoamino Acids and Lipopeptides and their Prebiotic Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproul, Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have formed peptide bonds under a variety of presumed prebiotic conditions. Here it is proposed that these same conditions would have also formed amide bonds between fatty acids and amino acids, producing phosphate-free amphipathic lipoamino acids and lipopeptides. These compounds are known to form vesicles and are ubiquitous in living organisms. They could represent molecules that provided protection by membranes as well as possibilities for proto-life metabolism . It is here demonstrated that when a fatty acid is heated with various amino acids, optimally in the presence of suitable salts or minerals, lipoamino acids are formed. Magnesium and potassium carbonates as well as iron (II) sulfide are found to be particularly useful in these reactions. In this manner N-lauroylglycine, N-lauroylalanine, N-stearoylalanine and several other lipoamino acids have been synthesized. Similarly, when glycylglycine was heated with lauric acid in the presence of magnesium carbonate, the lipopeptide N-lauroylglycylglycine was formed. Such compounds are proposed to have been critical precursors to the development of life.

  10. Abiogenic Syntheses of Lipoamino Acids and Lipopeptides and their Prebiotic Significance.

    PubMed

    Sproul, Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have formed peptide bonds under a variety of presumed prebiotic conditions. Here it is proposed that these same conditions would have also formed amide bonds between fatty acids and amino acids, producing phosphate-free amphipathic lipoamino acids and lipopeptides. These compounds are known to form vesicles and are ubiquitous in living organisms. They could represent molecules that provided protection by membranes as well as possibilities for proto-life metabolism . It is here demonstrated that when a fatty acid is heated with various amino acids, optimally in the presence of suitable salts or minerals, lipoamino acids are formed. Magnesium and potassium carbonates as well as iron (II) sulfide are found to be particularly useful in these reactions. In this manner N-lauroylglycine, N-lauroylalanine, N-stearoylalanine and several other lipoamino acids have been synthesized. Similarly, when glycylglycine was heated with lauric acid in the presence of magnesium carbonate, the lipopeptide N-lauroylglycylglycine was formed. Such compounds are proposed to have been critical precursors to the development of life. PMID:26248658

  11. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypical member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It has a well-characterized structure and function and serves as a model membrane receptor in this study. Phospholipid–cholesterol affinity was quantified by measuring cholesterol partition coefficients. Phospholipid–receptor interactions were probed by measuring the level of rhodopsin activation. Our study shows that phospholipid derived from TFA had a higher membrane cholesterol affinity than their cis analogues. TFA phospholipid membranes also exhibited a higher acyl chain packing order, which was indicated by the lower acyl chain packing free volume as determined by DPH fluorescence and the higher transition temperature for rhodopsin thermal denaturation. The level of rhodopsin activation was diminished in TFA phospholipids. Since membrane cholesterol level and membrane receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, the combination of higher cholesterol content and reduced receptor activation associated with the presence of TFA–phospholipid could be factors contributing to the elevation of LDL cholesterol. PMID:15766276

  12. The Apollo program and amino acids. [precursors significance in molecular evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo lunar sample analyses designed to detect the presence of organic compounds are reviewed, and the results are discussed from the viewpoint of relevance to laboratory experiments on the synthesis of amino acids and to theoretical models of cosmochemical processes resulting in the formation of organic compounds. Glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine, and threonine have been found repeatedly in the hydrolyzates of hot aqueous extracts of lunar dust. These compounds represent an early step in the sequence of events leading to the rise of living material and were probably deposited by the solar wind. The results of the Apollo program so far suggest that the pathway from cosmic organic matter to life as it evolved on earth could have been pursued on the moon to the stage of amino acid precursors and then may have been terminated for lack of sufficient water.

  13. Occurrence of 3-hydroxy acids in microalgae and cyanobacteria and their geochemical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Nagashima, Hideyuki

    1984-08-01

    3-Hydroxy acids were detected in pure cultured microalgae: Chlorophyta— Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Rhodophyta— Cyanidium caldarium (two strains), and cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta)— Anacystis nidulans, Phormidium foveolarum, Anabaena variabilis and Oscillatoria sp. Normal and branched (iso and anteiso) 3-hydroxy acids in the ranges of C 8-C 26 were found in all the samples studied at concentrations ranging from 0.036 to 2.3 and 0.000 to 0.12 mg g -1 of dry sample, respectively. The major constituents were generally even-carbon numbered normal acids with carbon chain lengths below C 20. Microalgae and cyanobacteria may be the important sources of 3-hydroxy acids in natural environments.

  14. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don't know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G Brooke; Peng, Roger; Leek, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%-49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%-76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  15. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G. Brooke; Peng, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed DNA damage in comet assay on Paramecium caudatum.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kosuke; Oashi, Takahiro; Oami, Kazunori; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Sato, Itaru; Tsuda, Shuji

    2010-12-01

    Persistent perfluorinated organic compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are distributed widely in the global environment including wildlife and human. In this study, we investigated the genotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA using the novel in vivo comet assay developed for Paramecium caudatum. For the comet assay, large nuclei squeezed out of the paramecia with 0.25 M sucrose containing 0.6% Triton X-100 were embedded in a layer of agarose gel placed over the slide glass. N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) were successfully used for positive controls. Productions of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also measured in paramecia. PFOS did not cause DNA damage on any conditions examined. On the other hand, 12 and 24 hr exposure to PFOA (100 µM) increased DNA migration in electrophoresis condition at pH 13, but not at pH 12.1, suggesting that the DNA damage may be alkali labile site (such as apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site). Exposure of paramecia to 100 µM PFOA for 1, 3 and 24 hr and to 10 µM PFOA for 24 hr significantly increased intracellular ROS. Under the same condition, however, 8-OH-dG level was not affected by PFOA. The PFOA-induced DNA damage was not abolished by the application of 100 µM GSH which completely inhibited the increase of intracellular ROS. In conclusion, the PFOA-induced in vivo DNA damage was first shown in paramecia, and the DNA damage might not be directly attributable to increase in intracellular ROS.

  17. Isolation, characterization, and systematic significance of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, S; Glasl, H

    2001-10-01

    2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid was isolated from Potentilla anserina. Until now this substance was only found in bacteria and not in higher plants. By sterile cultivation it was verified that this compound is genuine also in plants. In addition the systematic relevance of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid within the Rosaceae was tested. The compound seems to be a chemotaxonomic marker for the Rosoideae sensu stricto proposed by Morgan et al. (Morgan, D.R., Soltis, D.E., Robertson, K.R., 1994. Systematic and evolutionary implications of rbcL sequence variation in Rosaceae. American Journal of Botany 81, 890-903).

  18. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  19. The significance of linoleic acid in food sources for detritivorous benthic invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, J. Arie; van Kuijk, Bernd F.; van Beusekom, Mick; Hunting, Ellard R.; Kraak, Michiel H. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is a key driver for detritus consumption by macroinvertebrates and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content is considered a candidate indicator of food palatability. Since traditionally used complex natural OM covaries in many quality attributes, it remains uncertain whether benthic invertebrates developed an actual preference for PUFA-rich food. Therefore we aimed to test the influence of the PUFA linoleic acid on OM consumption by aquatic macroinvertebrates using standardized surrogate substrates (decomposition and consumption tablet, DECOTAB) with added linoleic acid (PUFA) in comparison to consumption of DECOTAB containing only cellulose (Standard) or ground macrophytes (Plant). In microcosms, we observed a higher consumption rate of PUFA DECOTAB in comparison to Standard DECOTAB in two functionally distinct invertebrate species (Lumbriculus variegatus and Asellus aquaticus). This effect appeared to be overruled in the field due to unknown sources of natural variation. Although we observed higher consumption rates in species-rich ditches compared to species-poor ditches, consumption rates were comparable for all three types of DECOTAB deployed. Upon reduced food quality and palatability, results presented here hint that PUFA like linoleic acid may be a key OM attribute driving the performance of benthic macroinvertebrates and inherent functioning of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27767068

  20. Methods for evaluating the biological significance of acidic episodes in streams

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Sale, M.J.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    During storms or periods of snowmelt, the levels of acidity and aluminum in streams can increase greatly. An approach is presented for designing and analyzing laboratory experiments that investigate the relationship between episodic changes in water chemistry and survival of fish. (ACR)

  1. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  2. Conformationally-restricted amino acid analogues bearing a distal sulfonic acid show selective inhibition of system x(c)(-) over the vesicular glutamate transporter.

    PubMed

    Etoga, Jean-Louis G; Ahmed, S Kaleem; Patel, Sarjubhai; Bridges, Richard J; Thompson, Charles M

    2010-04-15

    A panel of amino acid analogs and conformationally-restricted amino acids bearing a sulfonic acid were synthesized and tested for their ability to preferentially inhibit the obligate cysteine-glutamate transporter system x(c)(-) versus the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Several promising candidate molecules were identified: R/S-4-[4'-carboxyphenyl]-phenylglycine, a biphenyl substituted analog of 4-carboxyphenylglycine and 2-thiopheneglycine-5-sulfonic acid both of which reduced glutamate uptake at system x(c)(-) by 70-75% while having modest to no effect on glutamate uptake at VGLUT.

  3. The Escherichia coli Acid Stress Response and Its Significance for Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Biase, Daniela; Lund, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli has a remarkable ability to survive low pH and possesses a number of different genetic systems that enable it to do this. These may be expressed constitutively, typically in stationary phase, or induced by growth under a variety of conditions. The activities of these systems have been implicated in the ability of E. coli to pass the acidic barrier of the stomach and to become established in the gastrointestinal tract, something causing serious infections. However, much of the work characterizing these systems has been done on standard laboratory strains of E. coli and under conditions which do not closely resemble those found in the human gut. Here we review what is known about acid resistance in E. coli as a model laboratory organism and in the context of its lifestyle as an inhabitant-sometimes an unwelcome one-of the human gut.

  4. Ecophysiological Significance of CO2-Recycling via Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Talinum calycinum Engelm. (Portulacaceae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Craig E.; Higley, Michael; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    1988-01-01

    High levels of variability in gas exchange characteristics and degree of CAM-cycling were found in the same and different individuals of Talinum calycinum Engelm. collected from rock outcrops in Missouri. Differences in CO2 assimilation were mostly correlated with differences in shoot conductance to CO2 not shoot internal CO2 concentration. As found previously, CAM acid fluctuations were evident in well-watered plants exhibiting C3 gas exchange patterns (CAM-cycling) and also in drought-stressed plants with stomata closed, or nearly so, day and night (CAM-idling). Drought stress also resulted in rapid stomatal closure, conserving water during droughts. Maximal CO2 uptake rates occurred below 35°C; higher temperatures induced decreases in CO2 assimilation and conductance while shoot internal CO2 concentrations remained similar. Plant water-use-efficiency was severely curtailed at temperatures above 30°C. Tissue acid fluctuations were the result of changes in malic acid concentrations. Calculations of the amount of water potentially conserved by CAM-cycling yielded values of approximately 5 to 44% of daytime water loss. Thus, CAM-cycling may be an important adaptation minimizing water loss by perennial succulents growing in shallow soil on rock outcrops. PMID:16665946

  5. Ecophysiological Significance of CO(2)-Recycling via Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Talinum calycinum Engelm. (Portulacaceae).

    PubMed

    Martin, C E; Higley, M; Wang, W Z

    1988-02-01

    High levels of variability in gas exchange characteristics and degree of CAM-cycling were found in the same and different individuals of Talinum calycinum Engelm. collected from rock outcrops in Missouri. Differences in CO(2) assimilation were mostly correlated with differences in shoot conductance to CO(2) not shoot internal CO(2) concentration. As found previously, CAM acid fluctuations were evident in well-watered plants exhibiting C(3) gas exchange patterns (CAM-cycling) and also in drought-stressed plants with stomata closed, or nearly so, day and night (CAM-idling). Drought stress also resulted in rapid stomatal closure, conserving water during droughts. Maximal CO(2) uptake rates occurred below 35 degrees C; higher temperatures induced decreases in CO(2) assimilation and conductance while shoot internal CO(2) concentrations remained similar. Plant water-use-efficiency was severely curtailed at temperatures above 30 degrees C. Tissue acid fluctuations were the result of changes in malic acid concentrations. Calculations of the amount of water potentially conserved by CAM-cycling yielded values of approximately 5 to 44% of daytime water loss. Thus, CAM-cycling may be an important adaptation minimizing water loss by perennial succulents growing in shallow soil on rock outcrops.

  6. Folic acid supplement use is the most significant predictor of folate concentrations in Canadian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; O'Connor, Deborah L; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    One-fifth of Canadian women of childbearing age (WCBA) have red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations below those considered optimal for neural tube defect risk reduction (≥906 nmol·L(-1)). Determinants of optimal concentrations have not been examined in a nationally representative sample of Canadian WCBA since food fortification with folic acid was implemented. This study explored correlates of optimal RBC folate concentrations and characteristics of folic acid supplement users in a sample of Canadian WCBA. RBC folate concentrations from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey were assessed in women aged 15 to 45 years (n = 1162). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and clinical determinants of RBC folate ≥906 nmol·L(-1) were examined using univariate and separate multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age and household income. t tests were used to study differences between folic acid supplement users and nonusers. WCBA not taking folic acid supplements were less likely to achieve a RBC folate concentration ≥906 nmol·L(-1) compared with folic acid supplement users (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24, 0.92). Twenty-five percent of WCBA reported folic acid supplement use, and there was a higher percentage of folic acid supplement users in the highest income group. Folic acid supplement users were also more frequent consumers of supplemental vitamin B(12) and of fruit and vegetables (>3 times per day). Folic acid supplement use was the most significant predictor of WCBA achieving optimal RBC folate concentrations. These results indicate a need for targeted strategies to improve compliance with folic acid supplement recommendations among WCBA.

  7. Mice Abundant in Muricholic Bile Acids Show Resistance to Dietary Induced Steatosis, Weight Gain, and to Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Ylva; Eggertsen, Gösta; Rudling, Mats

    2016-01-01

    High endogenous production of, or treatment with muricholic bile acids, strongly reduces the absorption of cholesterol. Mice abundant in muricholic bile acids may therefore display an increased resistance against dietary induced weight gain, steatosis, and glucose intolerance due to an anticipated general reduction in lipid absorption. To test this hypothesis, mice deficient in steroid 12-alpha hydroxylase (Cyp8b1-/-) and therefore abundant in muricholic acids were monitored for 11 weeks while fed a high fat diet. Food intake and body and liver weights were determined, and lipids in liver, serum and feces were measured. Further, responses during oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were evaluated. On the high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice displayed less weight gain compared to wildtype littermates (Cyp8b1+/+). In addition, liver enlargement with steatosis and increases in serum LDL-cholesterol were strongly attenuated in Cyp8b1-/- mice on high fat diet. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was increased and there was a strong trend for doubled fecal excretion of free fatty acids, while excretion of triglycerides was unaltered, indicating dampened lipid absorption. On high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice also presented lower serum glucose levels in response to oral glucose gavage or to intraperitoneal insulin injection compared to Cyp8b1+/+. In conclusion, following exposure to a high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice are more resistant against weight gain, steatosis, and to glucose intolerance than Cyp8b1+/+ mice. Reduced lipid absorption may in part explain these findings. Overall, the results suggest that muricholic bile acids may be beneficial against the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26824238

  8. Prognostic Significance of Clinical/Pathological Stage IA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Showing Partially Solid or Solid Tumours on Radiological Exam

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Mun, Mingyon; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although curative resection is expected to be effective in patients with clinical (c-) stage IA/pathological (p-) stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers, recurrence is often observed. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify predictors of recurrence. Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, 138 patients with c-stage IA/p-stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers underwent resection. Recurrence and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared with clinical, radiographic and pathological findings. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 97% and the RFS rate was 89% at a median follow-up time of 91 months. Recurrence was observed in 10 patients (7.2%). Significant differences were observed in RFS according to tumour dimensions on the mediastinal window image (>1.5 cm), serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (>5.0 ng/mL), maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax >2.5) and angiolymphatic invasion. Patients were grouped according to the number of risk factors for poor RFS. Patients with 0–1 of the identified risk factors had an RFS of 97%, where those with 2–4 factors had an RFS of 68% (p <0.001). Conclusion: Prognosis of patients exhibiting more than two of these risk factors is considerably poor. Thus, close observation and individualised adjuvant therapy may be beneficial to these patients. PMID:25740451

  9. The Brazos River (Texas) Sequence Shows Significant Cooling in the Waning Stages of the Tsunami Surges Caused by the Chicxulub Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J.; Vellekoop, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazos river K-Pg sequences are among the best preserved and studied in the world, yet any interpretation remains highly controversial. Most researchers, however, agree that the coarse clastic deposits are the direct result of a train of Chicxulub impact triggered tsunami surges. Alternative interpretations such as low stand deposits or (super) storm deposits lack sedimentological support. The entire impact related deposit starts with a strong ground shaking from the impact-induced earthquake, disintegrating unconsolidated uppermost Maastrichtian muds, and opening 0.5m deep and 5 m long fissures filled with spherule-rich debris. The disintegrated debris has been taken up in a coarse mass-flow, just underlying the first coarse tsunami deposit containing impact spherules from Chicxulub. One to four distinct tsunami surges follow the basal surge, each leaving a graded coarse to medium sand deposit assembled from coarse debris strewn on the local seafloor such as glauconitic pellets, fish-debris and near coastal foraminifers. The medium-grained sand layers are typically cross-bedded in linguoid and linguoid-climbing current-ripple sets, indicating a dominant S to SE seaward directed flow. Such climbing ripple-sets are found in most tsunami deposits in NE Mexico. These climbing ripples indicate an extremely high suspension load, quickly settling on the seafloor in the waning tsunami surge backflow-currents. Occasionally, the climbing ripple directions are reversed, showing the upflow direction of the incoming tsunami surge. Such linguoid climbing ripple sets have often been mistaken for storm-wave induced hummocky cross-bedding (HCS), leading to storm-deposit hypotheses. The final phase of settling out of the tsunami surges, may be re-suspension due to impact-triggered storms in the Gulf, is represented by continuously graded, very fine-grained sand to silt deposit. This is initially a hard 10 cm thick silty lime-mudstone layer with plant debris, grading into drab

  10. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A.; Mor, Sunil K.; Sobhy, Nader M.; Xing, Zheng; Reed, Kent M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Porter, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV) were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O’Neil strain). Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi). Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1–2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ) at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV. PMID:26659460

  11. Biosynthesis of fatty acid derived aldehydes is induced upon mechanical wounding and its products show fungicidal activities in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kenji; Minami, Akari; Hornung, Ellen; Shibata, Hidetoshi; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Ahnert, Volker; Kindl, Helmut; Kajiwara, Tadahiko; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-HPL) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form C9- or C6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. In order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-HPL, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-HPL expression was developmentally regulated and high in the hypocotyls, female flowers and mature fruits. However, its transcript as well as its activity was only induced by mechanical wounding in mature leaves. To analyze the biosynthesis of HPL-derived aldehydes in more detail we isolated and characterized the yet missing 9-lipoxygenase (LOX) that is mainly expressed in hypocotyls, cotyledons and flowers and that may provide HPL with fatty acid 9-hydroperoxides as substrates. As in the case with C6-aldehydes in most plant species, C9-aldehydes were also formed rapidly after disruption of the tissues. C9-aldehydes had fungicidal activities against fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum. Because the concentration needed to cause toxic effect on the pathogens was almost equivalent to that found in disrupted tissues, the C9-aldehydes thus formed could be helpful to sterilize the wounds since they are less volatile in comparison to C6-aldehydes. PMID:16497344

  12. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  13. Hexylether derivative of pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) on conjugating with 3gadolinium(III) aminobenzyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid shows potential for in vivo tumor imaging (MR, Fluorescence) and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Spernyak, Joseph A; White, William H; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Patel, Nayan J; Goswami, Lalit; Chen, Yihui; Turowski, Steven; Missert, Joseph R; Batt, Carrie; Mazurchuk, Richard; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2010-05-19

    Conjugates of 3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)-3-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) with multiple Gd(III)aminobenzyl diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid (ADTPA) moieties were evaluated for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). In vivo studies performed in both mice and rat tumor models resulted in a significant MR signal enhancement of tumors relative to surrounding tissues at 24 h postinjection. The water-soluble (pH: 7.4) HPPH-3Gd(III) ADTPA conjugate demonstrated high potential for tumor imaging by MR and fluorescence. This agent also produced long-term tumor cures via PDT. An in vivo biodistribution study with the corresponding (14)C-analogue also showed significant tumor uptake 24 h postinjection. Toxicological evaluations of HPHH-3Gd(III)ADTPA administered at and above imaging/therapeutic doses did not show any evidence of organ toxicity. Our present study illustrates a novel approach for the development of water-soluble "multifunctional agents", demonstrating efficacy for tumor imaging (MR and fluorescence) and phototherapy.

  14. Significance of pH on the Cytotoxic Potential of the Water Disinfection By-Product Iodoacetic Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significance of pH on the Cytotoxic Potential of the Water Disinfection By-Product Iodoacetic Acid Vicki Richardson1, Susan D. Richardson2, Mary Moyer3, Jane Ellen Simmons1, and Anthony DeAngelo1, 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2University of...

  15. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-08-30

    We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60-3.03 and 0.17-1.68ngkg(-1)bwd(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150ngkg(-1)bwd(-1); PFOA: 1500ngkg(-1)bwd(-1)). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water).

  16. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  17. Listeria monocytogenes grown at 7° C shows reduced acid survival and an altered transcriptional response to acid shock compared to L. monocytogenes grown at 37° C.

    PubMed

    Ivy, R A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-06-01

    Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in acidic environments (e.g., in the human stomach) is vital to its transmission. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods have been sources of listeriosis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth at a low temperature (i.e., 7°C) affects L. monocytogenes survival or gene transcription after exposure to a simulated gastric environment (i.e., acid shock at 37°C). L. monocytogenes cells grown at 7°C were less resistant to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) or acidified brain heart infusion broth (ABHI) than bacteria grown at higher temperatures (i.e., 30°C or 37°C). For L. monocytogenes grown at 7°C, stationary-phase cells were more resistant to ABHI than log-phase cells, indicating that both temperature and growth phase affect acid survival. Microarray transcriptomic analysis revealed that the number and functional categories of genes differentially expressed after acid shock differed according to both growth temperature and growth phase. The acid response of L. monocytogenes grown to log phase at 37°C involved stress-related transcriptional regulators (i.e., σ(B), σ(H), CtsR, and HrcA), some of which have been implicated in adaptation to the intracellular environment. In contrast, for bacteria grown at 7°C to stationary phase, acid exposure did not result in differential expression of the stress regulons examined. However, two large operons encoding bacteriophage-like proteins were induced, suggesting lysogenic prophage induction. The adaptive transcriptional response observed in 37°C-grown cells was largely absent in 7°C-grown cells, suggesting that temperatures commonly encountered during food storage and distribution affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive gastric passage and ultimately cause disease.

  18. System A amino acid transporter SNAT2 shows subtype-specific affinity for betaine and hyperosmotic inducibility in placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Yagi, Risa; Usuda, Mariko; Oda, Kenji; Yamazaki, Mai; Suda, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yu; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Sai, Yoshimichi; Higuchi, Kei; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Tomi, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Emi

    2014-05-01

    Betaine uptake is induced by hypertonic stress in a placental trophoblast cell line, and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that mediates hypertonicity-induced betaine uptake. Measurement of [(14)C]betaine uptake by HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human or rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs), SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 revealed that only human and rat SNAT2 have betaine uptake activity. The Michaelis constants (Km) of betaine uptake by human and rat SNAT2 were estimated to be 5.3 mM and 4.6 mM, respectively. Betaine exclusively inhibited the uptake activity of SNAT2 among the rat system A subtypes. We found that rat SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 were expressed at the mRNA level under isotonic conditions, while expression of SNAT2 and SNAT4 was induced by hypertonicity in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells. Western blot analyses revealed that SNAT2 expression on plasma membrane of TR-TBT 18d-1 cells was more potently induced by hypertonicity than that in total cell lysate. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the induction of SNAT2 expression in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells exposed to hypertonic conditions and indicated that SNAT2 was localized on the plasma membrane in these cells. Our results indicate that SNAT2 transports betaine, and that tonicity-sensitive SNAT2 expression may be involved in regulation of betaine concentration in placental trophoblasts. PMID:24434061

  19. System A amino acid transporter SNAT2 shows subtype-specific affinity for betaine and hyperosmotic inducibility in placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Yagi, Risa; Usuda, Mariko; Oda, Kenji; Yamazaki, Mai; Suda, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yu; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Sai, Yoshimichi; Higuchi, Kei; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Tomi, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Emi

    2014-05-01

    Betaine uptake is induced by hypertonic stress in a placental trophoblast cell line, and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that mediates hypertonicity-induced betaine uptake. Measurement of [(14)C]betaine uptake by HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human or rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs), SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 revealed that only human and rat SNAT2 have betaine uptake activity. The Michaelis constants (Km) of betaine uptake by human and rat SNAT2 were estimated to be 5.3 mM and 4.6 mM, respectively. Betaine exclusively inhibited the uptake activity of SNAT2 among the rat system A subtypes. We found that rat SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 were expressed at the mRNA level under isotonic conditions, while expression of SNAT2 and SNAT4 was induced by hypertonicity in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells. Western blot analyses revealed that SNAT2 expression on plasma membrane of TR-TBT 18d-1 cells was more potently induced by hypertonicity than that in total cell lysate. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the induction of SNAT2 expression in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells exposed to hypertonic conditions and indicated that SNAT2 was localized on the plasma membrane in these cells. Our results indicate that SNAT2 transports betaine, and that tonicity-sensitive SNAT2 expression may be involved in regulation of betaine concentration in placental trophoblasts.

  20. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  1. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Crown, Scott B; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA.

  2. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Crown, Scott B; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA. PMID:26710334

  3. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Scott B.; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA. PMID:26710334

  4. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated. PMID:24410166

  5. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  6. Selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blockade benefits fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism significantly in weight-stable nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Vidya; Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Higgins, Paul B.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Kamath, Subhash; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Piomelli, Daniele; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether administration of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant would alter fatty acid flux in nonhuman primates. Five adult baboons (Papio Sp) aged 12.1 ± 4.7 yr (body weight: 31.9 ± 2.1 kg) underwent repeated metabolic tests to determine fatty acid and TG flux before and after 7 wk of treatment with rimonabant (15 mg/day). Animals were fed ad libitum diets, and stable isotopes were administered via diet (d31-tripalmitin) and intravenously (13C4-palmitate, 13C1-acetate). Plasma was collected in the fed and fasted states, and blood lipids were analyzed by GC-MS. DEXA was used to assess body composition and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp used to assess insulin-mediated glucose disposal. During the study, no changes were observed in food intake, body weight, plasma, and tissue endocannabinoid concentrations or the quantity of liver-TG fatty acids originating from de novo lipogenesis (19 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 5%, for pre- and posttreatment, respectively, P = 0.39). However, waist circumference was significantly reduced 4% in the treated animals (P < 0.04), glucose disposal increased 30% (P = 0.03), and FFA turnover increased 37% (P = 0.02). The faster FFA flux was consistent with a 43% reduction in these fatty acids used for TRL-TG synthesis (40 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 4%, P = 0.02) and a twofold increase in TRL-TG turnover (1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4 μmol·kg−1·h−1, P = 0.03). These data support the potential for a strong effect of CB1 receptor antagonism at the level of adipose tissue, resulting in improvements in fasting turnover of fatty acids at the whole body level, central adipose storage, and significant improvements in glucose homeostasis. PMID:22761159

  7. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  8. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  9. Elicidation by a H-2-receptor antagonist of the significance of mucosal histamine mobilization in exciting acid secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Lundell, L

    1975-01-01

    1. The consequence of H-2-receptor blockade for the secretory responses of the gastric mucosa to hormonal or cholinergic stimulation was studied in conscious rats with Heindenhain pouches or Pavlov pouches with the antrum retained or resected. 2. Metiamide almost completely abolished acid secretion induced by pentagastrin without altering significantly the amount of histamine excreted in the urine. Histamine mobilization on pentagastrin infusion determined in vitro, seemed to be larger during H-2-receptor blockade than with pentagastrin alone. 3. CCK-PZ mobilized mucosal histamine to a considerable extent; the secretory response to this hormone was completely abolished by H-2-receptor blockade. 4. Acid secretion in response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose was inhibited by H-2-receptor blockade in the presence or absence of the antrum; however the inhibition was less complete than with hormone-induced secretion. 5. The acid secretory response to 100 mg/kg of 2-deoxy-D-glucose appeared to be less susceptible to H-2-receptor blockade than that of 50-mg/kg of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. 6. Feeding induced a secretory response in the Pavlov pouch which initially was more effectively inhibited by H-2-receptor blockade than the response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose. In the absence of antral gastrin secretion by either stimulus was equally inhibited. 7. Methacholine-induced acid secretion was inhibited by infusion of the H-2-receptor antagonist, an inhibition that was absent when pentagastrin was concomitantly infused. 8. Although acid secretion induced by cholinergic stimuli was readily inhibited by the H-2-receptor antagonist, slight or nor inhibition was noted on pepsin secretion. 9. The role of histamine as a physiological stimulus for the parietal cell is discussed in view of the fact that the secretory effect of natural stimuli, known or demonstrated to mobilize mucosal histamine, is restrained by H-2-receptor blockade. PMID:49418

  10. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  11. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production.

  12. Clinical significance of elevated serum A-FABP and free fatty acid in neonates with hypoxic ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Jiang, Lian; Zhang, Huifen; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lianshan

    2016-01-01

    The main function of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is to regulate fatty acid metabolism as its molecular chaperone. The clinical significance of A-FABP in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) neonates is not yet clear. Free fatty acid (FFA) in cerebral cortex increases along with hypoxia ischemia degree. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether FFA can induce A-FABP expression and elevate the serum A-FABP level in HIBD neonates. In the present study, 42 HIBD neonates were selected including 11 cases as mild, 16 cases as moderate and 15 cases as severe. The serum was collected from peripheral vein at 72 h after the first visit (acute stage) and 7 days after birth (recovery stage), and the serum from 10 normal neonates was used as the control. The serum level of A-FABP and FFA in 42 neonates with acute phase and recovery phase HIBD were detected using ELISA and copper colorimetric method. The overall serum A-FABP content in HIBD neonates at the acute stage was significantly higher compared to the normal neonates (P<0.05). The serum A-FABP level in severe HIBD neonates was significantly higher than that in mild HIBD, moderate HIBD and normal neonates (P<0.05). The serum FFA level in HIBD neonates at the acute stage was 1,521.57±605.63 µmol/l, which was significantly higher than that in the normal neonates 838.24±294.22 µmol/l. The serum FFA levels in mild, moderate and severe HIBD neonates were significantly higher than those in the normal neonates. The overall A-FABP level in HIBD neonates at the recovery stage was significantly lower compared to the acute stage, which was significant in severe HIBD neonates. A-FABP levels in mild and moderate HIBD neonates at recovery stage were decreased compared with the acute stage, although there was no statistical difference. There was a positive correlation between serum A-FABP and FFA in HIBD neonates at acute stage (r=0.369, P<0.05). In conclusion, serum A-FABP and FFA levels were signifcantly increased in

  13. Controlling for sugar and ascorbic acid, a mixture of flavonoids matching navel oranges significantly increases human postprandial serum antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Reber, Josh D; Freeman, Brenner L; Orgad, Kfir; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2011-07-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease development. The postprandial state is an important contributor to chronic disease development. Orange flavonoids may reduce postprandial oxidation. It was hypothesized that a mixture of orange flavonoids would reduce postprandial oxidation better than a single orange flavonoid or orange sugar and ascorbic acid, but not as well as orange juice, when consumed with a typical breakfast. A placebo-controlled crossover trial (16 male and female participants, 4 treatments, 4 visits) was carried out. Treatments were placebo (ascorbic acid and sugar equivalent to orange juice); placebo plus hesperidin; placebo plus hesperidin, luteolin, and naringenin (mixture; found to have synergistic antioxidant properties in vitro in previous work); and orange juice (positive control). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total plasma phenolics (TP), and serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) were measured after a 12-hour baseline fast and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after sample consumption. The placebo plus mixture and orange juice groups were significantly increased in ORAC and LO lag time. Data for TP were inconsistent with ORAC and LO. Contrary to previous studies attributing the protective postprandial effect to fructose and ascorbate in other fruit trials, orange phenolic compounds contribute directly to the postprandial oxidative protection of serum, despite an inconsistent change in serum TP.

  14. Serum Sialic Acid Level Is Significantly Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Nonobese Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenya; Ma, Han; Xu, Chengfu; Shao, Zhou; Cen, Chao; Li, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. To investigate the association between serum sialic acid (SA) levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nonobese Chinese population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed among the 5916 adults who took their annual health examinations at International Health Care Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from December 2013 to November 2014. Results. A total of 693 (11.71%) subjects fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NAFLD, and NAFLD patients had significantly higher serum SA levels than controls (P < 0.001). The prevalence of NAFLD was positively associated with serum SA levels (P for trend <0.001). Serum sialic acid levels are significantly associated with features of metabolic syndrome (Ps < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum SA level was significantly associated with risk for NAFLD (odds ratio: 1.018, 95%; confidence interval: 1.007–1.030; P = 0.002). Conclusions. Our results suggest for the first time that NAFLD patients had higher serum SA level than controls, and increased serum SA level is significantly associated with risk for NAFLD in a large nonobese Chinese population. PMID:27042666

  15. Incorporating significant amino acid pairs and protein domains to predict RNA splicing-related proteins with functional roles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Tzu-Ya; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Machinery of pre-mRNA splicing is carried out through the interaction of RNA sequence elements and a variety of RNA splicing-related proteins (SRPs) (e.g. spliceosome and splicing factors). Alternative splicing, which is an important post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, gives rise to multiple mature mRNA isoforms, which encodes proteins with functional diversities. However, the regulation of RNA splicing is not yet fully elucidated, partly because SRPs have not yet been exhaustively identified and the experimental identification is labor-intensive. Therefore, we are motivated to design a new method for identifying SRPs with their functional roles in the regulation of RNA splicing. The experimentally verified SRPs were manually curated from research articles. According to the functional annotation of Splicing Related Gene Database, the collected SRPs were further categorized into four functional groups including small nuclear Ribonucleoprotein, Splicing Factor, Splicing Regulation Factor and Novel Spliceosome Protein. The composition of amino acid pairs indicates that there are remarkable differences among four functional groups of SRPs. Then, support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized to learn the predictive models for identifying SRPs as well as their functional roles. The cross-validation evaluation presents that the SVM models trained with significant amino acid pairs and functional domains could provide a better predictive performance. In addition, the independent testing demonstrates that the proposed method could accurately identify SRPs in mammals/plants as well as effectively distinguish between SRPs and RNA-binding proteins. This investigation provides a practical means to identifying potential SRPs and a perspective for exploring the regulation of RNA splicing.

  16. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  17. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  18. Haplotypes of the D-Amino Acid Oxidase Gene Are Significantly Associated with Schizophrenia and Its Neurocognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Fann, Cathy Shen-Jang; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Yang, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Pei-Chun; Chang, Chien-Ching; Wen, Chun-Chiang; Tsai-Wu, Jyy-Jih; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Hsieh, Ming H.; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chien, Yi-Ling; Fang, Chiu-Ping; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Chen, Wei J.; Liu, Chih-Min

    2016-01-01

    D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) has been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. This study aimed to search for genetic variants associated with this gene. The genomic regions of all exons, highly conserved regions of introns, and promoters of this gene were sequenced. Potentially meaningful single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from direct sequencing were selected for genotyping in 600 controls and 912 patients with schizophrenia and in a replicated sample consisting of 388 patients with schizophrenia. Genetic associations were examined using single-locus and haplotype association analyses. In single-locus analyses, the frequency of the C allele of a novel SNP rs55944529 located at intron 8 was found to be significantly higher in the original large patient sample (p = 0.016). This allele was associated with a higher level of DAO mRNA expression in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes. The haplotype distribution of a haplotype block composed of rs11114083-rs2070586-rs2070587-rs55944529 across intron 1 and intron 8 was significantly different between the patients and controls and the haplotype frequencies of AAGC were significantly higher in patients, in both the original (corrected p < 0.0001) and replicated samples (corrected p = 0.0003). The CGTC haplotype was specifically associated with the subgroup with deficits in sustained attention and executive function and the AAGC haplotype was associated with the subgroup without such deficits. The DAO gene was a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and the genomic region between intron 1 and intron 8 may harbor functional genetic variants, which may influence the mRNA expression of DAO and neurocognitive functions in schizophrenia. PMID:26986737

  19. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  20. Helix-forming tendencies of amino acids depend on their sequence contexts: tripeptides AFG and FAG show incipient beta-bulge formation in their crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Go, K; Chaturvedi, S

    1993-01-01

    Many of the theoretical methods used for predicting the occurrence of alpha-helices in peptides are based on the helical preferences of amino acid monomer residues. In order to check whether the helix-forming tendencies are based on helical preferences of monomers only or also on their sequence contexts, we synthesized permuted sequences of the tripeptides GAF, GAV, and GAL that formed crystalline helices with near alpha-helical conformation. The tripeptides AFG and FAG formed good crystals. The x-ray crystallographic studies of AFG and FAG showed that though they contain the same amino acids as GAF but in different sequences, they do not assume a helical conformation in the solid state. On the other hand, AFG and FAG, which contain the same amino acids but in a different sequence, exhibit nearly the same backbone torsion angles corresponding to an incipient formation of a beta-bulge, and exhibit nearly identical unit cells and crystal structures. Based on these results, it appears that the helix-forming tendencies of amino acids depend on the sequence context in which it occurs in a polypeptide. The synthetic peptides AFG (L-Ala-L-Phe-Gly) and FAG (L-Phe-L-Ala-Gly), C14H19N3O4, crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 5.232(1), b = 14.622(2), c = 19.157(3) A, Dx = 1.329 g cm-3, Z = 4, R = 0.041 for 549 reflections for AFG, and with a = 5.488(2), b = 14.189(1), c = 18.562(1) A, Dx = 1.348 g cm-3, Z = 4, R = 0.038 for 919 reflections for FAG. Unlike the other tripeptides GAF, GGV, GAL, and GAI, the crystals of AFG and FAG do not contain water molecule, and the molecules of AFG aor FAG do not show the helical conformation. The torsion angles at the backbone of the peptide are psi 1 = 144.5(5) degrees; phi 2, psi 2 = -98.1(6) degrees, -65.2(6) degrees; phi 3, psi 13, psi 31 = 154.1(6) degrees, -173.6(6) degrees, 6.9(8) degrees for AFG; and psi 1 = 162.6(3) degrees; phi 2, psi 2 = -96.7(4) degrees, -46.3(4) degrees; phi 3, psi 13, psi 31

  1. Cinnamic-derived acids significantly affect Fusarium graminearum growth and in vitro synthesis of type B trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Ponts, Nadia; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The impact of five phenolic acids (ferulic, coumaric, caffeic, syringic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) on fungal growth and type B trichothecene production by four strains of Fusarium graminearum was investigated. All five phenolic acids inhibited growth but the degree of inhibition varied between strains. Our results suggested that the more lipophilic phenolic acids are, the higher is the effect they have on growth. Toxin accumulation in phenolic acid-supplemented liquid glucose, yeast extract, and peptone cultures was enhanced in the presence of ferulic and coumaric acids but was reduced in the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. This modulation was shown to correlate with a regulation of TRI5 transcription. In this study, addition of phenolic acids with greater antioxidant properties resulted in a higher toxin accumulation, indicating that the modulation of toxin accumulation may be linked to the antioxidant properties of the phenolic acids. These data suggest that, in planta, different compositions in phenolic acids of kernels from various cultivars may reflect different degrees of sensitivity to "mycotoxinogenesis."

  2. An evaluation of the significance of mouth and hand contamination for lead absorption in lead-acid battery workers.

    PubMed

    Far, H S; Pin, N T; Kong, C Y; Fong, K S; Kian, C W; Yan, C K

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of ingestion through hand and mouth contamination in the absorption of lead in 25 lead-acid battery workers. Levels of personal exposure to airborne lead ranged from 0.004 to 2.58 mg/m3 [geometric mean 0.098, with 25% of samples exceeding threshold limit values (ACGIH) of 0.15 mg/m3]; the mean (SD) blood lead level was 48.9 (10.8) micrograms/dl. Mean hand lead contents increased 33-fold from preshift levels on Monday mornings (33.5 micrograms/500 ml) to midshift levels on Thursday afternoons (1121 micrograms/500 ml). Mouth lead contents increased 16-fold from 0.021 micrograms/50 ml on Mondays to 0.345 micrograms/50 ml on Thursdays. The typical Malay racial habit of feeding with bare hands and fingers without utensils (closely associated with mouth and hand lead levels on Mondays) explained the bulk of the variance in blood lead levels (40%), with mouth lead on Thursdays (closely associated with poor personal hygiene) explaining a further 10%. Air lead was not a significant explanatory variable. The implementation of a programme of reinforcing hand-washing and mouth-rinsing practices resulted in a reduction of the blood lead level by 11.5% 6 months later. These results indicate that parenteral intake from hand and mouth contamination is an important cause of lead absorption in lead-exposed workers.

  3. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes.

  4. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  5. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  6. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupin, M.; Michiels, P. J.; Girard, F. C.; Spraul, M.; Wijmenga, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  7. [THE DETECTION OF CONTENT OF DIAGNOSTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FATTY ACIDS AND INDIVIDUAL TRIGLYCERIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MEDIUMS BASED ON INFRARED SPECTROMETRY].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, A V; Krasheninnikov, V N; Sviridov, A P; Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The content of clinically important fatty acids and individual triglycerides in food and biological mediums are traditionally detected by gas and fluid chromatography in various methodical modifications. The techniques are hard-to-get in laboratories of clinical biochemistry. The study was carried out to develop procedures and equipment for operative quantitative detection of concentration of fatty acids, primarily palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic mono unsaturated fatty acid. Also detection was applied to sums ofpolyenoic (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acids in biological mediums (cod-liver oil, tissues, blood plasma) using spectrometers of short-range infrared band of different types: with Fourier transform, diffraction and combined scattering. The evidences of reliable and reproducible quantitative detection offatty acids were received on the basis of technique of calibration (regression) by projection on latent structures using standard samples of mixtures of oils and fats. The evaluation is implemented concerning possibility of separate detection of content of palmitic and oleic triglycerides in mediums with presence of water The choice of technical conditions and mode of application of certain types of infrared spectrometers and techniques of their calibration is substantiated PMID:26999859

  8. Incorporating significant amino acid pairs to identify O-linked glycosylation sites on transmembrane proteins and non-transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While occurring enzymatically in biological systems, O-linked glycosylation affects protein folding, localization and trafficking, protein solubility, antigenicity, biological activity, as well as cell-cell interactions on membrane proteins. Catalytic enzymes involve glycotransferases, sugar-transferring enzymes and glycosidases which trim specific monosaccharides from precursors to form intermediate structures. Due to the difficulty of experimental identification, several works have used computational methods to identify glycosylation sites. Results By investigating glycosylated sites that contain various motifs between Transmembrane (TM) and non-Transmembrane (non-TM) proteins, this work presents a novel method, GlycoRBF, that implements radial basis function (RBF) networks with significant amino acid pairs (SAAPs) for identifying O-linked glycosylated serine and threonine on TM proteins and non-TM proteins. Additionally, a membrane topology is considered for reducing the false positives on glycosylated TM proteins. Based on an evaluation using five-fold cross-validation, the consideration of a membrane topology can reduce 31.4% of the false positives when identifying O-linked glycosylation sites on TM proteins. Via an independent test, GlycoRBF outperforms previous O-linked glycosylation site prediction schemes. Conclusion A case study of Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha was presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of GlycoRBF. Web-based GlycoRBF, which can be accessed at http://GlycoRBF.bioinfo.tw, can identify O-linked glycosylated serine and threonine effectively and efficiently. Moreover, the structural topology of Transmembrane (TM) proteins with glycosylation sites is provided to users. The stand-alone version of GlycoRBF is also available for high throughput data analysis. PMID:21034461

  9. Kranz and single-cell forms of C4 plants in the subfamily Suaedoideae show kinetic C4 convergence for PEPC and Rubisco with divergent amino acid substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Rosnow, Josh J.; Evans, Marc A.; Kapralov, Maxim V.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Roalson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    The two carboxylation reactions performed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) are vital in the fixation of inorganic carbon for C4 plants. The abundance of PEPC is substantially elevated in C4 leaves, while the location of Rubisco is restricted to one of two chloroplast types. These differences compared with C3 leaves have been shown to result in convergent enzyme optimization in some C4 species. Investigation into the kinetic properties of PEPC and Rubisco from Kranz C4, single cell C4, and C3 species in Chenopodiaceae s. s. subfamily Suaedoideae showed that these major carboxylases in C4 Suaedoideae species lack the same mutations found in other C4 systems which have been examined; but still have similar convergent kinetic properties. Positive selection analysis on the N-terminus of PEPC identified residues 364 and 368 to be under positive selection with a posterior probability >0.99 using Bayes empirical Bayes. Compared with previous analyses on other C4 species, PEPC from C4 Suaedoideae species have different convergent amino acids that result in a higher K m for PEP and malate tolerance compared with C3 species. Kinetic analysis of Rubisco showed that C4 species have a higher catalytic efficiency of Rubisco (k catc in mol CO2 mol–1 Rubisco active sites s–1), despite lacking convergent substitutions in the rbcL gene. The importance of kinetic changes to the two-carboxylation reactions in C4 leaves related to amino acid selection is discussed. PMID:26417023

  10. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 Null Mutant Shows Increased Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid, Salt, and Osmotic Stress in Germination and Post-germination Stages

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Ortega-Amaro, Maria A.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid (ABA). The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher ABA sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signaling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26941772

  11. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 Null Mutant Shows Increased Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid, Salt, and Osmotic Stress in Germination and Post-germination Stages.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A; Ortega-Amaro, Maria A; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid (ABA). The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher ABA sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signaling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26941772

  12. Avian serum. cap alpha. /sub 1/-glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and carbohydrate composition from mammalian (. beta. -glycoprotein) counter parts

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Trimble, R.B.; Falco, M.D.; Liem, H.H.; Metcalfe, S.A.; Wellner, D.; Muller-Eberhard, U.

    1986-10-21

    The physicochemical characteristics of chicken hemopexin, which can be isolated by heme-agarose affinity chromatography, is compared with representative mammalian hemopexins of rat, rabbit, and human. The avian polypeptide chain appears to be slightly longer (52 kDa) than the human, rat, or rabbit forms (49 kDa), and also the glycoprotein differs from the mammalian hemopexins in being an ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoprotein instead of a ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein. The distinct electrophoretic mobility probably arises from significant differences in the amino acid composition of the chicken form, which, although lower in serine and particularly in lysine, has a much higher glutamine/glutamate and agrinine content, and also a higher proline, glycine, and histidine content, than the mammalian hemopexins. Compositional analyses and /sup 125/I concanavalin A and /sup 125/I wheat germ agglutinin binding suggest that chicken hemopexin has a mixture of three fucose-free N-linked bi- and triantennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, human hemopexin has give N-linked oligosaccharides and an additional O-linked glycan blocking the N-terminal threonine residue, while the rabbit form has four N-linked oligosaccharides. In keeping with the finding of a simpler carbohydrate structure, the avian hemopexin shows only a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both nondenaturing and denaturing conditions, whereas the hemopexins of the three mammalian species tested show several bands. In contrast, the isoelectric focusing pattern of chicken hemopexin is very complex, revealing at least nine bands between pH 4.0 and pH band 5.0, while the other hemopexins show a broad smear of multiple ill-defined bands in the same region.Results indicate the hemopexin of avians differs substantially from the hemopexins of mammals, which show a notable similarity with regard to carbohydrate structure and amino acid composition.

  13. An industry perspective on the use of “atoxigenic” strains of Aspergillus flavus as biological control agents and the significance of cyclopiazonic acid

    PubMed Central

    King, Eileen D; (Bobby) Bassi, Albeit B; Ross, David C; Druebbisch, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Several nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have been registered in the United States to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize and other crops, but there may be unintended negative consequences if these strains produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). AF36, a nonaflatoxigenic, CPA-producing strain has been shown to produce CPA in treated maize and peanuts. Alternative strains, including Afla-Guard® brand biocontrol agent and K49, do not produce CPA and can reduce both aflatoxin and CPA in treated crops. Chronic toxicity of CPA has not been studied, and recent animal studies show significant harmful effects from short-term exposure to CPA at low doses. Grower and industry confidence in this approach must be preserved through transparency. PMID:22844262

  14. Next-generation bis-locked nucleic acids with stacking linker and 2′-glycylamino-LNA show enhanced DNA invasion into supercoiled duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Geny, Sylvain; Moreno, Pedro M. D.; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; Gissberg, Olof; Andersen, Nicolai K.; Isse, Abdirisaq J.; El-Madani, Amro M.; Lou, Chenguang; Pabon, Y. Vladimir; Anderson, Brooke A.; Zaghloul, Eman M.; Zain, Rula; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.; Jørgensen, Per T.; Nilsson, Mats; Lundin, Karin E.; Pedersen, Erik B.; Wengel, Jesper; Smith, C. I. Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Targeting and invading double-stranded DNA with synthetic oligonucleotides under physiological conditions remain a challenge. Bis-locked nucleic acids (bisLNAs) are clamp-forming oligonucleotides able to invade into supercoiled DNA via combined Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick binding. To improve the bisLNA design, we investigated its mechanism of binding. Our results suggest that bisLNAs bind via Hoogsteen-arm first, followed by Watson–Crick arm invasion, initiated at the tail. Based on this proposed hybridization mechanism, we designed next-generation bisLNAs with a novel linker able to stack to adjacent nucleobases, a new strategy previously not applied for any type of clamp-constructs. Although the Hoogsteen-arm limits the invasion, upon incorporation of the stacking linker, bisLNA invasion is significantly more efficient than for non-clamp, or nucleotide-linker containing LNA-constructs. Further improvements were obtained by substituting LNA with 2′-glycylamino-LNA, contributing a positive charge. For regular bisLNAs a 14-nt tail significantly enhances invasion. However, when two stacking linkers were incorporated, tail-less bisLNAs were able to efficiently invade. Finally, successful targeting of plasmids inside bacteria clearly demonstrates that strand invasion can take place in a biologically relevant context. PMID:26857548

  15. Next-generation bis-locked nucleic acids with stacking linker and 2'-glycylamino-LNA show enhanced DNA invasion into supercoiled duplexes.

    PubMed

    Geny, Sylvain; Moreno, Pedro M D; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; Gissberg, Olof; Andersen, Nicolai K; Isse, Abdirisaq J; El-Madani, Amro M; Lou, Chenguang; Pabon, Y Vladimir; Anderson, Brooke A; Zaghloul, Eman M; Zain, Rula; Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Jørgensen, Per T; Nilsson, Mats; Lundin, Karin E; Pedersen, Erik B; Wengel, Jesper; Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-03-18

    Targeting and invading double-stranded DNA with synthetic oligonucleotides under physiological conditions remain a challenge. Bis-locked nucleic acids (bisLNAs) are clamp-forming oligonucleotides able to invade into supercoiled DNA via combined Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick binding. To improve the bisLNA design, we investigated its mechanism of binding. Our results suggest that bisLNAs bind via Hoogsteen-arm first, followed by Watson-Crick arm invasion, initiated at the tail. Based on this proposed hybridization mechanism, we designed next-generation bisLNAs with a novel linker able to stack to adjacent nucleobases, a new strategy previously not applied for any type of clamp-constructs. Although the Hoogsteen-arm limits the invasion, upon incorporation of the stacking linker, bisLNA invasion is significantly more efficient than for non-clamp, or nucleotide-linker containing LNA-constructs. Further improvements were obtained by substituting LNA with 2'-glycylamino-LNA, contributing a positive charge. For regular bisLNAs a 14-nt tail significantly enhances invasion. However, when two stacking linkers were incorporated, tail-less bisLNAs were able to efficiently invade. Finally, successful targeting of plasmids inside bacteria clearly demonstrates that strand invasion can take place in a biologically relevant context. PMID:26857548

  16. Dual Fatty Acid Synthase and HER2 Signaling Blockade Shows Marked Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Models Resistant to Anti-HER2 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies. PMID:26107737

  17. Dual fatty acid synthase and HER2 signaling blockade shows marked antitumor activity against breast cancer models resistant to anti-HER2 drugs.

    PubMed

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies.

  18. Children who develop type 1 diabetes early in life show low levels of carnitine and amino acids at birth: does this finding shed light on the etiopathogenesis of the disease?

    PubMed Central

    la Marca, G; Malvagia, S; Toni, S; Piccini, B; Di Ciommo, V; Bottazzo, G F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with overt type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been found to show an altered carnitine profile. This pattern has not previously been analyzed in neonates before onset of the disease. Materials and methods: Fifty children who developed T1D during the first 6 years of life, born and living in the Tuscany and Umbria Regions of Italy, were identified and 200 controls were recruited into the study. All newborns were subjected to extended neonatal screening by mass spectrometry at 48–72 h of life. Four controls for each of the 50 index cases were taken randomly and blinded in the same analytical batch. The panel used for neonatal screening consists of 13 amino acids, free carnitine, 33 acyl-carnitines and 21 ratios. All Guthrie cards are analyzed within 2 days of collection. Results: Total and free carnitine were found to be significantly lower in neonates who later developed T1D compared with controls. Moreover, the concentrations of the acyl-carnitines – acetyl-L-carnitine (C2), proprionylcarnitine (C3), 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH), miristoylcarnitine (C4), palmitoylcarnitine (C16) and stearoylcarnitine (C18) – were also significantly low in the cases vs controls. Furthermore, total amino-acid concentrations, expressed as the algebraic sum of all amino acids tested, showed a trend toward lower levels in cases vs controls. Conclusions: We found that carnitine and amino-acid deficit may be evident before the clinical appearance of T1D, possibly from birth. The evaluation of these metabolites in the neonatal period of children human leukocyte antigen genetically at ‘risk' to develop T1D, could represent an additional tool for the prediction of T1D and could also offer the possibility to design new strategies for the primary prevention of the disease from birth. PMID:24166423

  19. Clinical significance of CD56 expression in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Pau; Rayón, Chelo; Vellenga, Edo; Brunet, Salut; González, José; González, Marcos; Holowiecka, Aleksandra; Esteve, Jordi; Bergua, Juan; González, José D; Rivas, Concha; Tormo, Mar; Rubio, Vicente; Bueno, Javier; Manso, Félix; Milone, Gustavo; de la Serna, Javier; Pérez, Inmaculada; Pérez-Encinas, Manuel; Krsnik, Isabel; Ribera, Josep M; Escoda, Lourdes; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A

    2011-02-10

    The expression of CD56 antigen in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) blasts has been associated with short remission duration and extramedullary relapse. We investigated the clinical significance of CD56 expression in a large series of patients with APL treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. Between 1996 and 2009, 651 APL patients with available data on CD56 expression were included in 3 subsequent trials (PETHEMA LPA96 and LPA99 and PETHEMA/HOVON LPA2005). Seventy-two patients (11%) were CD56(+) (expression of CD56 in ≥ 20% leukemic promyelocytes). CD56(+) APL was significantly associated with high white blood cell counts; low albumin levels; BCR3 isoform; and the coexpression of CD2, CD34, CD7, HLA-DR, CD15, and CD117 antigens. For CD56(+) APL, the 5-year relapse rate was 22%, compared with a 10% relapse rate for CD56(-) APL (P = .006). In the multivariate analysis, CD56 expression retained the statistical significance together with the relapse-risk score. CD56(+) APL also showed a greater risk of extramedullary relapse (P < .001). In summary, CD56 expression is associated with the coexpression of immaturity-associated and T-cell antigens and is an independent adverse prognostic factor for relapse in patients with APL treated with all-trans-retinoic acid plus idarubicin-derived regimens. This marker may be considered for implementing risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in APL. The LPA2005 trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00408278.

  20. Significance of technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid scintigraphy in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS.

  1. Significance of Technetium-99m Human Serum Albumin Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Scintigraphy in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS. PMID:25859658

  2. [Significance of electron interactions of fatty acids of phospholipid molecules in the organism adaptation to habitation temperature].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Arakelova, E S; Shukoliukova, E P; Furaev, V V; Kalandarov, A M; Feĭzulaev, B A; Krivchenko, A I

    2009-01-01

    Data in the fatty acid composition of muscle tissue phospholipids of some representatives of gastropod molluscs (Gastropoda) have been presented for the first time. In the lake phytophagues Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata the long-chained C22-acid was not detected, whereas in the predator common whelk Buccinum undatum, C22:6omega3 was present. Comparison of absorption spectra (240-720 nm) of lipid extracts of the studied invertebrates and of rat has been performed. The obtained data are discussed from the point of view of participation of pi-electrons of phospholipid fatty acid molecules in adaptation of membranes to the habitation temperature, which arises owing to interelectron attraction and to the process of formation of Cooper's pairs.

  3. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China. PMID:27100421

  4. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B: A Retrospective Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China. PMID:27100421

  5. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B: A Retrospective Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China.

  6. Prognostic significance of amino-acid transporter expression (LAT1, ASCT2, and xCT) in surgically resected tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, M; Kaira, K; Ohshima, Y; Ishioka, N S; Shino, M; Sakakura, K; Takayasu, Y; Takahashi, K; Tominaga, H; Oriuchi, N; Nagamori, S; Kanai, Y; Oyama, T; Chikamatsu, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amino-acid transporters are necessary for the tumour cell growth and survival, and have a crucial role in the development and invasiveness of cancer cells. But, it remains unclear about the prognostic significance of L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1), system ASC amino-acid transporter-2 (ASCT2), and xCT expression in patients with tongue cancer. We conducted the clinicopathological study to investigate the protein expression of these amino-acid transporters in tongue cancer. Methods: Eighty-five patients with surgically resected tongue cancer were evaluated. Tumour sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for LAT1, ASCT2, xCT, 4F2hc/CD98hc (4F2hc), Ki-67, and microvessel density (MVD) determined by CD34, and p53. Results: L-type amino-acid transporter 1 and 4F2hc were highly expressed in 61% (52 out of 85) and 45% (38 out of 47), respectively. ASC amino-acid transporter-2 and xCT were positively expressed in 59% (50 out of 85) and 21% (18 out of 85), respectively. The expression of both LAT1 and ASCT2 was significantly associated with disease staging, lymph-node metastasis, lymphatic permeation, 4F2hc expression and cell proliferation (Ki-67). xCT expression indicated a significant association with advanced stage and tumour factor. By univariate analysis, disease staging, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, LAT1, ASCT2, 4F2hc, and Ki-67 had a significant relationship with overall survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed that LAT1 was an independent prognostic factor for predicting poor prognosis. Conclusions: L-type amino-acid transporter 1 and ASCT2 can serve as a significant prognostic factor for predicting worse outcome after surgical treatment and may have an important role in the development and aggressiveness of tongue cancer. PMID:24762957

  7. COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Poorani, R; Bhatt, Anant N; Dwarakanath, B S; Das, Undurti N

    2016-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions. PMID:26335394

  8. Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Jake L. Ford, Ian J.; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-01-14

    The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations.

  9. Engineered Expression Vectors Significantly Enhanced the Production of 2-Keto-D-gluconic Acid by Gluconobacter oxidans.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ke-fei; Lin, Jin-ping; Yang, Sheng-li; Wei, Dong-zhi

    2015-06-10

    2-Keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA), a precursor of the important food antioxidant erythorbic acid, can be produced by Gluconobacter oxidans. To genetically engineer G. oxidans for improved 2KGA production, six new expression vectors with increased copy numbers based on pBBR1MCS-5 were constructed via rational mutagenesis. The utility of the mutant vectors was demonstrated by the increased ga2dh mRNA abundance, enzyme activity, and 2KGA production when the ga2dh gene was overexpressed using these vectors. Among the obtained constructs, G. oxidans/pBBR-3510-ga2dh displayed the highest oxidative activity toward gluconic acid (GA). In a batch biotransformation process, the G. oxidans/pBBR-3510-ga2dh strain exhibited 2KGA productivity (0.63 g/g CWW/h) higher than that obtained using strain G. oxidans/pBBR-ga2dh (0.40 g/g CWW/h). When sufficient oxygen was supplied during the biotransformation, up to 480 g/L GA was exhausted in 45 h by the G. oxidans/pBBR-3510-ga2dh strain and approximately 486 g/L 2KGA was produced, generating the productivity of 0.54 g/g CWW/h.

  10. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  11. Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jake L; Kathmann, Shawn M; Ford, Ian J

    2014-01-14

    The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations.

  12. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls.

  13. Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs): chemical structure, biosynthesis and significance as UV-absorbing/screening compounds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Kumari, Sunita; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Singh, Kanchan L; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2008-01-01

    Continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has resulted in an increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation on the earth's surface which inhibits photochemical and photobiological processes. However, certain photosynthetic organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract the toxicity of ultraviolet or high photosynthetically active radiation by synthesizing the UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin besides the repair of UV-induced damage of DNA and accumulation of carotenoids and detoxifying enzymes or radical quenchers and antioxidants. Chemical structure of various MAAs, their possible biochemical routes of synthesis and role as photoprotective compounds in various organisms are discussed.

  14. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  15. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  16. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE. PMID:26558466

  17. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5.

    PubMed

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian; Ruoff, Peter; Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation.

  18. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5

    PubMed Central

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian; Ruoff, Peter; Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation. PMID:23050242

  19. Two Proteins with Ornithine Acetyltransferase Activity Show Different Functions in Streptomyces clavuligerus: Oat2 Modulates Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis in Response to Arginine

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, A.; Martín, J. F.; Rodríguez-García, A.; Liras, P.

    2004-01-01

    The oat2 gene, located in the clavulanic acid gene cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus, is similar to argJ, which encodes N-acetylornithine:glutamic acid acetyltransferase activity. Purified proteins obtained by expression in Escherichia coli of the argJ and oat2 genes of S. clavuligerus posses N-acetyltransferase activity. The kinetics and substrate specificities of both proteins are very similar. Deletion of the oat2 gene did not affect the total N-acetylornithine transferase activity and slightly reduced the formation of clavulanic acid under standard culture conditions. However, the oat2 mutant produced more clavulanic acid than the parental strain in cultures supplemented with high levels (above 1 mM) of arginine. The purified S. clavuligerus ArgR protein bound the arginine box in the oat2 promoter, and the expression of oat2 was higher in mutants with a disruption in argR (arginine-deregulated), confirming that the Arg boxes of oat2 are functional in vivo. Our results suggest that the Oat2 protein or one of its reaction products has a regulatory role that modulates clavulanic acid biosynthesis in response to high arginine concentrations. PMID:15375131

  20. Highly water-soluble monoboronic acid probes that show optical sensitivity to glucose based on 4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    Two highly water-soluble monoboronic acid probes that display the more desirable off-on fluorescence response were synthesized based on 4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalic anhydride and a remarkable sensitivity for glucose rather than fructose and galactose was also observed.

  1. Biophysical studies of a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex binding to DNA and RNA prove that nucleic acid structure has significant effects on binding behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Liang, Yi; Zhang, Peng; Du, Fen; Zhou, Bing-Rui; Wu, Jun; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2005-08-01

    The interactions of a metal complex [Ru(phen)(2)PMIP](2+) {Ru=ruthenium, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, PMIP=2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline} with yeast tRNA and calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) have been investigated comparatively by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), as well as equilibrium dialysis and circular dichroism (CD). Spectroscopic studies together with ITC and viscosity measurements indicate that both binding modes of the Ru(II) polypyridyl complex to yeast tRNA and CT DNA are intercalation and yeast tRNA binding of the complex is stronger than CT DNA binding. ITC experiments show that the interaction of the complex with yeast tRNA is driven by a moderately favorable enthalpy decrease in combination with a moderately favorable entropy increase, while the binding of the complex to CT DNA is driven by a large favorable enthalpy decrease with a less favorable entropy increase. The results from equilibrium dialysis and CD suggest that both interactions are enantioselective and the Delta enantiomer of the complex may bind more favorably to both yeast tRNA and CT DNA than the Lambda enantiomer does, and that the complex is a better candidate for an enantioselective binder to yeast tRNA than to CT DNA. Taken together, these results indicate that the structures of nucleic acids have significant effects on the binding behaviors of metal complexes.

  2. p-Sulfonic Acid Calix[4]arene as an Efficient Catalyst for One-Pot Synthesis of Pharmaceutically Significant Coumarin Derivatives under Solvent-Free Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tashakkorian, Hamed; Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour; Rouhi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    One-pot and efficient protocol for preparation of some potent pharmaceutically valuable coumarin derivatives under solvent-free condition via direct coupling using biologically nontoxic organocatalyst, calix[4]arene tetrasulfonic acid (CSA), was introduced. Calix[4]arene sulfonic acid has been incorporated lately as a magnificent and recyclable organocatalyst for the synthesis of some organic compounds. Nontoxicity, solvent-free conditions, good-to-excellent yields for pharmaceutically significant structures, and especially ease of catalyst recovery make this procedure valuable and environmentally benign. PMID:26798517

  3. The Significance of Lewis Acid Sites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide on Vanadium-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Marberger, Adrian; Ferri, Davide; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2016-09-19

    The long debated reaction mechanisms of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia (NH3 ) on vanadium-based catalysts rely on the involvement of Brønsted or Lewis acid sites. This issue has been clearly elucidated using a combination of transient perturbations of the catalyst environment with operando time-resolved spectroscopy to obtain unique molecular level insights. Nitric oxide reacts predominantly with NH3 coordinated to Lewis sites on vanadia on tungsta-titania (V2 O5 -WO3 -TiO2 ), while Brønsted sites are not involved in the catalytic cycle. The Lewis site is a mono-oxo vanadyl group that reduces only in the presence of both nitric oxide and NH3 . We were also able to verify the formation of the nitrosamide (NH2 NO) intermediate, which forms in tandem with vanadium reduction, and thus the entire mechanism of SCR. Our experimental approach, demonstrated in the specific case of SCR, promises to progress the understanding of chemical reactions of technological relevance.

  4. The Significance of Lewis Acid Sites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide on Vanadium-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Marberger, Adrian; Ferri, Davide; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2016-09-19

    The long debated reaction mechanisms of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia (NH3 ) on vanadium-based catalysts rely on the involvement of Brønsted or Lewis acid sites. This issue has been clearly elucidated using a combination of transient perturbations of the catalyst environment with operando time-resolved spectroscopy to obtain unique molecular level insights. Nitric oxide reacts predominantly with NH3 coordinated to Lewis sites on vanadia on tungsta-titania (V2 O5 -WO3 -TiO2 ), while Brønsted sites are not involved in the catalytic cycle. The Lewis site is a mono-oxo vanadyl group that reduces only in the presence of both nitric oxide and NH3 . We were also able to verify the formation of the nitrosamide (NH2 NO) intermediate, which forms in tandem with vanadium reduction, and thus the entire mechanism of SCR. Our experimental approach, demonstrated in the specific case of SCR, promises to progress the understanding of chemical reactions of technological relevance. PMID:27553251

  5. Gene Interaction Network Suggests Dioxin Induces a Significant Linkage between Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta

    PubMed Central

    Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Sone, Hideko; Parham, Frederick M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Martinez, Jeanelle; Portier, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression arrays (gene chips) have enabled researchers to roughly quantify the level of mRNA expression for a large number of genes in a single sample. Several methods have been developed for the analysis of gene array data including clustering, outlier detection, and correlation studies. Most of these analyses are aimed at a qualitative identification of what is different between two samples and/or the relationship between two genes. We propose a quantitative, statistically sound methodology for the analysis of gene regulatory networks using gene expression data sets. The method is based on Bayesian networks for direct quantification of gene expression networks. Using the gene expression changes in HPL1A lung airway epithelial cells after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin at levels of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 nM for 24 hr, a gene expression network was hypothesized and analyzed. The method clearly demonstrates support for the assumed network and the hypothesis linking the usual dioxin expression changes to the retinoic acid receptor system. Simulation studies demonstrated the method works well, even for small samples. PMID:15345368

  6. Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Jake L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Ford, Ian J.

    2014-01-14

    The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) method at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. We observe a small zero-point effect on the the equilibrium structures of certain clusters. One configuration is found to display a bimodal behaviour at 300 K in contrast to the stable ionised state suggested from a zero temperature classical geometry optimisation. The general effect of zero-point motion is to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. We thank Prof. Angelos Michaelides and his group in University College London (UCL) for practical advice and helpful discussions. This work benefited from interactions with the Thomas Young Centre through seminar and discussions involving the PIMD method. SMK was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. JLS and IJF were supported by the IMPACT scheme at UCL and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. We are grateful for use of the UCL Legion High Performance Computing Facility and the

  7. Retinoic acid induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells show increased expression of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease and an altered splicing pattern.

    PubMed

    König, G; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1990-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is associated with more than a tenfold induction of total Alzheimer's disease beta A4 amyloid protein precursor (APP) mRNA as analyzed by Northern blot hybridisation. S1 nuclease protection experiments reveal that the splicing pattern of these differentiated cells is altered in favor of APP695 mRNA, coding for the shortest amyloidogenic beta A4 amyloid precursor protein. Induction of differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells with NGF leads to a fivefold increase of total APP mRNA without change in the splicing pattern. This suggests that RA but not NGF induces factor(s) which are responsible for an APP hnRNA splicing favoring APP695 mRNA.

  8. ω-6 (18:2) and ω-3 (18:3) fatty acids in reconstituted high-density lipoproteins show different functionality of anti-atherosclerotic properties and embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Yong; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Among unsaturated fatty acids, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) fatty acids show different associations with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To determine why consumption of ω-3 fatty acid is associated with lower risk of CVD, we investigated the biological functions of ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) in reconstituted HDL (rHDL) after encapsulation using human cells and zebrafish embryo. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the principal protein behind the beneficial functions of HDL, which include potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities in blood. Several rHDLs were synthesized with apoA-I and different molar ratio of ω-6 or ω-3 fatty acid. Both fatty acids showed similar solubility in rHDL up to a molar ratio of 95:5:1:10 (palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:apoA-I:fatty acid). Although both rHDL showed similar structural properties and α-helical contents, ω-6-rHDL showed loss of anti-oxidant ability against LDL oxidation. Uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages was inhibited by ω-3-rHDL but not ω-6-rHDL, suggesting that ω-6-rHDL has higher pro-atherosclerotic activity. ω-3-rHDL showed more enhanced cholesterol efflux activity with less accumulation of triglyceride in the macrophage. ω-6-rHDL caused more senescence in human dermal fibroblast cells with cytotoxicity, while ω-3-rHDL treatment inhibited the senescence. In zebrafish embryo survivability, ω-3-rHDL-injected embryos showed 86±3% survival, whereas ω-6-rHDL-injected ones showed 72±2% survival as well as an elevated inflammatory response in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, ω-6-rHDL and ω-3-rHDL show different physiological activities in atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cellular senescence. PMID:26363928

  9. ω-6 (18:2) and ω-3 (18:3) fatty acids in reconstituted high-density lipoproteins show different functionality of anti-atherosclerotic properties and embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Yong; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Among unsaturated fatty acids, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) fatty acids show different associations with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To determine why consumption of ω-3 fatty acid is associated with lower risk of CVD, we investigated the biological functions of ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) in reconstituted HDL (rHDL) after encapsulation using human cells and zebrafish embryo. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the principal protein behind the beneficial functions of HDL, which include potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities in blood. Several rHDLs were synthesized with apoA-I and different molar ratio of ω-6 or ω-3 fatty acid. Both fatty acids showed similar solubility in rHDL up to a molar ratio of 95:5:1:10 (palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:apoA-I:fatty acid). Although both rHDL showed similar structural properties and α-helical contents, ω-6-rHDL showed loss of anti-oxidant ability against LDL oxidation. Uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages was inhibited by ω-3-rHDL but not ω-6-rHDL, suggesting that ω-6-rHDL has higher pro-atherosclerotic activity. ω-3-rHDL showed more enhanced cholesterol efflux activity with less accumulation of triglyceride in the macrophage. ω-6-rHDL caused more senescence in human dermal fibroblast cells with cytotoxicity, while ω-3-rHDL treatment inhibited the senescence. In zebrafish embryo survivability, ω-3-rHDL-injected embryos showed 86±3% survival, whereas ω-6-rHDL-injected ones showed 72±2% survival as well as an elevated inflammatory response in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, ω-6-rHDL and ω-3-rHDL show different physiological activities in atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cellular senescence.

  10. d-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice show enhanced short-term memory performance and heightened anxiety, but no sleep or circadian rhythm disruption.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Hasan, Sibah; Tam, Shu K E; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-05-01

    d-amino acid oxidase (DAO, DAAO) is an enzyme that degrades d-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist of the synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Convergent evidence implicates DAO in the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia. To better understand the functional role of DAO, we characterized the behaviour of the first genetically engineered Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mouse. Our primary objective was to assess both spatial and non-spatial short-term memory performance. Relative to wildtype (Dao(+/+) ) littermate controls, Dao(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced spatial recognition memory performance, improved odour recognition memory performance, and enhanced spontaneous alternation in the T-maze. In addition, Dao(-/-) mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviour in five tests of approach/avoidance conflict: the open field test, elevated plus maze, successive alleys, light/dark box and novelty-suppressed feeding. Despite evidence of a reciprocal relationship between anxiety and sleep and circadian function in rodents, we found no evidence of sleep or circadian rhythm disruption in Dao(-/-) mice. Overall, our observations are consistent with, and extend, findings in the natural mutant ddY/Dao(-) line. These data add to a growing body of preclinical evidence linking the inhibition, inactivation or deletion of DAO with enhanced cognitive performance. Our results have implications for the development of DAO inhibitors as therapeutic agents.

  11. Selection and Characterization of [alpha]-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Lines of Lemna gibba Showing a Rapid Rate of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Y. Y.; Slovin, J. P.; Cohen, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Turnover rate is an important aspect of the regulation of plant processes by plant growth substances. To study turnover of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), two [alpha]-methyltryptophan-resistant lines (MTR1 and MTR2) of Lemna gibba were generated by nitrosomethyl urea treatment of an inbred line derived from L. gibba G-3. In this report we describe: (a) the development of a selection system using this near isogenic line of L. gibba; (b) techniques for chemical mutation of the lines and selection for [alpha]-methyltryptophan resistance; and (c) the partial characterization of the selected lines. MTR lines contained 3-fold higher levels of anthranilate synthase activity. The enzyme in the MTR lines required higher levels of tryptophan for feedback inhibition. MTR lines also contained 8-fold higher levels of tryptophan, 3-fold higher levels of free IAA, and similar levels of total IAA compared to the inbred line. Turnover rates in the inbred and selected lines were calculated, using the first-order rate equation, based on the decrease over time in isotopic enrichment of I3C6-IAA introduced into L. gibba during a 1-h pulse period. Isotope enrichment in IAA was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both MTR lines had an approximately 10-fold higher rate of IAA turnover than the parent inbred line. PMID:12228344

  12. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption. PMID:25905456

  13. Tomato PYR/PYL/RCAR abscisic acid receptors show high expression in root, differential sensitivity to the abscisic acid agonist quinabactin, and the capability to enhance plant drought resistance.

    PubMed

    González-Guzmán, Miguel; Rodríguez, Lesia; Lorenzo-Orts, Laura; Pons, Clara; Sarrión-Perdigones, Alejandro; Fernández, Maria A; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Forment, Javier; Moreno-Alvero, Maria; Cutler, Sean R; Albert, Armando; Granell, Antonio; Rodríguez, Pedro L

    2014-08-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the plant's response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Sustainable production of food faces several key challenges, particularly the generation of new varieties with improved water use efficiency and drought tolerance. Different studies have shown the potential applications of Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors to enhance plant drought resistance. Consequently the functional characterization of orthologous genes in crops holds promise for agriculture. The full set of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors have been identified here. From the 15 putative tomato ABA receptors, 14 of them could be grouped in three subfamilies that correlated well with corresponding Arabidopsis subfamilies. High levels of expression of PYR/PYL/RCAR genes was found in tomato root, and some genes showed predominant expression in leaf and fruit tissues. Functional characterization of tomato receptors was performed through interaction assays with Arabidopsis and tomato clade A protein phosphatase type 2Cs (PP2Cs) as well as phosphatase inhibition studies. Tomato receptors were able to inhibit the activity of clade A PP2Cs differentially in an ABA-dependent manner, and at least three receptors were sensitive to the ABA agonist quinabactin, which inhibited tomato seed germination. Indeed, the chemical activation of ABA signalling induced by quinabactin was able to activate stress-responsive genes. Both dimeric and monomeric tomato receptors were functional in Arabidopsis plant cells, but only overexpression of monomeric-type receptors conferred enhanced drought resistance. In summary, gene expression analyses, and chemical and transgenic approaches revealed distinct properties of tomato PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors that might have biotechnological implications. PMID:24863435

  14. HISTONE DEACETYLASE6-Defective Mutants Show Increased Expression and Acetylation of ENHANCER OF TRIPTYCHON AND CAPRICE1 and GLABRA2 with Small But Significant Effects on Root Epidermis Cellular Pattern1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong-Xu; Chen, Wen-Qian; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Cellular patterning in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis is dependent on positional information, the transmission of which involves histone acetylation. Here, we report that HISTONE DEACETYLASE6 (HDA6) has significant effects on this cellular patterning. Mutation of HDA6 led to ectopic hair cells in the nonhair positions of root epidermis in Arabidopsis, based on an analysis of paraffin sections stained with Toluidine Blue. While HDA6 was present throughout the root tip, epidermis-specific complementation with HDA6 could rescue the hda6 phenotype. Both transcript levels and expression patterns of ENHANCER OF TRIPTYCHON AND CAPRICE1 (ETC1) and GLABRA2 (GL2) in the root tip were affected in hda6. Consistent with these changes in expression, HDA6 directly bound to the promoter regions of ETC1 and GL2, and acetylation of histone H3 on these promoter regions and acetylation of histone H4 on the ETC1 promoter region was increased in the hda6 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that HDA6 affects the cellular patterning of Arabidopsis root epidermis through altering the histone acetylation status of ETC1 and GL2 promoters and thereby affects the expression of these two components of the core transcription factor network determining epidermal cell fates. Our findings thus provide new insights into the role of histone acetylation in root epidermis cell patterning. PMID:26143251

  15. Explosive decomposition of a melamine-cyanuric acid supramolecular assembly for fabricating defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with significantly promoted catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongkui; Dai, Yitao; Ge, Guifang; Wang, Guiru

    2015-05-26

    A facile and scalable approach for fabricating structural defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (MCSA-CNTs) through explosive decomposition of melamine-cyanuric acid supramolecular assembly is presented. In comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes, MCSA-CNT exhibits significantly enhanced catalytic performance in oxidant- and steam-free direct dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, demonstrating the potential for metal-free clean and energy-saving styrene production. This finding also opens a new horizon for preparing highly-efficient carbocatalysts rich in structural defect sites for diverse transformations.

  16. Explosive decomposition of a melamine-cyanuric acid supramolecular assembly for fabricating defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with significantly promoted catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongkui; Dai, Yitao; Ge, Guifang; Wang, Guiru

    2015-05-26

    A facile and scalable approach for fabricating structural defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (MCSA-CNTs) through explosive decomposition of melamine-cyanuric acid supramolecular assembly is presented. In comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes, MCSA-CNT exhibits significantly enhanced catalytic performance in oxidant- and steam-free direct dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, demonstrating the potential for metal-free clean and energy-saving styrene production. This finding also opens a new horizon for preparing highly-efficient carbocatalysts rich in structural defect sites for diverse transformations. PMID:25900736

  17. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  18. In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas- Tragedy survivors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inbesat; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Upadhyay, Nisha; Singh, Hemant; Sachdeva, Meenu; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC- exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC. PMID:26625778

  19. The crystal structure of the streptococcal collagen-like protein 2 globular domain from invasive M3-type group A Streptococcus shows significant similarity to immunomodulatory HIV protein gp41.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; De Simone, Alfonso; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2014-02-21

    The arsenal of virulence factors deployed by streptococci includes streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins. These proteins, which are characterized by a globular domain and a collagen-like domain, play key roles in host adhesion, host immune defense evasion, and biofilm formation. In this work, we demonstrate that the Scl2.3 protein is expressed on the surface of invasive M3-type strain MGAS315 of Streptococcus pyogenes. We report the crystal structure of Scl2.3 globular domain, the first of any Scl. This structure shows a novel fold among collagen trimerization domains of either bacterial or human origin. Despite there being low sequence identity, we observed that Scl2.3 globular domain structurally resembles the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1, an essential subunit for viral fusion to human T cells. We combined crystallographic data with modeling and molecular dynamics techniques to gather information on the entire lollipop-like Scl2.3 structure. Molecular dynamics data evidence a high flexibility of Scl2.3 with remarkable interdomain motions that are likely instrumental to the protein biological function in mediating adhesive or immune-modulatory functions in host-pathogen interactions. Altogether, our results provide molecular tools for the understanding of Scl-mediated streptococcal pathogenesis and important structural insights for the future design of small molecular inhibitors of streptococcal invasion.

  20. In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas- Tragedy survivors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inbesat; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Upadhyay, Nisha; Singh, Hemant; Sachdeva, Meenu; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC- exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC.

  1. Two bisthienylethene-Ir(III) complexes showing acid/base-induced structural transformation and on-off luminescence switching in solution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Hu, Jiong-Sheng; Li, Min-Qiang; Gong, Dan-Ping; Li, Xiao-Xiong; Ward, Michael D

    2015-12-28

    Complexes [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdtiH)](PF6)·2CHCl3 (1-H) and [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdti)] (1) were synthesized by the reaction of bisthienylethene pbdtiH and an [Ir(dfppy)2Cl]2 dimer under neutral and basic conditions, respectively. Thus, the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit is coordinated by pbdtiH in 1-H, and by pbdti(-) in 1, which are confirmed by their crystal structures. The structures of 1-H and 1 could be interconverted in solution, upon alternately adding NEt3 and TFA, thus resulting in reversible luminescence switching between the on-state of 1-H and the off-state of 1 at room temperature. In addition, both 1-H and 1 show solid-state luminescence, with a broad emission at 534 nm and 525 nm, respectively. The free pbdtiH ligand shows photochromic behavior in CH2Cl2 solution. However, no photochromism has been observed in 1-H and 1, indicating that the coordination of the pbdtiH/pbdti(-) ligand to the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit could suppress their photochromic behaviors.

  2. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might have played

  3. Listeria monocytogenes Grown at 7°C Shows Reduced Acid Survival and an Altered Transcriptional Response to Acid Shock Compared to L. monocytogenes Grown at 37°C

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, R. A.; Wiedmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in acidic environments (e.g., in the human stomach) is vital to its transmission. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods have been sources of listeriosis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth at a low temperature (i.e., 7°C) affects L. monocytogenes survival or gene transcription after exposure to a simulated gastric environment (i.e., acid shock at 37°C). L. monocytogenes cells grown at 7°C were less resistant to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) or acidified brain heart infusion broth (ABHI) than bacteria grown at higher temperatures (i.e., 30°C or 37°C). For L. monocytogenes grown at 7°C, stationary-phase cells were more resistant to ABHI than log-phase cells, indicating that both temperature and growth phase affect acid survival. Microarray transcriptomic analysis revealed that the number and functional categories of genes differentially expressed after acid shock differed according to both growth temperature and growth phase. The acid response of L. monocytogenes grown to log phase at 37°C involved stress-related transcriptional regulators (i.e., σB, σH, CtsR, and HrcA), some of which have been implicated in adaptation to the intracellular environment. In contrast, for bacteria grown at 7°C to stationary phase, acid exposure did not result in differential expression of the stress regulons examined. However, two large operons encoding bacteriophage-like proteins were induced, suggesting lysogenic prophage induction. The adaptive transcriptional response observed in 37°C-grown cells was largely absent in 7°C-grown cells, suggesting that temperatures commonly encountered during food storage and distribution affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive gastric passage and ultimately cause disease. PMID:22447604

  4. ETMB-RBF: Discrimination of Metal-Binding Sites in Electron Transporters Based on RBF Networks with PSSM Profiles and Significant Amino Acid Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Wu, Sheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and is a very important biological process in living cell. As cells do cellular respiration, they need a pathway to store and transport electrons, the electron transport chain. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of oxidation–reduction reactions. In these oxidation–reduction reactions in electron transport chains, metal ions play very important role as electron donor and acceptor. For example, Fe ions are in complex I and complex II, and Cu ions are in complex IV. Therefore, to identify metal-binding sites in electron transporters is an important issue in helping biologists better understand the workings of the electron transport chain. Methods We propose a method based on Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) profiles and significant amino acid pairs to identify metal-binding residues in electron transport proteins. Results We have selected a non-redundant set of 55 metal-binding electron transport proteins as our dataset. The proposed method can predict metal-binding sites in electron transport proteins with an average 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 93.2% and 93.1% for metal-binding cysteine and histidine, respectively. Compared with the general metal-binding predictor from A. Passerini et al., the proposed method can improve over 9% of sensitivity, and 14% specificity on the independent dataset in identifying metal-binding cysteines. The proposed method can also improve almost 76% sensitivity with same specificity in metal-binding histidine, and MCC is also improved from 0.28 to 0.88. Conclusions We have developed a novel approach based on PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs for identifying metal-binding sites from electron transport proteins. The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins

  5. Amplification of an MFS transporter encoding gene penT significantly stimulates penicillin production and enhances the sensitivity of Penicillium chrysogenum to phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Gang

    2012-11-20

    Penicillin is historically important as the first discovered drug against bacterial infections in human. Although the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism have been well studied in Penicillium chrysogenum, the compartmentation and molecular transport of penicillin or its precursors are still poorly understood. In search of the genomic database, more than 830 open reading frames (ORFs) were found to encode transmembrane proteins of P. chrysogenum. In order to investigate their roles on penicillin production, one of them (penT) was selected and cloned. The deduced protein of penT belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and contains 12 transmembrane spanning domains (TMS). During fermentation, the transcription of penT was greatly induced by penicillin precursors phenylacetic acid (PAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (POA). Knock-down of penT resulted in significant decrease of penicillin production, while over-expression of penT under the promoter of trpC enhanced the penicillin production. Introduction of an additional penT in the wild-type strain of P. chrysogenum doubled the penicillin production and enhanced the sensitivity of P. chrysogenum to the penicillin precursors PAA or POA. These results indicate that penT stimulates penicillin production probably through enhancing the translocation of penicillin precursors across fungal cellular membrane.

  6. The significance of C16 fatty acids in the sn-2 positions of glycerolipids in the photosynthetic growth of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kumiko; Sato, Norihiro; Tsuji, Noriko; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Nishida, Ikuo

    2006-06-01

    Most extant cyanobacteria contain C16 fatty acids in the sn-2 positions of glycerolipids, which are regulated by lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT; EC 2.3.1.51). Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 contains sll1848, sll1752, and slr2060 as putative acyltransferase genes. sll1848 was recently reported to encode an indispensable palmitoyl-specific LPAAT; however, here we show that each of the three genes is dispensable. Delta1848 and Delta1848 Delta2060 cells had markedly higher contents of stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), and linoleate (18:2) in place of palmitate (16:0) in the sn-2 positions, suggesting that Delta1848 Delta2060 cells incorporate 18:0 and 18:1 in the sn-2 positions. The levels of sll1752 transcripts increased in Delta1848 Delta2060 cells. This was accompanied by increased LPAAT activity toward 18:0 coenzyme A and its derivative in the membrane fraction. From these findings, together with the activity of a recombinant sll1752 protein and complementation of the Escherichia coli LPAAT mutant plsC, we conclude that sll1752 encodes a second LPAAT that prefers stearoyl and oleoyl substrates. Delta1848 Delta2060 cells grew slowly at 30 degrees C at lower cell density, and exhibited more severe damage at 20 degrees C than wild-type cells. Furthermore, Delta1848 Delta2060 cells exhibited photoinhibition more severely than wild-type cells. A phycobilisome core-membrane linker protein (slr0335) was also found to be susceptible to protein extraction under our conditions; its content decreased in the membrane fractions of Delta1848 Delta2060 cells. We conclude that C16 fatty acids in sn-2 positions are preferred in the photosynthetic growth of this cyanobacterium, despite sll1752 orthologs being conserved in most cyanobacteria. However, no sll1752 ortholog is conserved among photosynthetic eukaryotes including Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

  7. Amelioration of adverse effects of valproic acid on ketogenesis and liver coenzyme A metabolism by cotreatment with pantothenate and carnitine in developing mice: possible clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Thurston, J H; Hauhart, R E

    1992-04-01

    Very young children with organic brain damage, intractable seizures, and developmental retardation are at particular risk of developing fatal hepatic dysfunction coincident with valproate therapy, especially if the children are also receiving other anticonvulsant drugs. The mechanism of valproate-associated hepatic failure in these children is unclear. There are two major theories of etiology. The first concerns the manyfold consequences of depletion of CoA due to sequestration into poorly metabolized valproyl CoA and valproyl CoA metabolites. The other theory proposes that the unsaturated valproate derivative 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid and/or metabolically activated intermediates are toxic and directly cause irreversible inhibition of enzymes of beta-oxidation. The present study shows for the first time that in developing mice, when panthothenic acid and carnitine are administered with valproate, at least some of the effects of valproate are mitigated. Perhaps most importantly, the beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in plasma and the free CoA and acetyl CoA levels in liver do not fall so low. Cotreatment with carnitine alone was without effect. Findings support the CoA depletion mechanism of valproate inhibition of beta-oxidation and other CoA- and acetyl CoA-requiring enzymic reactions and stress the role of carnitine in the regulation of CoA synthesis at the site of action of pantothenate kinase. PMID:1570210

  8. Bongkrekic acid analogue, lacking one of the carboxylic groups of its parent compound, shows moderate but pH-insensitive inhibitory effects on the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Hasui, Keisuke; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Abe, Masato; Matsumoto, Kenji; Harada, Kazuki; Yoshimura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohkura, Kazuto; Shindo, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Bongkrekic acid, isolated from Burkholderia cocovenenans, is known to specifically inhibit the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. However, the manner of its interaction with the carrier remains elusive. In this study, we tested the inhibitory effects of 17 bongkrekic acid analogues, derived from the intermediates obtained during its total synthesis, on the mitochondrial ATP/ATP carrier. Rough screening of these chemicals, performed by measuring their inhibitory effects on the mitochondrial ATP synthesis, revealed that 4 of them, KH-1, KH-7, KH-16, and KH-17, had moderate inhibitory effects. Further characterization of the actions of these 4 analogues on mitochondrial function showed that KH-16 had moderate; KH-1 and KH-17, weak; and KH-7, negligible side effects of both permeabilization of the mitochondrial inner membrane and inhibition of the electron transport, indicating that only KH-7 had a specific inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. Although the parental bongkrekic acid showed a strong pH dependency of its action, the inhibitory effect of KH-7 was almost insensitive to the pH of the reaction medium, indicating the importance of the 3 carboxyl groups of bongkrekic acid for its pH-dependent action. A direct inhibitory effect of KH-7 on the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier was also clearly demonstrated.

  9. Significant association between glycemic status and increased estimated postglomerular resistance in nondiabetic subjects - study of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearance in humans.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Mari; Tsuda, Akihiro; Ishimura, Eiji; Uedono, Hideki; Ohno, Yoshiteru; Ichii, Mitsuru; Ochi, Akinobu; Nakatani, Shinya; Mori, Katsuhito; Uchida, Junji; Emoto, Masanori; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether glomerular hemodynamic parameters in nondiabetic subjects, including healthy subjects, are associated with glycemic status indices, by simultaneous measurement of inulin (Cin) and para-aminohippuric acid (CPHA) clearance. Twenty-six subjects (age 49.5 ± 13.3 years; 13 men and 13 women; 14 healthy subjects and 12 subjects with mild proteinuria) were enrolled. Cin and CPAH were measured simultaneously. All 26 subjects were nondiabetics. Estimated preglomerular resistance, estimated postglomerular resistance, and estimated glomerular hydrostatic pressure (Pglo) were calculated according to Gomez' formula. Pglo correlated significantly and positively with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in both healthy subjects (r = 0.532, P = 0.0498) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.681, P = 0.015). While there was no significant correlation between estimated preglomerular resistance and HbA1c, estimated postglomerular resistance correlated significantly and positively with HbA1c both in healthy subjects (r = 0.643, P = 0.013) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.589, P = 0.044). Glomerular filtration fraction, estimated Pglo and estimated postglomerular resistance in total subjects were associated significantly with HbA1c after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. These results demonstrate that, even in nondiabetic subjects, glycemic status is associated with estimated postglomerular resistance, but not estimated preglomerular resistance. It is suggested that increased estimated postglomerular resistance associated with higher HbA1c levels, even within the normal range, causes increased estimated Pglo, leading to increased FF. Thus, hemodynamic abnormalities associated with higher HbA1c levels may be related to glomerular hypertension, even in nondiabetic subjects.

  10. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  11. Fatty Acid binding protein 7 is a molecular marker in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: implications for clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; Overdevest, Jonathan B; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W; van Zante, Annemieke; Tetsu, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. Its diagnosis is difficult due to overlapping features with other salivary tumors. Gene expression analysis may complement traditional diagnostic methods. We searched gene expression patterns in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and in our tumor and normal samples. The biologic and prognostic potential of the identified genes was analyzed. The GEO data set of primary xenografted ACCs revealed that expression of five genes, engrailed homeobox 1 (EN1), fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), hemoglobin epsilon 1, MYB, and versican (VCAN), was dramatically increased. mRNA expression of EN1, FABP7, MYB, and VCAN distinguished our sporadic ACCs from normal tissues and benign tumors. FABP7 expression appeared to be regulated differently from EN1 and MYB and was crossly correlated with poor prognosis in our ACC cohort. Immunohistochemistry showed that FABP7 protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of myoepithelial cells of both tubular and cribriform subtypes. In contrast, in the solid subtype, which is often associated with a lower survival rate, FABP7 protein was uniformly expressed in cancerous cells. One case with cribriform architecture and the highest level of FABP7 mRNA showed strong FABP7 staining in both duct-type epithelial and myoepithelial cells, suggesting that diffuse expression of FABP7 protein might be related to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. We propose FABP7 as a novel biomarker in ACC. The molecule may be useful in diagnosis and for identifying more effective therapies targeting this protein or upstream molecules that regulate it.

  12. Significant improvement in crow's feet after treatment with Jet-M and a mixed solution of copper-GHK, oligo-hyaluronic acid, rhodiolar extract, tranexamic acid, and β-glucan (GHR formulation).

    PubMed

    Byun, Sang-Young; Chae, Je-Byeong; Na, Jung-Im; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-10-01

    Jet-M (Tav-Tech Ltd., Israel) is an instrument for skin resurfacing. When it sprays microdroplets of solution or shoots air on the skin, exfoliation and stretching of superficial layers can occur. Thus, it will increase percutaneous absorption of vitamins and other cosmetic agents. A cosmetic preparation containing copper-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine, oligo-hyaluronic acid, rhodiolar extract, tranexamic acid, and β-glucan was used with Jet-M in one patient. Anesthesia was not administered and there was no pain during the treatment. A male aged 59 years was treated once a week for 12 weeks. In the clinical photographs, wrinkles around the treated eye were greatly decreased. Skin biopsies were taken from treated and untreated areas. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed increased collagen production in the upper dermis. On the other hand, collagen IV production was slightly increased. Fibrillin-1 and procollagen type 1 were greatly increased and tropoelastin was also increased. There was no adverse effect during and after treatment.

  13. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  14. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  15. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  16. Environmental risk assessment of airborne trichloroacetic acid--a contribution to the discussion on the significance of anthropogenic and natural sources.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Jan; Regelmann, Jürgen; Riedhammer, Caroline

    2003-07-01

    In environmental risk assessments the question has to be answered, whether risk reduction measures are necessary in order to protect the environment. If the combination of natural and anthropogenic sources of a chemical substance leads to an unacceptable risk, the man-made emissions have to be reduced. In this case the proportions of the anthropogenic and natural emissions have to be quantified. Difficulties and possible solutions are discussed in the scope of the OECD- and EU-risk assessments of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and tetrachloroethylene. In the atmosphere, TCA is formed by photo-oxidative degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PER) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The available data on atmospheric chemistry indicate that tetrachloroethylene is the more important pre-cursor. With its high water solubility and low volatility, TCA is adsorbed onto aerosol particles and precipitated during rainfalls. Extended monitoring in rainwater confirmed the global distribution of airborne TCA. TCA reaches soils by dry and wet deposition. In addition formation of TCA from tetrachloroethylene in plants was observed. Consequently, high concentrations were detected in needles, leaves and in forest soil especially in mountain regions. The effect assessment revealed that plants exposed via soil are the most sensitive species compared to other terrestrial organisms. A PNECsoil of 2.4 microg/kg dw was derived from a long-term study with pine and spruce seedlings. When this PNEC is compared with the measured concentrations of TCA in soil, in certain regions a PEC/PNEC ratio >1 is obtained. This clearly indicates a risk to the terrestrial ecosystem, with the consequence that risk reduction measures are deemed necessary. To quantify the causes of the high levels of TCA in certain soils, and to investigate the geographical extent of the problem, intensive and widespread monitoring of soil, air and rainwater for TCA and tetrachloroethylene would be necessary to be able to perform a full mass

  17. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  18. [Biochemical evaluation of damage due to lead: importance and significance of erythrocyte zinc-protoporhyrin IX and urinary amino acid determination].

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, F; Dompè, M; Ronca, G

    1977-01-01

    The early detection of lead intoxitation needs practical, simple, reproducible and diagnostically valid screening test. The determination of ALA-D (delta-amino-levulinic acid-dehydratase) in erythrocytes is one of the most reliable test for the evaluation of the occupational exposure to lead. However this test is difficult to standardize, sensible to lead contamination of laboratory glassware and the activity of enzyme decreases rapidly if stored. The determination of erythrocytes ZPP (zinco-protoporphyrin IX) was proposed as useful, alternative test. The protoporphyrin IX is a metabolic intermediate in heme biosynthesis; in erythrocytes is present as free form and zinc-boundend compound. The ZPP give high values only in lead intoxication and sideropenic anemia. The ALA-D and ZPP in erythrocytes were measured and compared in a group of workers exposed to lead. We have shown a good correlation between these two biochemical parameters. Aminoacid excretion in urine from workers exposed to lead was measured and compared with other biochemical parameters of intoxication. All lead workers examined had excessive urinary CP (coproporphyrin) and ALA (delta-amino-levulinic acid) excretion. An abnormal excretion of glycine was present in eight workers (32%), whereas in other four (15%) the glycinuria was at limit of normal values. An abnormal excretion of lysine was present in six workers (21%). The last data appear very interesting because the action of lead in lysine metabolism was not known. PMID:603137

  19. Binding to plasma lipoproteins of chlorophenoxyisobutyric, tibric and nicotinic acids and their esters: its significance for the mechanism of lipid lowering by clofibrate and related drugs.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, J L; Dachet, C

    1976-01-01

    The binding of chlorophenoxyisobutyric (CPIB), tibric (TA) and nicotinic (NA) acids and CPIB ethyl ester (Clofibrate), TA and NA isopropyl esters (TAPE and NAPE) to human lipoproteins of low density of different classes (LDL2, LDL1 and VLDL) and high density (HDL) were studied by equilibrium dialysis and Sephadex gel filtration. Clofibrate and TAPE bound strongly to lipoproteins, but their acids, CPIB and TA and also NA and NAPE, did not bind. In the same experimental conditions, Clofibrate and TAPE bound only weakly to human serum albumin (HSA) and CPIB bound to HSA with a Ka of 3.3 X 10(5) M(-1) for 1 site of high affinity. The Clofibrate and TAPE bound to lipoproteins did not dissociate either during dialysis or during filtration on Sephadex G 25. The binding percentage remained constant for all drug concentrations studied, and the molar ratio of bound drug rose linearly with increasing concentrations. This suggests that the interaction may be irreversible, and there is some evidence that binding may induce irreversible changes in the lipoprotein molecules. These results, and those already found in experiments made with three other drugs related to Clofibrate, lead to the proposal that in their interaction with lipoproteins, the phenyl groups are necessary and the esterification is contributory. The possible role of this interaction in the lipid-lowering effect of the drugs is discussed with special reference to their possible implication in lipoprotein synthesis within the intestinal and hepatic cells.

  20. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  1. 5-(Bis(3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHIMHA): showing a strategy of designing drug to block lung metastasis of tumors.

    PubMed

    Gan, Taiping; Wang, Yuji; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Jianhui; Yang, Jian; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Early metastasis is still the most recalcitrant factor in the treatment of lung cancer patients. By analyzing the structures and comparing the docking scores of the known pharmacophores, the authors of this paper designed 5-(bis(3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHIMHA) as a promising lead compound to develop metastasis inhibitors. In vitro 5, 10, and 20 µM of BHIMHA concentration dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. In vivo 0.4, 2.0, and 8.9 µmol/kg of BHIMHA dose dependently inhibited the metastasis of LLC (Lewis Lung Carcinoma) toward lung. In vivo, 2 µmol/kg of BHIMHA showed additional actions of slowing the growth of the primary tumor of C57BL/6 mice and S180 mice as well as inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema of the mice. Therefore, BHIMHA simultaneously blocked tumor metastasis toward lung, slowed the primary tumor growth, and limited the inflammation. These pharmacological actions were correlated with the inhibition of PKCα and NF-κB expression.

  2. 5-(Bis(3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHIMHA): showing a strategy of designing drug to block lung metastasis of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Taiping; Wang, Yuji; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Jianhui; Yang, Jian; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Early metastasis is still the most recalcitrant factor in the treatment of lung cancer patients. By analyzing the structures and comparing the docking scores of the known pharmacophores, the authors of this paper designed 5-(bis(3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHIMHA) as a promising lead compound to develop metastasis inhibitors. In vitro 5, 10, and 20 µM of BHIMHA concentration dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. In vivo 0.4, 2.0, and 8.9 µmol/kg of BHIMHA dose dependently inhibited the metastasis of LLC (Lewis Lung Carcinoma) toward lung. In vivo, 2 µmol/kg of BHIMHA showed additional actions of slowing the growth of the primary tumor of C57BL/6 mice and S180 mice as well as inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema of the mice. Therefore, BHIMHA simultaneously blocked tumor metastasis toward lung, slowed the primary tumor growth, and limited the inflammation. These pharmacological actions were correlated with the inhibition of PKCα and NF-κB expression. PMID:26937173

  3. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  4. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  5. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  6. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  7. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  8. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  9. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  10. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. Understanding the Chemistry of the Actinides in HL Waste Tank Systems: Actinide Speciation in Oxalic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Significant Quantities of Aluminum, Iron, and Manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue

    2006-07-30

    The overall goal of this research plan is to provide a thermodynamic basis for describing actinide speciation over a range of tank-like conditions, including elevated temperature, elevated OH- concentrations, and the presence of various organic ligands. With support from DOE's EMSP program, we have made significant progress towards measuring thermodynamic parameters for actinide complexation as a function of temperature. We have used the needs of the ESP modelers to guide our work to date, and we have made important progress defining the effect of temperature for actinide complexation by organic, and for hydrolysis of the hexa- and pentvalent oxidation states.

  13. ALS-Causing Mutations Significantly Perturb the Self-Assembly and Interaction with Nucleic Acid of the Intrinsically Disordered Prion-Like Domain of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Liangzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yimei; Song, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) C-terminus encodes a prion-like domain widely presented in RNA-binding proteins, which functions to form dynamic oligomers and also, amazingly, hosts most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations. Here, as facilitated by our previous discovery, by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have successfully determined conformations, dynamics, and self-associations of the full-length prion-like domains of the wild type and three ALS-causing mutants (A315E, Q331K, and M337V) in both aqueous solutions and membrane environments. The study decodes the following: (1) The TDP-43 prion-like domain is intrinsically disordered only with some nascent secondary structures in aqueous solutions, but owns the capacity to assemble into dynamic oligomers rich in β-sheet structures. By contrast, despite having highly similar conformations, three mutants gained the ability to form amyloid oligomers. The wild type and three mutants all formed amyloid fibrils after incubation as imaged by electron microscopy. (2) The interaction with nucleic acid enhances the self-assembly for the wild type but triggers quick aggregation for three mutants. (3) A membrane-interacting subdomain has been identified over residues Met311-Gln343 indispensable for TDP-43 neurotoxicity, which transforms into a well-folded Ω-loop-helix structure in membrane environments. Furthermore, despite having very similar membrane-embedded conformations, three mutants will undergo further self-association in the membrane environment. Our study implies that the TDP-43 prion-like domain appears to have an energy landscape, which allows the assembly of the wild-type sequence into dynamic oligomers only under very limited condition sets, and ALS-causing point mutations are sufficient to remodel it to more favor the amyloid formation or irreversible aggregation, thus supporting the emerging view that the pathologic aggregation

  14. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  15. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  16. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  17. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  18. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  19. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase N, and the di- and tri- peptide transporter PepT1 in the embryo of the domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus) shows developmental regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mRNA expression profile for ten amino acid transporters (AAT), the di-and tri- peptide transporter (Pept1), and aminopeptidase N (APN) during chick embryogenesis was determined. Fertilized eggs were sampled at days 9, 11, 15, 17, 19, and 20, post fertilization. Three to four embryos were sampl...

  20. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  1. A peptide nucleic acid-aminosugar conjugate targeting transactivation response element of HIV-1 RNA genome shows a high bioavailability in human cells and strongly inhibits tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Das, Indrajit; Désiré, Jérôme; Manvar, Dinesh; Baussanne, Isabelle; Pandey, Virendra N; Décout, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-12

    The 6-aminoglucosamine ring of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B (ring II) was conjugated to a 16-mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA. For this purpose, we prepared the aminoglucosamine monomer 15 and attached it to the protected PNA prior to its cleavage from the solid support. We found that the resulting PNA-aminoglucosamine conjugate is stable under acidic conditions, efficiently taken up by the human cells and fairly distributed in both cytosol and nucleus without endosomal entrapment because cotreatment with endosome-disrupting agent had no effect on its cellular distribution. The conjugate displayed very high target specificity in vitro and strongly inhibited Tat mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR transcription in a cell culture system. The unique properties of this new class of PNA conjugate suggest it to be a potential candidate for therapeutic application.

  2. A Peptide Nucleic Acid-Aminosugar Conjugate Targeting Transactivation Response Element of HIV-1 RNA Genome Shows a High Bioavailability in Human Cells and Strongly Inhibits Tat-mediated Transactivation of HIV-1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Das, Indrajit; Désiré, Jérôme; Manvar, Dinesh; Baussanne, Isabelle; Pandey, Virendra N.; Décout, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The 6-aminoglucosamine ring of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B (ring II) was conjugated to a 16 mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA. For this purpose we prepared the aminoglucosamine monomer 15 and attached it to the protected PNA prior to its cleavage from the solid support. We found that the resulting PNA-aminoglucosamine conjugate is stable under acidic condition, efficiently taken up by the human cells and fairly distributed in both cytosol and nucleus without endosomal entrapment since co-treatment with endosome-disrupting agent had no effect on its cellular distribution. The conjugate displayed very high target specificity in vitro and strongly inhibited Tat mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR transcription in cell culture system. The unique properties of this new class of PNA conjugate suggest it to be a potential candidate for therapeutic application. PMID:22698070

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the Bet v 1-homologous allergen Fra a 1 in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) shows the presence of an intron and little variability in amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Musidlowska-Persson, Anna; Alm, Rikard; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2007-02-01

    The Fra a 1 allergen in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which has numerous isoforms differing in terms of amino acid sequence and immunological impact. To map the extent of sequence differences in the Fra a 1 allergen, PCR cloning and sequencing was applied. Several genomic sequences of Fra a 1, with a length of either 584, 591 or 594 nucleotides, were obtained from three different strawberry varieties. All contained one intron, with the length of either 101 or 110 nucleotides. By sequencing 30 different clones, eight different DNA sequences were obtained, giving in total five potential Fra a 1 protein isoforms, with high sequence similarity (>97% sequence identity) and only seven positions of amino acid variability, which were largely confirmed by mass spectrometry of expressed proteins. We conclude that the sequence variability in the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 is small, within and between strawberry varieties, and that multiple spots, previously detected in 2DE, are presumably due to differences in post-translational modification rather than differences in amino acid sequence. The most abundant Fra a 1 isoform sequence, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli after removal of the intron, was recognized by IgE from strawberry allergic patients. It cross-reacted with antibodies to Bet v 1 and the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1 (61 and 78% sequence identity, respectively), and will be used in further analyses of variation in Fra a 1-expression.

  4. The Combination of N-Acetyl Cysteine, Alpha-Lipoic Acid, and Bromelain Shows High Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Novel In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Agostinis, C.; Zorzet, S.; De Leo, R.; Zauli, G.; De Seta, F.; Bulla, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an association of N-acetyl cystein, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain (NAC/LA/Br) in the treatment of endometriosis we set up a new in vivo murine model. We explored the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic effect of this combination on human endometriotic endothelial cells (EECs) and on endothelial cells isolated from normal uterus (UtMECs). We implanted fragments of human endometriotic cysts intraperitoneally into SCID mice to evaluate the efficacy of NAC/LA/Br treatment. UtMECs and EECs, untreated or treated with NAC/LA/Br, were activated with the proinflammatory stimulus TNF-α and their response in terms of VCAM1 expression was evaluated. The proapoptotic effect of higher doses of NAC/LA/Br on UtMECs and EECs was measured with a fluorogenic substrate for activated caspases 3 and 7. The preincubation of EECs with NAC/LA/Br prior to cell stimulation with TNF-α prevents the upregulation of the expression of the inflammatory “marker” VCAM1. Furthermore NAC/LA/Br were able to induce EEC, but not UtMEC, apoptosis. Finally, the novel mouse model allowed us to demonstrate that mice treated with NAC/LA/Br presented a lower number of cysts, smaller in size, compared to untreated mice. Our findings suggest that these dietary supplements may have potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like endometriosis. PMID:25960622

  5. The combination of N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain shows high anti-inflammatory properties in novel in vivo and in vitro models of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Agostinis, C; Zorzet, S; De Leo, R; Zauli, G; De Seta, F; Bulla, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an association of N-acetyl cystein, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain (NAC/LA/Br) in the treatment of endometriosis we set up a new in vivo murine model. We explored the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic effect of this combination on human endometriotic endothelial cells (EECs) and on endothelial cells isolated from normal uterus (UtMECs). We implanted fragments of human endometriotic cysts intraperitoneally into SCID mice to evaluate the efficacy of NAC/LA/Br treatment. UtMECs and EECs, untreated or treated with NAC/LA/Br, were activated with the proinflammatory stimulus TNF-α and their response in terms of VCAM1 expression was evaluated. The proapoptotic effect of higher doses of NAC/LA/Br on UtMECs and EECs was measured with a fluorogenic substrate for activated caspases 3 and 7. The preincubation of EECs with NAC/LA/Br prior to cell stimulation with TNF-α prevents the upregulation of the expression of the inflammatory "marker" VCAM1. Furthermore NAC/LA/Br were able to induce EEC, but not UtMEC, apoptosis. Finally, the novel mouse model allowed us to demonstrate that mice treated with NAC/LA/Br presented a lower number of cysts, smaller in size, compared to untreated mice. Our findings suggest that these dietary supplements may have potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like endometriosis.

  6. Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance[S

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.; Krasowski, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary bile salt composition of 677 vertebrate species (103 fish, 130 reptiles, 271 birds, 173 mammals) was determined. Bile salts were of three types: C27 bile alcohols, C27 bile acids, or C24 bile acids, with default hydroxylation at C-3 and C-7. C27 bile alcohols dominated in early evolving fish and amphibians; C27 bile acids, in reptiles and early evolving birds. C24 bile acids were present in all vertebrate classes, often with C27 alcohols or with C27 acids, indicating two evolutionary pathways from C27 bile alcohols to C24 bile acids: a) a ‘direct’ pathway and b) an ‘indirect’ pathway with C27 bile acids as intermediates. Hydroxylation at C-12 occurred in all orders and at C-16 in snakes and birds. Minor hydroxylation sites were C-1, C-2, C-5, C-6, and C-15. Side chain hydroxylation in C27 bile salts occurred at C-22, C-24, C-25, and C-26, and in C24 bile acids, at C-23 (snakes, birds, and pinnipeds). Unexpected was the presence of C27 bile alcohols in four early evolving mammals. Bile salt composition showed significant variation between orders but not between families, genera, or species. Bile salt composition is a biochemical trait providing clues to evolutionary relationships, complementing anatomical and genetic analyses. PMID:19638645

  7. Long-term variability in the deposition of marine ions at west coast sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network: impacts on surface water chemistry and significance for trend determination.

    PubMed

    Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; Harriman, R

    2001-01-29

    Eight lake sites in central and south-west Scotland, north-west England and north Wales, forming part of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (UKAWMN), have been studied with regard to the influence of marine ions on surface water chemistry. Since monitoring began in 1988 these sites have exhibited large and long-term variation in Cl concentration, which are consistent between regions and can be linked to inter-annual variations in wet deposition. Through regression analysis against Cl, the response of other solutes to these fluctuations has been assessed. Sites show a highly consistent pattern of Na, and Mg retention during periods of high Cl, in accordance with the 'sea-salt' mechanism of marine cation adsorption onto soil exchange sites following large marine inputs. An associated displacement of cations with non-marine sources is also observed, with one or more of non-marine Ca, labile Al and hydrogen ions exhibiting a positive relationship with Cl at all sites. The relative extent to which these are released appears not to follow a simple relationship to site acidity, and may be linked to site/region-specific geology and soil characteristics. In addition, an inverse relationship between non-marine SO4 and Cl is observed at five of the sites, and the possibility is considered that a sea-salt related process, with soil retention and subsequent release, may also operate for SO4. A mechanism that might explain this process is suggested. The impact of marine inputs on non-marine solutes, including important indicators of acidification such as pH, labile Al and non-marine SO4, has clear implications for the detection of long-term trends in acidity status and is, therefore, of particular relevance to the UKAWMN. Due to their unpredictability, and the long timescale over which they operate, fluctuations caused by marine inputs may be difficult to separate from acid deposition related long-term trends. Evidence from a longer Cl time series from mid-Wales shows that

  8. A Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Mutant with 234 Amino Acids in Capsid Protein Showed More Virulence In Vivo, Compared with Classical PCV2a/b Strain

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Yiping; Lu, Yuehua; Wei, Yanwu; Tang, Qinghai; Fan, Peihu; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Feiyan; Huang, Liping; Liu, Dan; Li, Shengbin; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide. The major genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b, are highly prevalent in the pig population and are present worldwide. However, another newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, which has a mutation in its ORF2-encoded capsid protein, has been sporadically present in China, as well as in other countries. It is therefore important to determine the relative virulence of the newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, compared with the existing PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes, and to investigate whether the newly emerging mutant virus induces more severe illness. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty healthy, 30-day-old, commercial piglets served as controls or were challenged with PCV2a, PCV2b and the newly emerging mutant virus. A series of indexes representing different parameters were adopted to evaluate virulence, including clinical signs, serological detection, viral load and distribution, changes in immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood, and evaluation of pathological lesions. The newly emerging PCV2 mutant demonstrated more severe signs compatible with PMWS, characterized by wasting, coughing, dyspnea, diarrhea, rough hair-coat and depression. Moreover, the pathological lesions and viremia, as well as the viral loads in lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen, were significantly more severe (P<0.05) for piglets challenged with the newly emerging mutant compared with those in the groups challenged with PCV2a and PCV2b. In addition, a significantly lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05) was recorded in the group challenged with the newly emerging PCV2 mutant than in the groups challenged with the prevailing PCV2a and PCV2b. Conclusions This is believed to be the first report to confirm the enhanced virulence of the newly emerging PCV2 mutant in vivo. PMID:22829951

  9. Case-control studies show that a non-conservative amino-acid change from a glutamine to arginine in the P2RX7 purinergic receptor protein is associated with both bipolar- and unipolar-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    McQuillin, A; Bass, N J; Choudhury, K; Puri, V; Kosmin, M; Lawrence, J; Curtis, D; Gurling, H M D

    2009-06-01

    Three linkage studies of bipolar disorder have implicated chromosome 12q24.3 with lod scores of over 3.0 and several other linkage studies have found lods between 2 and 3. Fine mapping within the original chromosomal linkage regions has identified several loci that show association with bipolar disorder. One of these is the P2RX7 gene encoding a central nervous system-expressed purinergic receptor. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A, G allele) and a microsatellite marker NBG6 were both previously found to be associated with bipolar disorder (P=0.00071 and 0.008, respectively). rs2230912 has also been found to show association with unipolar depression. The effect of the polymorphism is non-conservative and results in a glutamine to arginine change (Gln460Arg), which is likely to affect P2RX7 dimerization and protein-protein interactions. We have confirmed the allelic associations between bipolar disorder and the markers rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A, G allele, P=0.043) and NBG6 (P=0.010) in a London-based sample of 604 bipolar cases and 560 controls. When we combined these data with the published case-control studies of P2RX7 and mood disorder (3586 individuals) the association between rs2230912 (Gln460Arg) and affective disorders became more robust (P=0.002). The increase in Gln460Arg was confined to heterozygotes rather than homozygotes suggesting a dominant effect (odds ratio 1.302, CI=1.129-1.503). Although further research is needed to prove that the Gln460Arg change has an aetiological role, it is so far the most convincing mutation to have been found with a role for increasing susceptibility to bipolar and genetically related unipolar disorders.

  10. Identification of Significant Amino Acids in Multiple Transmembrane Domains of Human Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) for Activation by Eudesmol, an Oxygenized Sesquiterpene in Hop Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Takafumi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kitao, Sayoko; Ishida, Yuko; Kato, Kyoko; Takahashi, Chika; Katayama, Mikio; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel that is activated by various noxious or irritant substances in nature, including spicy compounds. Many TRPA1 chemical activators have been reported; however, only limited information is available regarding the amino acid residues that contribute to the activation by non-electrophilic activators, whereas activation mechanisms by electrophilic ligands have been well characterized. We used intracellular Ca2+ measurements and whole-cell patch clamp recordings to show that eudesmol, an oxygenated sesquiterpene present at high concentrations in the essential oil of hop cultivar Hallertau Hersbrucker, could activate human TRPA1. Gradual activation of inward currents with outward rectification by eudesmol was observed in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing human TRPA1. This activation was completely blocked by a TRPA1-specific inhibitor, HC03–0031. We identified three critical amino acid residues in human TRPA1 in putative transmembrane domains 3, 4, and 5, namely threonine at 813, tyrosine at 840, and serine at 873, for activation by β-eudesmol in a systematic mutational study. Our results revealed a new TRPA1 activator in hop essential oil and provide a novel insight into mechanisms of human TRPA1 activation by non-electrophilic chemicals. PMID:25525269

  11. Identification of significant amino acids in multiple transmembrane domains of human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) for activation by eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene in hop essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Takafumi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kitao, Sayoko; Ishida, Yuko; Kato, Kyoko; Takahashi, Chika; Katayama, Mikio; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-01-30

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel that is activated by various noxious or irritant substances in nature, including spicy compounds. Many TRPA1 chemical activators have been reported; however, only limited information is available regarding the amino acid residues that contribute to the activation by non-electrophilic activators, whereas activation mechanisms by electrophilic ligands have been well characterized. We used intracellular Ca(2+) measurements and whole-cell patch clamp recordings to show that eudesmol, an oxygenated sesquiterpene present at high concentrations in the essential oil of hop cultivar Hallertau Hersbrucker, could activate human TRPA1. Gradual activation of inward currents with outward rectification by eudesmol was observed in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing human TRPA1. This activation was completely blocked by a TRPA1-specific inhibitor, HC03-0031. We identified three critical amino acid residues in human TRPA1 in putative transmembrane domains 3, 4, and 5, namely threonine at 813, tyrosine at 840, and serine at 873, for activation by β-eudesmol in a systematic mutational study. Our results revealed a new TRPA1 activator in hop essential oil and provide a novel insight into mechanisms of human TRPA1 activation by non-electrophilic chemicals. PMID:25525269

  12. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  13. 12-HETER1/GPR31, a high-affinity 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid receptor, is significantly up-regulated in prostate cancer and plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Honn, Kenneth V; Guo, Yande; Cai, Yinlong; Lee, Menq-Jer; Dyson, Gregory; Zhang, Wenliang; Tucker, Stephanie C

    2016-06-01

    Previously we identified and deorphaned G-protein-coupled receptor 31 (GPR31) as the high-affinity 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE] receptor (12-HETER1). Here we have determined its distribution in prostate cancer tissue and its role in prostate tumorigenesis using in vitro and in vivo assays. Data-mining studies strongly suggest that 12-HETER1 expression positively correlates with the aggressiveness and progression of prostate tumors. This was corroborated with real-time PCR analysis of human prostate tumor tissue arrays that revealed the expression of 12-HETER1 positively correlates with the clinical stages of prostate cancers and Gleason scores. Immunohistochemistry analysis also proved that the expression of 12-HETER1 is positively correlated with the grades of prostate cancer. Knockdown of 12-HETER1 in prostate cancer cells markedly reduced colony formation and inhibited tumor growth in animals. To discover the regulatory factors, 5 candidate 12-HETER1 promoter cis elements were assayed as luciferase reporter fusions in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, where the putative cis element required for gene regulation was mapped 2 kb upstream of the 12-HETER1 transcriptional start site. The data implicate 12-HETER1 in a critical new role in the regulation of prostate cancer progression and offer a novel alternative target for therapeutic intervention.-Honn, K. V., Guo, Y., Cai, Y., Lee, M.-J., Dyson, G., Zhang, W., Tucker, S. C. 12-HETER1/GPR31, a high-affinity 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid receptor, is significantly up-regulated in prostate cancer and plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression. PMID:26965684

  14. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  15. Significant Influences of Elaborately Modulating Electron Donors on Light Absorption and Multichannel Charge-Transfer Dynamics for 4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl)benzoic Acid Dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erfeng; Yao, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yiqiang; Shao, Guosheng; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2016-07-20

    4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl)benzoic acid (BTEBA) as a promising electron acceptor has been used in the highly efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) recently. Because of its strong electron-deficient character, BTEBA could bring forth a remarkable decline in the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and further reduce the energy gap of dye molecules significantly. In this contribution, two metal-free organic dyes WEF1 and WEF2 were synthesized by simply combining BTEBA with two slightly tailored electron-releasing moieties: 4-hexylphenyl substituted indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (IDT) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene[2',1':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene (CPDTDT), which were screened rationally from an electron-donor pool via computational simulation. With respect to those of WEF1, WEF2-sensitized solar cells demonstrate a far better short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC) and open-circuit photovoltage (VOC), resulting in a ∼50% improved power conversion efficiency of 10.0% under irradiance of 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G sunlight. We resorted to theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, steady-state, and time-resolved spectroscopic methods to shed light on the fatal influences of elaborately modulating electron donors on light absorption, interfacial energetics, and multichannel charge-transfer dynamics.

  16. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in Combination with a Twice-Daily Lopinavir-Ritonavir-Based Regimen in HIV-Infected Women Showed Effective Contraception and a Lack of Clinically Significant Interactions, with Good Safety and Tolerability: Results of the ACTG 5283 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Susan E.; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Weinberg, Adriana; Livingston, Elizabeth; Klingman, Karin L.; Aweeka, Francesca; Watts, D. Heather

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug-drug interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and twice-daily lopinavir (LPV) plus low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (LPV/r) among 24 HIV-infected women and compared the results to those for HIV-infected women receiving DMPA while on no antiretroviral therapy or on nucleosides only (n = 14 subjects from the control arm of AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] study 5093). The objectives of the study were to address the effect of LPV/r on DMPA and to address the effect of DMPA on LPV/r therapy. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of LPV and RTV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured every 2 weeks after DMPA dosing through week 12. Although the MPA area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were statistically significantly increased in the study women on LPV/r compared to those in the historical controls, these increases were not considered clinically significant. There were no changes in LPV or RTV exposure after DMPA. DMPA was well tolerated, and suppression of ovulation was maintained. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01296152.) PMID:25624326

  17. A genome-wide scan shows significant linkage between bipolar disorder and chromosome 12q24.3 and suggestive linkage to chromosomes 1p22-21, 4p16, 6q14-22, 10q26 and 16p13.3.

    PubMed

    Ewald, H; Flint, T; Kruse, T A; Mors, O

    2002-01-01

    The present study reports a genomewide scan using linkage analysis for risk genes involved in bipolar disorder with 613 microsatellite markers including additional testing of promising regions. As previously published significant linkage was obtained at chromosome 12q24.3 with a two-point parametric lod score of 3.42 at D12S1639 including all members in both families (empirical P-value 0.00004, genome-wide P-value 0.0417). The multipoint parametric lod score at D12S1639 was 3.63 (genome-wide P-value 0.0265). At chromosome 1p22-p21 a parametric, affecteds-only two-point lod score of 2.75 at marker D1S216 was found (empirical P-value 0.0002, genome-wide P-value 0.1622). A three-point lod score of 2.98 (genome-wide P-value 0.1022) at D1S216, and a multipoint non-parametric analysis with a maximum NPL-all score of 17.60 (P-value 0.00079) at D1S216 further supported this finding. A number of additional loci on chromosomes 4p16, 6q14-q22, 10q26 and 16p13.3 yielded parametric lod scores around or above 2.

  18. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  19. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Distinct Effects of Sorbic Acid and Acetic Acid on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, J. W. A.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. J.; Hellingwerf, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness. PMID:25038097

  1. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  2. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  3. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  4. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  5. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  6. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  7. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  8. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  9. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  10. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  11. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid.

  12. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  13. Design Strategies for CeO2-MoO3 Catalysts for DeNOx and Hg(0) Oxidation in the Presence of HCl: The Significance of the Surface Acid-Base Properties.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huazhen; Wu, Qingru; Zhang, Tao; Li, Mingguan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Li, Junhua; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2015-10-20

    A series of CeMoOx catalysts with different surface Ce/Mo ratios was synthesized by a coprecipitation method via changing precipitation pH value. The surface basicity on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts (CeMoOx and VMo/Ti) was characterized and correlated to the durability and activity of catalyst for simultaneous elimination of NOx and Hg(0). The pH value in the preparation process affected the surface concentrations of Ce and Mo, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, and the acid-base properties over the CeMoOx catalysts. The O 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra and CO2-temperature programmed desorption (TPD) suggested that the surface basicity increased as the pH value increased. The existence of strong basic sites contributed to the deactivation effect of HCl over the VMo/Ti and CeMoOx catalysts prepared at pH = 12. For the CeMoOx catalysts prepared at pH = 9 and 6, the appearance of surface molybdena species replaced the surface -OH, and the existence of appropriate medium-strength basic sites contributed to their resistance to HCl poisoning in the SCR reaction. Moreover, these sites facilitated the adsorption and activation of HCl and enhanced Hg(0) oxidation. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of NH3 on Hg(0) oxidation was correlated with the competitive adsorption of NH3 and Hg(0) on acidic surface sites. Therefore, acidic surface sites may play an important role in Hg(0) adsorption. The characterization and balance of basicity and acidity of an SCR catalyst is believed to be helpful in preventing deactivation by acid gas in the SCR reaction and simultaneous Hg(0) oxidation.

  14. Design Strategies for CeO2-MoO3 Catalysts for DeNOx and Hg(0) Oxidation in the Presence of HCl: The Significance of the Surface Acid-Base Properties.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huazhen; Wu, Qingru; Zhang, Tao; Li, Mingguan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Li, Junhua; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2015-10-20

    A series of CeMoOx catalysts with different surface Ce/Mo ratios was synthesized by a coprecipitation method via changing precipitation pH value. The surface basicity on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts (CeMoOx and VMo/Ti) was characterized and correlated to the durability and activity of catalyst for simultaneous elimination of NOx and Hg(0). The pH value in the preparation process affected the surface concentrations of Ce and Mo, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, and the acid-base properties over the CeMoOx catalysts. The O 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra and CO2-temperature programmed desorption (TPD) suggested that the surface basicity increased as the pH value increased. The existence of strong basic sites contributed to the deactivation effect of HCl over the VMo/Ti and CeMoOx catalysts prepared at pH = 12. For the CeMoOx catalysts prepared at pH = 9 and 6, the appearance of surface molybdena species replaced the surface -OH, and the existence of appropriate medium-strength basic sites contributed to their resistance to HCl poisoning in the SCR reaction. Moreover, these sites facilitated the adsorption and activation of HCl and enhanced Hg(0) oxidation. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of NH3 on Hg(0) oxidation was correlated with the competitive adsorption of NH3 and Hg(0) on acidic surface sites. Therefore, acidic surface sites may play an important role in Hg(0) adsorption. The characterization and balance of basicity and acidity of an SCR catalyst is believed to be helpful in preventing deactivation by acid gas in the SCR reaction and simultaneous Hg(0) oxidation. PMID:26421943

  15. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  16. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  17. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  18. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  19. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  20. A polymorphic variant of human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I with a widespread distribution in Australian aborigines, CAI Australia-9 (8 Asp leads to Gly): purification, properties, amino acid substitution, and possible physiological significance of the variant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jones, G L; Shaw, D C

    1982-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase I (EC 4.2.1.1) purified from the pooled packed red blood cells of 100 individuals typed as heterozygous for the common Australian Aboriginal carbonic anhydrase I variant CAI Australia-9 had a slightly higher specific CO2 hydratase or esterase (toward p-nitrophenyl acetate) activity than the normal component and a higher Km and Vmax using the esterase substrate. The variant enzyme was slightly more resistant to heat inactivation. The extent of inhibition of both enzymes by the specific inhibitor acetazolamide was identical, as was their immunological behavior and the lability of the active-site zinc ion. The variant enzyme was more resistant to chloride inhibition. The physiological importance of this observation is discussed in the context of a proposed adaptive advantage of the variant gene in the arid western and central regions of Australia. The amino acid substitution in the Aboriginal variant of a glycine for an aspartic acid residue has been located at residue 8 from the N terminus (i.e., 8 Asp leads to Gly), by proteolytic and partial acid hydrolyses. The possible effects of this substitution on the structure and function of the molecule are discussed. PMID:6817746

  1. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  2. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  3. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Egloff, Caroline; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T.; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-06-15

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  4. Philippines: decentralized approach shows results.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    In the Philippines several steps have been taken to meet the challenge of increasing population growth. Commencing with the Republic Act 6365, known as the Population Act (1971) program directives focus on achieving and maintaining population levels most conducive to the national welfare. In 1978 a Special Committee was constituted by the President to review the population program. Pursuant to the Committee's findings certain changes were adopted. The thrust is now towards longterm planning to ensure a more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. Increasing attention is paid to regional development and spatial distribution in the country. The 1978-82 Development Plan states more clearly the interaction between population and development. The National Economic and Development Authority, the central policy and planning agency of the government, takes charge of formulation and coordinating the broader aspects of population policy and integrating population with socioeconomic plans and policies. At present the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) is implementing a project known as the Population/Development Planning and Research (PDPR) project with financial support from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). This project promotes and facilitates the integration of the population dimension in the planning process. It does this by maintaining linkages and instituting collaborative mechanisms with the different NEDA regional offices and sectoral ministries. It also trains government planners in ways of integrating population concerns into the development plan. PDPR promotes the use of population and development research for planning purposes and policy formation. The Philippine Development Plan, 1978-82, recognized that an improvement in the level of 1 sector reinforces the performance of the other sectors. Since the establishment of the National Population Program 12 years ago, population and family

  5. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  6. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  7. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  8. State Data Show Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Schools taking part in the federal Reading First program are showing significant progress in boosting students' reading fluency and comprehension, according to state-reported data compiled and released by the U.S. Department of Education last week. In releasing for the first time detailed, multiyear data on how Reading First schools are performing…

  9. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  10. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  11. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  12. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY HALL. SHOWING THE ORIGINAL ACIDSTAINED CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY HALL. SHOWING THE ORIGINAL ACID-STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR WITH INCISED STAR PATTERN. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type C, 208 Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg. PMID:25345394

  15. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg.

  16. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  17. The significance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

  18. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  19. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  20. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  1. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  2. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  3. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  4. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  5. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  6. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. NTZIP antisense plants show reduced chlorophyll levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Yu-Tao; Liu, Han-Hua; Yang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Nai-Hua; Zheng, Cheng Chao

    2004-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized a new photosynthetic tissue-specific gene NTZIP (Nicotiana tabacum leucine zipper) from tobacco (N. tabacum). Its deduced amino acid sequence has two highly conserved regions, leucine zipper and [EX(n)DEXRH](2) motifs, which are related to the gene's biochemical functions. NTZIP was expressed in leaves and stems, but was not detected in roots or flowers, suggesting that its physiological functions might be associated with photosynthesis. Northern blot analysis showed that NTZIP mRNA accumulation was induced by light signals, increased greatly under low temperatures and was repressed by strong light illumination. Furthermore, a number of homologs of NTZIP were isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), rape (Brassica napus), clover (Trifolium repens), willow (Salix babylonica), rosebush (Rusa dovurica), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea), proving the ubiquitous existence of the NTZIP-like genes in higher plants. Transgenic tobaccos constitutively expressing antisense RNA to NTZIP displayed chlorosis and a lack of ability to turn green even under normal growth conditions. The chlorophyll deficiency was further confirmed by chlorophyll content determination and gas exchange analysis. Based on these observations, we propose that NTZIP may be involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and might define a novel family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with its homologs in other plant species.

  8. Tales of significance.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect the male:female ratio compared with the untreated group. They claim that there is a statistically significant increase in the percentage of males produced and conclude that the drug affects sex ratios. PMID:27338560

  9. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    H. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

  10. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

  12. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids.

  13. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  14. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  15. Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping

    2011-01-21

    Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  19. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly.

  20. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That "Before" Is "Left".

    PubMed

    Bonato, Mario; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. PMID:27313902

  1. Improving powder flow properties of citric acid by crystal hydration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan

    2009-05-01

    A batch of poorly flowing citric acid anhydrate was exposed to 69.9% relative humidity to prepare pure monohydrate with nearly identical particle size and morphology but different surface properties. Flow properties of the powders were tested using a ring shear cell. Results show the hydration can significantly improve flow properties of anhydrous citric acid.

  2. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  3. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  4. The importance of 1,2-dithiolane structure in α-lipoic acid for the downregulation of cell surface β1-integrin expression of human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Soda, Shozen; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we show that cell surface β1-integrin expression, cell adhesion to fibronectin, migration, and invasion were all significantly inhibited by α-lipoic acid. These effects were not observed when cells were treated with dihydrolipoic acid or caprylic acid. These data reveal that the 1,2-dithiolane structure plays an important role in the action of α-lipoic acid.

  5. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  6. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  7. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation.

  8. Palmitate induces insulin resistance without significant intracellular triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-young; Cho, Hyang-Ki; Kwon, Young Hye

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies showed that increased release of free fatty acids from adipocytes leads to insulin resistance and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver, which may progress into hepatic steatohepatitis. We and other investigators have previously reported that palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated toxicity in several tissues. This work investigated whether palmitate could induce insulin resistance and steatosis in HepG2 cells. We treated cells with either saturated fatty acid (palmitate) or unsaturated fatty acid (oleate), and observed that palmitate significantly activated c-jun N-terminal kinase and inactivated protein kinase B. Both 4-phenylbutyric acid and glycerol significantly activated protein kinase B, confirming the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in palmitate-mediated insulin resistance. Oleate, but not palmitate, significantly induced intracellular TG deposition and activated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Instead, diacylglycerol level and protein kinase C epsilon activity were significantly increased by palmitate, suggesting the possible role of diacylglycerol in palmitate-mediated lipotoxicity. Therefore, the present study clearly showed that palmitate impairs insulin resistance, but does not induce significant TG accumulation in HepG2 cells. PMID:20006364

  9. "No-Shows": A Vexing Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    What can we learn about the applicants who do not show up on campus to register? This study suggests both a method for learning more about "no-shows" and the reasons why they change their mind. (Author)

  10. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  11. Significance of postshunt ventricular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Linder, M; Diehl, J T; Sklar, F H

    1981-08-01

    Ventricular asymmetries after shunt surgery were studied. Right and left ventricular areas from pre-and postoperative computerized tomography scans were measured with a computer digitizing technique, and the respective areas were expressed as a ratio. Measurements were made from the scans of 15 hydrocephalic children selected at random. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 101 weeks. The results indicate a significantly greater decrease in ventricular size on the side of the ventricular shunt catheter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between the magnitude of change in ventricular size and either the patients' age orn the time intervals between surgery and follow-up scans. Possible mechanisms for these postshunt ventricular asymmetries are discussed.

  12. Boric acid catalyzed chemoselective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Houston, Todd A; Wilkinson, Brendan L; Blanchfield, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Boric acid catalyzes the selective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids without causing significant esterification to occur with other carboxylic acids. The procedure is simple, high-yielding, and applicable to the esterification of alpha-hydroxy carboxylates in the presence of other carboxylic acids including beta-hydroxyacids within the same molecule. [reaction: see text

  13. "The Cosby Show": The View from the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inniss, Leslie B.; Feagin, Joe R.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the black middle-class response to "The Cosby Show." The study asked about the portrayal of blacks in the media, but did not specifically ask about "The Cosby Show." Results from 100 respondents revealed two significant aspects: that the show renders black problems as irrelevant and that it fosters hope and optimism that the black…

  14. A magnesium-carboxylate framework showing luminescent sensing for CS{sub 2} and nitroaromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhao-Feng; Tan, Bin; Feng, Mei-Ling; Du, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2015-03-15

    A magnesium metal-organic framework compound, namely [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Mg{sub 3}(NDC){sub 2.5}(HCO{sub 2}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 0.75}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.25}]·1.25DMF·0.75H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, DMF=N,N′-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized in solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. It features a three-dimensionally anionic framework with aligned channels parallel to the b-axis. Luminescent studies indicated that it showed significant luminescence quenching for carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) and nitrobenzene after being activated, at a content of only 3.0 and 0.1 vol% in DMF, respectively. In addition, the activated sample showed sensitive luminescence quenching for 1,3,5-trinitrophenol with a low concentration of 5×10{sup −5} mol/L. - Graphical abstract: Presented is a microporous 3D Mg-MOF, namely, [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Mg{sub 3}(NDC){sub 2.5}(HCO{sub 2}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 0.75}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.25}]·1.25DMF·0.75H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid) showing significant luminescence quenching for carbon disulfide and nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A microporous 3D metal-organic framework based on Mg. • The compound shows significant luminescence quenching for CS{sub 2} and nitrobenzene after activated. • The compound shows sensitive luminescence quenching for 1,3,5-trinitrophenol with a low concentration of 5×10{sup −5} mol/L.

  15. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  16. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  17. Action potential waveform voltage clamp shows significance of different Ca2+ channel types in developing ascidian muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dallman, Julia E; Dorman, Jennie B; Moody, William J

    2000-01-01

    Early in development, ascidian muscle cells generate spontaneous, long-duration action potentials that are mediated by a high-threshold, inactivating Ca2+ current. This spontaneous activity is required for appropriate physiological development.Mature muscle cells generate brief action potentials only in response to motor neuron input. The mature action potential is mediated by a high-threshold sustained Ca2+ current.Action potentials recorded from these two stages were imposed as voltage-clamp commands on cells of the same and different stages from which they were recorded. This strategy allowed us to study how immature and mature Ca2+ currents are optimized to their particular functions.Total Ca2+ entry during an action potential did not change during development. The developmental increase in Ca2+ current density exactly compensated for decreased spike duration. This compensation was a function purely of Ca2+ current density, not of the transition from immature to mature Ca2+ current types.In immature cells, Ca2+ entry was spread out over the entire waveform of spontaneous activity, including the interspike voltage trajectory. This almost continuous Ca2+ entry may be important in triggering Ca2+-dependent developmental programmes, and is a function of the slightly more negative voltage dependence of the immature Ca2+ current.In contrast, Ca2+ entry in mature cells was confined to the action potential itself, because of the slightly more positive voltage dependence of the mature Ca2+ current. This may be important in permitting rapid contraction-relaxation cycles during larval swimming.The inactivation of the immature Ca2+ current serves to limit the frequency and burst duration of spontaneous activity. The sustained kinetics of the mature Ca2+ current permit high-frequency firing during larval swimming. PMID:10766919

  18. Methylamphetamine synthesized from cold medication as precursor source via two different routes show significantly different stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, S.; Daeid, N. Nic; Kerr, W. J.; Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.

    2012-04-01

    This work exposes the variation in light element stable isotopic abundance values of 13C, 2H and 15N) derived from the analysis of methylamphetamine synthesized via 2 different synthetic routes popular with clandestine laboraties, the Hypophosphorous and the Moscow route. We repeatedly prepared the final product using known clandestine synthetic methods where the precursors, catalysts and reducing agents have themselves been derived from house hold products and commonly available cold medications. Methylamphetamine was prepared from both lab grade pseudoephedrine and pseudoephedrine extracted (using three different solvent systems) from Sudafed®, an over-the-counter cold medication widely available in the United Kingdom. Six repetitive batches of the final product were produced in each case to provide within and between batch variations thus yielding a total of 48 samples (24 for each route). We have demonstrated that stable isotope analysis by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is potentially useful in the comparison and discrimination of batches of methylamphetamine produced for each route and for each precursor depending on the solvent used for extracting the pseudoephedrine starting material. To our knowledge this is the first time multivariate stable isotope analysis has been applied to methylamphetamine samples synthesized from pseudoephedrine extracted from over-the-counter cold medications.

  19. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  20. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.

  1. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  2. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  3. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  4. Neuroprotection of a novel synthetic caffeic acid-syringic acid hybrid compound against experimentally induced transient cerebral ischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hye; Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Yeun, Go Heum; Yim, Yongbae; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Yun Lyul; Park, Jeong Ho; Won, Moo-Ho

    2013-03-01

    We investigated effects of caffeic acid, syringic acid, and their synthesis on transient cerebral ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region. In the 10 mg/kg caffeic acid-, syringic acid-, and 20 mg/kg syringic-treated ischemia groups, we did not find any significant neuroprotection in the ischemic hippocampal CA region. In the 20 mg/kg caffeic acid- and 10 mg/kg caffeic acid-syringic acid-treated ischemia groups, moderate neuroprotection was found in the hippocampal CA1 region. In the 20 mg/kg caffeic acid-syringic acid-treated ischemia group, a strong neuroprotective effect was found in the ischemic hippocampal CA1 region: about 89 % of hippocampal CA1 region pyramidal neurons survived. We also observed changes in glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) in the ischemic hippocampal CA1 region in all the groups. Among them, the distribution pattern of the glial cells was only in the 20 mg/kg caffeic acid-syringic acid-treated ischemia group similar to that in the sham group (control). In brief, 20 mg/kg caffeic acid-syringic acid showed a strong neuroprotective effect with an inhibition of glia activation in the hippocampal CA1 region induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

  5. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  6. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  7. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  8. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  9. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  10. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  11. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  12. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. PMID:27585901

  13. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  15. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  16. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  17. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  18. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid. PMID:27542478

  19. Influence of different forms of acidities on soil microbiological properties and enzyme activities at an acid mine drainage contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Tripathy, Subhasish; Equeenuddin, Sk Md; Panigrahi, M K

    2010-07-15

    Assessment of microbial parameters, viz. microbial biomass, fluorescence diacetate, microbial respiration, acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase and urease with respect to acidity helps in evaluating the quality of soils. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different forms of acidities on soil microbial parameters in an acid mine drainage contaminated site around coal deposits in Jainta Hills of India. Total potential and exchangeable acidity, extractable and exchangeable aluminium were significantly higher in contaminated soil compared to the baseline (p<0.01). Different forms of acidity were significantly and positively correlated with each other (p<0.05). Further, all microbial properties were positively and significantly correlated with organic carbon and clay (p<0.05). The ratios of microbial parameters with organic carbon were negatively correlated with different forms of acidity. Principal component analysis and cluster analyses showed that the microbial activities are not directly influenced by the total potential acidity and extractable aluminium. Though acid mine drainage affected soils had higher microbial biomass and activities due to higher organic matter content than those of the baseline soils, the ratios of microbial parameters/organic carbon indicated suppression of microbial growth and activities due to acidity stress. PMID:20417031

  20. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  1. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid. PMID:27407188

  2. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  3. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  4. Determination of hydroxyl radical production in aqueous solutions irradiated to clinically significant doses

    SciTech Connect

    Sagone, A.L. Jr.; Democko, C.; Clark, L.; Kartha, M.

    1983-02-01

    Decarboxylation of /sup 14/C-carboxylbenzoic acid in aqueous solutions after low-dose irradiation has been used to determine the relative magnitude of oxidation reactions and estimate the hydroxyl radicals produced. The G CO/sub 2/ values determined from these measurements of 0.4 to 1.0 mM solutions of benzoic acid after x-ray doses of 1000 rads ranged from 0.72 to 0.77, in excellent agreement with values reported by authors using much higher doses of radiation. Superoxide dismutase and catalase, known scavengers of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, did not show impairment of the oxidation of benzoic acid. On the other hand, biologically significant concentrations of phenol and mannitol appear to impair the radiation-induced oxidation of benzoic acid, indicating that the process is secondary to a reaction with OH . . We found that serum and glucose, common cell media contents, are potent OH . scavengers. These observations indicate that the oxidation of benzoic acid can be as a reliable method to estimate OH . with radiation doses of clinically significant magnitudes. In addition, these results suggest that the radiation induced by OH . in cell systems can be significantly modified by the type of buffer used.

  5. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  6. Amino acid metabolism in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, S; Azcón-Bieto, J; López-Soriano, F J; Miralpeix, M; Argilés, J M

    1988-01-01

    Mice bearing the Lewis lung carcinoma showed a high tumour glutaminase activity and significantly higher concentrations of most amino acids than in both the liver and the skeletal muscle of the host. Tumour tissue slices showed a marked preference for glutamine, especially for oxidation of its skeleton to CO2. It is proposed that the metabolism of this particular carcinoma is focused on amino acid degradation, glutamine being its preferred substrate. PMID:3342022

  7. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  8. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  9. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  10. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  11. Amino acids inhibit kynurenic acid formation via suppression of kynurenine uptake or kynurenic acid synthesis in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Airi; Okamoto, Misaki; Kanatani, Yuka; Sano, Mitsue; Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increase of brain KYNA levels is involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. KYNA-producing enzymes have broad substrate specificity for amino acids, and brain uptake of kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is via large neutral amino acid transporters (LAT). In the present study, to find out amino acids with the potential to suppress KYNA production, we comprehensively investigated the effects of proteinogenic amino acids on KYNA formation and KYN uptake in rat brain in vitro. Cortical slices of rat brain were incubated for 2 h in Krebs-Ringer buffer containing a physiological concentration of KYN with individual amino acids. Ten out of 19 amino acids (specifically, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine, alanine, cysteine, glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate) significantly reduced KYNA formation at 1 mmol/L. These amino acids showed inhibitory effects in a dose-dependent manner, and partially inhibited KYNA production at physiological concentrations. Leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, all LAT substrates, also reduced tissue KYN concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with their inhibitory rates for KYN uptake significantly correlated with KYNA formation. These results suggest that five LAT substrates inhibit KYNA formation via blockade of KYN transport, while the other amino acids act via blockade of the KYNA synthesis reaction in brain. Amino acids can be a good tool to modulate brain function by manipulation of KYNA formation in the brain. This approach may be useful in the treatment and prevention of neurological and psychiatric diseases associated with increased KYNA levels.

  12. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  13. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  14. Arabidopsis leaf necrosis caused by simulated acid rain is related to the salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Park, Jongbum; Im, Kyunghoan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Kyungyeoll; Park, Jung-An; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Dae-Sup; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sukchan

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis leaves treated with simulated acid rain (SiAR) showed phenotypes similar to necrotic lesions caused by biotic stresses like Pseudomonad infiltration. Exposure of Arabidopsis to SiAR resulted in the up-regulation of genes known to be induced by the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogen resistance response. The expression of enhanced disease susceptibility (EDS), nonexpressor of PR (NPR) and pathogen-related 1 (PR1), all of which are involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, were increased after SiAR exposure. However, vegetative storage protein (VSP), a member of the jasmonic acid pathway did not show a significant change in transcript level. SiAR treatment of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase (Nah-G), which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, underwent more extensive necrosis than wild-type plants, indicating that the signaling pathway activated by SiAR may overlap with the SA-dependent, systemic acquired resistance pathway. Both Col-0 and Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to SiAR and sulfuric SiAR (S-SiAR) by developing necrotic lesions. Neither Col-0 plants nor Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to nitric SiAR (N-SiAR). These results suggest that SiAR activates at least the salicylic acid pathway and activation of this pathway is sensitive to sulfuric acid.

  15. [Relationships between cadmium accumulation and organic acids in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a cadmium-hyperaccumulator].

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui-lian; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2006-04-01

    The influence of different cadmium concentrations on the organic acid level in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L., in particular, the relationship of organic acids with Cd accumulation in S. nigrum was investigated based on the pot-culture experiment. The results showed that the Cd concentration in S. nigrum leaves exceeded 100 microg x g(-1), the threshold value used to define Cd-hyperaccumulators, and the bioaccumulation coefficient of cadmium in shoots of S. nigrum was higher than 1 when Cd concentration in soil was 25 microg x g(-1). The level of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum had significant differences between the seedling stage and the mature stage. At the seedling stage, the sequence of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum was acetic acid> tartaric acid> malic acid> citric acid. On the contrary, the accumulation of organic acids in S. nigrum at the mature stage was approximately in the following sequence malic acid> tartaric acid, acetic acid> citric acid. The significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and the concentration of tartaric acid in leaves of S. nigrum was observed at the seedling stage, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and both acetic and citric acid concentrations at the mature stage. These results indicated that tartaric, acetic and citric acids in leaves of S. nigrum might act as the indication of Cd hyperaccumulation. PMID:16768003

  16. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion.

  17. Showing R-Rated Videos in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1990, there have been at least six published court decisions concerning teachers' use of controversial videos in public schools. A relevant district policy led the Colorado Supreme Court to uphold a teacher's termination for showing 12th graders an R-rated 1900 Bertolucci film on fascism. Implications are discussed. (MLH)

  18. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  19. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

  20. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  1. Streptococcus pneumonia YlxR at 1.35 {angstrom} shows a putative new fold.

    SciTech Connect

    Osipiuk, J.; Gornicki, P.; Maj, L.; Dementieva, I.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2001-11-01

    The structure of the YlxR protein of unknown function from Streptococcus pneumonia was determined to 1.35 Angstroms. YlxR is expressed from the nusA/infB operon in bacteria and belongs to a small protein family (COG2740) that shares a conserved sequence motif GRGA(Y/W). The family shows no significant amino-acid sequence similarity with other proteins. Three-wavelength diffraction MAD data were collected to 1.7 Angstroms from orthorhombic crystals using synchrotron radiation and the structure was determined using a semi-automated approach. The YlxR structure resembles a two-layer {alpha}/{beta} sandwich with the overall shape of a cylinder and shows no structural homology to proteins of known structure. Structural analysis revealed that the YlxR structure represents a new protein fold that belongs to the {alpha}-{beta} plait superfamily. The distribution of the electrostatic surface potential shows a large positively charged patch on one side of the protein, a feature often found in nucleic acid-binding proteins. Three sulfate ions bind to this positively charged surface. Analysis of potential binding sites uncovered several substantial clefts, with the largest spanning 3/4 of the protein. A similar distribution of binding sites and a large sharply bent cleft are observed in RNA-binding proteins that are unrelated in sequence and structure. It is proposed that YlxR is an RNA-binding protein.

  2. Streptococcus pneumonia YlxR at 1.35 Å shows a putative new fold

    PubMed Central

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Górnicki, Piotr; Maj, Luke; Dementieva, Irina; Laskowski, Roman; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the YlxR protein of unknown function from Streptococcus pneumonia was determined to 1.35 Å. YlxR is expressed from the nusA/infB operon in bacteria and belongs to a small protein family (COG2740) that shares a conserved sequence motif GRGA(Y/W). The family shows no significant amino-acid sequence similarity with other proteins. Three-wavelength diffraction MAD data were collected to 1.7 Å from orthorhombic crystals using synchrotron radiation and the structure was determined using a semi-automated approach. The YlxR structure resembles a two-layer α/β sandwich with the overall shape of a cylinder and shows no structural homology to proteins of known structure. Structural analysis revealed that the YlxR structure represents a new protein fold that belongs to the α–β plait superfamily. The distribution of the electrostatic surface potential shows a large positively charged patch on one side of the protein, a feature often found in nucleic acid-binding proteins. Three sulfate ions bind to this positively charged surface. Analysis of potential binding sites uncovered several substantial clefts, with the largest spanning 3/4 of the protein. A similar distribution of binding sites and a large sharply bent cleft are observed in RNA-binding proteins that are unrelated in sequence and structure. It is proposed that YlxR is an RNA-binding protein. PMID:11679764

  3. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  4. Effect of vitamin C-releasing acetylsalicylic acid on gastric mucosal damage before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Konturek, Peter C; Kania, Joanna; Gessner, Uwe; Konturek, Stanisław J; Hahn, Eckhart G; Konturek, Jan W

    2004-12-15

    The interaction between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as acetylsalicylic acid is still controversial. This study was designed to compare the effect of acetylsalicylic acid and vitamin C-releasing acetylsalicylic acid on the gastric mucosal damage and microbleeding before and after eradication of H. pylori in 10 young healthy volunteers. Acetylsalicylic acid induced significantly more gastric lesions and higher microbleeding than acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C. After successful H. pylori eradication therapy, acetylsalicylic acid induced significantly higher mucosal lesions and microbleeding than before eradication. In contrast, after acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C, gastric lesion index was significantly lower and eradication therapy failed to aggravate it. All H. pylori-positive subjects showed significant up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Plain acetylsalicylic acid stronger than acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C reduced gastric gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes. H. pylori eradication significantly decreased expression of these enzymes and this was further enhanced by plain acetylsalicylic acid, but not acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C. Under plain acetylsalicylic acid therapy, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines was increased before and after eradication of H. pylori. We conclude that vitamin C combined with acetylsalicylic acid, unlike plain acetylsalicylic acid without vitamin C, protects gastric mucosa in man probably due the attenuation of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines.

  5. The clinical significance of CA-125 in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sun; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, JungHan; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Hoil; Lee, JaeHo; Lee, Choon-Taek; Park, Jong Sun

    2013-03-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is usually elevated in ovarian cancer. However, there are several reports that serum CA-125 is elevated in tuberculosis. This study investigated the clinical significance of serum CA-125 measurements in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Between September 2008 and March 2011, Serum CA-125 was measured in patients with active pulmonary TB before treatment (baseline), and 6 and 12 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. Patients with pulmonary TB confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB-PCR) were included. The study enrolled 100 patients. The mean serum CA-125 was 38.9 ± 41.4 U/ml (reference value, <35 U/ml). Thirty-eight patients showed elevated CA-125. Significantly more of those with elevated CA-125 were female (p < 0.001), and had a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) (p = 0.030). They also significantly more showed extensive pulmonary lesions on chest X-ray (p = 0.004). Elevated CA-125 was independently associated with female gender (OR = 12.5, 95% CI: 3.4-45.2), positive acid-fast staining of sputum (OR = 6.0, 95% CI: 1.8-19.7), cavitary lung lesion (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-12.9), and involvement of more than one lung on chest X-ray (OR = 9.4, 95% CI: 2.2-40.1). The CA-125 level decreased with anti-TB treatment (p = 0.001). Serum CA-125 was related to the activity and severity of pulmonary TB, and it may be useful in the monitoring of therapeutic responses in certain cases of active pulmonary TB, especially in female patients of active pulmonary TB. PMID:23414674

  6. Longitudinal distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids in the marine aerosols from the central Pacific including equatorial upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, Mir Md. Mozammal; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-03-01

    Remote marine aerosol samples (total suspended particles) were collected during a cruise in the central Pacific from Japan to Mexico (1°59'N-35°N and 171°54'E-90°58'W). The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), ω-oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids as well as organic and elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon, and total nitrogen (WSTN). During the study, diacids were the most abundant compound class followed by fatty acids, ω-oxoacids, and α-dicarbonyls. Molecular compositions of diacids showed a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid comprises 74% of total diacids. This result suggests that photochemical production of oxalic acid is significant over the central Pacific. Spatial distributions of diacids, ω-oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids together with total carbon and WSTN showed higher abundances in the eastern equatorial Pacific where the upwelling of high-nutrient waters followed by high biological productivity is common, indicating that their in situ production is important in the warmer central Pacific through photochemical oxidation from their gaseous and particulate precursors. This study demonstrates that there is a strong linkage in biogeochemical cycles of carbon in the sea-air interface via ocean upwelling, phytoplankton productivity, sea-to-air emissions of organic matter, and formation of secondary organic aerosols in the eastern equatorial Pacific.

  7. Uptake mechanism of valproic acid in human placental choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).

    PubMed

    Ushigome, F; Takanaga, H; Matsuo, H; Tsukimori, K; Nakano, H; Ohtani, H; Sawada, Y

    2001-04-13

    Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. However, valproic acid is known to show fetal toxicity, including teratogenicity. In the present study, to elucidate the mechanisms of valproic acid transport across the blood-placental barrier, we carried out transcellular transport and uptake experiments with human placental choriocarcinoma epithelial cells (BeWo cells) in culture. The permeability coefficient of [3H]valproic acid in BeWo cells for the apical-to-basolateral flux was greater than that for the opposite flux, suggesting a higher unidirectional transport in the fetal direction. The uptake of [3H]valproic acid from the apical side was temperature-dependent and enhanced under acidic pH. In the presence of 50 microM carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxylhydrazone, the uptake of [3H]valproic acid was significantly reduced. A metabolic inhibitor, 10 mM sodium azide, also significantly reduced the uptake of [3H]valproic acid. Therefore, valproic acid is actively transported in a pH-dependent manner on the brush-border membrane of BeWo cells. Kinetic analysis of valproic acid uptake revealed the involvement of a non-saturable component and a saturable component. The Michaelis constant for the saturable transport (K(t)) was smaller under acidic pH, suggesting a proton-linked active transport mechanism for valproic acid in BeWo cells. In the inhibitory experiments, some short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid, lactic acid, propanoic acid and butyric acid, and medium-chain fatty acids, such as hexanoic acid and octanoic acid, inhibited the uptake of [3H]valproic acid. The uptake of [3H]valproic acid was also significantly decreased in the presence of 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, salicylic acid and furosemide, which are well-known inhibitors of the anion exchange system. Moreover, p-aminohippuric acid significantly reduced the uptake of [3H]valproic acid. These results suggest that an active transport

  8. Idaho State University Physics Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shropshire, Steve

    2009-05-01

    The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

  9. Research shows targeted HIV prevention succeeds.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Systematic reviews of HIV prevention intervention literature for the target populations of African-Americans, Latinos, youths, and men who have sex with men in the United States shows that targeted interventions work in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Interventions that succeeded were culturally sensitive, of longer duration, and included skills training, according to a project supported by the Surgeon General's Leadership Campaign on AIDS and teh California HealthCare Foundation in Oakland. PMID:12206092

  10. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  11. Significance of selected lineaments in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drahovzal, J. A.; Neathery, T. L.; Wielchowsky, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Four lineaments in the Alabama Appalachians that appear on ERTS-1 imagery have been geologically analysed. Two of the lineaments appear to have regional geologic significance, showing relationships to structural and stratigraphic frameworks, water and mineral resources, geophysical anomalies, and seismicity. The other two lineaments are of local geologic significance, but, nevertheless, have important environmental implications.

  12. Production of gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid by Klebsiella aerogenes NCTA 418.

    PubMed

    Neijssel, O M; Tempest, D W

    1975-10-27

    2-Ketogluconic acid and, to a lesser extent, gluconic acid were found to be major products of glucose catabolism by phosphate-limited cultures of Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418, and together accounted for up to 46% of the glucose carbon that was metabolized. Although the concentrations of both acids increased substantially at low growth rates, their specific rates of synthesis decreased markedly, ad did the proportion of glucose converted into these products. Determination of the affinity constant, for glucose, of phosphate-limited organisms showed it ot be not significantly different from that of glucose-limited organisms (KS less than or equal to 50 muM), indicative of the phosphotransferase uptake system. And since these organisms possessed an active glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and had no detectable glucose dehydrogenase activity, it was concluded that gluconic acid and 2-keto-gluconic acid arose from their corresponding phosphorylated metabolites, and not directly from glucose.

  13. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  14. Plasma amino acid profiles at various reproductive stages in female rats

    PubMed Central

    OKAME, Rieko; NAKAHARA, Keiko; MURAKAMI, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We measured the plasma levels of amino acids at various reproductive stages in female rats, including the estrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation, and compared the resulting amino acid profiles using two- or three-dimensional figures. These figures revealed that the amino acid profiles of pregnant and lactating dams differed considerably from those during the estrous cycle or in male rats. The plasma levels of individual amino acids were almost the same between proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus, and their profiles did not differ significantly. However, the amino acid profiles changed during pregnancy and lactation in dams. The plasma Ser level decreased significantly in mid and late pregnancy, whereas Tyr, Gly and His decreased significantly in the late and end stages of pregnancy, and Trp and Lys significantly decreased and increased at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Much larger changes in amino acid profiles were observed during lactation, when the levels of many amino acids increased significantly, and none showed a significant decrease. Plasma Pro, Ser and Gly levels increased continuously from day 1 until day 15 of lactation, whereas Asn and Met increased significantly from days 1 and 5 respectively until the end of lactation. These results suggest that the profiles of plasma amino acids show characteristic changes according to reproductive stage and that it may be necessary to consider such differences when performing amino acid-based diagnosis. PMID:25787929

  15. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  16. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  17. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  18. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  19. Software for portable laser light show system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  20. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  1. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  2. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  3. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content.

    PubMed

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen's viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  4. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  5. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  6. New AIDS estimates show demographic changes.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HIV epidemic's rate of increase has slowed to about three percent per year, with the incidence of AIDS cases estimated to have decreased in the West. The latest epidemic figures, reported through 1994 in the CDC's HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, puts the total of reported AIDS cases in the United States at 441,528. The implementation of the new AIDS definition in 1993 has distorted surveillance trends--six out of ten AIDS cases are now reported using the new CD4 criterion instead of the pre-1993 case definitions. An unpublished analysis of the epidemic shows a shift toward fewer gay men, more injection drug users, and more women becoming infected. However, the CDC contends that more heterosexuals are being infected and more racial and ethnic minorities are being infected. PMID:11362433

  7. Clinical significance of autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Antimitochondrial, anti-gp210, anti-sp100, and anticentromere antibodies are specifically detected in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In clinical practice, they are useful for the diagnosis of PBC or for evaluating disease severity, clinical phenotype, and long-term outcome. In the typical or classical form of PBC which shows slow progressive loss of small bile ducts with a parallel increase in liver fibrosis, anti-gp210 antibodies are a strong risk factor for progression to jaundice and hepatic failure, whereas the presence of anticentromere antibodies is a risk factor for progression to cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Of note, the autoimmune repertoire, which is established during the early stage of the disease process, can influence the clinical phenotype and the long-term prognosis of PBC. Because the natural course of PBC is being altered by treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, the clinical significance of these PBC-specific autoantibodies awaits re-evaluation in various ethnicities.

  8. VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature

  9. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert; Andersen, Jon T.; Petersen, Morten; Afzal, Shoaib; Hjelvang, Brian; Weimann, Allan; Semba, Richard D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between nucleic acid oxidation and various iron status markers and especially a close relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and ferritin. This study shows no association between low-grade inflammation and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in a population of elderly Italian people. The results suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas iron status seems to be of great importance. PMID:21275071

  10. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  11. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  12. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipid obtained from children suffering from kwashiorkor and marasmus.

    PubMed

    Vajreswari, A; Narayanareddy, K; Rao, P S

    1990-08-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane (EM) lipids obtained from normal, kwashiorkor, and marasmic children was analyzed by gas chromatography. The proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) was lower and of oleic acid (18:1) higher in the kwashiorkor group than in the control group. The marasmic group showed lower proportions of eicosatrienoic acid (20:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) and a higher proportion of oleic acid (18:1) than the control group. A significant difference was found between the marasmic and kwashiorkor groups with respect to arachidonic acid (20:4), which showed a lower proportion in the former group than the latter. The ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid (20:4/18:2) was markedly lower in the marasmic group than the control group, suggesting a possible impairment in the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in marasmic children. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was markedly elevated in the kwashiorkor group over that of control group, indicating increased fluidity of EM in kwashiorkor. It is suggested that the altered membrane fatty acid composition reflects deranged lipid metabolism and affects the physical and physiological properties of EM and could contribute to changes in the activities of several red blood cell membrane-bound enzymes reported earlier in kwashiorkor children.

  13. Essential fatty acid nutrition of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Staton, M A; Edwards, H M; Brisbin, I L; Joanen, T; McNease, L

    1990-07-01

    The essential fatty acid (EFA) nutrition of young American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) was examined by feeding a variety of fats/oils with potential EFA activity. Over a 12-wk period, alligators fed diets containing 2.5 or 5.0% chicken liver oil grew longer and heavier and converted feed to body mass more efficiently than alligators fed other fat/oil combinations that lacked or contained only trace amounts of arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)]. Alligators fed an EFA-deficient diet (containing only coconut fat as the dietary fat) were the slowest-growing animals and converted feed to body mass least efficiently. However, over a 41-wk feeding period, alligators fed this diet showed no obvious external signs of deficiency other than being reduced in size and unthrifty. Fatty acid composition of heart, liver, muscle, skin and adipose tissue lipids was influenced markedly by dietary fat composition. Tissues varied significantly in response to dietary fat composition. Heart lipids contained the lowest levels of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and the highest levels of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid levels were less influenced by diet than were levels of other 20- and 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. Radiotracer studies indicated that linoleic acid was converted to arachidonic acid in the liver. Nevertheless, tissue arachidonic acid levels also appeared to be maintained by concentration from dietary sources and selective conservation. It appears that a dietary source of arachidonic acid may be required for a maximum rate of growth.

  14. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-10-15

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  15. Effects of elaidic acid, a predominant industrial trans fatty acid, on bacterial growth and cell surface hydrophobicity of lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart disease in human, and there are no effective ways to remove TFAs after consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elaidic acid on bacterial growth, cell surface hydrophobicity of lactobacilli, and metabolism of elaidic acid by lactobacilli. Lactobacilli were inoculated in MRS broth containing 0, 100, 200, and 500 mg/L of elaidic acid. Viable cell counts of lactobacilli were enumerated, concentrations of elaidic acid were determined, and cell surface hydrophobicity of lactobacilli was measured. The results showed that the growth of lactobacilli was significantly inhibited by 500 mg/L of elaidic acid, however, a cell count of 8.50 log10 CFU/mL was still reached for tested lactobacilli after 24-h incubation. In particular, a reduction of elaidic acid was found for tested lactobacilli after 24-h incubation as compared to its initial concentration of 200 mg/L. However, cell surface hydrophobicity showed no correlations with the metabolism of elaidic acid by lactobacilli. Moreover, elaidic acid was able to influence cell surface hydrophobicity, and the decrease in hydrophobicity was more obvious in Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus casei compared with that in other tested lactobacilli. This study suggests that elaidic acid could change physiochemical surface properties of lactobacilli and the lactobacilli have the potential to reduce TFAs.

  16. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  17. [Forensic significance of depressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lammel, M

    1987-10-01

    The three chief problems arising when an expert opinion is to be given are dealt with in brief, and the forensic significance of the depressive syndrome is described, without entering into the question of giving an opinion as to responsibility.

  18. Alpha-keto acids are novel siderophores in the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella and are produced by amino acid deaminases.

    PubMed Central

    Drechsel, H; Thieken, A; Reissbrodt, R; Jung, G; Winkelmann, G

    1993-01-01

    Growth promotion and iron transport studies revealed that certain alpha-keto acids generated by amino acid deaminases, by enterobacteria of the Proteus-Providencia-Morganella group (of the tribe Proteeae), show significant siderophore activity. Their iron-binding properties were confirmed by the chrome azurol S assay and UV spectra. These compounds form ligand-to-metal charge transfer bands in the range of 400 to 500 nm. Additional absorption bands of the enolized ligands at 500 to 700 nm are responsible for color formation. Siderophore activity was most pronounced with alpha-keto acids possessing an aromatic or heteroaromatic side chain, like phenylpyruvic acid and indolylpyruvic acid, resulting from deamination of phenylalanine and tryptophan, respectively. In addition, alpha-keto acids possessing longer nonpolar side chains, like alpha-ketoisocaproic acid or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid and even alpha-ketoadipic acid, also showed siderophore activity which was absent or negligible with smaller alpha-keto acids or those possessing polar functional groups, like pyruvic acid, alpha-ketobutyric acid, or alpha-ketoglutaric acid. The fact that deaminase-negative enterobacteria, like Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., could not utilize alpha-keto acids supports the view that specific iron-carboxylate transport systems have evolved in members of the tribe Proteeae and are designed to recognize ferric complexes of both alpha-hydroxy acids and alpha-keto acids, of which the latter can easily be generated by L-amino acid deaminases in an amino acid-rich medium. Exogenous siderophores, like ferric hydroxamates (ferrichromes) and ferric polycarboxylates (rhizoferrin and citrate), were also utilized by members of the tribe Proteeae. Images PMID:8478334

  19. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  20. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  1. Critical aspartic acid residues in pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, V; Swann, S L; Paulson, J L; Spedaliere, C J; Mueller, E G

    1999-08-01

    The pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine at particular positions in certain RNA molecules. Genomic data base searches and sequence alignments using the first four identified pseudouridine synthases led Koonin (Koonin, E. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2411-2415) and, independently, Santi and co-workers (Gustafsson, C., Reid, R., Greene, P. J., and Santi, D. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3756-3762) to group this class of enzyme into four families, which display no statistically significant global sequence similarity to each other. Upon further scrutiny (Huang, H. L., Pookanjanatavip, M., Gu, X. G., and Santi, D. V. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 344-351), the Santi group discovered that a single aspartic acid residue is the only amino acid present in all of the aligned sequences; they then demonstrated that this aspartic acid residue is catalytically essential in one pseudouridine synthase. To test the functional significance of the sequence alignments in light of the global dissimilarity between the pseudouridine synthase families, we changed the aspartic acid residue in representatives of two additional families to both alanine and cysteine: the mutant enzymes are catalytically inactive but retain the ability to bind tRNA substrate. We have also verified that the mutant enzymes do not release uracil from the substrate at a rate significant relative to turnover by the wild-type pseudouridine synthases. Our results clearly show that the aligned aspartic acid residue is critical for the catalytic activity of pseudouridine synthases from two additional families of these enzymes, supporting the predictive power of the sequence alignments and suggesting that the sequence motif containing the aligned aspartic acid residue might be a prerequisite for pseudouridine synthase function.

  2. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  3. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Catalytic effect of water, formic acid, or sulfuric acid on the reaction of formaldehyde with OH radicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weichao; Du, Benni; Qin, Zhenglong

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, for the hydrogen abstraction reaction of HCHO by OH radicals assisted by water, formic acid, or sulfur acid, the possible reaction mechanisms and kinetics have been investigated theoretically using quantum chemistry methods and transition-state theory. The potential energy surfaces calculated at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(df,pd)//MP2(full)/6-311++G(df,pd) levels of theory reveal that, due to the formation of strong hydrogen bond(s), the relative energies of the transition states involving catalyst are significantly reduced compared to that reaction without catalyst. However, the kinetics calculations show that the rate constants are smaller by about 3, 9, or 10 orders of magnitude for water, formic acid, or sulfur acid assisted reactions than that uncatalyzed reaction, respectively. Consequently, none of the water, formic acid, or sulfur acid can accelerate the title reaction in the atmosphere.

  5. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  6. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  7. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  8. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  9. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  10. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Juergen

    2013-11-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance.

  11. Evaluation of the morphological changes of gastric mucosa induced by a low concentration of acetic acid using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Oral ingestion of concentrated acetic acid causes corrosive injury of the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the effects of a low concentration of acetic acid on gastric mucosa, we examined the gastric mucosal changes in rats at 1 and 3 days after the injection of 5% or 25% acetic acid into the gastric lumen. The area of the gastric ulcerative lesions in the 25% acetic acid group was significantly larger than that in the 5% acetic acid group. The lesion area was reduced significantly at 3 days after injection in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas no significant difference in lesion area was observed at 1 and 3 days in the 25% acetic acid group. Histologically, corrosive necrosis was limited to the mucosal layer in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas necrosis extended throughout the gastric wall in the 25% acetic acid group. At 3 days post-injection, the 25% acetic acid group showed widespread persistent inflammation, whereas the 5% acetic acid group showed widespread appearance of fibroblasts indicative of a healing process. These results indicate that a low concentration of acetic acid damages the gastric mucosa and that the degree of mucosal damage depends on the concentration of acetic acid.

  12. Novel biomarkers of the metabolism of caffeic acid derivatives in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rechner, A R; Spencer, J P; Kuhnle, G; Hahn, U; Rice-Evans, C A

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate biomarkers of the bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamate derivatives through the determination of the pharmacokinetics of their urinary elimination and identification of the metabolites excreted. Coffee was used as a rich source of caffeic acid derivatives and human supplementation was undertaken. The results show a highly significant increase in the excretion of ferulic, isoferulic, dihydroferulic acid (3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid), and vanillic acid postsupplementation relative to the levels presupplementation. Thus, ferulic, isoferulic, and dihydroferulic acids are specific biomarkers for the bioavailability and metabolism of dietary caffeic acid esters. Isoferulic acid is a unique biomarker as it is not a dietary component, however, dihydroferulic acid may well derive from other flavonoids with a structurally related B-ring. 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid has also been identified as an indicator for bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds, and shows a highly significant excretion increase postsupplementation. The results reveal isoferulic acid (and possibly dihydroferulic acid) as novel markers of caffeoyl quinic acid metabolism.

  13. Fucosterol, a sterol extracted from Sargassum fusiforme, shows antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xing-Hua; Quan, Ying-Chun; Jiang, Hai-Ying; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Qu, You-Le; Guan, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that extracts of Sargassum fusiforme significantly reduce immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, suggesting that these extracts possess antidepressant-like effects. Here, fucosterol extracted from S. fusiforme was evaluated for antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice. Fucosterol (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg) significantly shortened immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test for30min after treatment but had no effect on locomotor activity in the open field test. Fucosterol significantly increased serotonin, norepinephrine and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in mouse brain, suggesting that the effects of fucosterol may be mediated through these neurotransmitters. As assessed using maximal electroshock, fucosterol (20, 40, 100mg/kg) possessed anticonvulsant activity, whereas rotarod toxicity test results indicated that fucosterol did not induce neurotoxicity at the same dose levels in mice. Thus, fucosterol may be a useful antidepressant adjunct candidate for treating depression in patients with epilepsy. A significant increase in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels was found in the fucosterol 20mg/kg group (P<0.05). Our findings suggested that fucosterol may possess an antidepressant-like effect, which may be mediated by increasing central BDNF levels. PMID:26515446

  14. VO2+ complexation by bioligands showing keto-enol tautomerism: a potentiometric, spectroscopic, and computational study.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Varnágy, Katalin; Timári, Sarolta; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2011-10-17

    The interaction of VO(2+) ion with ligands of biological interest that are present in important metabolic pathways--2-oxopropanoic acid (pyruvic acid, pyrH), 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropanoic acid (3-hydroxypyruvic acid, hydpyrH), oxobutanedioic acid (oxalacetic acid, oxalH(2)), (S)-hydroxybutanedioic acid (l-malic acid, malH(2)), and 2,3-dihydroxy-(E)-butanedioic acid (dihydroxyfumaric acid, dhfH(2))--was described. Their complexing capability was compared with that of similar ligands: 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (hydbut) and 3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione (squaric acid, squarH(2)). All of these ligands (except l-malic acid) exhibit keto-enol tautomerism, and the presence of a metal ion can influence such an equilibrium. The different systems were studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopies and with pH potentiometry. Density functional theory (DFT) methods provide valuable information on the relative energy of the enol and keto forms of the ligands both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, on the geometry of the complexes, and on EPR and electronic absorption parameters. The results show that most of the ligands behave like α-hydroxycarboxylates, forming mono- and bis-chelated species with (COO(-), O(-)) coordination, demonstrating that the metal ion is able to stabilize the enolate form of some ligands. With dihydroxyfumaric acid, the formation of a non-oxidovanadium(IV) complex, because of rearrangement of dihydroxyfumaric to dihydroxymaleic acid (dhmH(2)), can be observed. With 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione, complexation of VO(2+) does not take place and the reason for this behavior is explained by chemical considerations and computational calculations. PMID:21902189

  15. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  16. Comparison and combination effects on antioxidant power of curcumin with gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and xanthone.

    PubMed

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-04-01

    Curcumin has been extensively reported as a potential natural antioxidant. However, there was no data on activity comparison as well as the biological interactions of curcumin with other natural antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant power of curcumin in comparison with three important natural antioxidants; gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and xanthone on free radical scavenging action and their combination effects on this activity. The results indicated that the activities of these compounds were dose-dependent. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of curcumin was found to be 11 μg/mL. Curcumin showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid and xanthone but less than gallic acid. Interestingly, curcumin revealed synergistic antioxidant effect when combined with gallic acid whereas the antagonistic effect occurred in curcumin combination with ascorbic acid or xanthone. These results suggest that curcumin-gallic acid combination is the potential antioxidant mixture to be used in place of the individual substance whereas using of curcumin in combination with ascorbic acid or xanthone should be avoid.

  17. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  18. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bagal, Vikrant Laxman; Khatta, Vinod Kumar; Tewatia, Bachu Singh; Sangwan, Sandeep Kumar; Raut, Subhash Shamrao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10). Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1%) along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline) without affecting growth performance of birds. PMID:27182133

  19. Analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured Cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, F Q; Feng, K; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2009-07-12

    Ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured C. sinensis and Cordyceps militaris were first determined using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The conditions such as the amount of reagent, temperature and time for TMS derivatization of analytes were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity within the tested ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 14 investigated compounds were less than 3.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The results showed that palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and ergosterol are main components in natural and cultured Cordyceps which could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on the contents of 14 investigated compounds or the 4 fatty acids, where the contents of palmitic acid and oleic acid in natural Cordyceps are significantly higher than those in the cultured ones.

  20. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  1. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  2. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  3. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  4. Plasma dopamine: regulation and significance.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, G R

    1983-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) normally circulates in plasma. The plasma concentration of the free form of DA is approximately equivalent to that of epinephrine (E) and 20% that of norepinephrine (NE). The free form constitutes less than 2% of total plasma DA, and the remainder exists predominantly as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. DA is found in adrenal medulla and cortex, peripheral nerves, sympathetic ganglia, carotid body, and kidney, but quantitatively the origin of circulating DA remains poorly understood. Plasma concentrations of free DA increase in association with events that increase sympathetic tone, although to a much lesser degree than seen for NE or E. Thus, upright posture, bicycle exercise, a variety of emotional and physical stresses, and hypoglycemia may be associated with increases in plasma free DA. Plasma DA decreases during the course of dietary sodium depletion in humans, in contrast to the plasma NE response, and consistent with a physiological role for DA in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. Plasma DA increases after administration of its precursor L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, together with the decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa. Plasma NE and (in some studies) plasma DA decrease after administration of the DA receptor agonist bromocriptine. In contrast, plasma DA and one of its major metabolites, homovanillic acid, increase after administration of the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol. Administration of the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin into the brain increases central sympathetic outflow, thus increasing plasma DA concentration, although to a lesser extent than for NE or E. Disordered basal concentrations of DA in plasma or disordered responses of plasma DA have been reported in a number of disease states. Clear understanding of physiological roles of DA in plasma and of its pathophysiology awaits definition. PMID:6413258

  5. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  6. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinpu; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Jinjun; Cao, Xining; Zhou, Yue; Weng, Huali; Long, Chunlan; Zhang, Deying; Tu, Shengfen; Zhang, Yan; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu) and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley) pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10) and normal control group (n = 10). HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  7. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinpu; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Jinjun; Cao, Xining; Zhou, Yue; Weng, Huali; Long, Chunlan; Zhang, Deying; Tu, Shengfen; Zhang, Yan; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu) and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley) pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10) and normal control group (n = 10). HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder. PMID:27275115

  8. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  9. Effects of amino acids on the physiochemical properties of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Fang, Ling; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong

    2014-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different amino acid additives (phenylalanine (Phe), methionine (Met), lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the physicochemical properties of potato starch gels. Charge-carrying amino acids (Lys, Arg, Asp and Glu) significantly decreased the swelling power, solubility, light transmittance, L(∗) value and gel strength of potato starch, but increased syneresis during freeze-thaw treatment, while neutral amino acids (Phe and Met) did not cause modifications in starch gels. During heating, potato starch with fortified charge-carrying amino acids showed a lower peak G' (storage modulus), when compared with Phe and Met. Results showed that charge-carrying amino acids could modify physicochemical properties and improve the nutritional values of starch-based products.

  10. Tranexamic acid in control of haemorrhage after dental extraction in haemophilia and Christmas disease.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C D; Barr, R D; Reid, G; Thomson, C; Prentice, C R; McNicol, G P; Douglas, A S

    1972-05-01

    In a double-blind trial tranexamic acid (AMCA, Cyclokapron), 1 g three times a day for five days, significantly reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements after dental extraction in patients with haemophilia and Christmas disease. No side effects were seen in either group of patients. Screening tests showed no toxic action of tranexamic acid on the liver, kidney, or heart.

  11. Folic acid and pantothenic acid protection against valproic acid-induced neural tube defects in CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Jennifer E.; Raymond, Angela M.; Winn, Louise M. . E-mail: winnl@biology.queensu.ca

    2006-03-01

    In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). Although the mechanism by which VPA mediates these effects is unknown, VPA-initiated changes in embryonic protein levels have been implicated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of in utero VPA exposure on embryonic protein levels of p53, NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, c-Myb, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the CD-1 mouse. We also evaluated the protective effects of folic acid and pantothenic acid on VPA-induced NTDs and VPA-induced embryonic protein changes in this model. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered a teratogenic dose of VPA prior to neural tube closure and embryonic protein levels were analyzed. In our study, VPA (400 mg/kg)-induced NTDs (24%) and VPA-exposed embryos with an NTD showed a 2-fold increase in p53, and 4-fold decreases in NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, and c-Myb protein levels compared to their phenotypically normal littermates (P < 0.05). Additionally, VPA increased the ratio of embryonic Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of pregnant dams with either folic acid or pantothenic acid prior to VPA significantly protected against VPA-induced NTDs (P < 0.05). Folic acid also reduced VPA-induced alterations in p53, NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, c-Myb, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels, while pantothenic acid prevented VPA-induced alterations in NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, and c-Myb. We hypothesize that folic acid and pantothenic acid protect CD-1 embryos from VPA-induced NTDs by independent, but not mutually exclusive mechanisms, both of which may be mediated by the prevention of VPA-induced alterations in proteins involved in neurulation.

  12. Influence of changes in dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental and fetal fatty acid profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, Encarnación; Herrera, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could be modified in the fetus by maternal dietary fatty acids, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets that differed only in the non-vitamin lipid component. The diets contained either 10 g palm, sunflower, olive or fish oil (FOD)/100 g diet. A total of 5-6 rats were studied in each group. At day 20 of gestation, corresponding to 1.5 days prior parturition, the fatty acids in maternal adipose tissue were closely related to the fatty acid composition in the corresponding diet. An important proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) appeared in maternal liver and plasma, although it was lower in the FOD than in the other groups. Except for saturated fatty acids, the proportion of individual fatty acids in the placenta correlated linearly with that in maternal plasma. Also, PUFA in fetal plasma and liver showed significant correlations with PUFA in maternal plasma. Again, AA showed the lowest proportion in the plasma and liver of the FOD group. Therefore, the maternal dietary fatty acid composition influences maternal and fetal plasma and tissue composition, and an increase in dietary omega-3 fatty acids decreases the amount of AA in maternal and fetal tissues.

  13. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crute, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Some useful approaches to assist students with the uncertainty of measurement and the necessity of significant figures through age conversion exercise and activity are presented. It showed that while two people might be born on the same date, they are not born at the same instant once, it considers the birth time to an appropriate number of…

  14. Studies on chemical modification and biology of a natural product, gambogic acid (II): Synthesis and bioevaluation of gambogellic acid and its derivatives from gambogic acid as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinxin; Ma, Junhai; You, Qidong; Zhao, Li; Wang, Fan; Li, Chong; Guo, Qinglong

    2010-09-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) has been reported to be a potent apoptosis inducer. The fact that it is amenable to chemical modification makes GA an attractive molecule for the development of anticancer agents. We firstly reported the synthesis of gambogellic acid, which was generated under acid catalysis from readily available GA by a base-catalyzed diene intramolecular annelation. Sequentially, thirteen new compounds were synthesized and their inhibitory activity on HT-29, Bel-7402, BGC-823, and A549 cell lines were evaluated in vitro by MTT assay, and (38, 40)-epoxy-33-chlorogambogellic acid (4) was identified as a BGC-823 cell apoptosis inducer through MTT cell assay, observations of morphological changes, and Annexin-V/PI double-staining assay. Compound 4 showed significant effects in inducing apoptosis and might serve as a potential lead compound for discovery of new anticancer drugs. Further structure-activity relationships (SARs) of gambogic acid derivatives were discussed.

  15. Omeprazole induces altered bile acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, K; Machida, M; Fukumura, M; Koide, K; Yamazaki, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—It has been reported that the acidity of gastric contents could be an important factor in regulating jejunal flora. 
Aims—To investigate the effects of omeprazole induced changes in gastric pH on jejunal flora and bile acid metabolism. 
Methods—Twenty one patients with gastric ulcer and 19 healthy volunteers were studied. Deconjugation of bile acids was detected using a bile acid breath test. Jejunal fluid was aspirated using a double lumen tube with a rubber cover on the tip and deconjugation was examined using thin layer chromatography. Fat malabsorption was detected by a triolein breath test. 
Results—In the bile acid breath test, expired breath samples from all patients and healthy volunteers showed significantly greater 14CO2 specific activity after omeprazole treatment (20 mg/day) than before treatment. Bacterial overgrowth was found in the jejunal fluid and gastric juice of both ulcer patients and healthy volunteers after omeprazole treatment. The following species were identified: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, enterococcus, Lactobacillus bifidus, Bacteroides vulgatus, B uniformis, Eubacterium lentum, Eu parvum, and Corynebacterium granulosum. All of these species, except E coli and C albicans, deconjugate bile acids. There was a significant correlation between 14CO2 activity and gastric pH, both before and after omeprazole treatment in both groups. The triolein breath test revealed impaired fat absorption in both groups after omeprazole treatment. 
Conclusions—Both patients with gastric ulcer and healthy volunteers exhibited increased deconjugation of bile acids caused by bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum and fat malabsorption after omeprazole treatment. The bacterial overgrowth consisted of both anaerobes and aerobes with deconjugation ability and was probably associated with an omeprazole induced shift to neutral pH in the gastric juice. 

 Keywords: omeprazole; bacterial overgrowth; deconjugation; bile acid breath

  16. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  17. Feeding practice and influence on selected blood parameters in show jumping horses competing in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brunner, J; Liesegang, A; Weiss, S; Wichert, B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional management of show jumping horses in practice with recommendations from the literature. Additionally, the effects of these feeding practices on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise were studied. Blood samples were collected in the field from 27 different horses at 71 trials on the level M1 to S2 show jumping competitions in Switzerland and questionnaires on feeding practice of the studied horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training and on tournament days horses received on average 3.1 kg of concentrate per day (min. 2.0 kg, max. 6.6 kg) divided into two to three meals. The horses were fed on average 6.9 kg of roughage per day (min. 4.0 kg, max. 13.0 kg). Additionally, it was observed that the horses received the last meal on average 6 h 10 min (min. 1 h 50 min, max. 12 h 30 min) before the start of the first show jumping turn, respectively, 7 h 30 min (min 1 h 50 min, max. 13 h 0 min) before the second turn. Seven horses (35%) had access to hay waiting in the trailer between two turns. The statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the concentrate feeding time point on lactate, triglyceride and insulin levels, but a significant influence on free fatty acids (FFA) and blood glucose concentrations. Roughage feeding of the show jumping horses 2-4 h prior to exercise revealed the most remarkable changes in blood parameters during the show jumping course. These results received under field conditions should be approved in future under standardized conditions.

  18. Map showing bathymetry and aquatic plants of Lake Waramaug, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, Kenneth P.

    1981-01-01

    The Bathymetry of Lake Waramaug is shown at 5-foot intervals, and the location and identification of significant concentrations of aquatic plants is indicated. The bathymetry shows the lake to be relatively steep-sided and flat-bottomed, with a maximum depth of between 40 and 45 feet. Aquatic plants were confined to the edges of the lake in depths of less than 15 feet. Nine species of aquatic plants occcur in significant numbers in the lake. Lake bathymetric data were collected using a recording fathometer and sounding rod; aquatic plant data were collected by visual survey; and the collection of samples using a weed rake. (USGS)

  19. LIMESTONE AND MARBLE DISSOLUTION BY ACID RAIN: AN ONSITE WEATHERING EXPERIMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, B.R.; ,

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe an experimental research program, conducted in conjunction with the National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), to quantify acid-rain damage to commercial and cultural carbonate-rock resources. Initial results of this experiment show that carbonate-rock dissolution and associated surface recession increase with increasing acid deposition to the rock surface. A statistically significant linear relation has been found between carbonate-rock surface-recession rate and hydrogen ion loading to the rock surface.

  20. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-05-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting.

  1. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45-50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  2. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  3. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care.

  4. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  5. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  6. Yawning and its physiological significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  7. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  8. Enhanced absorption of bumetanide from suppositories containing weak acids in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yagi, N; Kenmotsu, H; Shimode, Y; Oda, K; Sekikawa, H; Takada, M

    1993-03-01

    The in vitro release of bumetanide from macrogol suppositories with and without weak acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was studied. The release of bumetanide was not affected when weak acids were added to the suppositories. The in vivo rectal absorption of bumetanide from the suppositories was evaluated in rabbits. The bioavailability (absolute), expressed as the ratio of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) following oral administration of bumetanide, was 39% that of intravenous administration. The value in bumetanide following rectal administration of the suppositories without weak acids was 32%. Each absolute bioavailability following rectal administration of the suppositories with 5% citric acid and 5% tartaric acid was 52% and 42%, respectively. These values were significantly larger than those of rectal administration of the suppositories without weak acids. Particularly, the bioavailability following rectal administration of the suppositories containing citric acid was significantly different from even those of oral administration. The absorption rate constants of bumetanide from the suppositories with weak acids were significantly larger than those following oral administration. These results indicated the possibilities of the rectal route of administration of drugs which are weak organic acids and show low or variable bioavailability following oral administration. PMID:8364470

  9. Use of oleic acid to reduce the population of the bacterial flora of poultry skin.

    PubMed

    Hinton, A; Ingram, K D

    2000-09-01

    The effect of oleic acid on native bacterial flora of poultry skin was examined. Skin from commercial broiler carcasses was washed once or twice in solutions of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% (wt/vol) oleic acid and rinsed in peptone water. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci in the rinsates were enumerated. Significantly fewer aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in oleic acid than from control samples. Additionally, fewer bacteria were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in higher concentrations of oleic acid than from skin washed in lower concentrations of the fatty acid. In most cases, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria recovered from rinsates of skin washed once or twice in solutions of oleic acid. Washing skin samples twice in 10% solutions of oleic acid significantly reduced the number of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci that remained attached to the skin. Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes isolates possessed the least resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid in vitro, while Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed higher resistance. Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Salmonella Typhimurium had the greatest resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid. Findings indicate that oleic acid reduces the number of bacteria on the skin of processed broilers and that the fatty acid is bactericidal to several spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

  10. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  11. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide.

  12. Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria among Nigerian type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, C. O.; Osinupebi, O. A.; Olajubu, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is a risk factor for symptomatic urinary infection and septicemia among predisposed individuals such as diabetics. We investigated the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among our type 2 diabetics with a view to documenting the prevalence, type of organisms responsible and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 Nigerian diabetics (55 males and 69 females) submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Thirty-three patients had significant bacteriuria (9 males and 24 females), showing the frequency of occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to be 26.6%. The most common organism isolated was Klebsiella pneumonia at 42.4%. Gram-negative bacilli made up about 23 (69.7%) of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the readily available antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole), but a large number of the organisms isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Sensitivity to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime was moderate. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is, thus, more prevalent among the Nigerian diabetic population than in the non-diabetics. A changing pattern of disease is observed with Klebsiella sp. now accounting for the majority of asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics. The organisms are not sensitive to the commonly available antibacterial agents. PMID:12793791

  13. Acidic deposition: decline in mobilization of toxic aluminium.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sheila M; Driscoll, Charles T

    2002-05-16

    The mobilization of aluminium from acidic forest soils is arguably the most ecologically important consequence of acid deposition in the environment because of its adverse effects on soils, forest vegetation and surface water. Here we show that there has been a significant decline in the concentrations of aluminium species in soil solutions at medium-to-high elevations in a northern hardwood forest in the United States in response to decreasing acidic deposition. Streamwater aluminium concentrations have also fallen and, if this rate of recovery persists, will within 10 years no longer pose a threat to fish.

  14. The significance of laterality effects.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, E K; Pratt, R T

    1981-01-01

    Language laterality can be unequivocally ascertained by comparing the effects of unilateral ECT to the right and the left hemisphere. It has been shown in right-handed depressed patients that a unilateral treatment to the left hemisphere resulted in transient dysphasia whereas unilateral ECT to the right hemisphere did not. The language laterality in a small group of left-handed depressed patients has been ascertained. Evidence is presented to show that neither dichotic listening nor hand position for writing provide satisfactory indices of language laterality. The ear advantage was more closely related to strength of sinistrality than to language laterality--that is sidedness appears to overide brainedness. The results favour a spatial attention hypothesis rather than a structural hypothesis as the main determinant of laterality effects. PMID:7229640

  15. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  16. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  17. [Cardiovascular disease and omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ponte, E; Cafagna, D; Balbi, M

    1997-09-01

    Fish oil is rich in the long chain omega-3 (omega-3) polyinsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Pioneering studies of Dyerberg and Bang primarily originate interests in this way. The low incidence of acute myocardial infarction they verified within the Greenland Eskimos suggested that a high dietary omega-3 PUFA intake due to marine food might protect against coronary heart disease. They showed that the Eskimos had a beneficial lipid pattern and that their balance between pro-aggregatory thromboxanes and anti-aggregatory prostacyclins was shifted towards an anti-thrombotic state. The two major omega-3 fatty acids are decosapentaenoic acid (EPA C 20:5, omega 3), with five double bonds, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA C 22:6, omega 3), with six double bonds. These fatty acids' significant effects include reduction of plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein levels as well as of platelets thrombogenicity in the microcirculation, which is due to effects on the mediators production derived from arachidonic acid (prostaglandins and leucotrienes), meddling in inflammatory and immune cell function, retarded atherosclerosis development. Experimental studies of atherogenesis and arterial thrombogenesis support the hypothesis that dietary omega-3 PUFA intake may play a leading role in primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  18. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients. PMID:24553997

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients.

  1. Antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed of malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid from Cornus officinalis fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Chun; Zhao, Yue; Bian, Hui-Min

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed by malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid with a ratio of 3:2:2. The IC50 and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by various agonists as well as platelet adhesion were evaluated in vitro. Of note, the IC50 for the formula inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was 0.185 mg/mL. Meanwhile, the formula showed more potent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin than the single component at same concentration (0.37 mg/mL). Moreover, the formula could prevent platelet adhesion significantly without influence on platelet viability.

  2. Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

  3. Natural cinnamic acids, synthetic derivatives and hybrids with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan David

    2014-11-25

    Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  4. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids: micronutrients in disguise.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Novak, E M; Keller, B O

    2013-01-01

    Considerable information has accumulated to show that DHA and EPA have unique roles that differ from other n-3 fatty acids and the n-6 fatty acids, with increasing understanding of the mechanisms through which these fatty acids reduce risk of disease. DHA and EPA regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, but are present in foods of animal origin, which are generally high in protein with variable triglycerides and low carbohydrate. Biological activity at intakes too low to provide significant amounts of energy is consistent with the definition of a vitamin for which needs are modified by life-stage, diet and genetic variables, and disease. Recent studies reveal that DHA may play a central role in co-coordinating complex networks that integrate hepatic glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism for the purpose of efficient utilization of dietary protein, particularly during early development when the milk diet provides large amounts of energy from fat.

  5. [On the phenolic acids of vegetables. IV. Hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of vegetables and potatoes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidtlein, H; Herrmann, K

    1975-12-16

    Lettuce, endive and chicory exclusively, cornsalad and sweet fennel almost exclusively contain caffeic acid derivatives beside traces of ferulic acid. Parsley exclusively and spinach almost exclusively show p-coumaric acid derivatives. Compared to root, fruit and seed vegetables the contents of phenolic acids in green leaves are considerably high. Rhubarb is the only vegetable, which contains gallic acid (chief phenolic acid) beside hydroxycinnamic, protocatechuic and vanillic acid derivatives. Furthermore hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (salicylic, gentisic and vanillic acid) occur in cornsalad, sweet fennel, parsley and spinach in small concentrations; cornsalad shows p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ca. 20 mg/kg). Onions (Allium cepa) contain almost only protocatechuic acid beside small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acid. In the outer dry coloured skins protocatechuic acid reaches concentrations up to 2% of plant material; the internal pulpy tissues show lower concentrations (ca. 20 mg/kg). On the contrary to the bulbs the green leaves of onions like chive and leek contain almost exclusively compounds of ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Garlic even shows a different phenolic acid pattern of skins and internal tissues. The caffeic acid derivatives of potatoes are mainly localized to a 1--2 mm thick outer layer. The different localization of phenolic acids in the different parts of vegetable plants is discussed.

  6. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects.

  7. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects. PMID:26629697

  8. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  11. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  12. Reduction of 7-ketolithocholic acid to chenodeoxycholic acid by rat liver preparations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Amuro, Y; Yamade, W; Nakano, T; Hayashi, E; Hada, T; Higashino, K

    1985-08-16

    The formation of chenodeoxycholic acid via 7-ketolithocholic acid by rat liver preparations was examined in vitro. Results showed that a rat liver preparation reduced 7-ketolithocholic acid mainly to chenodeoxycholic acid and to ursodeoxycholic acid in a smaller amount, and that the reductase required NADPH but not NADH as coenzyme and was mainly localized in the microsomes. PMID:4016150

  13. The Effects of Combination of Gibberellic Acid - 3 (GA3) and Ethephon (2-Chloroethyl Phosphonic Acid) (Plant Growth Regulators) on Some Physiological Parameters in Mice.

    PubMed

    El-Okazy, Ahmed M

    2008-01-01

    Health effects of subacute treatment of combinations of gibberellic acid and ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) were investigated. Mice was used as an experimental model. Ten groups of male ICR (CD-1) mice were treated with oral doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg of either gibberellic acid (GA3), ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) alone or in combination / kg body weight for 11 weeks. A significant dose dependent reduction in weight gain and low dry matter intakes were recorded in animals treated with the combination of both chemicals. Treated groups showed statistically significant increases in mean liver, kidney and spleen weights. Hemoglobin (Hb) and total erythrocyte count (TEC) decreased while total leukocyte count (TLC) was raised in all treated groups. Gibberellic acid (alone) treated animals showed the highest activity of liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while no significant variations were recorded among other groups. No significant differences were recorded in the activity of hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A highly significant variation was recorded among the three treatments in serum urea level. No significant difference was noted among the three treatments in serum creatinine. All treatments caused significant dose dependent increases in creatinine than that of the control group. A highly significant dose dependent variation occurred in acetyl choline esterase (AChE) activity among treated groups. Groups treated with ethephon alone showed the greatest inhibition in brain AChE.

  14. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  15. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  16. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  17. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  18. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. PMID:25255382

  19. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  20. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments. PMID:26841776